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El-Minia University Faculty of Eng. 4th Year Civil

Hydraulics of Weirs

1- A standing wave weir is to be constructed to measure the discharge of the canal, the cross section of which is given below: Data: Summer Discharge Flood submersion Summer submersion Weir sill level Discharge equation of the weir …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… 59.16 m3 / sec 3/4 2/3 12.80 2 . B . H1.5

and the difference between flood water level and summer water level is the same U.S and D.S of the weir. Required: a- Find the U.S flood water level. b- Fix the width of the weir. c- Fix the flood discharge.

Prepared By: Amr Abdel-Monaim El-Sayed

L.50) (8.50) 10.40 t / m3 2.Calculate the width and the sill level of the weir 2.S.Maximum submersion 5.5 53.25) 8.L. (10.Specific weight of P.L.25) …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… …………… Q = 1.Specific weight of rubble Required: 1.25) L.0 Cross Section D.Bligh / Lane coefficients 6. the weir Prepared By: Amr Abdel-Monaim El-Sayed . (10.0 (12.00 m3 / sec 70 % 14.80) L.95 B .60) (11.C 7.W.25) (11.Design of Irrigation Structures El-Minia University Faculty of Eng.85 m3 / sec 24.W.W. 8.W.00) (11.L.Design the weir and its floor 3. longitudinal section and U. (10.Draw plane (half earth removed).70 / 7.S side view. The cross section of the canal is given below: Data: 1. (11.25 2.30 t / m3 Cross Section U.Discharge at high water level 3. the weir H.S.Discharge at low water level 4.0 (12. (H)1.00) (8.80) (11.0 H.Discharge equation of the weir 2.00) 10. 4th Year Civil Standing Wave Weir A Standing wave weir is to be constructed to measure the discharge of a canal.

Calculate the width and sill level of the weir : H2 – h2 = 0.80 H1 = H2 + 0.95 * B (H2)1.40 m Q = 1.714 H2 = 0.00 2 H 1 ⎛ 53.50 H2 = 0.95B.70 = 9.85 ⎞ 3 =⎜ ⎟ = 1.85 24.50 1.20 m Prepared By: Amr Abdel-Monaim El-Sayed h2 h1 . (1) ⎛ H1 ⎜ ⎜H ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1.714 H 2 ⎝ 24.50 then H1 = 1.85 = 1.00 ⎠ but H1 – H2 = 0.50 by dividing equations (1) & (2) ……….50 the discharge at low water level: 24. (2) ……….50 H1 = 1.Design of Irrigation Structures El-Minia University Faculty of Eng.714 H2 – H2 = 0.H 1.95 * B (H1)1.50 – 0.00 = 1.714 H2 0.50 m H1 – h2 = 0.50 = 53. 4th Year Civil 1.50 H1 H2 The discharge at high water level: 53.70 m sill level = 10.

50) = 21.8 = = 66.0 % O.70 substituting in the discharge equation of the weir: Q = 1.95 *(H1)1.50 B = 53.50) B = 53.85 /(1.K. 4th Year Civil You have to check for the maximum submersion Submersion ratio = h h1 or 2 H1 H 2 h1 0 .Design of Irrigation Structures El-Minia University Faculty of Eng. H 2 0.00 m Design of floor Safe Weighted creep ratios for different kinds of soils Recommended by Bligh Foundation Material Very fine sand or silt Fine sand Medium sand Coarse sand Gravel and sand Fine gravel Medium gravel Boulders mixed with gravel & sand Bligh’s Coefficient CB 18 15 13 12 9 6 5 4 Safe Exit Gradient IE 1/18 1/15 1/13 1/12 1/9 1/6 1/5 1/4 Prepared By: Amr Abdel-Monaim El-Sayed .20 h2 0.57 % < 70.20 = = 28.K. H 1 1.2)1.85 / (1.95 B (H)1.66 % < 70.0 % O.95 * (1.

0 2.0 2.50 3.floor length upstream the weir body. and is taken roughly (1-2) times the upstream water head. 2. including cobbles Boulders with some cobbles and gravel Soft clay Medium clay Hard clay Very hard clay or hardpan Safe Weighted Creep-head Ratios.8 1.0 6. CL 8.5 7. Recommended by Lane Material Very fine sand or silt Fine sand Medium sand Coarse sand Fine gravel Medium gravel Coarse gravel.0 3.Length of the weir body Prepared By: Amr Abdel-Monaim El-Sayed .0 5.0 1.6 Total creep length of the floor = C * H Where C : Bligh or Lane’s coefficient H : Maximum difference in water level The length of the floor is divided into three maim parts: 1. 4th Year Civil Recommended Weighted Creep Ratios.50 3.Design of Irrigation Structures El-Minia University Faculty of Eng.0 4.

S.0 – 10.Maximum difference of water head between U.0 = 1.Design of Irrigation Structures El-Minia University Faculty of Eng.0 = 0.80 m → (Max.Yc HS Yc = critical depth of water calculated for a rectangular cross section of the channel = 3 q2 g and q = Q/B . Bligh recommended his empirical formula for calculating the length of scour: LS = 0. and D.Length of the floor downstream the weir.Flood discharge: 11.80 – 8. water head .40 m 2.6 = 0.S of the weir: 1.50 3.61 C B where: HS = maximum head producing scour = U. and from the analysis of collected information on existing structures.50 – 10. 4th Year Civil L1 Lw Ls 3.Summer discharge: 10.During repair time: sill level – bed level = 9.S. which is called “length of scour”.) Prepared By: Amr Abdel-Monaim El-Sayed .

Design of floor thickness: The weight of the floor must safely resist the uplift forces produced by the percolation of water under the floor.00 + 13.125 = 13. is the section just after the body of the weir (at the end of LW).50 m thickness. Total required length (to resist perculation and uplift) = C . because the previous sections water weight (for L1).85 21) 9. Prepared By: Amr Abdel-Monaim El-Sayed . This length could be satisfied in many different ways: 1.9 m.00 + 2 * 0.46 m L1 = 1 ~ 2 Max.875 m Hs = 11.60 = 3.07 m ≈ 13.61 * 14.S) = 22.Lengthen the upstream apron of the floor (L1 = 1~2 upstream water head).Add cutoff wall at the start and end of the floor each of 2.70.0 m of pitching in mortar with 0. Upstream water head = 11.60 m.0 – 8. H = 14. That length is required for safety against piping.50 + 5.S & D.At the end of floor. The critical section.0 – 8.5 = 2.0 m) to find Ls get YC first.8 L = 26.50 – 22.70 * 1. q2 = g YC = 3 3 (53.50 m Length of weir = 3 ~ 5 m (take Lw = 5.50 (difference in bed level of the canal between U. 3.Design of Irrigation Structures El-Minia University Faculty of Eng. 2. so the floor length is extended to satisfy these requirements. which must be taken into consideration. so L1 could be 5. The difference between the required length and the actual percolation length = 26.0 m.80 + 0. and it is clear that the required length of floor > the total percolation length of floor.0 – 0.125 m Ls = 0.Bligh’s Method C = 14.0 m depth. and weir weight (for LW) will counteract the uplift force.0 m Assume that the floor thickness = 0. 4th Year Civil Design of floor Elements: 1.81 2 YC = 0.70 * 2. add 4.875 = 2.80 Total percolation length of floor = 2.

3 = 1.10 m o.09 = 1.70 .50 + 0.2 14.114m 2.8 − or = 0.50 + 4.k 2.0 = 1.18m 14.2 t= * 1.4 − 1 Prepared By: Amr Abdel-Monaim El-Sayed h 0.30 + 13.50 + 0.60 + 2.80 − t= 1.4 − 1 take t = 1.70 t= h *1.50 + 5.30 + 2.0 = 1.30 γ m −1 1.50 + 0.3 = 1.50 + 0.50 + 5.18 * 1.0 = 1.80 Slope = 1 CB Uplift pressure at the section (1-1) = 1.70 h = 1.21 14.0 + 0.Design of Irrigation Structures El-Minia University Faculty of Eng. 4th Year Civil 1 1 H = 1.10 and check again 0.

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