SUBMITTED BY : PRASHANT YADAV 2008BARC09 SAURABH CHAWLA 2008BARC059 KARISHMA BANSAL 2008BARC060

Pre-stressed concrete is a method for overcoming concrete's natural weakness in tension. It is used to produce beams, floors or bridges with a longer span as compare to ordinary reinforced concrete.

“Pre-stressed concrete is a form of reinforced concrete that builds in compressive stresses during construction to oppose those found when in use.”
Pre-stressing can be accomplished in three ways: Pre-tensioned concrete, and bonded or un-bonded post-tensioned concrete.

STEEL BARS BEING STRETCHED BY JACKS

Pre-tensioned concrete is when the steel reinforcement is stressed prior to concrete being placed around the steel. Post- tensioned concrete is when unstressed pre-stressing steel is placed with in the concrete and then tension stressed after concrete has harden to required strength

 Forms  Wires  Strands  Tendons  Cables  Bars  Source of Force  Mechanical  Hydraulic  Electrical  Chemical .

The following figure shows a post-tensioned box girder of a bridge.POST TENSIONING The tension is applied to the tendons after hardening of the concrete. The pre-compression is transmitted from steel to concrete by the anchorage device . .

ready to install.  The tendons are laid out in the forms in accordance with installation drawings that .  After the concrete is placed and has reached its required strength. unbonded tendons are typically prefabricated at a plant and delivered to the construction site. usually between 3000 and 3500 psi (“pounds per square inch”). the tendons are stressed and anchored.CONSTRUCTION  In slab-on-ground construction. .

people. the weight of the beam itself when the shoring is removed).  Since post-tensioned concrete is cast in place at the job site. there is almost no limit to the shapes that can be formed. like rubber bands.  This significantly increases the load-carrying capacity of the concrete. .  The fact the tendons are kept in a permanently stressed (elongated) state causes a compressive force to act on the concrete.• The tendons.  The compression that results from the post-tensioning counteracts the tensile forces created by subsequent applied loading (cars. TENDS to return to their original length but are prevented from doing so by the anchorages.

BONDED POST TENSIONED CONCRETE In bonded post-tensioned concrete unstressed pre-stressing steel is placed with in the concrete and then tension stressed after concrete has harden to required strength . •Predominantly meant for bridge construction •Multi-strands (many cables) are anchored with a common anchorage •Grouting is necessary for protection of cables •Restricting the movement of cable within duct to surrounding concrete .

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un-bonded provides tendons freedom of movement by coating each tendon with grease and covering it with a plastic sheathing Tension on the concrete is achieved by the cables acting against the steel anchors that are buried in the perimeters of the concrete ADVANTAGES: •No need of grouting (Grouting activity is eliminated) • Saving of Cost and Time and Material •Installation made easier and flexible •Each cable can be managed individually •It can work efficiently in lesser depths where ducts can not work efficiently • Better elastic behavior as far as earthquake event is concerned. . Post-quake residual deformation is lesser.UNBONDED POST TENSIONING SYSTEM Unlike bonded.

•First figure shows the anchoraging of the strand •Second figure showing the coating and sheathing of the strand .

i. •Thinner slabs mean less concrete is required.ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATION •Post-tensioning allows longer clear spans. fewer beams and more slender. . It means a lower overall building height for the same floor-to-floor height.e. a single beam can run continuously from one end of the building to the other. •A lower building height can also translate to considerable savings in mechanical systems and façade costs. dramatic elements. •Another advantage of post-tensioning is that beams and slabs can be continuous. •Reduces occurrence of cracks . thinner slabs. •Freezing & thawing durability is higher than non prestressed concrete. •Post-tensioning can thus allow a significant reduction in building weight versus a conventional concrete building with the same number of floors reducing the foundation load and can be a major advantage in seismic areas.

•The high tensile strength & precision of placement gives maximum efficiency in size & weight of structural members. •Post-tensioning allows bridges to be built to very demanding geometry requirements. and significant grade changes. span lengths and ramp configurations. •Applications of various prestressed techniques enable quick assembly of standard units such as bridge members. bridge decks providing cost-time savings.•Post-tensioning is the system of choice for parking structures since it allows a high degree of flexibility in the column layout. This minimizes the impact on the environment and avoids disruption to water or road traffic below. . •Post-tensioning also allows extremely long span bridges to be constructed without the use of temporary intermediate supports.building frames. including complex curves. •Post-tensioning can also be used to produce virtually crack-free concrete for watertanks.

Mumbai Entertainment World Developers Pvt.G. Indore. Since then Treasure Group had introduced Treasure Township at Rajendra Nagar Indore . It had already established its feet in the year 2005 December. . Indore Madhya Pradesh P.B road By pass. Patki architects. Indore. Chairman Mr. MR-10. A Kalani A. Very soon it was awarded the mall of the year award in the year 2007. . (EWDPL) BACKROUND: Treasure group is one of the leading real state developer in central India. Central Mall at Regal Square Indore and Treasure Market City. by inaugurating first ever mall of Madhya Pradesh. Treasure Island (TI). Ltd.CASE STUDY TREASURE MARKET INDORE Building type : Owner : Location : Architect : Construction : Multifunctional real state complex Treasure Group.

In this case the tendons are not in a regular order or pattern. floor parking’s and long span roof slabs is constructed with the most modern and hi-tech technology. they form an abstract form. •The roof slabs are constructed with post tension technique. heavy loads. •The reinforcement is laid on the formwork as in case of a normal slab leaving a depth of effective cover as per the structural design details. The slabs are also constructed in parts because of its large size and complex design.PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGY ADOPTED •Treasure Market City with a complex design. post-tensioning is to be done within the slab at different points. •After this the tendons are laid as per design details in various directions making different bearings . . This is economical an also saves the space.

Tendons The tendons are made of desired length using twisted wire cable. Each tendon consists of seven stands of twisted wire cable. The tendon cover is of an special aluminum steel alloy. “C” SHAPED TENDONS . Also one of the end of tendon rest completely inside the slab. After posttensioning this end is also covered within the slab in the next part of construction. leaving the other end out for the purpose of post-tensioning or stretching of the tendons. The tendon cover has “C” shaped twists on its surface to increase the bounding between the tendon and concrete. Also the tendon cover coming from the manufacture is in a cylindrical shape.• This is due to the variations in load at different points of the building and also due to the complex design pattern. It is manually flattened at the side as per the design details. The mouth of the “C” shaped is face to an side from where the tendon is to be starched or post-tension.

The other Anchoring Devices is on the end from where the tendons are to be stretched/ tensioned with a hydraulic jack. . it allows the tendon cables to move only in one direction while locking cables there itself to go in the reverse direction. The one which is used at the extreme end of the tendon which would be covered inside the slab molding is a fixed lock Anchoring Devices i. This device is one-side injected anchoring device i. It is same as an single-use medical injection which can not further used after starching once. the tendon cables can not further move from this end.Anchoring Devices There are two types of Anchoring Devices used.e.e.

Extreme end of tendons laying inside the slab End from where tendons are post tensioned laying of tendons .

Reinforcement chair to place tendons at desired depth Pipe for grouting concrete paste inside the tendon after post tensioning. .

. Highly significant reductions in materials and space is achieved. Moreover it is makes the structure seismic resistant.CONCLUSION Use of prost-tension slabs over long span slabs is cost effective. time saving and more durable too.

. • Not preferred for in-situ concrete prestressing. • Strong abutments/supporting sides are needed to hold the cable stressed well-before concrete pouring. • Suitable for pre-cast concrete members with regular and typical (repetitive) size and shape.• Pre-tensioned concrete is when the steel reinforcement is stressed prior to concrete being placed around the steel.

due to the bond between them. The abutments are fixed at the ends of a prestressing bed.  Once the concrete attains the desired strength for prestressing. the member undergoes elastic shortening. . the tendons are cut loose from the abutments. In pre-tensioning system. the member is likely to bend and deflect . During the transfer of prestress.  The prestress is transferred to the concrete from the tendons. If the tendons are located eccentrically. the high-strength steel tendons are pulled between two end abutments prior to the casting of concrete.

During the cutting of the tendons.  1) Anchoring of tendons against the end abutments  2) Placing of jacks  3) Applying tension to the tendons  4) Casting of concrete  5) Cutting of the tendons. .The various stages of the pre-tensioning operation are summarised as follows. the prestress is transferred to the concrete with elastic shortening and camber of the member.

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 Pre-tensioning is suitable for precast members produced in bulk. Pretension is the easiest controlled of the bonded stressings with the least chance of error in the bonding process.  In pre-tensioning large anchorage device is not present.  Tension caused by the steel is spread throughout the length of the concrete since it is bonded within the concrete along the length of the member. .

 There is a waiting period in the prestressing bed. . before the concrete attains sufficient strength.  A prestressing bed is required for the pre-tensioning operation.  There should be good bond between concrete and steel over the transmission length.The relative disadvantages are as follows.

•Exception comes when the sides of the mould are anchored allowing mold to be created between the anchors without supporting stress.•Usually uses a mold which is able to resist the forces within the tendons. Which are more expensive than regular molds. .

pre-stress takes a large amount of preplanning. So. Concrete sample should be taken for every new mix so that strength obtained may be determined before cutting the tendons releasing the stresses onto the concrete. shrinkage of concrete. Must consider self-weight deflections. dead load deflections. and live load deflections. and friction losses due to intended and unintended (wobble) curvature in the tendons in calculations for the camber of the member in order to have lasting quality of the structure. . relaxation of steel. elastic shortening of concrete.  Since pre-tension may only be set once calculations for the camber must be correct.  Since it may only tightened once and cannot be retightened the designer must also account for Creep of concrete. pre-stress deflections. slip at the anchorage.

. Pretension requires for a slightly higher compression rating to cut the steel over post-tensioned .6 instead of .55 of the compressive strength of concrete at the time of initial pre-stress before accounting losses such as creep. relaxation and shrinkage. and redistribution of force effect.

 Proper concrete mix is determined and placed into molds. Self-consolidating concrete is massively used for ease of finishing. . Mold capable of supporting stresses created by the steel is either delivered to job site or molds are located off site.  Required or preplanned pre-stresses are determined and required reinforcement steel is determined and set.  Concrete is allowed to cure and reach a needed strength great enough to support the tension in the steel without cracking. Then steel is cut and member is removed from mold and is ready to install.

The essential devices for pre-tensioning are as follows.  Prestressing bed  End abutments  Shuttering / mould  Jack  Anchoring device .

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