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BIOLOGY

TEXTBOOK FOR CLASS XII


AUTHORS B.D. SINGH D.P. CHAKRABORTI DINESH KUMAR J.S. GILL J.S. SINGH JITENDRA SINGH K.B. GUPTA K.C. BANSAL K.P. SINGH S.K. MUKHOPADHYAY S.C. JAIN SHARDA R. GUPTA

EDITORS B.D. SINGH D.P. CHAKRABORTI J.P. KHURANA J.S. GILL J.S. SINGH K.P. SINGH

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CONTENTS OF THE TEXTBOOK IN BIOLOGY FOR CLASS XI

UNIT ONE THE LIVING WORLD Unit Two DIVERSITY OF LIFE

Unit THREE CELL AND CELL DIVISION Unit FOUR GENETICS

Unit FIVE MORPHOLOGY OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS

CONTENTS

PREFACE

UNIT SIX PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS

Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

Plant-Water Relations Water Potential Absorption and Movement of Water Theories of Water Translocation Transpiration Opening and Closing of Stomata Plant Nutrition Essential Mineral Elements Sources of Essential Elements Role of Macro- and Micro- Nutrients Mechanism of Absorption of Nutrients Translocation of Solutes Metabolism of Nitrogen Heterotrophic Nutrition Photosynthesis Historical Perspective Site for Photosynthesis The Photochemical and Biosynthetic Phases Photorespiration C4 Pathway Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Translocation of Photosynthates Significance of Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis

3 3 4 7 8 9 13 13 14 14 16 18 18 20 22 22 22 23 29 30 32 33 35 35 36

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Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Respiration Types of Respiration Respiratory Quotient Mechanism of Respiration Pentose Pathway Compensation Point

38 38 38 39 45 45

UNIT SEVEN PHYSIOLOGY OF ANIMALS

Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

Animal Nutrition Food and Nutrients of Animals Modes of Nutrition in Animals Digestive System of Cockroach Digestive System of Humans Hormonal Control of Digestion in Human Absorption and Assimilation of Digested Products in Human Egestion Nutritional Requirements of Humans Nutritional Deficiencies and Disorders Respiration in Animals Gaseous Exchange in Animals Respiration in Humans Regulation of Respiration Respiratory Disorders Circulation in Animals Open and Closed Systems Circulatory System of Cockroach Blood Vascular System of Humans Lymphatic System Electrocardiogram Pacemaker Disorders Related to the Circulatory System

49 49 50 52 53 59 59 61 61 63 68 68 70 75 76 79 79 79 81 87 88 88 89

xiii Chapter 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 Chapter 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 Chapter 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 Chapter 11 11.1 11.2 Osmoregulation and Excretion in Animals Osmoconformers and Osmoregulators Elimination of Nitrogenous Wastes Simple Tubular Systems Complex Tubular Systems Mechanism of Urine Formation Regulation of Kidney Function by Feedback Circuits Micturition and Constituents of Urine Hemodialysis and Kidney Transplantation Role of Lungs in Excretion Role of Skin in Excretion Role of Liver in Excretion Movement and Locomotion in Animals The Basic Types of Movements Locomotion in Humans Disorders of Bones Nervous Coordination and Integration in Animals Nervous System Nervous System of Cockroach Nervous System of Humans Peripheral Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Reflex Action: Rapid and Automatic Responses Sensory Reception and Processing Chemical Coordination in Animals Human Endocrine System Molecular Mechanism of Hormone Action 92 92 94 96 99 101 105 106 107 107 108 108 111 111 112 120 122 122 122 123 134 135 137 138 150 150 160

UNIT EIGHT REPRODUCTION, GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Chapter 12 12.1 12.2 12.3

Reproduction in Flowering Plants Modes of Reproduction Vegetative Reproduction Sexual Reproduction

169 169 169 171

xiv 12.4 12.5 Chapter 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 13.11 Chapter 14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Chapter 15 15.1 15.2 15.3 Incompatibility Special Modes of Reproduction Plant Growth and Movements Dormancy and Seed Germination Characteristics of Growth Conditions for Growth Phases of Growth Measurement of Growth Growth Regulators Photoperiodism Vernalisation Senescence Abscission Plant Movements Reproduction and Development in Animals Major Types of Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Deviations in the Reproductive Strategies Human Reproductive System Events of Human Reproduction Growth, Regeneration and Ageing Growth Regeneration Ageing : The Biology of Senescence 176 176 180 180 182 182 183 183 184 186 187 187 187 188 193 193 193 196 196 196 201 213 213 216 219

UNIT NINE ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

Chapter 16 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Chapter 17 17.1 17.2

Organisms and the Environment Levels of Organisation Environment, Habitat and Niche Environmental Factors Ecological Adaptations Population, Biotic Community and Succession Population Ecological Interdependence and Interactions

229 229 231 232 240 246 246 249

xv 17.3 17.4 Chapter 18 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.9 Biotic Community Succession Ecosystem : Structure and Function Ecosystem Components Ecosystem Structure and Function Productivity Decomposition Energy Flow Ecological Pyramids Ecological Efficiencies Nutrient Cycling Nitrogen Cycle 252 254 260 260 261 262 263 264 266 267 268 270 272 275 279 279 280 281 282 282 284 285 285 286 287 288 289 292 292 293 297 298 299 302 304 306 306

18.10 Phosphorus Cycle 18.11 Major Biomes Chapter 19 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9 19.10 19.11 19.12 Chapter 20 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 20.9 Natural Resources and their Conservation Classification of Natural Resources Soil Resource Water Resource Land Resources Forests Grasslands Wetlands Energy Resources Marine Resources Mineral Resources Forests and Wildlife Laws Environmental Ethics and Resource Use Biodiversity Magnitude of Biodiversity Levels of Biodiversity Gradients of Biodiversity Uses of Biodiversity Threats to Biodiversity Conservation of Biodiversity Hot Spots of Biodiversity International Efforts for Conserving Biodiversity Biodiversity Conservation in India

xvi Chapter 21 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 21.9 21.10 Pollution and Global Environmental Change Kinds of Pollution Air Pollution : Sources, Types and Effects Control of Air Pollution Water Pollution : Sources, Types and Effects Improving Water Quality Soil Pollution Noise Pollution Environmental Laws for Controlling Pollution Global Environmental Change International Initiative for Mitigating Global Change 310 310 311 314 315 318 319 319 320 321 326

UNIT TEN BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE

Chapter 22 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 Chapter 23 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 23.9 23.10 23.11 23.12 23.13

Human Population and Health Exponential Growth and Human Population Explosion Environment and Human Population Pressure Development and Environment Human Population Growth Human Reproductive Health Adolescence Mental Health Population as a Resource Genetic Improvement and Disease Control Phenotype Improved Varieties Development of New Varieties Germplasm Collection and Conservation Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression Mutation Breeding Polyploidy in Crop Improvement Breeding for Nutritional Quality Breeding for Disease Resistance Animal Breeding Hybrids Plant Diseases and their Control Animal Diseases and their Control

331 331 333 333 334 336 337 338 341 343 343 344 344 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 358

xvii Chapter 24 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 24.9 Chapter 25 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 Chapter 26 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.9 26.10 26.11 26.12 26.13 26.14 26.15 26.16 26.17 Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology Plant Tissue Culture Biotechnology Genetically Modified Crops Genetically Modified Food Sustainable Agriculture Biopatent Biopiracy Biowar Bioethics Immune System and Human Health Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity Clonal Selection and Primary and Secondary Immune Responses Lymphoid Organs Vaccination and Immunisation Blood Groups Organ Transplants and Antibodies Immune System Disorders Biomedical Technologies Diagnostic Images Monitoring of Bodys Vital Functions Biochemical Autoanalysers Diagnostic Kits Endoscopy Laser Microsurgery Cancer Biology and Therapy Transplantation Haemodialysis Prosthesis Replacement Surgery Cryosurgery Immunotherapy Hormone Therapy Gene Therapy Detection of HIV Infection Detection of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 364 364 370 372 373 373 375 375 376 377 381 381 383 385 386 386 387 388 388 392 392 396 398 398 399 399 399 402 402 403 405 405 405 406 406 406 407