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As this commerce became popular, many companies have formulated chicken feeds that are sold for 30-40 Pesos per kilo. In the developing countries, the demand for white meat keeps on increasing .The requirements for animal proteins are related to the demographic growth. To satisfy this request, many farmers launched out in intensive poultry farming. Previous researches have been made with the use of natural and/or organic components and results showed that there is no significant difference between the weight of the chickens feed with the experimental feed and with the weight of the chickens fed with a commercial feed. In this connection, the researchers would test if the components of the 5-in-1 natural chicken feed which are Ipil-Ipil, Sorghum, Copra, Duckweed and Chicken Feathers can produce an effective feed for broiler chickens and can give a growth and weight rate which can be comparable to some commercial feeds sold at the market.
B. Statement of the Problem This research study aims to produce a natural and alternative chicken feed made from natural ingredients such as Ipil-Ipil, Sorghum, Copra, Duckweed and Chicken Feathers Purposely, the researchers aim to answer the following questions.
Copra. Significance of the Study This research study intends to use Ipil-Ipil.1. Duckweed and Chicken Feathers can produce an effective feed for broiler chickens. Copra. 2 . seek to find out whether the combination of natural ingredients such as Ipil-Ipil. Statement of the Hypothesis 1. Sorghum. the researchers. Also. we aim to find out whether this 5-in-1 natural chicken feed can give a growth and weight rate which can be comparable to some commercial feeds sold at the market. Is the average weight of the Chickens fed with the 5-in-1 chicken feed comparable with the average weight of the Chickens fed with the Commercial Feed? 2. The average weight of the Chickens fed with the 5-in-1 chicken feed is comparable with the average weight of the Chickens fed with the Commercial Feed. D. Sorghum. There is no significant difference between the average weightof the Chickens feed with the 5-in-1 Chicken feed and Commercial feed. Duckweed and Chicken Feathers in producing a chicken feed with the usage of natural ingredients. we. 2. Through this study. Is there a significant difference between the average weight of the Chickens feed with the 5-in-1 Chicken feed and Commercial feed? C.
3 . Sorghum. Copra. Copra. Set up A will be composed of Ipil-Ipil. With raisers feeding their chickens with this natural feed. it biodegradability. and its expiration. the chicken will have a lesser intake of chemicals which was due to the feeds’ process of production. Scope and Limitations This study is only limited with the production of the 5-in-1 natural chicken feed out of Ipil-Ipil. Duckweed and Chicken Feathers. E. Also.This study is a big help to poultry raisers. also with our economy. since making this feed is really cheap since the ingredients that will be used is abundant in nature and some. The independent variable of the study is the 5-in-1 Natural Chicken feed while the dependent variables are the chickens under study for 38 days. since the feed is natural. it is a good source of nutrients and minerals that will be of great help to raisers and to the chicken. Duckweed and Chicken Feathers while Set up B will serve as the control of the study. Sorghum. can be recycled. It is also limited only with the feeds’ quality.
heat is supplied by conduction or radiation (or microwaves) while the vapor thus produced is removed by thevacuum system. especially farm animals such as meat. pigs and poultry.the large first chamber of a ruminant animal's stomach in which microorganisms break down plant cellulose before the food is returned to the mouth as cud for additional chewing Vacuum drying . dairy cattle. geese or chickens Rumen . Poultry – domestic fowl in general like turkeys. Definition of Terms Broiler chickens – a young tender chicken which is suitable for roasting Fodder – an animal food like hay or straw Livestock – animals raised for food or other products. 4 . ducks. or kept use.F.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Broilers are chickens raised specifically for meat production. Broilers often reach a harvest weight of 4-5 pounds dressed in only five weeks. They are noted for having very fast growth rates. efficient meat production and grow much faster than egg laying hens or traditional dual purpose breeds. he said that the important part of raising chickens is feeding . MacarioAcejasJr. Modern commercial broilers. Broiler chickens are bred to be very large to produce the most meat per animal. In an interview with Mr. they may become lame or suffer from broken legs.Poultry have a 5 . for example.Therefore. It appears that dried duckweed could be used very effectively with scavenging poultry. Access to clean water must be given to the Chickens. as developed by Joel Salatin and promoted by the American Pastured Poultry Producers Association.feeding makes up the major cost of production and good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. a high feed conversion ratio.Broilers are sometimes reared on a grass range using a method called pastured poultry. Cornish crosses or Cornish-Rocks. and low levels of activity. Broiler chickens may develop several health or welfare issues as a result of selective breeding. The added weight also puts a strain on their hearts and lungs. Duckweed Major research efforts are needed to find ways by which duckweed can increase egg and meat production from non-conventional diets as used by small farmers at the village level. particularly where grain is fed as a separate meal. are specially bred for large scale.
” 2010)Protein quality is the second characteristic on interest when evaluating a protein source for animal feed. Coconut oil extracted from it has made copra an important agricultural commodity for many coconut-producing countries. 2001). (“Duckweed as Chicken Feed. or by scavenging. Copra is obtained from the kernel of coconut fruit. with 25% being optimal ----. According to Swick (2000). The use of both energy supplements (e.well-developed ability to select a balanced diet from individual resources made available to them. It also yields coconut cake which is mainly used as feed for livestock.Duckweed contains 30% to 50% protein and can make up to 40% of a chicken’s diet. These problems 6 . which have been sundried or dried using drying machines. the major producing countries are the Philippines and Indonesia. spoilt grains) and duckweed made available as separate components on poultry production needs considerable research (Mastika& Cumming. Protein quality or biologicalvalue is a reflection of how closely the amino acid balance of totalprotein matches that needed by the animal. heat damageand high dietary fiber. Copra Copra is the dried meat.g. which account for about two-thirds of the world’s total production of 2. or kernel. plant proteins have lower biological value relative to those derived from animal sources. 1985). Typically. of the coconut.that means we’ll be paying 25% to 40% less for chicken feed.0 million metric tons in 1997. Copra meal is often used as a protein source in the diets of fish (Kim et al. Copra meal hasbeen reported to be qualitatively poor due to lowconcentrations of several limiting amino acids.
Nigeria. and Central America. is the fifth major cereal crop in the world after wheat. sorghum is grown on 9. Sudan and Argentina.Nutritionally.particularly amino acids. (2006). rice.7% lipid (Sundu and Dingle. which emerge initially from the base and later from the stem nodes.haveattempted to be addressed by either carefullyformulating a diet to meet poultry requirements. et al. or by theinclusion of enzymes. The amino acid profile of the sorghums compared well to corn.26% versus corn at 7 . Kriegshauser. At Kansas State University. An annual grass that varies between 0. maize and barley. but sometimes recurved to form a goose neck.In 2004. 21% protein and 5. Australia.2M hectares. The flower is a panicle.5 % lysine.0 meters in height. copra dry matter contains 48% carbohydrate. India. They obtained satisfactory growth of broilers by 25%copra meal diet with 0. while the energy or fat content of sorghum was slightly lower than that of corn.5 and 5. It is also grown in the United States. Research indicates new varieties of grain sorghum compare favorably to corn for most nutrient values. China. Mexico. and other developed nations for animal feed. usually erect. sorghum produces one or several tillers. This represents 21% of the world's sorghum area. Asia. Oceania. compared the proximate analysis of several varieties of sorghum to corn and found that sorghum had higher values of protein as expected. global sorghum production stood at 58 million tons. and the Americas. South Asia. Major producers are the USA. although the average lysine content of sorghum tested to be . 2003) Sorghum Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is an important staple food crop in Africa. 5% lignin. It is grown on 44 million ha in 99 countries in Africa.In India.
81%). which can be used to treat fevers in poultry just as it is for humans. a number of other chemicals were also detected including acetaminophen (Tylenol). It is also known that some antibiotic residues persisted on chicken feathers. et al. just as other farm animals do. diphenhydramine (the active ingredient in Benadryl). However. Similar work using ideal digestibility tests with broilers found that the digestibility of crude protein was higher for sorghum compared to corn (99 vs. the amino acid lysine and methionine were slightly more digestible in the corn samples. Chicken Feathers Chickens receive antibiotics in their food and water supplies. Digestibility of individual amino acids for corn and sorghum were similar for most essential amino acids. Crude protein digestibility of sorghum versus corn in all three classes of birds was similar between the grain sources. There are few digestibility studies comparing modern grain sorghum varieties side by side to other cereal grains. (2006) conducted a unique study to compare the apparent ideal digestibility of sorghum to corn using broilers. This work indicates that although protein content and digestibility may have improved recently. For broiler chicks.. (2003) demonstrated that grinding sorghum to 500 to 700 m did improve gain. layers. and mature leghorn roosters.30%. Nachman (2005) found that besides antibiotic residues. Other work has concluded that grinding sorghum to small particle size improves utilization. Healy. some of the amino acids still differ in digestibility. Huang. The results of this work indicate that the nutritional value of sorghum is similar to corn in many nutrient values. et al. The varieties of sorghum with improved nutrient composition also tested similar to corn for the value in a broiler chick assay. 8 .
Another study by Ochetim (1993) on the experiment of The Effects of Partial replacement of soyabean meal with boiled feather meal on the performance of broiler chickens showed that up to 3% of water-boiled feather meal. spleen. body feather and fluffs. but does not significantly affect the weight of main tail feathers. In a study of the effects of Feather Meal Feeding on the Body Weight and Feather Development of Broilers by Guichard (2008) resulted that feather meal has a positive aspect on the weight of flight feather. Any kind of health significance to these (either to people or to the animals who are ingesting these via feather meal) is uncertain. Agiang and Eneji (2006) concluded that broiler offal and broiler hydrolyzed feather meals complemented each other as alternative feed ingredients in broiler nutrition using simple low-cost processing technologies. the equivalent of 6% level of use of soyabean meal in the diet.which apparently is used for anxiety issues in poultry. Ipil-ipil Leucaenaleucocephala is a species of small Mimosoid tree that is native to southern Mexico and northern Central America (Belize andGuatemala) but now naturalized throughout the tropics. heart kidney and gizzard were not significantly influenced by the combined effect if the by-products. which represents 12% dietary protein. and norgestimate. 9 . The liver. Common names include White Leadtree. Jumbay. In a previous study of Isika. a sex hormone. can be successfully included as a protein source in the diets of broiler chickens.
Different classes of poultry differ in their ability to digest and absorb various nutrients.20 0. Cambodia.” 2010) Ingredient Crude protein (%) 13.02 0. while the other factors will affect the intrinsic nutrient value of the ingredient. most importantly as a source of quality animal feed. It is known as Subabool in India. Commercially Sold Chicken Feed The nutrient value of feed ingredients for poultry will vary depending on the species. Laos and Thailand).0 11.0 48. but also for residual use for firewood or charcoal production.20 0.05 0.2 1.37 0.0 9.5 0.Nutrient Composition of Feed Ingredients 10 .75 Lysine (%) Wheat Sorghum Barley Poultry byproduct meal Soybean meal Feather meal 0. such as firewood.The legume provides an excellent source of high protein cattle fodder. fiber and livestock fodder.20 0.10 3. processing and storage conditions and the class of poultry being fed.50 0. (“Feed Ingredients. variety or cultivar.0 85. The legume is promoted in several countries of South-East Asia (at least Burma.7 Table 1. L.5 60. the season.4 3.20 2.0 Metabolisable energy (kcal/kg) 3153 3263 2795 2950 2557 3016 Calcium (%) Available phosphorous (%) 0.10 0.4 3.3 0. leucocephala is used for a variety of purposes.15 0. the source location.and White Popinac.
Research Design The research design of the study will be a Complete Randomized Design or CRD. Philippines. Copra. age. C. B. Sorghum. Research Locale This research study will be conducted at Samaco’s Residence in Lower Cabatangan. There will be 2 Set-ups that will be compared in this study. gender and breed. The dependent variables in the study are the Chickens and the independent variable is the 5-in-1 natural chicken feed. Zamboanga City. The copra will be brought from the market while the duckweeds will be collected from nearby 11 . Setup 2 is the commercialized Chicken feed and will serve as the control of the study. The Chicken feathers will be gathered from a known business setting for Chickens. General Procedure Gathering of the materials Twenty week-old Chickens will be purchased in one of the known business establishments for Chickens in Zamboanga city.The Ipil-Ipil legumes will be collected at Barangay Cabatangan while the Sorghum will be collected at a nearby farm at Barangay San Roque. Setup 1 will be composed ofIpil-Ipil.METHODOLOGY A. Duckweed and Chicken Feathers. The chickens will be of the same weight.
87 12 . the researchers will do the procedure all again. the components will be grinded. They will be washed with tap water to eliminate any trace of the chemical.ponds. Feathers will be boiled in 4% sodium sulfide and alcohol (70°). The excess of chemical will be removed by washing with tap water.In the case that the alternative Chicken feed won’t be enough for the chickens. plywood. one thousand grams of Ipil-Ipil legumes and two thousand fifty grams of sorghum will be collected. pounded and will be mixed in the blender. The enclosure will be made from bamboo. and chicken wire. Production of the Chicken feed 5 kilograms of Alternative Chicken feed will be made. Feathers once collected will be sorted out and soaked in a solution of 2% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min to get rid of any impurity. Construction of the Cage The Chickens will be housed in a properly roofed cage. seven hundred fifty grams of copra. with respect to the procedure given. This powder was incorporated as a supplement in the feeding formulation. Two hundred fifty grams of Duckweed. After sun drying. The dimension of the cage will be 1. The latter will be washed lightly and will be sundried for 2-3 hours to remove excess water. Feathers are vacuum dried at 85°C for 48 hours and grinded to fine powder. In the duration of the experiment. The dissolved feathers will be then filtered to isolate the rest of the feathers. a 50 watt bulb will be used as light and heat source for the Chickens.
the researchers will be using One-way ANOVA or one-way analysis of variance as the statistical tool. approximately 50 grams of the 4-in1 natural feed and commercial feed at 6:30am.x 2. Equal area of the cage will be given to both of the setups. Access to clean water will be given to the chickens provided with Vetracin gold. These will be done for repetition within the duration of 38 days. The Chickens will be fed with the same amount of feeds. Setup 2 will be fed with the commercialized Chicken feed.4 x 1. Setup 1 will be fed with the 5-in-1 Alternative Chicken feed. an antibacterial-multivitamins. 12:30pm and 6:30pm. Enough room will be provided to ensure proper ventilation. Feeding of the Chickens The two groups of chickens with approximately the same weight and age will be subjected to two dietary treatments.6 meters. 13 . Statistical Tool In this study.
Print the Research Paper 2. Determine Material 2. Reporting Stage 1. Analysis Stage 1. Present Finding at Conference Subtotal= Total 1 2 1 4 53 days 2 1 3 2 38 42 Time Frame (In Days) 1 3 4 14 . Planning Stage 1. Practice for Oral-Defense 3. Collection of Data Subtotal= B. Encode/Rewrite Research Subtotal= D. Analyze Data 2. Preparing the set-ups 2. Implementation Stage 1.APPENDICES SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES Activities A. Testing the set-ups Subtotal= C.
00 15 .00 Php 140.00 Php 442.00 Php 4918. Maintenance and Operating Expenses Chicken cagePhp2700.PROPOSED BUDGET ITEMS A.00 Php 86.00 Php350.00 Food container Water container Php 100.00 COSTS (Php) B. Related Costs Laborer Broiler Chickens (10 pieces) Commercial Feed (17 kilos) Vetracin Gold (7 pieces) Safety Gloves Total Php1000.00 Php 100.
pdf Reid. and Braun M. A. Muztar.A. Research Papers Guichard. Effect of Feather Meal Feeding on the Body Weight and Feather Development of Broilers.. Agiang.J. Retrieved from http://www.. B.W. M.Complementary Effect of Processed Broiler Offal and Feather Meals on Nutrient Rentention. G. Integrated Pest Management Extension Guide 2.H. Poultry. Series editors: Cudjoe A. North Carolina State University.eurojournals.org/ijps/fin661. (2006). 1995.pjbs. 2008. Carcass and Organ Mass of Broiler Chickens.com/ejsr_24_3_11. Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www. and Eneji E. Burton. Exploring Duckweed (Lemnagibba) as a protein supplement for remnants using the Boer goat (Capra hircus) as a model. Raleigh..H. 1979 Youdeowei. GTZ and CTA. 16 .C.A. Slinger S.EuroJournals Publishing. Sci. J.A.. Masters of Science Thesis.pdf Isika. USA. (2002): Integrated pest management practices for the production of cereals and pulses. (2008).BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Damerow. Metabolizable Energy Content of Freshwater Plants in Chicken and Ducks.J. A. A Guide to Raising Chickens. N. 2003.S.Storey Books. Inc. E. ISBN 0882668978.
Cambodia. 17 .Jesuit Service Cambodia. Duckweed versus ground soybeans as supplement for scavenging native chickens in an integrated farming system. H. 1999.Samnang. Phnom Penh.Volume 11. Number 1.
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