Annexure-I Approach to Twelfth Five Year Plan A.
Goal: Faster, Sustainable and More Inclusive Growth Faster - 9 to 10 percent GDP Growth, Sustainable – sustainable use of natural resources More Inclusive – social justice and alleviation of poverty B. Macro-Framework: • • • Macro Strategy: sustaining high growth, savings and investment, price stability, current account and fiscal balance. Financing the Plan: Gross Budgetary Support, Central and State Plans, Sectoral Outlays. Financing Infrastructure: incl. budgetary partnerships and debt market instruments. support, public-private
C. The People: (Development for, of and by the people) • • • • Education: Right to Education, vocational alternative to formal schooling at the secondary level, Higher Education Reform. Health: National Health Mission, Regulation of Medical Practice, Medical Education, Nutrition and Indigenous Systems of Medicine. Faster expansion and dispersal of income generating opportunities (more jobs, more enterprises) in industry and services Skill Development: including state action to match demand and supply of skills, and shifting of under-employed from agriculture to industry and services. Social Justice: Empowering the Excluded Scheduled Castes, Tribals and their rights (forest, land alienation), Other Backward Classes, Minorities, Differently-abled persons, Women (Gender related issues), Child rights.
D. The Planet: removing constraints on growth through sustainable use of resources. • • • • • Climate Change: including National Action Plan for Climate Change Water: Holistic Water Management including Ganga Action Plan, limited inter-linking of rivers and National Water Mission Forests: including Green India Mission and protection of wildlife habitats Energy: Power, Coal, Oil and Gas, Renewables including Integrated Energy Policy Transport: including Integrated Transport Policy 3
logistics of food from farm to kitchen. Innovation and Science: Research in Scientific Departments. Capacity Building and Public Service Delivery.
E. Special Area Plans. Agriculture: including value added agriculture . Agriculture and allied activities cutting across primary and secondary sectors. Incentivising Private Sector Research. Targeted Poverty Reduction.Tackling problems of Change. Development of North-East. The alternative is to have a section on land-use planning in each relevant chapter. Convergence in delivery of public services. small and medium enterprises. New Manufacturing Policy. National e-Governance Plan.•
Land Use: is a cross-cutting theme though strategy space is less common. urban infrastructure. drinking water and sanitation. Research in Universities and Academic Institutions. Multiplicity of Centrally Sponsored Schemes. Making it Happen: • Good Governance: Institutional Architecture.dismantling defunct/outdated programmes and institutions.
. Financial Inclusion. land use planning and integrated slum improvement. Industry and Services: employment generation. Backward Region Grant Fund.Impact Factor and Patents. Avoidance of Waste . Leadership at all levels . Water and sanitation. Managing Urbanization: including urban waste management. Quality Issues . Rural Transformation: Rural Infrastructure. Redressing Inequality: Left-wing Extremism. Fund Release and Monitoring. Financial Sector Reforms. strategic depth. Food Security and Public distribution.
alternative outcomes of the interplay of these forces. and perhaps for the Plan too. Architecture • Describe the ‘big picture’—the forces shaping India and the world. which describe plausible. as the framework for the Approach to the Twelfth Plan. Philosophies underlying the approach 3. Planet. Some forces/themes suggested (should be validated by the ‘scenario thinking process’) • Demographics: its changing shape and content. not just the numbers • Opportunities for young women • Neglected regions of the country • Urbanization • Climate change—in Indian context • Water 5
. in the workshop on 19th June wherein Members of IPC listened to a diverse group of external thought leaders. The issue of ‘Implementation’. rather than ‘sectors’ • “The topics in the draft framework presented at the workshop sound like ‘text-book topics’. Governance/Implementation. rather than an office-block with walls and compartments. People. These are summarized under five headings: 1. They are the ‘same’ and they are ‘fine’”. not numerical predictions • Locate key themes in these scenarios • Organize chapters around these ‘key themes’. which is like a geodesic dome. Specific topics to be addressed in the Plan 5.Annexure-II INSIGHTS FROM CONSULTATIONS ON 19TH JUNE 2010 REGARDING APPROACH TO THE TWELFTH PLAN The purpose of this note is to abstract from the many suggestions made regarding the approach to planning and some important topics to be addressed in the Twelfth Plan. Architecture of the plan and approach to it 2. is a good way to map the space to be covered in the approach Editorial comment: We need an architecture. which should be a (or the) principal subject to be addressed 4. with open space and themes going across it. and the implications of these • Create ‘scenarios’. Should go beneath them to find the more fundamental issues of why sufficient change is not happening in these areas • Our major challenges are inter-disciplinary: locate and describe these inter-disciplinary challenges • Plan should ‘educate’ policy-makers and the country • Money. The process of developing the approach to the Approach (and then the Plan) 1.
how they are made • Need innovations in policies • Laws are there: it is their application that must be monitored • A more ‘horizontal’ and less ‘vertical’ approach to implementation • Silos. entrepreneurship. Implementation • “I am seeing ‘sections’ and ‘words’ (in plans) and not the ‘how’” • An ‘enabling’ versus an ‘interventionist’ approach to implementation • ‘Direct’ schemes only where there is a market failure • Systemic improvements by looking at patterns across schemes • Inter-disciplinary challenges. Execution’ seem to be three strong themes coming out of the 19th June workshop according to a participant 2. delivery systems that are ‘clogged pipes’ into which we thrust (and waste) more resources in the expectation that it will flow through • Need more integrated approaches focused on the needs of persons • ‘Nodes’ to put things together for people on the ground • The way the schemes are administered versus giving more money • Attention to systems. and implications at different levels of the federal structure • Policies that are at logger heads with each other • Problem is how policies are framed. We should consult with them and use their force to make change happen • Put young women. and young adolescent girls at the center of the approach to change • What is our strategy for creating more opportunities for young people—jobs. Jobs. and incentive-compatible strategies • Focus more on how resources are deployed—they are being treated as ‘freebies’ in the political system • The role of competition in improving delivery of healthcare and education 6
. urbanization more inclusive? • An ‘interventionist’ strategy versus an ‘enabling’ strategy for inclusion and development • ‘Women’ should not be just a topic to be addressed. Philosophy—underlying concepts and theories • ‘Social capital’—composed of ‘equity’ (not merely ‘inclusion’) and ‘harmony’ • Inclusion is not achieved by redistribution: how can we make infrastructure more inclusive. but women should permeate through the approach as a means for achieving inclusion and development • Young people are not the problem: they are the solution.‘Gender. but where there is no voice how can we know what the demand is’—neglected regions and communities • What are ‘public goods’ and ‘private goods’—use this definition as a framework for planning 3. it may be different to the Chinese ‘factory’ strategy • ‘We say there is no dirth of ‘demand’ in the country. finance more inclusive.
g. not just in departments of science • Corporate governance must be included as an important topic • Urbanization must focus on small towns and in-situ urbanization • Urban planning to focus on needs of the poor • Focus on India-specific aspects of climate change e. policy issues related to these Inclusion and Implementation are inter-linked Links between corporate activities and people’s livelihoods What is coming in the way of effective ‘private’ engagement with development? Government should identify and support good initiatives. and what would be generic solutions. include the needs of the increasing number of aged people • Land use strategy must be addressed • Sanitation is an important topic in itself. Process of developing the approach • Use techniques of ‘scenario planning’.•
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Role of ‘civil society organizations’ (not only NGOs). 7
. to get the feminine perspective which must become a key force • Listen to the ‘experienced’ not just to ‘experts’ • Use technology to facilitate the consultation process and increase its reach • Examine examples of the generic ‘bottle-necks’ in implementation— what can be learned. and women generally. member-based organizations—cooperatives. rather than starting new ones of its own Reviews of programs should involve civil society organizations along with ‘specialists’
4. unions. to get out of silos • Consultation groups should have diversity in them (like the group on June 19th) • ‘Decentralize’ consultation process—go to small towns • Regional consultations should be organized • Engage with groups of college students in the consultations—to get the youth perspective • Engage with groups of young women. Some observations regarding inclusion and treatment of Topics • Science throughout society. use the ‘social capital’ of these organizations. etc that enable direct participation of people. linked to others such as health and water • Integrated energy policy to be highlighted • Need an ‘Intelligent Industrial Policy’ • Focus attention on the ‘ungoverned’ parts of India • ‘Disaster management’ should be included as an important topic 5. engage people who use this technique • Consultations should be more around cross-cutting ‘themes’ and less around ‘sectors’ • Cross-cutting teams should work on these issues. pattern of monsoons • In demographics.