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Physical changes are changes in which the identity of a substance doesn’t change. However, the arrangement, location, and speed of the particles that make up the substance may change. Example: As sugar dissolves in tea, the sugar molecules mix with the tea, but they don’t change what they are. The particles are still sugar. Crushing a rock is a physical change because particles separate but do not change identity. Chemical Changes are when the identities of substances change and new substances form. Evidence that a chemical change might take place: a. Evolution of a Gas-bubbling b. The formation of Precipitate-two clear substances mixed—becomes cloudy c. The Release or absorption of Energy-change in temperature or signs of energy being transferred. d. A color change-different color when chemicals react Explain the parts of a chemical equation. In an equation the substances on the left hand side of the arrow are the reactants. Substances on the right hand side of the arrow are products. Example: mercury (II) oxidemercury+oxygen List the metric measurements and their units used in chemistry. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Volume-a measure of the size of a body or region in threedimensional space. Mass-measurement of the amount of matter in an object. Weight-a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object. Quantity-something that has magnitude, size, or amount. Unit-a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement. Conversion factor-a ratio hat is derived from the equality of two different units and that can be used to convert from one unit to the other. Calculate the Density of an object. Density=Mass/Volume Discuss the parts of the scientific method. First form a hypothesis, then make observations, then analyze the results of the experiment, then draw conclusions, then ask yourself—Do they support your hypothesis—if yes then publish results and then construct a theory. A theory is an explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning. A law is a summary of many experimental results and observations; a law tells how things work. The law of conservation of mass is the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes. Models also help when illustrating a concept in the microscopic world of chemistry. Compare accuracy and precision. Accuracy is a description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured. Precision is the exactness of a measurement. State the rules used for significant figures and use them correctly. Significant figures are prescribed decimal place that determines the amount of rounding off to be done based on the precision of the measurement. List the tenets of Dalton’s Atomic Theory. According to Dalton, elements are composed of only one kind of atom and compounds are made from two or more kinds of atoms. Dalton also reasoned that only whole numbers of atoms could combine to for m compounds, such as iodine monochloride. Contains five principles: 1. All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms which cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed. 2. Atoms of a given element are identical in their physical and chemical properties.
3. Atoms of different elements differ in their physical and chemical properties 4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple, whole number ratios to form compounds. 5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged, but never created, destroyed, or changed. State the law of definite proportions. The law that states that a chemical compound always contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by weight or mass. Discuss the gold foil experiment and its significance. The gold foil experiment was done by Rutherford and a team of scientists. A beam of small, positively charged particles, called alpha particles, was directed at a thin gold foil. Rutherford found that most of the alpha particles shot at the foil passed straight through the foil. But a very small number of particles were deflected in some cases backward. He realized that the mass of this positive charged containing region called the nucleus must be larger than the mass of the alpha particle. This experiment led to the discovery of the nucleus. Explain the parts of an atom. Protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom. Neutrons are subatomic particles that have no charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom. Electrons are subatomic particles that have a negative electric charge. Describe how electrons are positioned around the nucleus and tell how many electrons each sublevel can hold. The mass number is equal to the total number of particles of the nucleus—that is, the total number of protons and neutrons. Mass number—atomic number=number of neutrons. Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; that atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element.