You are on page 1of 77

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF AN AUTOMATED BOLLARD SYSTEM


BY

Adegboro Kolawole Samuel Aihie Osayanrhion Arutere Oghenevwoke Abraham Ememerurai Uzuazo Nita Idogho Ohwobete Ichiako Unokhogie Emmanuel Egwakhide Uruemuesiri Aruwa Omoriawo Augusta Renny

ENG0601413 ENG0603483 ENG0402482 ENG0601348 ENG0409413 ENG0409432 ENG0601331 ENG0409276

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF BENIN BENIN CITY

IN PARTIAL FUFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF A BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (B.Eng.) AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY

NOVEMBER 2011

Page | i

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that the project Design and Fabrication of an Automated Barrier System (Rising Arm Mechanism) was carried out by the following students: Adegboro Kolawole Samuel Aihie Osayanrhion Arutere Oghenevwoke Abraham Ememerurai Uzuazo Nita Idogho Ohwobete Ichiako Unokhogie Emmanuel Egwakhide Uruemuesiri Aruwa Omoriawo Augusta Renny ENG 0601413 ENG 0603483 ENG 0402482 ENG 0601348 ENG 0409413 ENG 0409432 ENG 0601331 ENG 0409276

In partial fulfilment for the award of a Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.) at the University of Benin, Benin City.

__________________ P. O. OLAGBEGI PROJECT SUPERVISOR Date: ____________

______________________ DR. D. I. IGBINOMWANHIA PROJECT CO-ORDINATOR Date: ____________

_____________________
DR. D. I. IGBINOMWANHIA HEAD OF DEPARTMENT Date: __________________

Page | ii

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

DEDICATION
This project is dedicated to the Almighty God and to all our friends and families too numerous to mention who stood by us throughout our stay on campus.

Page | iii

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We acknowledge the entire staff of the Department of Mechanical engineering and our Project Supervisor without whose support this then proposed project would never have become a reality.

Page | iv

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATION.............................................................................................................................. ii DEDICATION ................................................................................................................................. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................................................. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................... v LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................................... vii ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1 .................................................................................................................................... 1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY ............................................................................................... 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT ................................................................................................... 2 AIM ................................................................................................................................. 3 OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................... 3

CHAPTER 2 .................................................................................................................................... 4 2.0 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................... 4 THE RAISING ARM BARRIER ........................................................................................... 4

2.1.1 BRIEF HISTORY .............................................................................................................. 5 2.1.2 PRESENT DAY APPLICATIONS ....................................................................................... 8 2.2 THE CONTROL SYSTEM................................................................................................... 9 SENSORS ................................................................................................................. 9 RELAY SWITCHES .................................................................................................. 17

2.2.1 2.2.2

CHAPTER 3 .................................................................................................................................. 30 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ...................................................................................................... 30 CONCEPT 1 HYDRAULIC JACK .................................................................................... 30 CONCEPT 2 BELT AND PULLEY SYSTEM ..................................................................... 32 CONCEPT 3 SCREW JACK ........................................................................................... 34
Page | v

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

3.4

MODE OF OPERATION ................................................................................................. 36 Mechanism ........................................................................................................... 36 Control .................................................................................................................. 37

3.4.1 3.4.2

CHAPTER 4 .................................................................................................................................. 38 4.0 4.1 DETAILED DESIGN ............................................................................................................ 38 COMPONENTS OF THE AUTOMATED BARRIER SYSTEM .............................................. 38 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS (Mechanism) ......................................................... 38 ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS................................................................................... 43

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

THE RAISING ARM (CROSSBAR) ................................................................................... 47 ELBOW JOINT ............................................................................................................... 51 SHAFT ........................................................................................................................... 52 BEARING ....................................................................................................................... 53 CRANK .......................................................................................................................... 54 SCREW JACK ................................................................................................................. 54 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN ........................................................................................... 60 The Control Design Process .................................................................................. 60 The Flow Diagram ................................................................................................. 62 Control Diagram.................................................................................................... 62 Circuit Diagram ..................................................................................................... 63

4.8.1 4.8.2 4.8.3 4.8.4

CHAPTER 5 .................................................................................................................................. 64 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 64 RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................................. 65 FURTHER WORK ........................................................................................................... 65 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................... 65

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 67

Page | vi

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 - A 2 x 5m automatic barriers c/w 4m underskirts & pogo stick end supports ............................................................................................................... 4 Figure 2 - Mooring barriers were the first type of barrier; the term has since expanded usage ................................................................................................... 6 Figure 3 - A section from the WWII road barrier erected at Achtercairn, Gairloch Rob Scott, and Gairloch Heritage Museum....................................................... 6 Figure 4 Latching relay with permanent magnet ............................................. 20 Figure 5 - Solid state relay with no moving parts ................................................ 23 Figure 6 - 25A or 40A solid state contactors ....................................................... 24 Figure 7 Modified Hydraulic Jack ..................................................................... 31 Figure 8 - The Belt and Pulley System ................................................................. 33 Figure 9 - The Screw Jack.................................................................................... 35 Figure 10 - 3D Model of the Project .................................................................... 36 Figure 11 - Layout of the Automated Barrier System .......................................... 38 Figure 12 The Crank ......................................................................................... 39 Figure 13 The Bearing Casing .......................................................................... 40 Figure 14 The Screw Jack ................................................................................. 41 Figure 15 The Shaft (Crankshaft) ..................................................................... 42 Figure 16 The Crossbar (Barrier Arm) .............................................................. 42

Page | vii

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Figure 17 The Elbow Joint ................................................................................ 43 Figure 18 Schematic of a Step-down Transformer ........................................... 43 Figure 19 - Schematic of a Rectifier .................................................................... 44 Figure 20 Relay Circuit ..................................................................................... 45 Figure 21 Proximity Card Reader with Access Card .......................................... 46 Figure 22 - The Crossbar ..................................................................................... 47 Figure 24 - The Shaft Layout ............................................................................... 53 Figure 25 - Steps in Design of a Control System .................................................. 61 Figure 26 - The Flow Diagram ............................................................................ 62 Figure 27 - The Systems' Block Diagram ............................................................. 62 Figure 28 - Circuit Diagram of the Control System .............................................. 63

Page | viii

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

ABSTRACT
This project is the design and installation of an automated bollard system to solve the problem of vehicle access to a certain route. The route in focus in this case is the Engineering Access Road. Formerly this road was completely blocked off and this prevented staff from plying the route to and from their offices. Different methods were explored such as: the use of retractable bollards, an operator controlled bollard. We settled on using a rising arm bollard with automatic control. Of the different mechanisms that exist to operate the raising arm mechanism, we chose the use of a screw jack which when compared to other mechanisms; like the use of a hydraulic jack or a belt and pulley system was simpler and yet still effective, more compact and involved the use of easily procurable components. An automated bollard system was designed and installed on the Engineering access road, which comprised the raising mechanism with relays, sensors and card readers used to control the system as well as speed bumps and road signs used to inform the road user of the barrier ahead.

Page | ix

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

CHAPTER 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION


Bollards originally referred to short vertical posts used on a quay for mooring. Now it describes a variety of structures to control or direct road traffic, such as posts arranged in a line to obstruct the passage of motor vehicles. In addition, barriers are used in the lighting industry to describe short, post-like light fixtures. The bollard referred to in this context, is a barrier used for guiding traffic.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY


Although we live in a civilized world, it has been a well-known fact that humans cannot always be counted on to instinctively act in accordance with rules or in ways beneficial to their fellow men. As such there is the need to control human behaviour. In this modern age, many different methods for controlling human behaviour in a vast number of scenarios have been employed. One of such scenarios is in the area of access to certain restricted areas. If such places are left open, without any form of control, anyone may access such areas. An extreme solution would be to completely block off this area, but this would also prevent authorized personnel from gaining access. Other methods such as STOP, NO ENTRY BEYOND HERE and AUTHORISED PERSONNEL ONLY signs
Page | 1

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

have been employed with varying degrees of success. One solution that showed an efficient level of control in the area of access by motor vehicle is the barrier system.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT


Vehicle movement through the Faculty of Engineering was restricted with a static barrier. This was because of disturbances caused by vehicles plying the route. And this blocked off every vehicle passing through Engineering including lecturers of the Faculty, especially those of Civil and Chemical Engineering from getting to their various offices through the normal route and also lecturers going to staff school to pick their kids. The current barrier system employed throughout most of Nigeria and in the University of Benin in particular is the manually operated counter-weight type. And this type possesses a number of draw backs. For one, it relies on the use of manual labour, the operator must be present at all times and in all weather conditions for the system to function which is not practical or even humane not to mention the amount of strain suffered by the individual required to push down the counter-weight. Another problem lies in human sentiment, the operator has to a large extent autonomous control over who has access through his gate so he may decide to abandon his duty and allow unauthorised access to the area for his own selfish gain.

Page | 2

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

We propose an automated barrier system as a solution. This system would employ the use of proximity card readers, infrared motion sensors and a mechanized barrier as part of the automated barrier system. This system, void of human emotion and undeterred by rain or sunshine, would serve as a barrier to unauthorized vehicles and would at the same time allow only authorized personnel through. This automated barrier installation would serve the intent of the former barrier blocking off non-staff, and still allowing staff to easily drive to their offices and staff school through Faculty of Engineering without the added disadvantages of the barrier system currently employed on the campus.

1.3 AIM
The design, fabrication and full installation of an automated barrier system (rising arm mechanism) that would consist of a mechanized barrier, proximity card readers, infrared motion sensors and a backup power source.

1.4 OBJECTIVES
To design and install a mechanized barrier. To design and install a barrier control system. To devise a means to reduce the speed vehicles passing through the barrier and to ensure that each passing vehicle is accessed individually. To connect to a backup power supply.

Page | 3

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

CHAPTER 2
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
The automated barrier system is an automatically controlled road barrier system. It is designed to restrict unwanted traffic and discourage vehicle movement through the area
Figure 1 - A 2 x 5m automatic barriers c/w 4m underskirts & pogo stick end supports

as well as allow authorized personnel through without the involvement of an operator.

2.1 THE RAISING ARM BARRIER


The rising arm barrier is a road barrier designed to control traffic by the lifting and lowering of the arm. This type falls under non-crash-resistant barriers and are distinct from crash- and attack-resistant barriers that are hardened barrier systems used to protect military, government, and other compounds and buildings of higher security levels. Non-crash-resistant barriers are "perceived impediments to access" and address the actions of two groups: 1. Persons who are law-abiding and comply with implied civil prescriptions of behaviour as defined by the manner in which barriers are put to use; and

Page | 4

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

2. Others who are potentially threatening and disrupting for whom barrier applications are proscriptive by notifying intruders their behaviour is suspect and additional levels of security wait to identify them. It is used in locations where it is needed to restrict access to particular classes of traffic or just as a check point. When used with an operator, it may be used as a toll gate point. It comprises a raising arm, the lifting mechanism, the housing and road signs and symbols designed to inform the driver of the barrier ahead (Charles G. Oakes, 2011). 2.1.1 BRIEF HISTORY A barrier, a name inherited from the Norman-French name Boulard still often found in Normandy, is a short wooden, iron or stone post used on a quayside for mooring ships. Mooring barriers are seldom exactly cylindrical, but typically have a larger diameter near the top to discourage mooring warps (dock lines) from coming loose. Single barriers sometimes include a cross rod to allow the mooring to be bent into a figure eight. The word now also describes a variety of structures to control or direct road traffic, such as posts arranged in a line to obstruct the passage of motor vehicles (Wikipedia, 2010).

Page | 5

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Figure 2 - Mooring barriers were the first type of barrier; the term has since expanded usage

In addition, barriers are used in the lighting industry to describe short, post-like light fixtures. The term may be related to bole, meaning a tree trunk. Our interest is in the variety of structures to control or direct road traffic. Barriers, as functional street furniture, began with the Romans who constructed milestone markers, horse troughs, and tethering posts made of wood or stone. They later were used to protect pedestrians and buildings from horse-drawn vehicles (Charles G. Oakes, 2011).

Figure 3 - A section from the WWII road barrier erected at Achtercairn, Gairloch Rob Scott, and Gairloch Heritage Museum.

Barriers enjoy considerable variety as to their construction (cast iron, stainless steel, steel/cast iron composite, recycled plastic, plastic covers) and

Page | 6

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

functional

design

(fixed,

telescoping,

removable,

collapsible,

and

collapsible/concealable). Surpassing in variety the diverse construction and design functions of barriers are the many settings in which barriers are used (Charles G. Oakes, 2011). Traffic barriers constitute hazards themselves and should only be used when the obstacle poses a greater threat than the barrier itself. In all cases, roadside hazards must be assessed for the danger they pose to traveling motorists based on size, rigidity and distance from the edge of travel-way. For instance, small roadside signs and some large signs (ground-mounted breakaway post) often do not merit roadside protection as the barrier itself may pose a greater threat to general health and well-being of the public than the obstacle it intends to protect. In many regions of the world, the concept of clear-zone is taken into account when examining the distance of an obstacle or hazard from the edge of travel-way. Clear-zone also known as clear recovery area or horizontal clearance is defined as a lateral distance in which a motorist on a recoverable slope may travel outside of the travel-way and return their vehicle safely to the roadway. This distance is commonly determined as the 85th percentile in a study comparable to the method of determining speed limits on roadways through speed studies and varies based on the classification of a roadway. In order to

Page | 7

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

provide for adequate safety in roadside conditions, hazardous elements, whether they be obstacles or steep slopes can be placed outside of the clearzone in order to reduce or eliminate the need for roadside protection. When barrier is needed, careful calculations are completed to determine length of need which takes into account the aforementioned factors. Specifically, the traffic volumes and therefore, the classification of the roadway in addition to the distance of the hazard from the edge of travel-way and the distance or offset of the barrier to be placed or installed from the edge of travelway. It is the case in current times, that barrier or rail that is to be used in construction and maintenance operations has undergone extensive testing in both government and private research facilities in order to determine proper 'crash-worthiness' and effectiveness in conditions which are prescribed for its use. In particular, most roadside protection, whether it be a concrete barrier or rail, or a metal beam fence will perform properly only when placed in adequate proximity to the travel-way so as to prevent vehicle impacts at large (obtuse) angles. The method in which a barrier protects motorists from roadside hazards is in how it dissipates the energy of an impact (Department Of Infrastructure, Energy And Resources (USA), 2008). 2.1.2 PRESENT DAY APPLICATIONS Barriers are used extensively in our society for many varying applications. Uses include community services, diverse building types, parks, trails and
Page | 8

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

trailheads, traffic ways, and restricted roadways. In addition are other open spaces for which barriers are specified: Playgrounds, Sports Fields, Landscapes, Bus stops, Traffic Medians, Fire Lanes, Mall Entrances, Store Fronts, Pathways, Toll Booths, Site Perimeters, Building Setbacks, Utilities Islands, Utilities Shelters, Bicycle Lanes, Intersections, Highway Access Lanes, Building Shell Hardening, etc. (Wikipedia, 2011).

2.2 THE CONTROL SYSTEM


The automatic control system of the barrier comprises of the relay switches and the sensors (the proximity card reader and the infrared sensors). Together these components form the controlling system of the barrier. When a user places an access card in close proximity to the card reader, it reads it, verifies it and sends signal to the relay switches which in turn activate the barrier to open. The reverse occurs when the vehicle crosses the beams of the infra-red sensors. When the infra-red sensors detect the break in the infra-red beam, they then signal the relay switches which in turn activate the barrier to close. 2.2.1 SENSORS A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument (Wikipedia, 2011). For example, a mercury-in-glass thermometer converts the measured

Page | 9

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most sensors are calibrated against known standards. A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the measured quantity changes. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1cm when the temperature changes by 1C, the sensitivity is 1cm/C (it is basically the slope assuming a linear

characteristic). Sensors that measure very small changes must have very high sensitivities. Sensors also have an impact on what they measure; for instance, a room temperature thermometer inserted into a hot cup of liquid cools the liquid while the liquid heats the thermometer. Sensors need to be designed to have a small effect on what is measured; making the sensor smaller often improves this and may introduce other advantages. Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as micro-sensors using MEMS technology. In most cases, a micro-sensor reaches a significantly higher speed and sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches. A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. A proximity sensor often emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal. The object being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor's target. Different proximity sensor targets demand different
Page | 10

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

sensors. For example, a capacitive or photoelectric sensor might be suitable for a plastic target; an inductive proximity sensor requires a metal target. The maximum distance that this sensor can detect is defined as the "nominal range". Some sensors have adjustments of the nominal range or means to report a graduated detection distance. Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between sensor and the sensed object. Proximity sensors are also used in machine vibration monitoring to measure the variation in distance between a shaft and its support bearing. This is common in large steam turbines, compressors, and motors that use sleevetype bearings. A proximity sensor adjusted to a very short range is often used as a touch switch. A proximity sensor is divided in two halves and if the two halves move away from each other, then a signal is activated. A. Brief History Long before man created sensors, sensors have existed in nature. All living organisms contain biological sensors with functions similar to those of the mechanical devices. Most of these are specialized cells that are sensitive to:
Page | 11

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Light, motion, temperature, magnetic fields, gravity, humidity, vibration, pressure, electrical fields, sound, and other physical aspects of the external environment Physical aspects of the internal environment, such as stretch, motion of the organism, and position of appendages (proprioception) Environmental molecules, including toxins, nutrients, and pheromones Estimation of biomolecules interaction and some kinetics parameters Internal metabolic milieu, such as glucose level, oxygen level, or osmolality Internal signal molecules, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and cytokines Differences between proteins of the organism itself and of the environment or alien creatures. Organisms use these specialized cells to perceive their environments and make decisions, instinctive or otherwise, on how to react (Wolfbeis, 2000). B. Present Day Uses Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics.
Page | 12

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

A proximity sensor can be used in windows, and when the window opens an alarm is activated. C. Classification of Measurement Errors A good sensor obeys the following rules: Is sensitive to the measured property Is insensitive to any other property likely to be encountered in its application Does not influence the measured property. Ideal sensors are designed to be linear or linear to some simple mathematical function of the measurement, typically logarithmic. The output signal of such a sensor is linearly proportional to the value or simple function of the measured property. The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio between output signal and measured property. For example, if a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage output, the sensitivity is a constant with the unit [V/K]; this sensor is linear because the ratio is constant at all points of measurement. D. Sensor deviations If the sensor is not ideal, several types of deviations can be observed: The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity error, but the sensor is still linear.

Page | 13

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually reach a minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits. The full scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property. If the output signal is not zero when the measured property is zero, the sensor has an offset or bias. This is defined as the output of the sensor at zero input. If the sensitivity is not constant over the range of the sensor, this is called nonlinearity. Usually this is defined by the amount the output differs from ideal behaviour over the full range of the sensor, often noted as a percentage of the full range. If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time, there is a dynamic error. Often, this behaviour is described with a Bode plot showing sensitivity error and phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input signal. If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined as drift (telecommunication). Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of sensor properties over a long period of time. Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time.

Page | 14

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Hysteresis is an error caused by when the measured property reverses direction, but there is some finite lag in time for the sensor to respond, creating a different offset error in one direction than in the other. If the sensor has a digital output, the output is essentially an approximation of the measured property. The approximation error is also called digitization error. If the signal is monitored digitally, limitation of the sampling frequency also can cause a dynamic error, or if the variable or added noise changes periodically at a frequency near a multiple of the sampling rate may induce aliasing errors. The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being measured. For example, most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their environment. All these deviations can be classified as systematic errors or random errors. Systematic errors can sometimes be compensated for by means of some kind of calibration strategy. Noise is a random error that can be reduced by signal processing, such as filtering, usually at the expense of the dynamic behaviour of the sensor. E. Sensor Resolution The resolution of a sensor is the smallest change it can detect in the quantity that it is measuring. Often in a digital display, the least significant digit
Page | 15

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

will fluctuate, indicating that changes of that magnitude are only just resolved. The resolution is related to the precision with which the measurement is made. For example, a scanning tunnelling probe (a fine tip near a surface collects an electron tunnelling current) can resolve atoms and molecules. F. Motion Sensor: Infra-Red Sensors There are many different ways to create a motion sensor. For example: It is common for stores to have a beam of light crossing the room near the door, and a photo-sensor on the other side of the room. When a customer breaks the beam, the photo-sensor detects the change in the amount of light and rings a bell. Many grocery stores have automatic door openers that use a very simple form of radar to detect when someone passes near the door. The box above the door sends out a burst of microwave radio energy and waits for the reflected energy to bounce back. When a person moves into the field of microwave energy, it changes the amount of reflected energy or the time it takes for the reflection to arrive, and the box opens the door. These devices use radar. The same thing can be done with ultrasonic sound waves, bouncing them off a target and waiting for the echo.

Page | 16

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

All of these are active sensors. They inject energy (light, microwaves or sound) into the environment in order to detect a change of some sort. The "motion sensing" feature on most lights (and security systems) is a passive system that detects infrared energy. These sensors are therefore known as PIR (passive infrared) detectors or pyro-electric sensors. In order to make a sensor that can detect say a human being, one needs to make the sensor sensitive to the temperature of a human body. Humans, having a skin temperature of about 93F, radiate infrared energy with a wavelength between 9 and 10 micrometres. 2.2.2 RELAY SWITCHES A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits
Page | 17

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays" (Wikipedia, 2011). A. Mechanism A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and one or more sets of contacts. The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts. It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay is closed, and the other set is open. Relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. A relay also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to the PCB. When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that attracts the armature and the consequent movement of the movable contact(s) either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay
Page | 18

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise; in a high voltage or current application it reduces arcing. When the coil is energized with direct current, a diode is often placed across the coil to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to semiconductor circuit components. Some automotive relays include a diode inside the relay case. Alternatively, a contact protection network consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series (snubber circuit) may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to be energized with alternating current (AC), a small copper "shading ring" can be crimped to the end of the solenoid, creating a small outof-phase current which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle. A solid-state relay uses a thyristor or other solid-state switching device, activated by the control signal, to switch the controlled load, instead of a

Page | 19

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

solenoid. An optocoupler (a light-emitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor) can be used to isolate control and controlled circuits. B. I. Types Latching Relay

Figure 4 Latching relay with permanent magnet

A latching relay has two relaxed states (bi-stable). These are also called "impulse", "keep", or "stay" relays. When the current is switched off, the relay remains in its last state. This is achieved with a solenoid operating a ratchet and cam mechanism, or by having two opposing coils with an over-centre spring or permanent magnet to hold the armature and contacts in position while the coil is relaxed, or with a remanent core. In the ratchet and cam example, the first pulse to the coil turns the relay on and the second pulse turns it off. In the two coil example, a pulse to one coil turns the relay on and a pulse to the opposite coil turns the relay off. This type of relay has the advantage that one coil consumes power only for an instant, while it is being switched, and the relay contacts retain this setting across a power outage. A remanent core latching relay requires a current pulse of opposite polarity to make it change state.
Page | 20

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

II.

Reed Relay A reed relay is a reed switch enclosed in a solenoid. The switch has a set

of contacts inside an evacuated or inert gas-filled glass tube which protects the contacts against atmospheric corrosion; the contacts are made of magnetic material that makes them move under the influence of the field of the enclosing solenoid. Reed relays can switch faster than larger relays, require only little power from the control circuit, but have low switching current and voltage ratings. In addition, the reeds can become magnetized over time, which makes them stick 'on' even when no current is present; changing the orientation of the reeds with respect to the solenoid's magnetic field will fix the problem. III. Mercury-Wetted Relay A mercury-wetted reed relay is a form of reed relay in which the contacts

are wetted with mercury. Such relays are used to switch low-voltage signals (one volt or less) where the mercury reduces the contact resistance and associated voltage drop, for low-current signals where surface contamination may make for a poor contact or for high-speed applications where the mercury eliminates contact bounce. Mercury wetted relays are position-sensitive and must be mounted vertically to work properly. Because of the toxicity and expense of liquid mercury, these relays are now rarely used. IV. Polarized Relay A polarized relay placed the armature between the poles of a permanent

magnet to increase sensitivity. Polarized relays were used in middle 20th


Page | 21

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Century telephone exchanges to detect faint pulses and correct the telegraphic distortion. The poles were on screws, so a technician could first adjust them for maximum sensitivity and then apply a bias spring to set the critical current that would operate the relay. V. Machine Tool Relay A machine tool relay is a type standardized for industrial control of

machine tools, transfer machines, and other sequential control. They are characterized by a large number of contacts (sometimes extendable in the field) which are easily converted from normally-open to normally-closed status, easily replaceable coils, and a form factor that allows compactly installing many relays in a control panel. Although such relays once were the backbone of automation in such industries as automobile assembly, the programmable logic controller (PLC) mostly displaced the machine tool relay from sequential control applications. VI. Ratchet Relay This is again a clapper type relay which does not need continuous current

through its coil to retain its operation. VII. Contactor Relay A contactor is a very heavy-duty relay used for switching electric motors

and lighting loads, although contactors are not generally called relays. Continuous current ratings for common contactors range from 10 amps to several hundred amps. High-current contacts are made with alloys containing
Page | 22

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

silver. The unavoidable arcing causes the contacts to oxidize; however, silver oxide is still a good conductor. Such devices are often used for motor starters. A motor starter is a contactor with overload protection devices attached. The overload sensing devices are a form of heat operated relay where a coil heats a bi-metal strip, or where a solder pot melts, releasing a spring to operate auxiliary contacts. These auxiliary contacts are in series with the coil. If the overload senses excess current in the load, the coil is de-energized. Contactor relays can be extremely loud to operate, making them unfit for use where noise is a chief concern. VIII. Solid-State Relay A solid state relay (SSR) is a solid state electronic component that provides

a similar function to an electromechanical relay but does not have any moving components, increasing long-term reliability.

Figure 5 - Solid state relay with no moving parts

Page | 23

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Figure 6 - 25A or 40A solid state contactors

With early SSR's, the trade-off came from the fact that every transistor has a small voltage drop across it. This voltage drop limited the amount of current a given SSR could handle. The minimum voltage drop for such a relay is equal to the voltage drop across one transistor (~0.6 2.0Volts), and is a function of the material used to make the transistor (typically silicon). As transistors improved, higher current SSR's, able to handle 100 to 1200Amperes, have become commercially available. Compared to electromagnetic relays, they may be falsely triggered by transients. IX. Solid State Contactor Relay A solid state contactor is a heavy-duty solid state relay, including the

necessary heat sink, used for switching electric heaters, small electric motors and lighting loads; where frequent on/off cycles are required. There are no moving parts to wear out and there is no contact bounce due to vibration. They are activated by AC control signals or DC control signals from Programmable logic controller (PLCs), PCs, Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) sources, or other microprocessor and microcontroller controls.
Page | 24

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

X.

Buchholz Relay A Buchholz relay is a safety device sensing the accumulation of gas in

large oil-filled transformers, which will alarm on slow accumulation of gas or shut down the transformer if gas is produced rapidly in the transformer oil. XI. Forced-Guided Contacts Relay A forced-guided contacts relay has relay contacts that are mechanically

linked together, so that when the relay coil is energized or de-energized, all of the linked contacts move together. If one set of contacts in the relay becomes immobilized, no other contact of the same relay will be able to move. The function of forced-guided contacts is to enable the safety circuit to check the status of the relay. Forced-guided contacts are also known as "positive-guided contacts", "captive contacts", "locked contacts", or "safety relays". XII. Overload Protection Relay Electric motors need overcurrent protection to prevent damage from

over-loading the motor, or to protect against short circuits in connecting cables or internal faults in the motor windings. One type of electric motor overload protection relay is operated by a heating element in series with the electric motor. The heat generated by the motor current heats a bimetallic strip or melts solder, releasing a spring to operate contacts. Where the overload relay is exposed to the same environment as the motor, a useful though crude compensation for motor ambient temperature is provided (Wikipedia, 2011).

Page | 25

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

C.

Present Day uses Relays are used for the following purposes: Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in some types of modems or audio amplifiers. Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the starter solenoid of an automobile. Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening and closing circuit breakers (protection relays). A DPDT AC coil relay with "ice cube" packaging Isolate the controlling circuit from the controlled circuit when the two are at different potentials, for example when controlling a mains-powered device from a low-voltage switch. The latter is often applied to control office lighting as the low voltage wires are easily installed in partitions, which may be often moved as needs change. They may also be controlled by room occupancy detectors in an effort to conserve energy. Logic functions. For example, the Boolean AND function is realised by connecting normally open relay contacts in series, the OR function by connecting normally open contacts in parallel. The change-over or Form C contacts perform the XOR (exclusive or) function. Similar functions for NAND and NOR are accomplished using normally closed contacts. The

Page | 26

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Ladder programming language is often used for designing relay logic networks. Early computing. Before vacuum tubes and transistors, relays were used as logical elements in digital computers. See ARRA (computer), Harvard Mark II, Zuse Z2, and Zuse Z3. Safety-critical logic. Because relays are much more resistant than semiconductors to nuclear radiation, they are widely used in safetycritical logic, such as the control panels of radioactive waste-handling machinery. Time delay functions. Relays can be modified to delay opening or delay closing a set of contacts. A very short delay (a fraction of a second) would use a copper disk between the armature and moving blade assembly. Current flowing in the disk maintains magnetic field for a short time, lengthening release time. For a slightly longer (up to a minute) delay, a dashpot is used. A dashpot is a piston filled with fluid that is allowed to escape slowly. The time period can be varied by increasing or decreasing the flow rate. For longer time periods, a mechanical clockwork timer is installed. D. Relay Application Considerations Selection of an appropriate relay for a particular application requires evaluation of many different factors:
Page | 27

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Number and type of contacts normally open, normally closed, (doublethrow) Contact sequence "Make before Break" or "Break before Make". For example, the old style telephone exchanges required Make-before-break so that the connection didn't get dropped while dialling the number. Rating of contacts small relays switch a few amperes, large contactors are rated for up to 3000 amperes, alternating or direct current Voltage rating of contacts typical control relays rated 300V~AC or 600V~AC, automotive types to 50V-DC, special high-voltage relays to about 15000V Coil voltage machine-tool relays usually 24V~AC, 120 or 250V~AC, relays for switchgear may have 125V or 250V-DC coils, "sensitive" relays operate on a few Milli-Amperes Coil current Package/Enclosure open, touch-safe, double-voltage for isolation between circuits, explosion proof, outdoor, oil and splash resistant, washable for printed circuit board assembly Assembly Some relays feature a sticker that keeps the enclosure sealed to allow PCB post soldering cleaning, which is removed once assembly is complete.

Page | 28

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Mounting sockets, plug board, rail mount, panel mount, through-panel mount, enclosure for mounting on walls or equipment Switching time where high speed is required "Dry" contacts when switching very low level signals, special contact materials may be needed such as gold-plated contacts Contact protection suppress arcing in very inductive circuits Coil protection suppress the surge voltage produced when switching the coil current Isolation between coil circuit and contacts Aerospace or radiation-resistant testing, special quality assurance Expected mechanical loads due to acceleration some relays used in aerospace applications are designed to function in shock loads of 50g or more Accessories such as timers, auxiliary contacts, pilot lamps, test buttons Regulatory approvals Stray magnetic linkage between coils of adjacent relays on a printed circuit board.

Page | 29

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

CHAPTER 3 3.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN


There are various ways or concepts in which a barrier (rising arm mechanism) can be designed and here we are going to consider different ways in which the automated barrier can be designed. The ways or concepts considered are: The use of a hydraulic jack The use of a simple pulley system with a belt drive The use of screw jack driven by an electric motor 3.1 CONCEPT 1 HYDRAULIC JACK This is based on the principle of fluid statics and fluid kinematics and it is used for either storing the hydraulic energy then transmitting when needed or magnifying the hydraulic energy and transmitting when needed.

Page | 30

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Figure 7 Modified Hydraulic Jack

A hydraulic jack is an incredibly simple device, considering its usefulness. It comprises a cylinder or reservoir, which can hold hydraulic fluid, and a pumping system to move the fluid. Generally, oil is used as a hydraulic fluid, because it relieves the necessity of lubricating the components of the jack. The pumping system generally comprises some sort of pump; hand-powered or more likely, mechanically powered, that serves to apply pressure to the fluid. The pumping system pushes hydraulic fluid through a one-way valve that allows the fluid to pass into the jack cylinder, but does not allow the fluid to pass back. Obviously, the jack has some sort of footing and a plate that is moved by the cylinder when the jack is activated. A hydraulic jack's functioning is described very accurately by Pascal's principle, which states that a force applied to an enclosed fluid is transferred
Page | 31

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

equally throughout the entire fluid. This means that the fluid must not be able to be compressed. When the jack's pump is activated, it applies pressure on the hydraulic fluid, which fills the cylinder. Because the cylinder is completely filled while the pump is active, and the one-way valve completely encloses the fluid, pressure builds within the cylinder. The pressure escapes via the easiest way possible: it pushes up on the plate of the jack, hence putting out force. The pump basically exerts a small force on the fluid continuously until the fluid has enough pressure to push up the jack, which lifts whatever is being lifted at the time. This means that the hydraulic jack can exert massive forces with a simple pump. Due to the complexity of this design of the hydraulic system and the cost of producing it another design was considered and that was the use of a pulley system driven by a dc motor. 3.2 CONCEPT 2 BELT AND PULLEY SYSTEM Pulley is a simple machine used to lift objects. A pulley consists of a grooved wheel or disk within housing, and a rope or cable threaded around the disk. The disk of the pulley rotates as the rope or cable moves over it. Pulleys are used for lifting by attaching one end of the rope to the object, threading the rope through the pulley (or system of pulleys), and pulling on the other end of the rope.

Page | 32

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Belt or flexible-connector drives are simple devices used to transmit torques and rotational motions from one to another or to several other shafts, which would usually be parallel. Power is transmitted by a flexible element (flexible connector) placed on pulleys, which are mounted on these shafts to reduce peripheral forces. A belt and pulley system is characterized by two or more pulleys in common to a belt. This allows for mechanical power, torque, and speed to be transmitted across axles. If the pulleys are of differing diameters, a mechanical advantage is realized.

Figure 8 - The Belt and Pulley System

This is a block and tackle pulley system. In this design the prime mover is the motor which is connected through a shaft to the pulley, and the pulley to another shaft connected to the barrier arm or barrier. The pulley transmits the
Page | 33

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

rotary motion generated from the motor to the shaft which in turn raises and lower the barrier arm or barrier. This design is simple but has a low mechanical advantage. If a pulley system was perfect and achieving 100% efficiency, then the pulleys and their ropes would be weightless, frictionless and not stretch or warp at all. Living in the real world, we know that this is not the case. Some of your effort is lost in overcoming this friction between the pulley wheels and the ropes. It has limited power transmission and wear can occur regularly of belt due to friction, which will lead to constant maintenance. This now led to us choose the next design which is the use of a power screw, also driven by a motor. 3.3 CONCEPT 3 SCREW JACK A screw is one of the six classical simple machines. It can convert a rotational motion to a linear motion, and a torque (rotational force) to a linear force. The most common form consists of a cylindrical shaft with helical grooves or ridges called threads around the outside. The screw passes through a hole in another object or medium, with stationary threads on the inside of the hole. When the screw is rotated relative to the stationary threads it moves along its axis relative to the medium surrounding it; for example rotating a woodscrew

Page | 34

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

forces it into wood. Geometrically, a screw can be viewed as a narrow inclined plane wrapped around a shaft. Power screws convert the input rotation of an applied torque to the output translation of an axial force. The screw jack is an example of power screw.

Screw thread

MOTOR

Figure 9 - The Screw Jack

Here same as the previous design the power screw is driven by a dc motor. As the motor rotates, the power screw converts the rotary motion of the motor in to translational motion. The crank which is connected to the shaft (or crankshaft in this case) then converts this translational motion from the screw in to rotary motion which is used to raise and lower the barrier arm that undergoes a rotational motion.

Page | 35

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

This design was selected because its is compact, simple to design, easy to manufacture; no specialized machinery is required, large mechanical advantage, precise and accurate linear motion, smooth, quiet, and low maintenance, minimal number of parts, and most are self-locking.

Figure 10 - 3D Model of the Project

3.4

MODE OF OPERATION

3.4.1 Mechanism The mechanism employed is the crank mechanism which changes reciprocating motion to circular motion and vice versa. The end of the crank is attached to a pivot rod called the connecting rod. The end of the rod attached to the crank moves in circular motion, while the other end is usually constrained to move in a linear sliding motion in and out.

Page | 36

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

In this project the jack serves as the connecting rod; one end of the crank is attached to the jack while the other end is to a steel shaft. The linear (upward and downward) motion of the jack turns the crank thereby creating a circular motion of the shaft, and in turn an angular displacement of the beam. 3.4.2 Control The card reader and infrared sensors are connected to the two switches in the relay. Both switches are on when the relay coil is on and off respectively. On swiping the RF signal card on the card reader, signal is transmitted to the relays. The first relay is activated, which causes the motor in the screw jack to rotate. The linear motion of the jack is converted to circular motion with the use of crank. Breaking the infrared signal of the sensors activates the second relay. The circuit changes polarity causing the motor to rotate in the opposite direction.

Page | 37

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

CHAPTER 4 4.0 DETAILED DESIGN


4.1 COMPONENTS OF THE AUTOMATED BARRIER SYSTEM The automated barrier system consists of mechanical and electrical (for controls) components.

Figure 11 - Layout of the Automated Barrier System

4.1.1 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS (Mechanism) 1. Crossbar 2. Elbow joint 3. Shaft 4. Bearings (Two) 5. Crank
Page | 38

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

6. Screw Jack A mechanism is a device designed to transform input forces and movement into a desired set of output forces and movement. Mechanisms generally consist of moving components such as gears and gear trains, belt and chain drives, cam and follower mechanisms, and linkages as well as friction devices such as brakes and clutches, and structural components such as the frame, fasteners, bearings, springs, lubricants and seals, as well as a variety of specialized machine elements such as splines, pins and keys. The mechanism designed consists of the following parts: A. Crank A crank is an arm attached at right angles to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft. It is used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion.

Figure 12 The Crank

Page | 39

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

The arm may be a bent portion of the shaft, or a separate arm attached to it. Attached to the end of the crank by a pivot is a rod, usually called a connecting rod. The end of the rod attached to the crank moves in a circular motion, while the other end is usually constrained to move in a linear sliding motion, in and out. B. Bearing (Plain Bearing) A bearing is a device that allows constrained relative motion between two or more parts, typically rotation or linear movement. Bearings may be classified broadly according to the motions they allow and according to their principle of operation as well as by the directions of applied loads they can handle.

Figure 13 The Bearing Casing

Plain bearings use surfaces in rubbing contact, often with a lubricant such as oil or graphite. A plain bearing may or may not be a discrete device. It may be nothing more than the bearing surface of a hole with a shaft passing through it,

Page | 40

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

or of a planar surface that bears another (in these cases, not a discrete device); or it may be a layer of bearing metal either fused to the substrate (semidiscrete) or in the form of a separable sleeve (discrete). With suitable lubrication, plain bearings often give entirely acceptable accuracy, life, and friction at minimal cost. Therefore, they are very widely used. However, there are many applications where a more suitable bearing can improve efficiency, accuracy, service intervals, reliability, and speed of operation, size, weight, and costs of purchasing and operating machinery. C. Screw Jack A screw is a device that changes angular motion into linear motion, and usually, to transmits power. This is the prime mover of the mechanism and it transmits the force use to raise and lower the crossbar (barrier arm).

Figure 14 The Screw Jack

Page | 41

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

D.

Shaft (Crankshaft) This is a rotating member usually of circular cross-section used to transmit

power or motion. This is the rotating rod in the mechanism that provides the power to raise the crossbar (barrier arm). It receives its torque from the crank.

Figure 15 The Shaft (Crankshaft)

E.

Crossbar (Barrier Arm) The crossbar or barrier arm is the beam that is used to obstruct the traffic.

Figure 16 The Crossbar (Barrier Arm)

F.

Elbow Joint This is used to connect the crossbar (Barrier arm) to the crank mechanism

(the crank and crankshaft) at 90.

Page | 42

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Figure 17 The Elbow Joint

G.

Fasteners These are devices that are used to connect or join on or more components

of an article or structure. There are thousands of fastener types and variations available. The ones we used majorly are bolts, nuts, washers, screws, bushings. 4.1.2 ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS These are the components used to power, automate and control the mechanism. It is made up of the following components: A. Transformers A transformer is a static (or stationary) piece of apparatus by means of which electric power in one circuit is transformed into electric power of the same frequency in another circuit.

AC
Figure 18 Schematic of a Step-down Transformer

LOAD

Page | 43

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

It can raise or lower the voltage in a circuit but with a corresponding decrease or increase in current. The physical basis of a transformer is mutual induction between two circuits linked by a common magnetic flux. In its simplest form, it consists of two inductive coils which are electrically separated but magnetically linked through a path of low reluctance. B. Rectifier This is used for rectification of electric current during the process of converting an alternating current (AC), which flows back and forth in a circuit, to direct current (DC), which flows only in one direction. A device known as a rectifier, which permits current to pass in only one direction, effectively blocking its flow in the other direction is inserted into the circuit for the purpose.
Rectifier Bridge

AC

Figure 19 - Schematic of a Rectifier

C.

The Relays A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet

to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-

Page | 44

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. Relays are used extensively to perform logical operations or switching.

Figure 20 Relay Circuit

D.

Sensors A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a

signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. The sensor is responsive to changes in the quantity to be measured, for example, temperature, position, or motion. The transducer converts such measurements into electrical signals, which, usually amplified, can be fed to instruments for the readout, recording, or control of the measured quantities. Sensors and transducers can operate at locations remote from the observer and in environments unsuitable or impractical for humans. Some devices act as both sensor and transducer. A thermocouple has two junctions of wires of different metals; these generate a small electric voltage
Page | 45

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

that depends on the temperature difference between the two junctions. A thermistor is a special resistor, the resistance of which varies with temperature. A variable resistor can convert mechanical movement into an electrical signal. Specially designed capacitors are used to measure distance, and photocells are used to detect light. Other devices are used to measure velocity, acceleration, or fluid flow. In most instances, the electric signal is weak and must be amplified by an electronic circuit. E. Card Reader (Proximity Card Reader) This is a device that reads signals from cards that has been programmed and then sends the signals to the relays. Proximity cards are powered by resonant inductive coupling via an LC circuit including an IC, capacitor and coil are connected in parallel. The card reader produces an electromagnetic field that excites the coil and resonant current charges the capacitor, which in turn energizes and power the IC.

Proximity Card Reader

Access Card
ig Bo n of lla A ec Ar rd Me m Sy ch U han M st a n ni ic ec em iz ve a ed ha rs l E ity n ni gi sm of n ) Be ee ri n ni n g (R M is in g

Figure 21 Proximity Card Reader with Access Card

es

Page | 46

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

4.2

THE RAISING ARM (CROSSBAR)

Figure 22 - The Crossbar

The raising arm forms the crossbar that bars the road when closed and allows passage when it is raised. It is essential that the arm is sufficiently rigid throughout its length. This is to avoid unwanted flexing and wobbling of the arm when it is at rest or being raised. 4.2.1 Material Selection Deflection is not affected by strength but rather by stiffness as represented by the modulus of elasticity. Aluminium alloy is suitable for this purpose because of both its weight to strength ratio and its corrosion resistance.

Page | 47

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

4.2.2 Deflection of the Crossbar For a full road, dual carriage, of length of 22, A crossbar length of 11 would adequately cover; for each side of the road. Specifications: Length = 3.3528m Material: aluminium pipe, with square hollow cross section (to minimize material and weight). Mass = Density Volume

Note that for the same mass and thickness, the ratio of length to breath may be varied to yield different values of (area moment of inertia), without affecting

the total cross sectional area or full length and consequently volume remains the same.

Page | 48

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Deflection, for fully closed position, the beam is simply supported

Where: w = weight; l = length; E = modulus of elasticity and I = area moment of inertia. For to be zero,

Of which on known material of the sort exists. To minimize y for a known length, material and weight, must be as large as can be accommodated. Deflection is maximum when the cross-bar is in opening position when it is positioned as a cantilever Minimum Tolerable

critical,

For a cantilever,

Page | 49

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

From Tabulated Moments of Inertia and Section Moduli for Rectangles and Round Shafts: Moments of Inertia and Section Moduli for Rectangles (Metric Units), For ,

For a

solid beam

Page | 50

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Putting

into

to ensure y is less than

Cross-Section area specifications D= B= Note that, since and , increasing values of b and d, especially

d, would yield lower values of y (deflection). 4.3 ELBOW JOINT An elbow joint is a mechanical member intended to connect two components at right angle to each other. 4.3.1 Material Selection We selected a steel elbow joint that would fit both the crossbar and the shaft.
Page | 51

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Diameter: 60 Angle: 90 degrees 4.4 SHAFT The shaft is a rotating member, usually of circular cross-section used to transmit power or motion. It provides the angle of rotation of the crank and also controls the geometry of its motion. There is really no unique thing about the shaft that requires any special treatment. However because of the ubiquity of the shaft in so many machine design applications, there are some advantages of giving the shaft design a closer inspection. The shaft to be designed for is a solid shaft and the design consists primarily; the determination of the correct shaft diameter to ensure satisfactory strength and rigidity when the shaft is transmitting power under varying operational conditions. 4.4.1 Material Selection For a shaft diameter of 60 mm, Length: 282 mm Cold drawn steel was used.

Page | 52

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

4.4.2 Shaft Layout

Figure 23 - The Shaft Layout

The shaft is designed to run through both bearings and to be connected to its ends by the elbow joint and the crank. 4.5 BEARING The shaft is to be held in a bearing, about which the arm and the crank would rotate. To reduce friction as much as possible, we selected a pair of ball bearings. A light bearing series used for moderated load and shaft sizes with the following parameters was selected: Bearing Number: 212 Bore: Outer Diameter: 60mm 110mm
Page | 53

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Width: 4.6 CRANK

22mm.

This member connects the jack rigidly to the shaft and converts the translational motion from the jack to rotational motion. 4.7 SCREW JACK

Load on the Jack


l1 a f1 R f2

l2 b

Summation of forces about the shaft (O),

Summation of moments about the shaft, ( ) ( )

Page | 54

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

( )

Force required in raising a load

Substituting for ( ( ) )

Screw Specifications From the ANSI B1.1 1974 and B18.3.1-1978 tables,

Page | 55

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Coefficient of friction for steel screw and steel nut

(H.A Rothbart, Mechanical Design and Systems Handbook, 2nd edition. McGrawHill, New York)

Torque Required in Raising the Load

Angular Speed

85o a a c b c b'

Page | 56

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

In Revolution per Minute (rpm)

In Radian (Rad)

Page | 57

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Power Required by the Jack

Motor Specification: From International Electro-technical Commission: IEC 60034 Rotating Electrical Machines, TG-05L-SG (12V) Speed: 3 rpm Torque: 588mN-m Speed Reduction of Motor. Gear Parameters

From above calculated the speed required to drive the screw is 2.375rpm. We now designed for a slightly higher speed of 2.5rpm.

Page | 58

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

30.48mm 25.40mm

Pinion (Motor)

Gear (Screw)

For a motor operating at 12 volts, with power consumption of running for 18 seconds (both opening and closing),

watts

per second For 18 seconds, current consumed

Which means that opens and closes.

amps are consumed each time the barrier

Taking an inverter efficiency of 80% DC AC (manufacturers specification), a 200A battery would yield

Page | 59

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

4.8

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN A control system is a device or set of devices to manage, command, direct

or regulate the behaviour of other devices or systems. The automated barrier system will have two outputs (to raise and lower the barrier arm) and two inputs; one from the card reader and the other from the infra-red sensors. In order to design and implement the control system the knowledge of the following generic elements were vital: Controlled Variable which is the barrier arm or crossbar The Controller which are the relays The actuating device which is power screw and motor The plant or system which is the automated barrier. 4.8.1 The Control Design Process The following standard methodology was applied to design the control system and it is represented on a flow chart.

Page | 60

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

START

Define System Performance Specification

Identify Systems Components

Model Plant Behaviour & the System Components Is Component Response Acceptable? NO YES Define Control Strategy

Select Alternative Components

Simulate System Response Does Simulated Response Meet Performance Specification? NO YES Implement Physical System

Modify Control Strategy

FINISH

Figure 24 - Steps in Design of a Control System

The devices used in this control system are: Relays Proximity Card Reader Infrared Motion Sensor

Page | 61

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

4.8.2 The Flow Diagram


Step Down Transformer 1
AC

Step Down Transformer 2

Rectifier

Motor

Relay 1 Relay 2

Figure 25 - The Flow Diagram

The power requirement for the motor is 50volts, so we used two stepdown transformers to step the 240V to 55v which is enough for the motor to run; and a rectifier to convert the Alternating Current (AC) to Direct Current (DC) and from the rectifier the power is connected to the relays and motor. 4.8.3 Control Diagram The control system design is an open loop control system that has two inputs and two outputs. The input devices are the Proximity Card Readers and the output devices are the Infrared Motion Sensors.
Card Reader Controller (Relays) Sensor Controlled Variable Output

Figure 26 - The Systems' Block Diagram

The proximity card reader and infrared sensors are connected to the positive and negative terminals. Each terminal is connected through a relay, transformer and rectifier to the motor of the power screw jack.

Page | 62

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

The Proximity card reader is connected to one of the relays and the sensor is connected to the other relay. The relay then performs the intelligent switching between the two inputs. The sensors relay is connected to the motor in the reverse direction of the connection of the card reader to make the motor rotate in the counter direction of the card reader and thus bringing down the crossbar. As the barrier arm or crossbar rises caused by the rotation of the motor the limit switch determines the maximum and minimum heights of crossbar. The limit switch in the motor is a mechanical device that open or close the circuit when the motor reaches its limit of travel. In other words, when the barrier arm reaches its maximum or minimum displacement, the limit switch breaks the circuit and the motor stops to rotate. 4.8.4 Circuit Diagram
Card Reader Sensors

RELAY 1

RELAY 2

Power Source

Limit Switch

Figure 27 - Circuit Diagram of the Control System

Page | 63

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

CHAPTER 5
5.0 CONCLUSION
The automated barrier system was designed for use on the faculty of engineering access road. It has currently been installed and has been operational for over three months. The major achievement in the course of this project is gaining of knowledge of the realisation of a digital control system via a systematic approach, and this basic knowledge would help improve ones capacity to design in mechanical/digital electronics. One of the basic problems we encountered during the project implementation was getting the right material for the barrier for the best weight to rigidity ratio for the required length. We needed a material that was very light so as to minimise power requirement and obtain maximum speed with also minimal deflection across a length of 11inches. To this effect we attempted to use a PVC pipe which deflected excessively. We also used a steel pipe. The steel pipe was a lot more suitable than the PVC but it had the drawback of having a higher mass and consequently a lower speed than required. We finally settled on an aluminium pipe with a square cross-section. Due to aluminiums characteristic light weight and high strength and the improved geometry, it proved to have the best weight to rigidity ratio for the required length.

Page | 64

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

5.1

RECOMMENDATIONS We suggest that this system be employed throughout the campus, in all

locations that require restricted access. 5.2 FURTHER WORK As simple as our mechanism is, we in hindsight have discovered that even simpler mechanisms or mechanisms that require less number of parts exist. We suggest that other means for raising the crossbar be explored. The housing for the control panel could be improved on to further shield it from harsh weather conditions. Also as seen from above, the power requirements are sufficiently low enough that a relatively cheap alternate source of power could be used to run the system. This would also have the added advantage of being environmentally friendly, as the current source of power is from the power grid, backed up by an inverter - battery system. A switch that could act as an auxiliary switch could be placed in a nearby secure location, like the department; to be used in times of emergency or unforeseen circumstances that prevent normal operation of the system. 5.3 SUMMARY The design and construction of an automatic car barrier (raising arm mechanism) with proximity card reader has been achieved. Tenable, a project of
Page | 65

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

this nature is reasonable enough to be carried out, as this will improve indigenous technology applied in Nigeria.

Page | 66

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

REFERENCES
Budynas-Nisbett. (2006). Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design (8th ed.). United States of America: McGraw-Hill. Burns, R. S. (2001). Advanced Control Engineering. London: Butterworth Heinmann. Charles G. Oakes, P. (2011, February 16). The Bollard. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from WBDG Whole Building Drsign Guide:

http://www.wbdg.org/bollard.php Ellis, G. (2004). Control System Design Guide: A Practical Guide. San Diego, California: Elsevier Academic Press. Kuo, B. C. (1995). Automatic Control System (6th ed.). New Delhi: PHI Learning. Kurmi, R. S. (2008). Strength of Materials (Mechanics of Solid) (26th ed.). New Delhi: S. Chand. Ogata, K. (2002). Modern Control Engineering (4th ed.). New Jersey, Upper Saddle River, United States of America: Prentice Hall. Rajput, R. K. (2008). Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Machine (3rd ed.). New Delhi: S. Chand.

Page | 67

Design and Fabrication of an Automated Bollard System

Shigley, J. E., & Mischke, C. R. (1996). Standard Handbook of Machine Design (6th ed.). U.S.A: McGraw-Hill. Theraja, B. L. (2005). A Textbook of Electrical Technology (23rd ed.). New Delhi: S. Chand. Wolfbeis, O. S. (2000). "Fibre-optic chemical sensors and biosensors.". USA: Anal Chem.

Page | 68