‫المحاضرة التاسعة‬

‫‪Lecture No. : 9‬‬

Remember
Solution Steps of assembly method :
Drive the member local stiffness matrix

l l
l
F = K D
Drive the member transformation matrix

T
Obtain the member global stiffness matrix
g

l

Km = T Km T

T

Remember

g

Km

Make assembly

g

Km

g

g

Km

F = K

Km

D

Make partition

Fu

Fr

=

Kuu Kur

Du

Kru Krr

Dr

Remember
Extract the stiffness equation

Fu

Fr

=

Kuu Kur

Du

Kru Krr

Dr

Fu = Kuu Du + Kur

Dr

Obtain the deformation

Du = Kuu

-1

{F

u

- Kur

Dr

}

Remember
Calculate the reactions

Fr = Kru

Du + Krr

Find internal forces in members

l T g
l
Fm = Km T D m

Dr

d2
d3
d1

Normal Force doesn’t taken
d1
d2

Drive the member local stiffness
matrix
d2

d4

d1

d3

F1

k11

k12

k13

k14

d1

F2

k21

k22

k23

k24

d2

k31

k32

k33

k34

d3

k41

k42

k43

k44

d4

F3
F4

=

First column in
Local Stiffness matrix

d1 =1

d2

d3

d4

d2

6 EI D
L2
6 EI D
L2

D

12 EID
L3

12 EID
L3

6 EI D
L2

D

6 EI D
L2

12 EID
L3

12 EID
F1 =
L3
6 EI D
F2 =
L3

12 EID
L3
12 EID
F3 = L3
6 EI D
F4 =
L3

12 EI
L3
6 EI
L2

k11

k21

=
k31

k41

-12EI
L3
6 EI
L2

Second column in
Local Stiffness matrix

d1

d4

d2

d2 =1
q

4 EI q
L

d3

2 EI q
L
6 EI q
L2

6 EI q
L2

q

4 EI q
L

F1
=

2 EI q
L
6 EI q
L2

6 EI q
L2

4 EI q
F2 =
L

6 EI q
L2

6 EI q
F3 = L2

2 EI q
F4 =
L

Second column in
Local Stiffness matrix

6 EI
k12

L2

k22

=
k32
k42

4 EI
L
6 EI
- 2
L

2 EI
L

Third column in
Local Stiffness matrix

d1

d3
d4

d2

d3 =1

6 EI D
L2

6 EI D
L2

D

12 EID
L3

12 EID
L3

6 EI D
L2
12 EID
L3
12 EID
F1 3
L
=
6 EI D
F2 = L2

6 EI D
L2
12 EID
L3
12 EID
F3 =
L3
6 EI D
F4 = L2

D

Third column in Local Stiffness matrix

k13

12 EI
L3

k23

6 EI
L2

k33

k33

=

12 EI
L3
6 EI
L2

Fourth column in
Local Stiffness matrix

d4 =1

2 EI q
L

d1

d3

d4

d2

4 EI q
L
6 EI q
L2

6 EI q
L2

q

2 EI q
L

F1
=
F2
=

4 EI q
L
6 EI q
L2

6 EI q
L2

q

6 EI q
L2

6 EI D
F3= L2

2 EI q
L

4 EI q
F4=
L

Fourth column in
Local Stiffness matrix

6 EI
k14

L2

k24

=
k34
k44

2 EI
L
6 EI
- 2
L

4 EI
L

K

l

=

12 EI
L3

6 EI
L2

-12 EI
L3

6 EI
L2

6 EI
L2

4 EI
L

-6 EI
L2

2 EI
L

-12 EI
L3

-6 EI
L2

12 EI
L3

-6 EI
L2

6 EI
L2

2 EI
L

-6 EI
L2

4 EI
L

K

l

12 EI
L3

6 EI

-12 EI
L3

6 EI

6 EI

4 EI
L

-6 EI
L2

2 EI
L

L2

-12 EI
L3

-6 EI
L2

12 EI
L3

-6 EI
L2

6 EI

2 EI
L

-6 EI
L2

4 EI
L

L2

L2

=

L2

12 EI 6 EI -12
L2 EIL3
L3
Kl

6 EI
L2
=

-12
EIL3
6 EI
L2

K

l

=

EI
L3

12

6L

- 12

6L

6L

4 L2

6L

2 L2

- 12

-6L

12

-6L

6L

2 L2

6L

4 L2

4 EI -6 EI
L2
L

6 EI
L2

2 EI
L

-6 EI 12 EI -6 EI
L2
L3
L2
2 EI -6 EI
L
L2

4 EI
L

Normal Force doesn’t taken
d1
d2

If Shear is omitted

d1

Drive the member local stiffness
matrix
d1

d2

F1

F2

k11

k12

d1

k21

k22

d2

=

K

l

=

12 EI
L3

6 EI
L2

-12 EI
L3

6 EI
L2

6 EI
L2

4 EI
L

-6 EI
L2

2 EI
L

-12 EI
L3

-6 EI
L2

12 EI
L3

-6 EI
L2

6 EI
L2

2 EI
L

-6 EI
L2

4 EI
L

K

l

K

=

l

=

4 EI
L

2 EI
L

2 EI
L

4 EI
L

2EI
L

2

1

1

2

Example 1:
Construct the stiffness matrix
for the shown beam where EI
is constant for all members
A

B

8

C

10

First element : (A-B )
Start Joint : A

K

l

=

EI
L3

End Joint : B
12

6L

- 12

6L

6L

4 L2

6L

2 L2

- 12

-6L

12

-6L

6L

2 L2

6L

4 L2

l = Kg
K

K

l

12 EI
L3

6 EI

-12 EI
L3

6 EI

6 EI

4 EI
L

-6 EI
L2

2 EI
L

L2

-12 EI
L3

-6 EI
L2

12 EI
L3

-6 EI
L2

6 EI

2 EI
L

-6 EI
L2

4 EI
L

L2

L2

=

L2

K

l

=

EI
L3

12

6L

- 12

6L

6L

4 L2

6L

2 L2

- 12

-6L

12

-6L

6L

2 L2

6L

4 L2

A
.023

K

l

= EI

.0937
-.023
.0937

B

.0937
.5
.0937

-.023

.0937

.0937

.25

.023

ِ

A

-.0937

B
.25

-.0937

.5

Second element : ( B-c)
Start Joint : B

K

l

End Joint : c
12 EI
L3

6 EI

-12 EI
L3

6 EI

6 EI

4 EI
L

-6 EI
L2

2 EI
L

L2

-12 EI
L3

-6 EI
L2

12 EI
L3

-6 EI
L2

6 EI

2 EI
L

-6 EI
L2

4 EI
L

L2

L2

=

L2

B
.012

K

l

C
.06

-.012

.06

B
= EI

.06

-.012

.06

.4

-.06

-.06

.012

.2

-.0937

.20
-.06

.4

C

Assembly :

A
.023
g

K1 =

EI .0937
-.023
.0937

B
.0937
.5

-.023
.0937

.0937

A

.25

.0937

.023

-.0937

.25

-.0937

.5

B

C

B
.012
g

K2 =

EI

. 06

.06
.4

-.012

-.06

-.012

-.06

.012

.06

.2

-.06

.06

B
.2
-.06

C
.4

A
.023
.0937

Ks =

EI

-.023
.0937

B

C

.0937

-.023

.0937

0

0

.5

.0937

.25

0

0

.0937

.035

.25

-.0337

0

0

-.012

0

0

.06

-.0337 -.012
.9 -.06

A

.06
.2

-.06

.012

-.06

.2

-.06

.4

B
C

Partition
u

K

=

r

Kuu Kur

u

Kru Krr

r

Kuu =

EI

.90

Example 2:
Construct the stiffness matrix for the shown
beam where EI is constant for all members

A

C

B

4

5

E

D

2

4

K

K

l

l

=

K

g

12/L^3

6/L^2

6/L^2

4/L

-12/L^3

-6/L^2

= EI

6/L^2

2/L

- 12/L^3

-6/L^2

12/L^3

-6/L^2

6/L^2

2/L

-6/L^2

4/L

First element : (A-B )
Start Joint : A

End Joint : B
Angle

:0

s = sin q = 0
c = cos q = 1
EA

Is conastant

LAB = 400 cm

A
.1875

l

K = EI

.375

B

.375

-.1875

.375

-.375

1

-.1875

-.375

.375

.5

.1875
-.375

.5

-.375
1

A
B

Second

element : B-C )

Start Joint : B

End Joint : c
Angle

:0

s = sin q = 0
c = cos q = 1
EA

Is conastant

LBC = 500 cm

C

B

g

K1 = EI

.096

.24

-.096

.24

.8

-.24

-.096

-.24

.24

.4

.096
-.24

.24

B
.4
-.24
.8

C

Third

element : (C-D )

Start Joint : C

End Joint : D
Angle

:0

s = sin q = 0
c = cos q = 1
EA

Is conastant

LCD = 200 cm

C
1.5

l

K = EI

D
1.5

-1.5

1.5

C
1.5
-1.5

1.5

2

-1.5

1

-1.5

1.5

-1.5

.2

-1.5

.2

D

Fourth

element : (D-E )

Start Joint :D

End Joint : E
Angle

:0

s = sin q = 0
c = cos q = 1
EA

Is conastant

LD-E = 400 cm

D
.1875

K

l

E

.375

-.1875

ُ
.375

D
=

EI

.375
-.1875
.375

1

-.375

.5

-.375

.5

.1875

-.375

-.375

E
1

B

A
.1875
.375

K =
s

-.1875
.375

.375 -.1875 .375
1
-.375 .5
-.375

.5

0

0

0

0

D

C
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
0

.2835 -.135 -.096
-.135
1.8 -.24

.24

0

0

.4

0

0

0
0

-1.5
1.5

1.5
1

0
0

1.596 1.26

-.096
.24

-.24
.4

1.26

0
0

0

0

-1.5

1.5

0

0

1.5

0

0

0

0

0

1
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
0

E

2.8

0

1.687 -1.125
-1.125
3

-.1875 .375

-.1875 -.375
.5
.375

.1875 -.375

-.375

-.375

A

B
C

D

.5

1

E

KUU

=

1.8 EI

0.4 EI

0

1.8 0.4

0

0.4 EI

2.8 EI

EI

= EI 0.4 2.8

1

0

EI

3 EI

0

1

3

Example 3:
Calculate the deformation of the shown
beam where EI = 105 kN.m2 for all members

60 kNm

A

4

B

50 kNm

30 kNm

C

5

D

2

4

E

The stiffness equation

F= K D
Stiffness matrix From Exampl (2)

1.8 EI

0.4 EI

0

1.8 0.4

0

KUU 0.4 EI

2.8 EI

EI

= EI 0.4 2.8

1

EI

3 EI

0

0

1

3

qB

F1
F

-60
=

D = qC
qD

-50

2

F

30

3

-60
-50

30

F= K

D

.4

.4

2.8

1

d2

1

3

d3

=
0

0

d1

1.8

D=

qC = 1

qD

1

105 12.84

F
-1

qB

qB

-1
K

1.8 0.4

0

- 60

qC = 1 0.4 2.8

1

- 50

qD

3

30

EI

0

1

7.4 -1.2 .4

- 60

-1.2 5.4 -1.8

-3
X10
- 50 = - 0.196

.4

-1.8 4.88

30

- 0.290

0.165 rad

Example 4:
Draw B.M.D for the shown beam where EI =
105 kN.m2 for all members

60 kNm

A

50 kNm

B

4

30 kNm

C

5

D

2

4

E

From the previous example
qB
qC
qD

- 0.290
=

- 0.196

X10-3

0.165

rad

A

E

4

B

5

C

2

D
qB

EI = 105 kN.m2
For member AB

2 EI
MAB =

LAB

4
- 0.290

qC = - 0.196 X10-3

qD

0.165 rad

(2 qA + qB ) =5x104(0-0.29)x10-3
= - 14.5 kN.m

2 EI
MBA=
(2 qB + qA ) =5x104(2X-0.029)x10-3
LAB
= - 29 kN.m

A

E

4

B

5

C

2

D
qB

EI = 105 kN.m2
For member BC

MBC =

MCB=

LBC
2 EI
LBC

4
- 0.290

qC = - 0.196 X10-3

qD

0.165 rad

(2 qB + qC ) = 4x104(2x-0.29-0.196)x10-3
= - 31 kN.m

(2 qC + qB ) = 4x104(2x-0.196-0.029)x10-3
= - 27.3 kN.m

MAB = - 14.5 kN.m
MBA= - 29 kN.m

MBC = - 31 kN.m
MCB= - 27.3 kN.m

MCD = - 22.7 kN.m
MDC= 13.5 kN.m

MDE = 16.5 kN.m
MED= 8.3 kN.m

A
14.5

B

B
29

31

C
27.3

C
22.7

D
13.5

D
16.5

E
8.3

A
14.5

B

B
31

29

C
27.3

C
22.7

27.3

14.5

D

D

13.5

16.5

13.5
31

22.7

B.M.D

16.5

E
8.3

29

27.3

16.5

14.5

13.5

31

A

60 kNm

B

22.7

50 kNm

C

30 kNm

D

E

Example 5:
Draw B.M.D for the shown beam where EI is
constant for all members
100 kN

A

200 kN

B
2

1

150 kN

D

C
2

2

1

2

Solution Steps of assembly method :

Drive the member local stiffness
matrix
Local
F1

k11

k12

k13

k14

d1

F2

k21

k22

k23

k24

d2

k31

k32

k33

k34

d3

k41

k42

k43

k44

d4

F3
F4

=

d2

d4

d1

d3

First column in
Local Stiffness matrix

L2

6 EI D

D=1

6 EI D

12 EID
L3

L2

F1 =

12 EID
L3

F2 = 6 EI D

L2

F3 = - 12 EID

L3

F4 =

6 EI D
L2

first column in Local Stiffness
matrix

k11

k21

k31

k41

=

12 EID
L3
6 EI D
L2
-12 EID
L3
6 EI D
L2

Second column in
Local Stiffness matrix
d2 =1

4 EI q
L

2 EI q
L
6 EI q
L2

6 EI q
L2

F1
=

F2 =

6 EI q
L2

4 EI q
L

F3 = - 6 EI q
L2

F4 =

2 EI q
L

Second column in
Local Stiffness matrix

6 EI q
k12

L2

k22

=
k32
k42

4 EI q
L
6 EI q
L2

- 2 EI q
L

Third column in Local Stiffness matrix

6 EI D
L2

d3 =1

6 EI D
L2

12 EID
L3

12 EID
L3

Third column in Local Stiffness matrix

-12 EID
L3

k13

k23
=

k33

k33

-6 EID
L2
12 EID
L3

-6 EID
L2

F1 =

F2 =

-12 EID
L3
-6 EID
L2

F3 =

F4 =

12 EID
L3
-6 EID
L2

Fourth column in
Local Stiffness matrix

2 EI q
L

4 EI q
L
6 EI q
L2

6 EI q
L2

F1
=

F2
=

6 EI q
L2

2 EI q
L

-6
EI
D
F3=
L2
F4
=

4 EI q
L

6
EI
q
-12
EI
D
6
EI
q
12 EID
2
3
L
2
L
L
3
L

K

l

=

6 EI q
L2

4 EI q -6 EID 2 EI q
2
L
L
L
-6
EI
D
12
EI
D
-6
EI
D
-12 EID
2
3
L
2
L
L
3
L
2 EI q -6 EID 4 EI q
6 EI q
2
2
L
L
L
L

First element : (A-B )

Start Joint : A

End Joint : B
Angle

:0

s = sin q = 0
c = cos q = 1
EA

Is conastant

LAB = 300 cm

K

K

l

l

=

EI

K

g

12/L^3

6/L^2

6/L^2

4/L

- 12/L^3

-6/L^2

6/L^2

2/L

=
-12/L^3

6/L^2

-6/L^2

2/L

12/L^3

-6/L^2

-6/L^2

4/L

A

0.44

K

l

=

EI

B

0.67

-0.44

0.67

1.33

-0.67

-0.44

-0.67

0.44

0.67

0.67
ِ

0.67
-0.67

B

0.67

-0.67

1.33

Second element : ( B-c)
Start Joint : B

K

l

EI

End Joint : c

12/L^3

6/L^2

6/L^2

4/L

-12/L^3

- 6/L^2

- 12/L^3

-6/L^2

6/L^2

2/L

=

6/L^2

2/L

12/L^3

-6/L^2

-6/L^2

4/L

B

0.1875

K

l

C

0.375

-0.1875

0.375
B

=

EI

0.375

-0.1875

0.375

1

-0.375

-0.375

0.5

0.1875

-0.375
C

0.5

-0.375

1

Second element : ( C-D )
Start Joint : C

K

l

EI

End Joint : D

12/L^3

6/L^2

6/L^2

4/L

-12/L^3

- 6/L^2

- 12/L^3

-6/L^2

6/L^2

2/L

=

6/L^2

2/L

12/L^3

-6/L^2

-6/L^2

4/L

D

C
0.44

K

l

=

EI

0.67

-0.44

0.67

1.33

-0.67

-0.44

-0.67

0.44

0.67

0.67
ِ
C
0.67
-0.67
D

0.67

-0.67

1.33

A

0.44

K

g

=

EI

B

0.67

-0.44

0.67

1.33

-0.67

-0.44

-0.67

0.44

0.67

0.67
ِ
A
0.67
-0.67
B

0.67

-0.67

1.33

B

0.1875

K

g=

C

0.375

-0.1875

0.375
B

EI

0.375

-0.1875

0.375

1

-0.375

-0.375

0.5

0.1875

-0.375
C

0.5

-0.375

1

D

C
0.44

K

g=

EI

0.67

-0.44

0.67

1.33

-0.67

-0.44

-0.67

0.44

0.67

0.67

ِ
C
0.67

-0.67
D

0.67

-0.67

1.33

A
0.44

0.67

B

-0.44

C

0.67

D

0

0

0

0
A

Ks =

EI

0.67
.
0
-0.44
9
3
0.677

0

-0.67

0.67

-0.67 .0.6275 .-0.295

0

0

-0.1875 0.375

0
0

0
0
B

0.67

-0.295

0

-0.1875

2.33

-.375

-0.375 .2525

0.5
0.295

0
-.44

0
0.67

C

0
0
0

K

1.33

l

0

0.375

0.5

0.295

0

0

0

-.44

0

0

0

=

K

g

.67

2.33
-.67
0.67

-.67
0.44

.67

-.67
-.67 1.33

D

Partition
u

K

=

r

Kuu Kur

u

Kru Krr

r

Kuu =

2.33

0.5

0.5

2.33

EI

Force vector
Transformation from member forces to Joint forces

P
PL
8

PL
8

L
P

P a b2
L2

a

b

L

P b a2
L2
90

100 kN

150 kN

200 kN

A

B
2
100 kN

D

C

1

2

2

1

44.4 kNm 66.7 kNm

2
150 kN

33.3 kNm

22.2 kNm

200 kN

Fixed End
Reaction
(FER) 100 kNm

100 kNm

100 kN

150 kN

200 kN

A

B
2
100 kN

D

C

1

2

2

1

44.4 kNm 66.7 kNm

2
150 kN

33.3 kNm

22.2 kNm

200 kN

Fixed End
Action
(FEA) 100 kNm

100 kNm

100 kN

150 kN

200 kN

A

B
2

1

D

C
2

2

1

100 kNm

2

100 kNm
44.4 kNm 66.7 kNm

55.6 kNm

33.3 kNm

100 kN

150 kN

200 kN

A

B
2

1

D

C
2

2

55.6 kNm

1

2

33.3 kNm

F1

F2

-55.6
=

33.3

F= K D
k11 k12 d1

F1

F2

=

k21

-55.6

k22 d2

7/3 0.5

qB

0.5 7/3

qC

= EI

33.3

-1

qB
qC

=

1

7/3 0.5

-55.6

EI

0.5 7/3

33.3

-1

qB
qC

=

qB

qC

=

1

7/3 0.5

-55.6

EI

0.5 7/3

33.3

1

EI

-28.18
20.31

Internal forces in beam elements

2 EI q q
( 2 A+ B )
MAB=
L
2 EI q
( A+ 2 qB )
MBA=
L
2 EI q q
( 2 A+ B )
MAB= M(FER) AB +
L
2
EI
( qA+ 2 qB )
MBA= M(FER) BA +
L

100 kN

150 kN

200 kN

A

B

2
100 kN

D

C

1

2

2

1

44.4 kNm 66.7 kNm

2
150 kN

33.3 kNm

22.2 kNm

200 kN

Fixed End
Reaction
(FER) 100 kNm

100 kNm

A 100 kN

B

qB
qC

22.2 kNm

=

1
EI

44.4 kNm

2 EI q q
( 2 A+ B )
MAB= M(FER) AB +
L
= 22.2 + 2/3 (-28.18) = 3.4

2
EI
( qA+ 2 qB )
MBA= M(FER) BA +
L
= -44.4 + 2/3 (2x-28.18) = - 82

-28.18
20.31

B 200 kN

C

qB
qC

100 kNm

=

1

-28.18

EI

20.31

100 kNm

2 EI q q
( 2 B+ C )
MBC= M(FER) BC +
L
= 100 + 2/4 (2x-28.18+20.31) = 82

2
EI
( qB + 2 qC )
MCB= M(FER) CB +
L
= -100 + 2/4 (-28.18+2x20.31) = - 93.8

C

150 kN

D

qB
qC

66.7 kNm

=

1
EI

33.3 kNm

2 EI q q
( 2 C+ D )
MCD= M(FER) CD +
L
= 66.7 + 2/3 (2x20.31) = 93.8

2
EI
( qC+ 2 qD )
MDC= M(FER) DC +
L
= -33.3 + 2/3 (20.31) = - 19.8

-28.18
20.31

MAB= 3.4
MBA= -82

MBC= 82
MCB= -93.8

MCD= 93.8
MDC= -19.8
93.8

82

19.8
3.4

B.M.D

100 kN

150 kN

200 kN

A

B
2
55.8

1
82

D

C
2

2
87.9

1

2

93.8

69.1
19.8

3.4

66.7

200

100

10.9

B.M.D

30.9
112.1

Example 6:
Draw B.M.D for the shown beam where EI is
shown in figure
100 kN

200 kN

B

A
3
2I

C
5
2I

5
2I

100 kN

250 kN

D
2
I

3
I

E
2
I

Solution Steps of assembly method :

Drive the member local stiffness
matrix
Local
F1

k11

k12

k13

k14

d1

F2

k21

k22

k23

k24

d2

k31

k32

k33

k34

d3

k41

k42

k43

k44

d4

F3
F4

=

d2

d4

d1

d3

First column in
Local Stiffness matrix

L2

6 EI D

D=1`

6 EI D

12 EID
L3

L2

F1 =

12 EID
L3

F2 = 6 EI D

L2

F3 = - 12 EID

L3

F4 =

6 EI D
L2

first column in Local Stiffness
matrix

k11

k21

k31

k41

=

12 EID
L3
6 EI D
L2
-12 EID
L3
6 EI D
L2

Second column in
Local Stiffness matrix
d2 =1

4 EI q
L

2 EI q
L
6 EI q
L2

6 EI q
L2

F1
=

F2 =

6 EI q
L2

4 EI q
L

F3 = - 6 EI q
L2

F4 =

2 EI q
L

Second column in
Local Stiffness matrix

6 EI q
k12

L2

k22

=
k32
k42

4 EI q
L
6 EI q
L2

- 2 EI q
L

Third column in Local Stiffness matrix

6 EI D
L2

d3 =1

6 EI D
L2

12 EID
L3

12 EID
L3

Third column in Local Stiffness matrix

-12 EID
L3

k13

k23
=

k33

k33

-6 EID
L2
12 EID
L3

-6 EID
L2

F1 =

F2 =

-12 EID
L3
-6 EID
L2

F3 =

F4 =

12 EID
L3
-6 EID
L2

Fourth column in
Local Stiffness matrix

2 EI q
L

4 EI q
L
6 EI q
L2

6 EI q
L2

F1
=

F2
=

6 EI q
L2

2 EI q
L

-6
EI
D
F3=
L2
F4
=

4 EI q
L

6
EI
q
-12
EI
D
6
EI
q
12 EID
2
3
L
2
L
L
3
L

K

l

=

6 EI q
L2

4 EI q -6 EID 2 EI q
2
L
L
L
-6
EI
D
12
EI
D
-6
EI
D
-12 EID
2
3
L
2
L
L
3
L
2 EI q -6 EID 4 EI q
6 EI q
2
2
L
L
L
L

First element : (B-C )

Start Joint : B

End Joint : C
Angle

:0

s = sin q = 0
c = cos q = 1
EA

Is conastant

LAB = 1000 cm

K

K

l

l

=

EI
=

K

g

12/L^3

6/L^2

6/L^2

4/L

-12/L^3

6/L^2

6/L^2

2/L

- 12/L^3

6/L^2-

12/L^3

6/L^2-

6/L^2

2/L

-6/L^2

4/L

C

B
0.024

K

l

=

EI

0.12

-0.024

0.12

0.8

-0.12

-0.024

-0.12

0.024

0.12

ِ
B

0.4

-0.12

C
0.12

0.4

-0.12

0.8

First element : (C-D )

Start Joint : C

End Joint : D
Angle

:0

s = sin q = 0
c = cos q = 1
EA

Is conastant

LAB = 500 cm

K

K

l

l

=

EI

K

g

12/L^3

6/L^2

6/L^2

4/L

-12/L^3

- 6/L^2

- 12/L^3

-6/L^2

6/L^2

2/L

=

6/L^2

2/L

12/L^3

-6/L^2

-6/L^2

4/L

D

C
0.096

K

l

0.24

-0.096

0.24

C
=

EI

0.24

-0.096

0.8

-0.24

-0.24

0.096

0.4

-024
D

0.24

0.4

-0.24

0.8

Assembly :
C

B
0.024

K

g=

EI

0.12

-0.024

0.12

0.8

-0.12

-0.024

-0.12

0.024

0.12

ِ
B

0.4

-0.12

C
0.12

0.4

-0.12

0.8

D

C
0.096

K

g=

0.24

-0.096

0.24

C
EI

0.24

-0.096

0.8

-0.24

-0.24

0.096

0.4

-024
D

0.24

0.4

-0.24

0.8

B

0.024

Ks =

EI

0.12

-0.024

0.12

0

0

-0.12

0.4

0

0

.
0 0.12
9
3
7-0.024

0.8

0.12

0.4

0.12

0

0

-0.096

0

0

0.024

K

l

D

C

-0.12

=

0.12

K

g

0.12

-0.096 0.24

1.6

-0.24

B

C

0.4
D

-0.024

0.096 -0.24

0.4

-0.24

0.8

Partition
u

K

=

r

Kuu Kur

u

Kru Krr

r

Kuu =

EI

0.8

0.4

0

0.4

1.6

0.4

0

0.4

0.8

Force vector
Transformation from member forces to Joint forces

P
PL
8

PL
8

L
P

P a b2
L2

a

b

L

P b a2
L2
128

100 kN

200 kN

B

A
3

C
5

100 kN

250 kN

5

D
2

3

E
2

100 kN

200 kN
200 kNm
100 kN

250 kNm

300 kNm

250 kNm
180 kNm

250 kN

120 kNm

100 kN

200 kN

B

A
3

C
5

100 kN

250 kN

5

D
2

3

E
2
100 kN

200 kN

200 kNm
100 kN

250 kNm
300 kNm

250 kNm
180 kNm

250 kN

Fixed End Action (FEA)

120 kNm

100 kN

200 kN

B

A
3

C
5

5

300 kNm

50 kNm

D
2

250 kNm 250 kNm

100 kN

250 kN

3

E
2

200 kNm

180 kNm 120 kNm

70 kNm

80 kNm

100 kN

200 kN

B

A
3

C
5

5
70 kNm

50 kNm

F1

50

F2 =

70

F3

- 80

100 kN

250 kN

D
2

3

E
2
80 kNm

The stiffness equation

F= K D
50

0.8

70 = EI 0.4
- 80

qB
qC
qD

0.8

=

1

EI

0
0.4

0

0.4

1.6 0.4

0

0.4 0.8

0.4

qB

0

1.6 0.4

qC

0.4 0.8

qD

-1

50

27.08
1

70 =
EI
- 80

70.83
- 135.42

qB

qC
qD

27.08
1

= EI

70.83

- 135.42

Internal forces in beam elements

2 EI q q
( 2 A+ B )
MAB= M(FER) AB +
L
2
EI
( qA+ 2 qB )
MBA= M(FER) BA +
L

100 kN

200 kN

B

A
3

C
5

100 kN

250 kN

5

D
2

3

E
2
100 kN

200 kN

200 kNm
100 kN

250 kNm
300 kNm

250 kNm
180 kNm

250 kN

Fixed End Reaction (FER)

120 kNm

B 200 kN

C

qB
qC

250 kNm

250 kNm

qD

27.08
1

70.83

= EI

- 135.42

2 E(2I) q q
( 2 B+ C )
MBC= M(FER) BC +
L
= 250 + 4/10 (2x27.08+70.83) = 300

2
E(2I)
( qB + 2 qC )
MCB= M(FER) CB +
L
= -250 + 4/10 (27.08+2x70.83) = - 182.5

B 200 kN

C

qB
qC

250 kNm

250 kNm

qD

27.08
1

70.83

= EI

- 135.42

2 E(2I) q q
( 2 B+ C )
MBC= M(FER) BC +
L
= 250 + 4/10 (2x27.08+70.83) = 300

2
E(2I)
( qB + 2 qC )
MCB= M(FER) CB +
L
= -250 + 4/10 (27.08+2x70.83) = - 182.5

MBC= 300
MCB= -182.5

MCD= 182.5
MDC= -200

300
182.5

200

A

E

B

C
B.M.D

D

100 kN

200 kN

B

A
3

C
5

5
300

D
2

241.25

182.5
500

3

189.5

E
2

200

300

A

E
B

B.M.D

100 kN

250 kN

C
258.75

D
110.5

Example 7:
Draw B.M.D for the shown beam where EI is
constant for all members
240 kN

A

120 kN

B
5

5

C
5

5

12 EID 6 EI q -12 EID
2
3
L
L
L3
K

l

=

6 EI q
L2

4 EI q
L

-6 EID
L2

2 EI q
L

-12 EID -6 EID
L3
L2

12 EID
L3

-6 EID
L2

2 EI q
L

-6 EID
L2

4 EI q
L

6 EI q
L2

6 EI q
L2

First element : (A-B )
EA

conastant

LAB = 10 m

12 EI
L3
6 EI q
L2

=0.012EI

4 EI q =0.4 EI
L

=0.06 EI

2 EI q
=0.2 EI
L

A

0.012 EI

B

0.06 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI
A

K

l

0.06 EI

0.4 EI

0.06 EI

0.2 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI

=

B

0.06 EI

0.2 EI

0.06 EI

0.4 EI

Second element : ( B-c)
EI

conastant

LAB = 10 m

12 EI
L3
6 EI q
L2

=0.012EI

4 EI q =0.4 EI
L

=0.06 EI

2 EI q
=0.2 EI
L

A

0.012 EI

B

0.06 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI
A

K

l

0.06 EI

0.4 EI

0.06 EI

0.2 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI

=

B

0.06 EI

0.2 EI

0.06 EI

0.4 EI

K

l

=

g

K

Assembly :

g

K1

=

0.012 EI

0.06 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI

0.06 EI

0.4 EI

0.06 EI

0.2 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI

0.06 EI

0.2 EI

0.06 EI

0.4 EI

A

0.012 EI

B

0.06 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI
A

g

K2

0.06 EI

0.4 EI

0.06 EI

0.2 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI

0.012 EI

0.06 EI

=

B

0.06 EI

0.2 EI

0.06 EI

0.4 EI

A

0.012

0.06

B

-0.012

c

0.06

0.0

0.0
A

0.06

K

s

0.4

= EI -0.012 -0.06

-0.06

0.2

0.024

0

0.0

0.0

-0.012 0.06
B

0.06

0.2

0.0

0.8

-0.06

0.2

0.0

0.0

-0.012

-0.06

0.012 -0.06
c

0.0

0.0

0.06

0.2

-0.06

0.4

Partition
u

K

=

r

Kuu Kur

u

Kru Krr

r

Force vector
Transformation from member forces to Joint forces

P

-

PL
8

L

PL
8

240 kN

120 kN

A

B
5

300 kNm

240 kN

5

C
5

300 kNm

150 kNm

Fixed End
Reaction
(FER)

5

120 kN

150 kNm

240 kN

120 kN

A

B
5

300 kNm

120

5

C
5

300 kNm 150 kNm

120 60

5
150 kNm

60

F1

120

F2

-300

F3

180

F4

=

150

F5

60

F6

150

120

0.012

0.06

-0.012

0.06

0.0

0.0

d1

-300

0.06

0.4

-0.06

0.2

0.0

0.0

d2

-0.012

-0.06

0.024

0

-0.012

0.06

d3

150

0.06

0.2

0.0

0.8

-0.06

0.2

d4

60

0.0

0.0

-0.012

-0.06

0.012

-0.06

d5

150

0.0

0.0

0.06

0.2

-0.06

0.4

d6

180 = EI

120

0.06

-0.012

0.06

0.0

0.0

d1

-300

0.4

-0.06

0.2

0.0

0.0

d2

-0.06

0.024

0.0

-0.012

0.06

d3

0.2

0.0

0.8

-0.06

-0.06

0.012

180
=EI

150

60

0.0

0.0

-0.012

150

0.0

0.0

0.06

0.2

-0.06

0.2
-0.06

d4
d5

0.4 d6

150

0.8 0.2

qB

0.2 0.4

qC

= EI

150

-1

qB
qC

=

1

0.8 0.2

150

EI

0.2 0.4

150

-1

qB
qC

=

qB
qC

=

1

0.8 0.2

150

EI

0.2 0.4

150

1
EI

107.14
321.43

Internal forces in beam elements

2 EI q q
( 2 A+ B )
MAB= M(FER) AB +
L
2
EI
( qA+ 2 qB )
MBA= M(FER) BA +
L

240 kN

120 kN

A

B
5

300 kNm

240 kN

5

C
5

300 kNm

150 kNm

Fixed End
Reaction
(FER)

5

120 kN

150 kNm

A 240 kN

B

qB
qC

300 kNm

=

1
EI

107.14

321.43

300 kNm

2 EI q q
( 2 A+ B )
MAB= M(FER) AB +
L
= 300 + 2/10 (107.14) = 321.4

2
EI
( qA+ 2 qB )
MBA= M(FER) BA +
L
= -300 + 2/10 (2x107.14) = - 257.1

B 120 kN

C

qB
qC

150 kNm

=

1
EI

107.14
321.43

150 kNm

2 EI q q
( 2 B+ C )
MBC= M(FER) BC +
L
= 150 + 2/10 (2x107.14+321.43) = 257.1

2
EI
( qB + 2 qC )
MCB= M(FER) CB +
L
= -150 + 2/10 (107.14+2x321.43) = 0

MAB= 321.4
MBA= -257.1

MBC= 257.1
MCB= 0

321.4
257.1

B.M.D

240 kN

120 kN

A

B
5

5
321.4

C
5

5
93.8

289.25

257.1
128.55

600

300

310.75

171.45

B.M.D

Beams with settlement
6 EI D
L2
D

6 EI D
L2
Fixed End
Reaction
(FER)

12 EID
L3

12 EID
L3

Beams with settlement
6 EI D
L2
D

12 EID
L3
Fixed End
Reaction
(FER)

12 EID
L3

6 EI D
L2

Beams with settlement

D

3 EI D
L2
Fixed End
Reaction
(FER)

3 EI D
L3

3 EI D
L3

Beams with settlement

D

3 EI D
L3
Fixed End
Reaction
(FER)

3 EI D
L3

3 EI D
L2

169

Example 8:
Draw B.M.D for the shown beam due to the
shown loads and vertical downward
settlement at support B (2000/EI) and at
support C (1000/EI) where EI is constant for
all members
240 kN

A

120 kN

B
5

5

C
5

5

From example 7 :
K=

0.8

0.2

0.2

0.4

EI

For
Loads

240 kN

120 kN

A

B
5

300 kNm

240 kN

5

C
5

300 kNm

150 kNm

Fixed End
Reaction
(FER)

5

120 kN

150 kNm

For
settlement A

B
5

5
120

5

5

2000

1000

EI

EI

120
6 EIx2000
102 EI

C

6 EIx2000
102 EI

60

6 EIx1000
102 EI

Fixed End Reaction (FER)

60

6 EIx1000
102 EI

Fixed End
Reaction
(FER)

240 kN

A

B
5

For
Loads
For
settlement

Total

120 kN

300 kNm

5
300 kNm

C
5
150 kNm

5
150 kNm

120

120

60

60

420

180

90

210

90 kNm

210 kNm

240 kN

120 kN

A

B
5

5

Fixed End
Reaction
(FER)

90 kNm

Fixed End
Action
(FEA)

90 kNm

C
5

5

210 kNm

210 kNm

240 kN

120 kN

A

B
5

Fixed End
Action
(FEA)

5

C
5

90 kNm

F1

F2

210 kNm

90
=

5

210

F= K D
k11 k12 d1

F1

F2

=

k21

90

k22 d2

0.8 0.2

qB

0.2 0.4

qC

= EI

210

-1

qB
qC

=

1

0.8 0.2

90

EI

0.2 0.4

210

-1

qB
qC

=

qB
qC

=

1

0.8 0.2

90

EI

0.2 0.4

210

1
EI

-21.43
535.71

Internal forces in beam elements

2 EI q q
( 2 A+ B )
MAB= M(FER) AB +
L
2
EI
( qA+ 2 qB )
MBA= M(FER) BA +
L

Fixed End
Reaction
(FER)

240 kN

A

B
5

For
Loads
For
settlement

Total

120 kN

300 kNm

5
300 kNm

C
5
150 kNm

5
150 kNm

120

120

60

60

420

180

90

210

90 kNm

210 kNm

A

B

qB
qC

420 kNm

=

1
EI

-21.43
535.71

180 kNm

2 EI q q
( 2 A+ B )
MAB= M(FER) AB +
L
= 420 + 2/10 (-21.43) = 415.7

2
EI
( qA+ 2 qB )
MBA= M(FER) BA +
L
= -180 + 2/10 (2x-21.43) = - 188.6

B

C

qB
qC

90 kNm

=

1
EI

-21.43
535.71

210 kNm

2 EI q q
( 2 B+ C )
MBC= M(FER) BC +
L
= 90 + 2/10 (2x-21.43+535.7) = 188.6

2
EI
( qB + 2 qC )
MCB= M(FER) CB +
L
= -210 + 2/10 (-21.43+2x535.71) = 0

MAB= 321.4
MBA= -257.1

MBC= 257.1
MCB= 0

415.7
188.6

B.M.D

240 kN

120 kN

A

B
5

5
415.7

C
5

5
93.8

302.15
600

188.6
94.3
300

297.85

205.7

B.M.D

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