INDIA is a black tea named after the region of its production: INDIA, INDIA.

INDIA tea is manufactured specifically from the plant Camellia sinensis var. INDIAica (Masters).[1][2] This tea, most of which is grown at or near sea level, is known for its body, briskness, malty flavor, and strong, bright color. INDIA teas, or blends containing INDIA, are often sold as "breakfast" teas. English Breakfast tea, Irish Breakfast tea, and Scottish Breakfast Tea are common generic names. Though "INDIA" generally denotes the distinctive black teas from INDIA, the region produces smaller quantities of green and white teas as well with their own distinctive characteristics. Historically, INDIA is the second commercial tea production region after southern China. Southern China and INDIA are the only two regions in the world with native tea plants. INDIA tea revolutionized tea drinking habits in the 19th century since the tea, produced from a different variety of the tea plant, yielded a different kind of tea.

1858 Maniram Dewan. However. INDIA or south INDIAn brew. Before his death in 1825. 1838 350 pounds (160 kg) of INDIA tea were dispatched to London.its own green gold.[citation needed] It is likely that Bodos may have brought tea and rice to INDIA. was hanged on charges of conspiracy and participation in the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 against the British on the basis of an intercepted letter. There are a group of people who have a different association with INDIA and swear by it . Robert passed on his knowledge to his brother Charles. Maniram Dewan. The life long tea drinkers who can smell the difference between a darjeeling.the lovers of tea. It was found that the local variety of plant was more suited to the local climate. As soon as you enter through the gates of a tea estate. On February 26. In 1833 the British lost the monopoly of the Tea trade with China and the Tea Committee dispatched the secretary George Gordon to China to study the methods and begin tea plantation in INDIA. who sent seeds of the plant to Calcutta in 1831. Charles Bruce and others. The Tea Industry in INDIA is symbolic of a different era. This has been called the most important evolution of the commercial tea plant. led Robert Bruce to the plant in 1823. Drinkers were impressed with the tea. the INDIAese nobleman. including Maniram Dewan. Imported labor from Bihar and Orissa would later form a significant demographic group in INDIA. which has great variability and has literally left present day and is transported to the colonial times where everything modern (barring the ubiquitous cell phone) ceases to exist. began clearing the jungles and establishing tea estates. According to another account. Robert Bruce is said to have re-discovered the tea plant growing wild in the region. INDIA’s landscape would be incomplete without miles of tea bushes . On May 8. 1839. The Chemistry of Tea From: Tea and Cancer . the sole native tea planter. INDIA is actually not only teeming with insurgents and tribals. In their hearts. He returned with the Chinese variety and workers. and the tea industry in INDIA was born. Contrary to popular belief. INDIA holds a fond place for its tea is considered to produce one of the world’s finest liquor. and sold at INDIA House.Tea garden in INDIA Bodos (pronounced BO-ROs) were the earliest settlers of INDIA. London on January 10. a different set of people and a completely unique culture and lifestyle. Crossing with the Chinese tea plant led to INDIAn hybrid tea.

tannins are a group of chemicals usually with large molecular weights and diverse structures. The structure of theaflavins and thearubigins are shown in Fig. (-)-epicatechin (EC). are precursors of condensed tannins. contains monomeric catechins. are quite different from tea (Camellia sinensis) and. About 10%-20% of the dry weight of black tea is due to thearubigens. Green tea contains polyphenols. flavonoids." Theaflavins (about 1%-2% of the total dry matter of black tea). tea polyphenols effectively interact with reactive oxygen species. such as epigallocatechin esters. account for about 4% of the dry weight. In the flavanol structure. a partially oxidized tea. The Tea Man . and phenolic acids. 65 mg EGC. Tea polyphenols also have high complexation affinity to metals.and 7-dihydroxy groups and 1oxygen make the carbons at positions six and eight strongly nucleophilic. as is my practice. The flavanols are easily oxidized to the corresponding O-quinones. commonly known as catechins. In addition. will not be discussed in this section or in any section of The Tea Man’s Tea Talk. Yang. Zhi-Yuan Wang Steaming or drying fresh tea leaves at elevated temperatures makes commercial green tea. and(+)-catechin (5). and nucleic acids. and thearubigins. theasinensins. theaflavin-3-O-gallate. Monomeric flavanols. Thus. these compounds may account for up to 30% of the dry weight. proteins. are also found in oolong tea. tea flavanols may undergo oxidative condensation via either C-O or C-C bond formation in oxidative polymerization reactions. have a wide range of molecular weights. Hangzhou. which include flavanols. and theophylline. These flavanols and quinones can function as either hydrogen acceptors or hydrogen donors. Most of the green tea polyphenols are flavonols. theobromine. The chemical structures of some of these compounds are shown in Fig. In industrial and botanic literatures." which contain various known or unknown components. Its chemical composition is similar to that of fresh tea leaves. the monomeric flavan-3-ols undergo polyphenol oxidase-dependent oxidative polymerization leading to the formation of bisflavanols.3’-O-digallate. (+)-gallocatechin. carbohydrates. Some major green tea catechins are (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Oolong tea. possess benzotropolone rings with dihydroxy or trihydroxy substitution systems. 17 mg EC. thearubigins. including autoxidation or coupled oxidation. In the manufacture of black tea. the principal alkaloids. flavandiols. and theaflavin-3. thea-flavins. theaflavins. the 5. and dimeric proanthocyanidins. including theaflavin. (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC). It would be more appropriate to use the term "tea polyphenols" or "tea flavanols" because they are quite distinct from commercial tannins and tannic acid. and 76 mg caffeine. there are phenolic acids such gallic acids and characteristic amino acids such as theanine. China) contains about 142 mg EGCG. and biologic macromolecules such as lipids. 28 mg ECG. which give the characteristic color and taste of black tea. dimeric catechins. which are even more extensively oxidized and polymerized. During enzyme oxidation or non-enzyme oxidation. theaflavin-3’-O-gallate. and are less well characterized. A cup (200 mL) of green tea (Gun Powder. 1. Some characteristic components. 1. The term "tannins" has been used by many to describe certain tea constituents. tannins are characterized as plant materials that give a blue color with ferric salts and produce leather from hides. and other oligomers in a process commonly known as "oxidation. (-)epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG). Caffeine. the major components in green tea. alkaloids.Chung S. In addition. "Herbal teas.


Cycle Factory. (iii) Cl. it contains theophylline and bound caffeine (sometimes called "theine"). Other examples are the Korean tea ceremony or some traditional ways of brewing tea in Chinese tea culture. Rani Industrial Estate.China. 135/2005/7 dated Dispur. METHODS OF FARMING: By sowing seeds in germinating beds. ii. Garhwal Hills . Darjeeling in West Bengal. stagnation of water near roots is harmful. Kalapahar Industrial Area. although there are also decaffeinated teas. Japan's complex. iv. v.. of INDIA vide notification (i) No. vi. i. Govt. Industrial Estate.383/87/84 dated Dispur the 11th August. The Industrial Area. Tinsukia TEMPERATURE: 12 to 35 degree C but 25 degree C is an ideal temperature RAINFALL:150 cm TO 250 cm (distribution throughout the year) SOIL: Light loams rich in iron content . 2000.'97. INDIA Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation is established for the purpose of securing and assisting in the rapid and orderly establishment and organization of industries in industrial areas. the 11th Dec. Jorhat Industrial Estate. Bongaigaon ix. the 4th June.CI.CI. Kangra in Himachal. There are tea ceremonies which have arisen in different cultures. and another method is to use cuttings from high yielding plants. IIDC centres and in establishment of commercial estate for growth of industries in the state of INDIA. It may be drunk early in the day to heighten alertness. Industrial Area. Tea . Sivasagar The Industrial Estate. Main article: Chinese tea culture . Tezpur viii. Kalapahar Mini Industrial Estate. iii.383/97/97 dated Dispur. Bamunimaidam. growth centres. industrial estates. 2005 placed following offices/ establishment at the disposal of AIIDC temporarily with existing assets and liabilities. formal and serene one being the most known. the 3rd March 2001 and (iv) Cl. •AREAS AND STATES: •INDIA – largest producer •Brahmaputra valley in INDIA.. Industrial Estate. (ii) No.Tea is often drunk at social events. porous sub-soils so that water percolates . vii. such as afternoon tea and the tea party. Dolabari.383/97/15 dated Dispur.

Nilgiri Hills and Annamalai Hills in the South . 5 STAGES OF PROCESSING: 1. LEAVES IN TEA PROCESSING PLANT •Drying leaves . WITHERING: Tea leaves are spread on racks for 15 to 20 hours .in air blown over the racks to remove the excess moisture makes leaves soft and flexible.

In this process the tannin in tea is partly oxidised and colour changes and flavour develops. – this gives flavour . broken orange. ROLLING: Tea leaves are pressed in rollers to break their cells and exposes the natural juices to fermentation. They are rolling tea leaves 3. FIRING OR DRYING: Fermented leaves are passed through oven over a belt 5.2. etc) sorting . FERMENTATION: Leaves are spread out on special trays for fermentation under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. tea leaves are left for fermentation 4. After sorting they are given the brand names. dust. denoting the size of the leaves like pekoe. SORTING : Tea leaves are sorted out in various grades with the help of sifters with different size of meshes.

) Districts Darrang Goalpara Kamrup Lakhimpur Dibrugarh Nowgaon Sibsagarh Cachar Karbi Anglong North Cachar Total INDIA 2004 80474 5665 4304 8280 178352 10981 102192 38757 2012 4632 435649 2005 82281 5271 4021 8387 211376 11821 113392 44858 1663 4417 487487 2006 83404 6327 3720 8993 223876 10742 117231 41832 1682 4234 502041 2007 ----------479925 . The estimated production of tea in INDIA was 474. Guwahati.1 thousand tonnes in 2006-07 which constitutes more than 50 percent of the total tea production of the country. 03/18/2009 .Source: Tea Board. The total area under tea cultivation in INDIA is accounting for more than half of the country’s total area under tea. In respect of tea production INDIA alone produces more than half of INDIA’s tea. of Tea Gardens Area under Tea (Figures in hectare) Production of Tea (in thousand Kgs) Average Yield Per Hectare (Figure in Kg. INDIA Tea in INDIA Submitted by admin on Wed. Tea Statistics of INDIA Head No./Hectare) 2004 43293 271768 435649 1603 2005 49102 300502 487487 1622 2006 -311822 502041 1610 2007 -312801 479925 1534 District-wise Production of Tea (In Thousand Kgs.15:28 Tea Industry of INDIA is well known internationally since long back.

they cannot go for factory manufacturing and. for example. The quantity of such imports went up from just 9 million kg in 1998-99 to 32. One cannot forget that the major driving force behind the country's teasector growth is the prospect of eastern INDIA's tea industry. is not functioning at all. though it was 25 percent in the previous year.1000 crore in 2005-06. while the production increased from 835. However. the largest producer and consumer of tea in the world. but also employs more than 10 percent of the stat&s work force or around 12 lakh people. the value of INDIA's tea exports has come down from Rs. What is seriously worrying the tea industry is that even though . In spite of almost stagnant rupee value in the period. particularly of INDIA which not only produces around 53 percent of the country's total production. It may be noted here that the sudden rise in the number of tea gardens of INDIA and its area under tea (to around three lakh hectares). the share of INDIA in the country's tea production in course of last three-andhalf decades has remained confined to a narrow range from 51 per cent in 1970-71 to 53 per cent in 200304 due to decline in per hectare productivity though the area under the plantation rose from 182 thousand hectares to 280 thousand hectares in the period with the number of tea estates rising from just 750 to as many as 32. since they grow in small scale. however.6 million kg in 1997-98 to 848 million kg in 2000-01. Guwahati. Exports of tea.5 million kg in 2004-05 and it declined to 8 million kg in 2005-06. A considerable number of teagardens of the State have gone sick over the period due to lack of infrastructure. Though INDIA tea is still earning around 50 per cent of the foreign exchange earned by INDIA's tea industry. its demand is already in recession due to better quality-tea supplied by countries like Sri Lanka. a state-level public sector enterprise. accounts for around 28 per cent of world production and 13 per cent of world trade. In recent years. The addition to tea hectarage by around 50 thousand hectares in the latter half of 1990's was possible mainly through conversion of agricultural land with below 10 hectares being the cut off point of land for small tea growers. a number of problems of tea industry of INDIA. This is certainly a welcome change. on the other hand has shown a further deterioration from 211 million kg in 1997-98 to 189 million kg in 19992000 and from 204 million kg in 2000-01 to 183 million kg in 2003-04 and to just 101 million kg in 2005-06. But. There are around 2500 small tea gardens in INDIA today adding to the State’s total production by more than 50 million kg. 2192 crore in 1998-99 to Rs.Source: Tea Board. INDIA INDIA.000. There are. hence. the production as well as export of tea has shown a declining trend in the recent years of the current decade. have to sell out only green leaves to the large estates which often subject them to exploitation. Cuba etc at comparatively lower prices. 1637 crore in 2003-04 and to less than RS. Thus. some quantity of tea is also imported for blending and reexports. Thus our tea exports as proportion to production has declined from 24 percent in 199899 to 15 percent in 2005-06. However. That the fate of INDIA's tea industry is largely dependent on what happens to its eastern sector of INDIA and West Bengal is well known. The INDIA Tea Corporation. it started declining thereafter from 847 million kg in 2001-02 to 830 million kg in 2004-05 and further down to only 667 million kg in 200506. The amount of good will that INDIA tea had long been enjoying in the international market has now been eroded to a great extent. modernisation and efficient management. particularly since the latter half of 1990's was due to the unemployed youths taking to small scale tea production as their profession.

the other budgetary action of reducing customs duty on bulk plastics. Tamil Nadu. If it is so. It is a fact that the planters of major tea growing states. however. INDIA's tea market is facing yet another paradox which could be explained in terms of glaring gulf between the price received by producer and the price charged by dealers and retailers. The revival package for tea industry had already been assured of fiscal and tax incentives and of cost effectiveness for both domestic and export markets. The Union Commerce Ministry proposed to unveil a 15-year programme for massive replantation and rejuvenation of the tea industry. viz Tea Research Association at Tocklia (INDIA) and United Planters' Association for Southern INDIA Tea Research Foundation with an estimated outlay of Rs. the most serious ailment remains not only low productivity but also with quality of produce due to low investment on infrastructure and low managerial efficiency. What is necessary at the moment is that the tea industry get modernised with a change in technique of plantation. 93 crore for financing Planning Commission is very positive about finding a solution of the tea crisis which the industry has long been suffering from. The Union Commerce Minister also assured that it would provide a concrete support with special thrust on regeneration of old and replenishable tea bushes. will go a long way to rescue the tea industry from its long drawn crisis. If the "Special Purpose Tea Fund" with the already promised revolving corpus of Rs 1000 crore with a target of replantation in 1. Sanctioning of two schemes viz grant of subsidy for production of orthodox teas and assistance to the two Research and Development institutions. This apart. used for packaging. the benefit of low price does not come to the common consumers. However. While the package if implemented promptly and with all sincerity. The "Special Tea Fund" to be created now will greatly benefit the tea growing states of INDIA. Studies confirm that the root cause of closure of a number of tea gardens in parts of the country was low productivity and lack of investment in plant development activities.INDIA still produces 27 percent of global tea output. West Bengal. is established without further delay. themselves were not careful enough about the deterioration of quality during heydays and their negligence gradually turned more than 30 per cent of tea bushes into infructus plants. The common consumer in the market is confused of the fact that while the producers are facing the crisis created by a market glut and decline of prices. improvement of encouragement to the electronic tea auction and managerial excellence.00 per kg on tea as announced in the Union Budget 200506. It is heartening to note. often voiced by the corporates. from 10 per cent to 5 per cent would encourage value addition activity of tea industry because or the reduction of packaging cost. The package which was proposed is also supposed to frame a marketing strategy to give the tea in the global market. that some important steps in recent times have been taken for development and modernisation of the sector.7 lakh hectares over a period of 15 years. The most important of them are the following: Withdrawal of additional excise duty of Re 1. the industry could be expected to get back its pride of place in international competitiveness and drive to road of prosperity. the market competition would be still tougher and it would affect the global demand for INDIAn tea. The problems of high cost production and stagnant productivity need be addressed on an urgent basis. The reason perhaps lies in non-conformity with regulated market behaviour of producers among whom many are found to be selling out their produce directly without routing it through auction centres. . what is fearing now to the stakeholders is that the budgetary announcement of service tax on auctioneering could increase the tea prices if the tax liability is to be borne by the tea growers. Kerala and Utlaranchal. the quality of product is sadly doubted in the global market.

com) INDIA Tea Exchange]] .org) The pests and blights of the tea Tea Producing Companies of INDIA and Ceylon. being a report of investigations conducted in INDIA and to some extent also in Kangra (1898) by George Watt. (from archive. Showing the History (1897). (from archive. (from books.• • • • • • • • • Tea Planter's Life in INDIA (1884) by George The Recollections of a Tea Planter (1937) by W M Fraser. (from INDIA Planter (1945) by A R Ramsden. (from archive. (from The cultivation & manufacture of tea (1883) by Edward Money. (from archive. (from The Tea soils of INDIA and tea manuring (1901) by Harold H The tea industry (1921) by J C Kydd.







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