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One Way Classification

Random samples of size n are selected from each of k populations. It will be assumed that the k populations are independent and normally distributed with means

**µ1 = µ 2 = µ 3 = µ 4 = ......... = µ K and common variance σ 2 . We wish to derive
**

appropriate methods for testing the hypothesis:

H 0 : µ1 = µ 2 = µ 3 = µ 4 = ......... = µ K H A : at least two of the means are not equal.

**Table 1 K random samples
**

Population

1 2

x11 x12

x21 x22

……… i ……… xi1 ……… xi 2

……… k ……… xk 1 ……… xk 2

. . . .

x1n T1 x1

. . . .

x2 n T2 x2 ……… ……… ………

. . . .

xin Ti xi ……… ……… ………

. . . .

xkn Tk xk

Total Mean

T x

One way Sum of Squares Identity

∑ ∑ ( x − x ) = n∑ ( x − x ) + ∑ ∑ ( x − x )

2 2 i =1 j =1 ij i =1 i i =1 j =1 ij i

k

n

k

k

n

2

Total Sum of Square = SST =

∑ ∑ (x − x)

i =1 j =1 ij

k

n

2

**Sum of Squares for column mean = SSC = n∑ ( xi − x )
**

i =1

k

2

Check the table a.g. Level of significance α tailed or two tailed) (also decide the case.Error Sum of Square = SSE = ∑ ∑ (x − x ) i =1 j =1 ij i k n 2 According to one way sum of squares identity SST = SSC + SSE Steps Of Working: 1.. 4... = µ K Set the alternative hypothesis H A : e.. Computations: (FOR EQUAL SAMPLE SIZE) Sum of Squares Computational Formulae SST = SSC = ∑ i =1 k i =1 k ∑ xij2 − j =1 2 i n T2 N ∑T n − T2 N SSE = SST – SSC . Set the null hypothesis H 0 : H 0 : µ1 = µ 2 = µ 3 = µ 4 = . N − k )] b. 3... either belong to the one 2. N − k ) Note: (The formula for degree of freedom will remain same irrespective to the sample size) 5. fα (k − 1... e. FOR UNEQUAL SAMPLE SIZE The degree freedom and its calculation is different when the sample size are not equal .) fα [ k − 1. FOR EQUAL SAMPLE SIZE (As it is the case of comparison of progress there for we use the table of F distribution.g H A : at least two of the means are not equal.

Table 2-a ANOVA (ONE-WAY CLASSISFICATION) Source of Variation Column means Error Total Sum of Squares SSC SSE SST Degrees of Freedom k-1 K(n-1) nk .1 Mean Square Computed f SSC k −1 SSE s22 = k (n − 1) s12 = s12 s22 Computations: (FOR UNEQUAL SAMPLE SIZE) Sum of Squares Computational Formulae SST = SSC = T ∑ ∑x − N k ni 2 i =1 k j =1 ij 2 ∑T i =1 2 i ni − T2 N SSE = SST – SSC Table 2-b ANOVA (ONE-WAY CLASSISFICATION) Source of Variation Column means Error Total Sum of Squares SSC SSE SST Degrees of Freedom k-1 N-k N-1 Mean Square Computed f s12 = SSC k −1 s = 2 2 SSE N −k s12 s22 .

Following the implementation of the policies. Page # 392 Exercise On Page # 400. sales figures were obtained for each of the stores during a 1-month period. Q # 4 and Q # 5 Q7. Then each group of flashlights uses a different brand of battery. Practice Questions: From Walpole: Example # 1. Each group of six stores. Each group used one of the three policies. Four brands of flashlight batteries are to be compared by testing each brand on five flashlights. does there appear to be a difference in mean lifetime among the four brands of batteries? Q8. in the following table. Decision: Reject the null hypothesis H 0 : When f cal > f tab and accept alternative hypothesis. The lifetimes of the batteries to the nearest hour are as follows. in thousands of dollars. Twenty flashlights are randomly selected and divided randomly into four groups of five flashlights each. Page # 394 Exercise On Page # 400. Policy # 1 Policy # 2 Policy # 3 22 20 26 21 24 22 21 25 25 20 22 26 29 24 31 32 26 27 . A chain of convenience stores wanted to test three different advertising policies: Policy # 1: No advertising Policy # 2: Advertising in neighborhoods with circulars Policy # 3: Use circulars and advertise in newspapers. Q # 2 and Q # 3 Example # 2.6. The figures are displayed. Eighteen stores were randomly selected and divided randomly into three groups of six stores. Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D 42 28 24 20 30 36 36 32 39 31 28 38 28 32 28 28 29 27 33 25 At the 5% significance level.

Services Insurance. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) . among the three policies? Perform the required hypothesis test at the 1% significance level. Transport Wholesale trade Retail trade Finance.05. were obtained from random samples of (full and part-time) workers in five service-producing industries. The following data in dollars. The Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes data on weekly earnings of nonsupervisory workers in Employment and Earnings.Do the data provide evidence of a difference in mean monthly sales. Q9. Real Estate 467 402 208 424 364 507 347 136 378 376 468 327 118 460 383 512 396 246 346 299 559 380 133 336 490 227 273 Do the data provide sufficient evidence to conclude that a difference exists in mean weekly earnings among non-supervisory workers in the five industries? Perform the required hypothesis test using the level of significance is 0.

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