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The rate of change is the speed of the body. If the direction of motion is also given, then the velocity of the body is determined; velocity is a vector quantity, having both magnitude and direction, while speed is a scalar quantity, having only magnitude. Uniform motion is motion at a constant speed in a straight line. Uniform motion can be described by a few simple equations. The distance s covered by a body moving with velocity v during a time t is given by s=vt. If the velocity is changing, either in direction or magnitude, it is called accelerated motion (see acceleration). Uniformly accelerated motion is motion during which the acceleration remains constant. The average velocity during this time is one half the sum of the initial and final velocities. If a is the acceleration, vothe original velocity, and vf the final velocity, then the final velocity is given by vf=vo + at. The distance covered during this time iss=vot + 1⁄2 at2. In the simplest circular motion the speed is constant but the direction of motion is changing continuously. The acceleration causing this change, known as centripetal acceleration because it is always directed toward the center of the circular path, is given by a=v2/r, where v is the speed and r is the radius of the circle.

A free falling object is an object that is falling under the sole influence of gravity. Any object that is being acted upon only by the force of gravity is said to be in a state of free fall. There are two important motion characteristics that are true of free-falling objects:

Free-falling objects do not encounter air resistance. All free-falling objects (on Earth) accelerate downwards at a rate of 9.8 m/s/s (often approximated as 10 m/s/s for back-of-the-envelope calculations) Because free-falling objects are accelerating downwards at a rate of 9.8 m/s/s, a ticker tape trace or dot diagram of its motion would depict an acceleration. The dot diagram at the right depicts the acceleration of a free-falling object. The position of the object at regular time intervals - say, every 0.1 second is shown. The fact that the distance that the object travels every interval of time is increasing is a sure sign that the ball is speeding up as it falls downward. Recall from an earlier lesson, that if an object travels downward and speeds up, then its acceleration is downward. Free-fall acceleration is often witnessed in a physics classroom by means of an ever-popular strobe light demonstration. The room is darkened and a jug full of water is connected by a tube to a medicine dropper. The dropper drips water and the strobe illuminates the falling droplets at a regular rate - say once every 0.2 seconds. Instead of seeing a stream of water free-falling from the medicine

downward (on Earth). The numerical value for the acceleration of gravity is most accurately known as 9.the symbol g. downward) . A matter of fact. The Acceleration of Gravity It was learned in the previous part of this lesson that a free-falling object is an object that is falling under the sole influence of gravity. A free-falling object has an acceleration of 9.dropper. downward ( ~ 10 m/s/s. this quantity known as the acceleration of gravity is such an important quantity that physicists have a special symbol to denote it .8 m/s/s. It is known as the acceleration of gravity .8 m/s/s. By so doing. g = 9. This numerical value for the acceleration of a free-falling object is such an important value that it is given a special name.8 m/s/s.the acceleration for any object moving under the sole influence of gravity. The pattern of drops resembles the dot diagram shown in the graphic at the right. We will occasionally use the approximated value of 10 m/s/s in The Physics Classroom Tutorial in order to reduce the complexity of the many mathematical tasks that we will perform with this number. There are slight variations in this numerical value (to the second decimal place) that are dependent primarily upon on altitude. we will be able to better focus on the conceptual nature of physics without too much of a sacrifice in numerical accuracy. several consecutive drops with increasing separation distance are seen.

The Graph of the Distance of the Marble against the Time of Travel 2.00 Time(s) 8.00 4.500 0.00 6.00 .000 Distance (m) 1.00 12.000 0.00 2.500 1.000 0.500 2.00 10.

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