Old & New Testaments of the Holy Bible Flaming “Social Justice” in the

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Ricardo D. Stanton-Salazar, Ph.D.
Non-affiliated Professor of Education & Sociology May
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2012
 Before the French Revolution, the Russian Revolution, before the Anti-Colonial Wars of Independence in Africa, the Caribbean, Mexico and India, before the Abolition Movement and the Anti-Slavery Movement, before the Civil Rights Movement of Dr./Rev. King and 100s of thousands of others that cried for justice and an end to bigotry and de jure segregation, before the Chicana/o Movement and the American Indian Movement, before the Women's Suffrage Movement, before Marxism, contemporary Liberation Theology, and twentieth century socialism and feminism, … …there existed a set of radical ancient texts that thunderously roared with sacred authority for a society and all social and economic relations founded upon the principles of equality, solidarity, and “social justice,” emphasizing that every person, regardless of the class or community they were born into, is endowed by their Creator with an indestructible dignity, a Divinity infused within their body temples, a Divinity linking all people as family—all sharing the same Divine Origin,--Indeed!, there exists a set of radical ancient texts calling for an end of all forms of “social oppression,” while affirming the inalienable right of every person on earth, regardless of religion or faith, to develop all aspects of their human development and spiritual potential; that set of revolutionary texts? The Old & New Testaments of Judeo-Christian Bible. ….In spite of known errors in many of the Aramaic & Hebrew-to-Greek translations, in spite of the scandalous revisions and political pressures to alter certain texts, and the elimination of other texts in constructing the New Testament (during the Council of Nicaea of 325 AD), the call and commandment for social justice remained intact and inarguably clear.

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Ricardo D. Stanton-Salazar, Ph.D. Google: Stanton-Salazar Email: arroyorunner@yahoo.com SCRIBD Website: http://www.scribd.com/rstanton_salazar/documents
 
 Résumé: http://www.scribd.com/doc/88186776/Resume-Bio-Dr-R-D-Stanton-Salazar-April-5-2012 
 Dedicated
to
my
sister,
Susie (The Rock Church) to
the
memory
of
Rev., Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.



&

(January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, GA – Assassinated April 4, 1968, Memphis, Tennessee, April 3: "[God has] allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you.")

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 Isaiah 58:6-12: “Is not this the fast that I choose: to loose the bonds of wickedness, to undo the straps of the yoke, …to let the oppressed go free!!!, and to break every yoke?

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Is it not to share your bread with the hungry (?) and bring the homeless poor into your house (?); … ….when you see the naked, to cover him, and not to hide yourself from your own flesh? Then you shall call, and the Lord will answer; you shall cry, and he will say, ‘Here I am.’ If you take away the yoke from your midst, the pointing of the finger, and speaking wickedness,… …. if you pour yourself out for the hungry and satisfy the needs of the afflicted, then shall your light rise in the darkness and your gloom be as the noonday. ... Isaiah was a prophet who lived in the 8th-century BC Kingdom of Judah. Jews and Christians consider the Book of Isaiah a part of their Biblical canon; he is the first listed (although not the earliest) of the neviim akharonim, the latter prophets. Many of the New Testament teachings of Jesus refer to the book of Isaiah.

The first 39 chapters prophesy doom for a sinful Judah and for all the nations of the world that oppose God, while the last 27 prophesy the restoration of the nation of Israel and a new creation in God's glorious future kingdom;[1] this section includes the Songs of the Suffering Servant, four separate passages referring to the nation of Israel, interpreted by Christians as prefiguring the coming of Jesus Christ. 


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Tradition ascribes authorship of the book to Isaiah son of Amoz, but for over a hundred years scholars have seen it as a compilation of writings from three different periods. The first, termed Proto-Isaiah (chapters 1–39), contains the words of the 8th-century BCE prophet with 7th-century BCE expansions; the second, Deutero-Isaiah (chapters 40–55), is the work of a 6th-century BCE author writing near the end of the Babylonian captivity; and the third, the poetic Trito-Isaiah (chapters 56–66), was composed in Jerusalem shortly after the return from exile, probably by multiple authors.
Virtually all scriptural quotes below taken from [http://www.openbible.info/topics/social_justice] ….Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Attention: ____________ Isaiah 1:17 NOTE: _____________________________________

Learn to do good; seek justice, correct oppression; bring justice to the fatherless, plead the widow's cause.

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 Matthew 25: 31-45

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‘For I was hungry, and you gave Me something to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me something to drink; I was a stranger, and you invited Me in; naked, and you clothed Me; I was sick, and you visited Me; I was in prison, and you came to Me.’ “Then the righteous will answer Him, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry, and feed You, or thirsty, and give You something to drink? ‘And when did we see You a stranger, and invite You in, or naked, and clothe You? ‘When did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?’ “The King will answer and say to them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of these brothers of Mine, even the least of them, you did it to Me.’ “Then he will say to those on his left, ‘Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry and you gave me nothing to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, I was a stranger and you did not invite me in, …“They also will answer, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or needing clothes or sick or in prison, and did not help you?’ “He will reply, ‘Truly I tell you, whatever you did not do for one of the least of these, you did not do for me.’ Matthew 25: 31-45

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Zechariah 7:9-10

Attention:
____________________
 NOTE: _____________________________________

“Thus says the Lord of hosts, Render true judgments, show kindness and mercy to one another, do not oppress the widow, the fatherless, the sojourner, or the poor, and let none of you devise evil against another in your heart.” Attention: ____________ Jeremiah 22:3 NOTE: _____________________________________ Thus says the Lord: Do justice and righteousness, and deliver from the hand of the oppressor him who has been robbed. And do no wrong or violence to the resident alien, the fatherless, and the widow, nor shed innocent blood in this place.
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Romans 12:15-18

Attention: ____________ NOTE: _____________________________________ / 109

Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep. Live in harmony with one another. Do not be haughty, but associate with the lowly. Never be wise in your own sight. Repay no one evil for evil, but give thought to do what is honorable in the sight of all. If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all. Attention: ____________ Micah 6:8 NOTE: _____________________________________ / 81 He has told you, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God? Attention: ____________ NOTE: _____________________________________

Proverbs 31:9

Open your mouth, judge righteously, defend the rights of the poor and needy. Attention: ____________ NOTE: _____________________________________

Luke 10:30-37

Jesus replied, “A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who stripped him and beat him and departed, leaving him half dead. Now by chance a priest was going down that road, and when he saw him he passed by on the other side. So likewise a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. But a Samaritan, as he journeyed, came to where he was, and when he saw him, he had compassion. He went to him and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. Then he set him on his own animal and brought him to an inn and took care of him. ... 

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Attention: ____________ Psalm 82:3 NOTE: _____________________________________

Give justice to the weak and the fatherless; maintain the right of the afflicted and the destitute. Attention: ____________ Matthew 7:12 NOTE: _____________________________________ “So whatever you wish that others would do to you, do also to them, for this is the Law and the Prophets. Attention: ____________ James 1:27 NOTE: _____________________________________

Religion that is pure and undefiled before God, the Father, is this: to visit orphans and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unstained from the world. Attention: ____________ NOTE: _____________________________________ / 28

Ezekiel 16:49-50

Behold, this was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had pride, excess of food, and prosperous ease, but did not aid the poor and needy. They were haughty and did an abomination before me. So I removed them, when I saw it. In 2010, 15.1 percent of all persons lived in poverty. In the same year, 27.4 percent of blacks and 26.6 percent of Latinos were poor. Attention: ____________ Proverbs 31:8-9 NOTE: _______________________________

Open your mouth for the mute, for the rights of all who are destitute. Open your mouth, judge righteously, defend the rights of the poor and needy.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. “We believe the highest patriotism demands the ending of the war and the opening of a bloodless war to final victory over racism and poverty.” Poor People’s Campaign (1967) Under the "economic bill of rights," the Poor People's Campaign asked for the federal government to prioritize helping the poor with a $30 billion anti-poverty package that included a commitment to full employment, a guaranteed annual income measure and more low-income housing.

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Attention: ____________ Matthew 5:3 NOTE: _________________________________ “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” Attention: ____________ Leviticus 19:15 NOTE: _____________________________________ “You shall do no injustice in court. You shall not be partial to the poor or defer to the great, but in righteousness shall you judge your neighbor. Attention: ____________ Matthew 25:31-46 NOTE: ______________________________

“When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne. Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. And he will place the sheep on his right, but the goats on the left. Then the King will say to those on his right, ‘Come, you who are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, ... Attention: ____________ Isaiah 58:6-12 NOTE: _________________________________

“Is not this the fast that I choose: to loose the bonds of wickedness, to undo the straps of the yoke, to let the oppressed go free, and to break every yoke? Is it not to share your bread with the hungry and bring the homeless poor into your house; when you see the naked, to cover him, and not to hide yourself from your own flesh? Then shall your light break forth like the dawn, and your healing shall spring up speedily; your righteousness shall go before you; the glory of the Lord shall be your rear guard. Then you shall call, and the Lord will answer; you shall cry, and he will say, ‘Here I am.’ If you take away the yoke from your midst, the pointing of the finger, and speaking wickedness, if you pour yourself out for the hungry and satisfy the desire of the afflicted, then shall your light rise in the darkness and your gloom be as the noonday. ... Attention: ____________ Romans 10:12 NOTE: ________________________________

For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, bestowing his riches on all who call on him.

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Attention: ____________ Luke 4:18-19 NOTE: __________________________________

“The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor.” Attention: ____________ Proverbs 22:16 NOTE: ________________________________ Whoever oppresses the poor to increase his own wealth, or gives to the rich, will only come to poverty. (1) In the United States, wealth is highly concentrated in a relatively few hands. As of 2007, the TOP 1% of households (the upper class) owned 34.6% of all privately held wealth, … (2) the next 19% (the managerial, professional, and small business stratum) had 50.5% of all privately-held wealth, which means that just “20% of the people” owned a remarkable 85% of the wealth in the US. Attention: ____________ Matthew 19: 16-24 NOTE: __________________________________ The Rich and the Kingdom of God 16 Just then a man came up to Jesus and asked, “Teacher, what good thing must I do to get eternal life?” 17 “Why do you ask me about what is good?” Jesus replied. “There is only One who is good. If you want to enter life, keep the commandments.” 18 “Which ones?” he inquired. Jesus replied, “ ‘You shall not murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not steal, you shall not give false testimony, honor your father and mother,’ and ‘love your neighbor as yourself.’ ” 20 “All these I have kept,” the young man said. “What do I still lack?” 21 Jesus answered, “If you want to be perfect, go, sell your possessions and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven. Then come, follow me.” 22 When the young man heard this, he went away sad, because he had great wealth.

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 23 Then Jesus said to his disciples, “Truly I tell you, it is hard for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of heaven. Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of God.”

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Attention: ____________ Luke 11:39-42 NOTE: ________________________________

And the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the dish, but inside you are full of greed and wickedness. You fools! Did not he who made the outside make the inside also? But give as alms those things that are within, and behold, everything is clean for you. “But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, and neglect justice and the love of God. These you ought to have done, without neglecting the others. Attention: ____________ Amos 5:11-15 NOTE: _______________________________

Therefore because you trample on the poor and you exact taxes of grain from him, you have built houses of hewn stone, but you shall not dwell in them; you have planted pleasant vineyards, but you shall not drink their wine. For I know how many are your transgressions and how great are your sins— you who afflict the righteous, who take a bribe, and turn aside the needy in the gate. Therefore he who is prudent will keep silent in such a time, for it is an evil time. Seek good, and not evil, that you may live; and so the Lord, the God of hosts, will be with you, as you have said. Hate evil, and love good, and establish justice in the gate; it may be that the Lord, the God of hosts, will be gracious to the remnant of Joseph. Attention: ____________ Isaiah 61:1 NOTE: ___________________________________

The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me to bring good news to the poor; he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound; The United States has less than 5 percent of the world's population. But it has almost a quarter of the world's prisoners. The United States has, for instance, 2.3 million criminals behind bars, more than any other nation, according to data maintained by the International Center for Prison Studies at King's College London. Attention: ____________ Proverbs 28:27 NOTE: _____________________________________ Whoever gives to the poor will not want, but he who hides his eyes will get many a curse.

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Attention: ____________ Proverbs 14:31 NOTE: _____________________________________ Whoever oppresses a poor man insults his Maker, but he who is generous to the needy honors him. Attention: ____________ NOTE: _____________________________________

Amos 5:21-24

“I hate, I despise your feasts, and I take no delight in your solemn assemblies. Even though you offer me your burnt offerings and grain offerings, I will not accept them; and the peace offerings of your fattened animals, I will not look upon them. Take away from me the noise of your songs; to the melody of your harps I will not listen. But let justice roll down like waters, and righteousness like an ever-flowing stream. Attention: ____________ NOTE: _____________________________________

Deuteronomy 16:20

Justice, and only justice, you shall follow, that you may live and inherit the land that the Lord your God is giving you. Attention: ____________ Proverbs 29:7 NOTE: ___________________________________ A righteous man knows the rights of the poor; a wicked man does not understand such knowledge. Attention: ____________ Ezekiel 16:49 NOTE: _____________________________________ Behold, this was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had pride, excess of food, and prosperous ease, but did not aid the poor and needy. Attention: ____________ NOTE: ____________________________________

1 John 3:17-18

But if anyone has the world's goods and sees his brother in need, yet closes his heart against him, how does God's love abide in him? Little children, let us not love in word or talk but in deed and in truth. 
 
 

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Attention: ____________


 Matthew 25:29-42 NOTE: __________________________________

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For to everyone who has will more be given, and he will have an abundance. But from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away. And cast the worthless servant into the outer darkness. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’ “When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne. Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. And he will place the sheep on his right, but the goats on the left. ... Attention: ____________ Jeremiah 22:13-17 NOTE: ______________________________

“Woe to him who builds his house by unrighteousness, and his upper rooms by injustice, who makes his neighbor serve him for nothing and does not give him his wages, who says, ‘I will build myself a great house with spacious upper rooms,’ who cuts out windows for it, paneling it with cedar and painting it with vermilion. Do you think you are a king because you compete in cedar? Did not your father eat and drink and do justice and righteousness? Then it was well with him. He judged the cause of the poor and needy; then it was well. Is not this to know me? declares the Lord. But you have eyes and heart only for your dishonest gain, for shedding innocent blood, and for practicing oppression and violence.” Attention: ____________ Isaiah 42:3 NOTE: _____________________________________

A bruised reed he will not break, and a faintly burning wick he will not quench; he will faithfully bring forth justice. Attention: ____________ Isaiah 11:4 NOTE: _____________________________________

But with righteousness he shall judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the earth; and he shall strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he shall kill the wicked.

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 Book of James: The book of James is seen by Christian leaders as a concise, how-to guide

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on being a “Christian.” Although some Christians interpret James as proving that good works play a role in our salvation, it is argued that James’ letter actually says that good works are the fruit of our salvation and will attract nonbelievers to the faith. •
Karen Hollowell: James was a biological brother of Jesus, but he was not an early

supporter of His ministry. In fact, James was probably an unbeliever. When studying the writings of James, it is important to note the transformation in his life following the resurrection of Jesus. His life is an example to other non-believers of what is possible after faith in Christ is confessed. http://www.ehow.com/how_4868953_study-bookjames-bible.html

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Date Written: About 49 A.D., before the Jerusalem Council in 50 A.D. and before the destruction of the temple in 70 A.D. On Wealth: A person or a community’s wealth should be used to advance the Kingdom of God. The wealthy do not deserve to be treated better than the poor, and certain the poor must never be mistreated nor oppressed.

James 5:1-5

NOTE: _____________________________________

“Come now, you rich, weep and howl for the miseries that are coming upon you. Your riches have rotted and your garments are moth-eaten. Your gold and silver have corroded, and their corrosion will be evidence against you and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up treasure in the last days. Behold, the wages of the laborers who mowed your fields, which you kept back by fraud, are crying out against you, and the cries of the harvesters have reached the ears of the Lord of hosts. You have lived on the earth in luxury and in self-indulgence. You have fattened your hearts in a day of slaughter.”

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James 5:1-5 “Behold, the wages of the laborers who mowed your fields, which you kept back by fraud, are crying out against you, and the cries of the harvesters have reached the ears of the Lord of hosts. You have lived on the earth in luxury and in self-indulgence. You have fattened your hearts in a day of slaughter.” Attention: ____________ Luke 18:1-8 NOTE: _____________________________________

And he told them a parable to the effect that they ought always to pray and not lose heart. He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor respected man. And there was a widow in that city who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Give me justice against my adversary.’ For a while he refused, but afterward he said to himself, ‘Though I neither fear God nor respect man, yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will give her justice, so that she will not beat me down by her continual coming.’” ... Attention: ____________ NOTE: _____________________________________

Ezekiel 22:29-31

The people of the land have practiced extortion and committed robbery. They have oppressed the poor and needy, and have extorted from the sojourner without justice. And I sought for a man among them who should build up the wall and stand in the breach before me for the land, that I should not destroy it, but I found none. Therefore I have poured out my indignation upon them. I have consumed them with the fire of my wrath. I have returned their way upon their heads, declares the Lord God.” Attention: ____________ 

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 Proverbs 19:17 NOTE: _____________________________________ Whoever is generous to the poor lends to the Lord, and he will repay him for his deed.

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Deuteronomy 15:7-11

Attention: ____________ NOTE: _____________________________________

“If among you, one of your brothers should become poor, in any of your towns within your land that the Lord your God is giving you, you shall not harden your heart or shut your hand against your poor brother, but you shall open your hand to him and lend him sufficient for his need, whatever it may be. Take care lest there be an unworthy thought in your heart and you say, ‘The seventh year, the year of release is near,’ and your eye look grudgingly on your poor brother, and you give him nothing, and he cry to the Lord against you, and you be guilty of sin. You shall give to him freely, and your heart shall not be grudging when you give to him, because for this the Lord your God will bless you in all your work and in all that you undertake. For there will never cease to be poor in the land. Therefore I command you, ‘You shall open wide your hand to your brother, to the needy and to the poor, in your land.’ Attention: ____________ Leviticus 23:22 NOTE: _____________________________________ / “And when you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap your field right up to its edge, nor shall you gather the gleanings after your harvest. You shall leave them for the poor and for the sojourner: I am the Lord your God.” Attention: ____________ Micah 6:6-8 NOTE: _____________________________________

“With what shall I come before the Lord, and bow myself before God on high? Shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves a year old? Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, with ten thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my firstborn for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?” He has told you, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God?

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 Exodus 23:9 NOTE: _____________________________________

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“You shall not oppress a sojourner. You know the heart of a sojourner, for you were sojourners in the land of Egypt.

Attention: ____________ Jeremiah 21:12 NOTE: ____________________________________ O house of David! Thus says the Lord: “‘Execute justice in the morning, and deliver from the hand of the oppressor him who has been robbed, lest my wrath go forth like fire, and burn with none to quench it, because of your evil deeds.’” Attention: ____________ Isaiah 10:1-2 NOTE: ______________________________

Woe to those who decree iniquitous decrees, and the writers who keep writing oppression, to turn aside the needy from justice and to rob the poor of my people of their right, that widows may be their spoil, and that they may make the fatherless their prey! Attention: ____________ Leviticus 19:10 NOTE: _____________________________________ And you shall not strip your vineyard bare, neither shall you gather the fallen grapes of your vineyard. You shall leave them for the poor and for the sojourner: I am the Lord your God. Attention: ____________ Exodus 23:3 NOTE: _____________________________________ Nor shall you be partial to a poor man in his lawsuit. 

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Matthew 25:14-30

Attention: ____________ NOTE: _____________________________________

“For it will be like a man going on a journey, who called his servants and entrusted to them his property. To one he gave five talents, to another two, to another one, to each according to his ability. Then he went away. He who had received the five talents went at once and traded with them, and he made five talents more. So also he who had the two talents made two talents more. But he who had received the one talent went and dug in the ground and hid his master's money. ... Attention: ____________ Exodus 22:21 NOTE: _____________________________________ “You shall not wrong a sojourner or oppress him, for you were sojourners in the land of Egypt. Attention: ____________ Amos 5:15 NOTE: _____________________________________

Hate evil, and love good, and establish justice in the gate; it may be that the Lord, the God of hosts, will be gracious to the remnant of Joseph.

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 WHEN WE THINK OF “SOCIAL JUSTICE,” DO WE NORMALLY TURN TO THE [Judeo-Christian] BIBLE FOR GUIDANCE; WE COULD, BUT U.S. HISTORY SHOWS

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THAT ONLY AFRICAN AMERICANS & SOME LATINO COMMUNITIES HAVE HAD SUCH A TRADITION. [Excerpts drawn from essay by Kevin P Roche] In the middle of the last century a great emphasis began to be place on “personal” salvation, and on having a “personal relationship with Jesus.” …. there is something insidious about the word “personal”. It separates us from the corporate, or group. Jesus subtly transforms from the Jesus of the Bible into “My Jesus”. An individualistic approach to spirituality undoubtedly has a certain appeal, especially to Anglo & highly-assimilated Americans. The United States was built on the principles of independence, personal rights and on the "rugged individualism" of the pioneers and gold prospectors, so Americans tend to have a very independent streak. As a consequence, many modern forms of religion in America, from Evangelical Protestantism to the "New Age movement", have strong individualist tendencies. Evangelicalism is based “on belief in Jesus as ones personal Savior,” and in personal interpretation of Scripture. Unfortunately, this overemphasis on the "personal" aspect of faith leads some adherents to a "Just-Jesus-and me" spirituality out of touch with the teachings of Scripture and the spirit of Christianity. The “New Age Movement” is even more radically individualistic. … But a private, "do-it-yourself" spirituality without organized religion has many drawbacks. It tends toward “self-centeredness.” Also, like many other individualistic elements of modern Western society, it ultimately leads to a sense of loneliness and isolation.
See http://churchofgodindiana.com/institutionalchurch.pdf

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AWASH IN THE IDEOLOGICAL WATERS OF “INDIVIDUALISM” (Stanton-Salazar) The prevailing social character of upper- and middle-class Euro-America has been profoundly shaped by the ideology of individualism, which can be understood as a psychodynamic world view which interprets people's life condition, social status, and material wealth not as a consequence of --macro social structural processes--, but as a consequence of individual natural talents, choices and actions. The rise of individualism as an ideology appears to be historically rooted across different societies in their respective capitalist industrial development and modernization. Industrial capitalism liberated some and dismembered others from communal social networks and traditional mores, imposing new and nontraditional values and practices while extending to some individuals the possibilities for considerable control over their life chances. The individual was now expected to chart his own path, to take risks, to be geographically mobile, to be motivated by self-interest and the potential for individual gain. Principal responsibility for both achievements and failures was now attributed to the individual, not to society. In modern capitalist Western societies, the controversy around individualism can be understood as a struggle to assert and institutionalize values, beliefs, personality dispositions and behavioral practices, rooted in the Anglo Protestant heritage and in modern capitalism (Weber, 1958)—basically, on what over "what constitutes the highest forms of human functioning." The corresponding moral view is one that views competition and the pursuit of self-interest as a natural and superior means by which people are motivated to attain their highest level of human functioning. Egoistic motivation is viewed as not only natural, but also good, ultimately because it serves the good of everyone; in other words, the best society (or the best school system) is one where everyone profits from the combined effect of all individuals pursing “their private interest” (their own “self-centeredness”). When institutions are built upon the moral foundations of egoistic individualism, other motivational styles found in nonWestern cultures either never gain due consideration or are viewed as exotic and inferior. RESPONSIBILITY for the COLLECTIVE, or for one’s fellow man[woman] is obscured.

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 A principal tenet of the individualist tradition is the centrality of individual choice and

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personal responsibility, which casts success in living (and failure) as a function of the choices an individual makes.
Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (1997). A social capital framework for understanding the socialization of racial minority children and youth. Harvard Educational Review, 67(1), 1-40.

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