NITROGEN FIXATION AND

METABOLISM IN SOYBEAN PLANTS


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NITROGEN FIXATION AND
METABOLISM IN SOYBEAN PLANTS







TAKUJI OHYAMA, NORIKUNI OHTAKE,
KUNI SUEYOSHI, KAUSHAL TEWARI,
YOSHIHIKO TAKAHASHI, SAYURI ITO,
TOSHIKAZU NISHIWAKI,
YOSHIFUMI NAGUMO, SATOMI ISHII
AND
TAKASHI SATO



Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
New York


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CONTENTS

Preface vii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybeean Nodules 13
Chapter 3 Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport
in Soybean Plants 29
Chapter 4 Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen
Fixation 41
Chapter 5 Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Torlerance of
Hypernodulation Mutants of Soybean 55
Chapter 6 Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition on Soybean Seed Storage
Protein Composition 75
Chapter 7 Development of New Fertilization Technique to Promote
Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Yield 83
References 105
Index 123












PREFACE


In the first part, we would like to introduce the progress of researches on
nitrogen metabolism of soybean nodules and roots. We investigated the fate of
nitrogen fixed in soybean nodules by tracer experiment with
15
N
2
gas. The results
indicated that major part of fixed N in bacteroids (a symbiotic state of rhizobia) is
excreted rapidly to cytosol of infected cells in the form of ammonia, then the
ammonia is assimilated into amino acids via GS/GOGAT pathway. Then the fixed
nitrogen is assimilated into ureides, allantoin and allantoic acid, and then
transported to the shoots via xylem. A small portion of fixed N was assimilated in
the bacteroids directly into glutamate and alanine. On the other hand, nitrate
absorbed from the roots are mainly assimilated into asparagine. The
characteristics of nitrate absorption and metabolism was studied.
It is well known that nitrate is a potent inhibitor to nodulation and nitrogen
fixation, although the inhibitory mechanism is not fully understood. We recently
found that nitrate depresses individual nodule growth and nitrogen fixation
activity rapidly and reversibly when nodules were in direct contact with nitrate.
The indirect effects of nitrate on nodule growth and nitrogen fixation activity were
different among treatment concentration and period of supply. The continuous
supply of low levels of nitrate from the lower part of roots promoted the
nodulation and nitrogen fixation of the upper part of the roots. Hypernodulation
mutant lines of soybean were isolated which have profuse nodulation compared
with parents. They also exhibit partial-nitrate tolerant to nodulation. The
characteristics of hypernodulation mutant lines were studied in relation to nitrate
inhibition. The results suggested that lower nitrate absorption and assimilation
activity in hypernodulation mutants may be one reason to milder inhibition by
nitrate on hypernodulation mutant lines.
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. viii
Soybean seed contains two major storage protein, glycinin and β-conglycinin.
We discovered that nitrogen nutrition affects seed storage protein subunit
accumulation. When soybean plants suffer N deficiency, soybean seed did not
accumulate the β-subunit of β-conglycinin.
The new fertilization technique, deep placement of slow release nitrogen
fertilizer, which promote nitrogen fixation and seed yield of soybean. Slow
release N fertilizer (coated urea) of 100 kg N ha
-1
was applied at 20cm below soil
surface. The N released from the deep place did not inhibit nodulation and
nitrogen fixation activity, then promoted total N accumulation and seed yield.
Also we used lime nitrogen fertilizer which contain calcium cyanamide is as
effective as coated urea fertilizer.












Chapter 1



INTRODUCTION


1. IMPORTANCE OF NITROGEN FIXATION IN SOYBEAN
CULTIVATION

Leguminous plant consists a large group about 18,000 species including
annual grasses and perennial trees. The origin of legume was dated at about 59
million years before present, with three subfamilies, Caesalpinioideae,
Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae recognized soon after (Sprent and James 2007).
Although only small numbers of leguminous species are selected as crops, they
are very important for foods and feed for animals world wide. Soybean (Glycine
max (L.) Merr.) seed (Figure 1) production is 215 million t year
-1
in 2005
(FAOSTAT), accounts for a half of all the leguminous crops due to the nutritional
value both for human and livestocks. Major soybean production countries (annual
production million t year
-1
in 2005), are USA (85), Brazil (51), Argentina (38),
China (17), and India (7). The world average seed yield is 2.3 t ha
-1
in 2005.
Soybean production in Japan was 225,000 t, and the seed yield was 1.68 t ha
-1
in
2005.
The highest yield of soybean in Japan was recorded at 7.8 t ha
-1
(Konno 1976),
and soybean seed yield can reach 4-6 t ha
-1
with well-managed fields under good
climatic and soil conditions (e.g. Takahashi et al. 1992). The low average yield
compared with potential productivity may be due to several reasons. First,
soybean plants are very susceptible to physical, chemical and biological
conditions of soil as well as climatic conditions. Figure 2 shows an example of
giant soybean cv. Williams cultivated with low planting density at 2 plants m
-2

(Suganuma et al. 2001). This plant had very thick basal part of stem (25 mm
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 2
diameter) and it had 1874 nodules on the roots, and 600 pods as shown in Figure 3,
in which all the leaves are removed to show structures of stems. Second, soybean
seed yield often severely declines with pest infection, insects, and weeds. Third,
nitrogen fixation with rhizobia is very important for soybean production (Atkins
1986, Bohlool et al. 1992, Keyser and Li, 1992), but it is difficult to obtain
optimum condition of nitrogen fixation. It is well known that soybean plants can
fix atmospheric N
2
by the root nodule (Figure 4), which is a symbiotic organ with
soil bacteria, rhizobia. However, the nodule formation and nitrogen fixation is
very sensitive to deleterious environmental conditions. Therefore, many stress
conditions, such as a shortage of water, decrease in oxygen supply in soil, high or
low pH, nutrient deficiency or imbalance etc. may depress nodule formation and
nitrogen fixation activity. In addition, low population of compatible rhizobia or
the dominance of inefficient strains of indigenous rhizobia in the field may
decrease nitrogen fixation activity.


Figure 1. Photograph of seeds of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr), cultivar Enrei.
In Niigata fields, about 60-75% of N assimilation in soybean was shown to
derive from N
2
fixation (Takahashi et al. 1993a, Ohyama et al. 1992). Figure 5
shows nodulated soybean plants cv. Enrei and the non-nodulated isogenic line
En1282 planted in the field of Niigata Agricultural Research Institute, Nagaoka. It
is obvious that non-nodulated soybean grew very poor with pale leaf color due to
N deficiency by the lack of nitrogen fixation. The legume nitrogen fixation is
Introduction 3
variable, but it is a valuable process in world agriculture (Harderson 1993,
Herridge and Danso, 1995, Herridge and Rose 2000)

Figure 2. One plant of soybean cv. Williams cultivated with low density 2 plants m
-2
.
(From Suganuma et al. 2001)
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 4
Pod number 600
Stem 25mm
Nodule number
1874

Figure 3. Soybean cv. Williams cultivated with low density 2 plants m
-2
. All the leaves
were removed.(From Suganuma et al. 2001)
Introduction 5

Figure 4. Photograph of nodulated root of soybean (cv. Williams).

Figure 5. Comparison of nodulated (left) soybean (cv. Enrei) and the non-nodulated isoline
(En1282) grown in the same field.
Soybean seeds contain a large amount of protein N and the total amount of N
assimilated in a plant is highly correlated with the soybean seed yield. One t of
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 6
soybean seed requires about 70-90 kg N, which is about four times more than in
the case of rice (Hoshi 1982). Soybean plants assimilate the N from three sources,
N derived from atmospheric nitrogen by symbiotic N
2
fixation in root nodules
(Ndfa), absorbed N derived from soil mineralized N (Ndfs), and N derived from
fertilizer when applied (Ndff) (Figure 6). For the maximum seed yield of soybean,
it is necessary to use both N
2
fixation and absorbed N

from roots (Harper 1974,
1987). Sole N
2
fixation is often insufficient to support vigorous vegetative growth,
which results in the reduction of seed yield. On the other hand, a heavy supply of
N fertilizer often depresses nodule development and N
2
fixation activity and
induces nodule senescence, which sometimes results in the reduction of seed yield.
In addition N fertilizer often causes over luxuriant growth, which resulted in
lodging or poor pod formation. Therefore, no nitrogen fertilizer is applied for
soybean cultivation or only a small amount of N fertilizer is applied as a starter N
to promote initial growth.

Nitrogen fixation
Fertilizer nitrogen
Soil nitrogen

Figure 6. Three sources of N for soybean growth
Introduction 7
2. RECENT ADVANCES IN INFECTION AND NODULATION
PROCESSES

Recently, the recognition, host specificity and initial nodulation processes
between leguminous plants and compatible rhizobia has been rapidly uncovered.
There are many good reviews about this aspect (Rolfe and Gresshoff 1988, Sprent
1989, Denarie et al. 1992, Hirsch and Fang 1994, Spaink 1995, Stacey 1995,
Crespi and Galves 2000, Lhuissier et al. 2001, Stougaard J, 2001, Lum and Hirsch
2003, Ferguson and Mathesius 2003, Limpens and Bisseling, 2003), so we briefly
introduce the outline shown in Figure 7.

1). Rhizobia live heterotrophically depending on the organic matter in soil,
and they don’t fix atmospheric N
2
. The host legume roots excrete species
specific isoflavonoid compounds. Daizein and genistein are two major
isoflavonoids released from soybean roots.
2). Compatible rhizobia, usually species Bradyrhizobium japonicum for
soybean, recognize the isoflavonoid released from host legume, and NOD
genes are expressed by specific isoflavonoid signals to make NOD factor.
The NOD factor is a lipochitine oligosaccharide with some modification.
The structures of NOD factors are different among rhizobia species and
only compatible NOD factor can induce nodule formation in host plants
with very low concentrations. The cell division in the cortex restores to
prepare nodule formation.
3). Rhizobia move to the host roots and proliferate near the root surface.
4). Rhizobia attached to the extending root hair.
5). Then root hair entraps the rhizobia by root hair curling. Host plant makes
the infection thread, which has a tunnel like structure, and rhizobia can
enter into the roots through it. Finally rhizobia are released into the
proliferating nodule meristem cells. One or several rhizobia is enclosed in
PBM (peribacteroid membrane) or symbiosome membrane in synonym.
6). Plant cell division and rhizobium proliferation occur and nodule structure
develops.
7). Nodule vascular bundles connect to the root vascular bundles and nodules
and roots exchange materials through phloem and xylem. Nodules are
formed and bacteroid, a symbiotic state of rhizobia, start to fix N
2
. In the
case of soybean nodules, nodule organogenesis completed in the initial
stage when nodule diameter is about 1 mm and further nodule growth is
mostly depending on the cell expansion rather than cell proliferation.
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 8
(daizeine)
(genistein)
(rhizobia)
NOD facter
Proliferation
Root hair
attachment
Root hair curing
Infection thread
Release rhiaobia
Cell division
Nodule development
Nodule growth
N
2
fixation
5
6
4
3
2
1
7
methylfucosyl

Figure 7. A model of infection and nodulation processes between soybean and rhizobia
Recently gene expression analysis can be applied for model legume Lotus
japonicus by cDNA array analysis (Kouchi et al. 2004). Using the cDNA array of
18,144 non-retundant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from L. japonicus,
and the expression of 1,076 genes was significantly accelerated during the
successive stages after infection of compatible rhizobia, Mesorhizobium loti.
These include 32 nodulin and nodulin-homolog genes as well as a number of
genes involved in the catabolism of photosynthates and assimilation of fixed
nitrogen. The gene expression profile in early stages of rhizobium-legume
interaction was considerably different from that in subsequent nodule
development. A number of genes involved in the defense responses to pathogens
and other stresses were induced abundantly in the infection process, but their
expressions was suppressed during subsequent nodule formation. The genome
sequencing information and genome resources in model legumes, L. japonicus
and Medicago truncathula have been available for many aspects of legume
studies (Sato et al. 2007).


Introduction 9
Root Nodule
Lenticel
Epidermis
Peridermis
Outer cortex
Vascular bundle
Inner cortex
Symbiotic region

Figure 8. A model of structure of soybean root nodule

3. NODULE MORPHOLOGY OF SOYBEAN

Soybean nodule is classified to determinate type nodule, which has a
spherical form, and nodule growth is mainly due to cell expansion after initial cell
proliferation and development (Figures 8-10). The soybean nodule has the
symbiotic region (or infected region in synonym) in the center, which consists the
mosaic of large infected cells and small uninfected cells. The infected cells are
filled with bacteroids (the symbiotic forms of rhizobia) and they are easily
recognized by the red color with nodule specific protein, leghemoglobin (Lb)
discovered by Kubo (1939). Lb is a most abundant protein in nodules (about 20%
of total protein) and it can bind with O
2
to form LbO
2
to decrease free O
2
concentration in infected cells. The nitrogenase, an enzyme to fix N
2
in bacteroid,
is very susceptible to free O
2
and irreversibly destroyed by O
2
, therefore, free O
2

concentration should be kept very low in symbiotic region of nodules. On the
other hand nitrogen fixation and assimilation processes require a large amount of
energy and reductant produced by O
2
respiration, therefore, nodule respiration is
about four times higher than that of roots based on dry weight. To support active
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 10
respiration, abundant supply of O
2
is essential. Lb in legume nodules solves the
dilemma to keep free O
2
concentration low and sufficient supply of O
2
for
bacteroid respiration.

Lenticel
Epidermis
Peridermis
Vascular bundle
Sclerenchyma
Outer cortex
Inner cortex
Symbiotic region

Figure 9. A model of structure of soybean root nodule stained with CBB From Mizukoshi
et al. 1995
Symbiotic region is surrounded by nodule cortex in which the network of
vascular bundles surrounding the symbiotic region to supply photoassimilate to
bacteroids and to receive N fixation products from them (Figures 8, 9, 10). The
nutrient sharing between symbionts was reviewed recently (White et al. 2007).
Nodule cortex consists of inner cortex with small cells and outer cortex with large
loosely packed cells. The sclerenchyma cells which have thick cell wall were
located in the outer cortex (Figure 9). O
2
concentration decreases sharply through
the inner cortex, and the O
2
permeability is flexibly controlled by this layer. It is
hypothesized that a reversible exchange of intercellular water by the inner cortical
cells plays a role in the regulation of nodule conductance to O
2
diffusion (Serraj et
al. 1998). There are lenticels outside of nodules and one layer of epidermis. Under
the epidermis, there is a peridermis, a tightly packed one layer of cells, which may
restrict free diffusion of solutes between inside the nodule and medium solution
(Mizukoshi et al. 1995).

Introduction 11
Williams
NOD3-7
NOD2-4
NOD1-3

Figure 10. Nodule structure of wild type soybean cv. Williams and its hypernodulation
mutant lines, NOD1-3, NOD2-4 and NOD3-7 From Nishiwaki et al. 1997
Infected region
Vascular bundle
Stele
Nodule cortex
Vascular bundle
Root cortex
f
high

Figure 11. Distribution of N, P, K, Cl, Ca and Mg in the noduled root of structure of
soybean. H: high concentration, L: low concentration From Mizukoshi et al. 1995
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 12
Soybean nodule is highly organized complex organ as shown by the
distribution of minerals examined by EPMA (Electron Probe X-ray
Microanalysis). Figure 11 shows the distribution of minerals in nodulated roots.
The concentrations of N and P were higher but those of K and Cl were lower in
the symbiotic region compared with nodule cortex. Ca was locally distributed in
the surface layer, sclerenchyma cells and inner cortex, but the content was low in
the symbiotic region. Mg specifically accumulated in the inner and outer cortex
inside sclerenchyma cells but not outside them (Mizukoshi et al. 1995).







Chapter 2



THE FATE OF NITROGEN FIXED IN
SOYBEEAN NODULES


1. INITIAL PROCESSES OF THE ASSIMILATION OF FIXED N
IN SOYBEAN NODULES

Ammonia is known to be the initial product of nitrogenase. Bergersen (1965)
observed that after the exposure of
15
N
2
to soybean nodules for 1 min, more than
90% of the fixed N in soluble fraction was detected as ammonia. The Km value
(Michaelis cnstant) of N
2
for nitrogen fixation by purified nitrogenase was 8-16%,
and that in the detached nodule in the air is 5% in the air and that in solution was
0.029 mole m
-3
(Bergersen 1999). Until late 1970
th
, no direct evidence was
obtained how the fixed N in bacteroids is transported to the host plant cytosol, and
how it is metabolized to translocation forms of N to the shoots.
Figure 12 shows the structures of glutamine (Gln), glutamate (Glu) and 2-
oxo-glutarate (2-OG). Until 1970, the fixed ammonia had been considered to be
initially combined with 2-OG producing Glu catalyzed by glutamate
dehydrogenenase (GDH) in plants and microbes. Not only ammonia produced by
nitrogen fixation, the ammonia absorbed in the roots and reduced from nitrate was
also believed to be assimilated by GDH enzyme.
GDH catalyzes the reaction as follows (Layzell 1990):

NH
4
+
+ 2-oxoglutarate + 2 e
-
→ glutamate

Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 14
In roots or leaves, the enzyme is located in mitochondria or chloroplast, and
the electron donor may be either NADH or NADPH.

2-oxoglutarate
O
O
C
C
C
C
H
2
H
OH
NH
2
OH
C
H
2
O
O
C
C
C
C
H
2
H
NH
2
NH
2
OH
C
H
2
O
O
C
C
C
C
H
2
OH
O
OH
C
H
2
glutamate glutamine

Figure 12. Structure of glutamine, glutamate, and 2-oxoglutarate.
After discovering a new enzyme glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Aerobacter
aerogenes (Tempest et al. 1970), it is confirmed that ammonia can be assimilated
via alternative of GDH, via glutamine synthetase (GS) and GOGAT pathway.
Wolk et al (1976) demonstrated that the fixed ammonia is assimilated through
GS/GOGAT pathway in nitrogen fixing blue green algae, Anabaena cylindrica by
using
13
N as a tracer.
GS catalyzes the following reaction:

NH
4
+
+ glutamate + ATP → glutamine + ADP + Pi

This reaction requires divalent cation, such as Mg
2+
, Mn
2+
or Co
2+
as a
cofactor. There are a number of isoforms of GS, GS
1
(cytosolic) and GS
2

(chloroplast) forms of leaves, GS
r
root cytosolic form, and GS
n
nodule cytosolic
form.
GOGAT catalyzes the following reaction:

glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + 2 e
-
→ 2 glutamate

The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 15
The electron donor is ferredoxin (Fd) or NADH in higher plants. In leaves
most activity is Fd-dependent enzyme, and NADH-GOGAT locates in the plastid
of non-photosynthetic tissues.
The net reaction of GS/GOGAT pathway is as follows:

NH
4
+
+ 2-oxoglutarate + 2 e
-
+ ATP → glutamate + ADP + Pi

Compared with GDH reaction, GS/GOGAT pathway requires one extra ATP
as a substrate, and it means GS/GOGAT needs more energy than GDH. Although
the higher cost of the ammonia assimilation by GS/GOGAT than GDH, the GS
with lower Km for ammonia has an advantage to assimilate ammona at low
concentration in cells before reaching toxic level.


Figure 13. Apparatus for
15
N
2
feeding experiment with intact soybean plants.
To elucidate the initial ammonia assimilation pathway in soybean nodules,
the intact nodules attached to the upper part of the roots were exposed to
15
N
2
gas
for 21 min (Figure 13) (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1978).
15
N
2
gas was prepared
from
15
N labeled ammonium sulfate then mixed with He and O
2
(
15
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 16
N
2
:He:O
2
=1:7:2) (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1981c). The 21 min of
15
N
2
exposure
was followed by non-labeled conditions for 29 min (chase period), and the
nodules were harvested at 2, 4, 6,10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 min after starting
15
N
2
exposure. The fresh nodules were rapidly homogenized with 80% ethanol,
and ammonia, amino acids and ureides (allantoin and allatoic acid) were extracted.
Figure 14 shows the structures of allantoin, allantoic acid, nitrate and asparagine.
The incorporation of
15
N into various nitrogen compounds was determined by the
optical emission spectrometry (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1979b, Ohyama 1982,
Ohyama et al. 2004, FNCA 2006).

NO
3
-
O
O
O C
C
C
C
N
N
N
H
2
N
H
H
H
O
O
O C
C
C
C
N
OH
N
H
2
N
H
H
NH
2
O
O
C
C
C
C
H
2
H
NH
2
NH
2
OH
Allantoin
Allantoic acid
Asparagine
Nitrate

Figure 14. Structure of allantoin, allantoic acid, nitrate and asparagines.
Figure 15 shows the time course of
15
N incorporation into N compounds until
10 min, and Figure16 shows the time course including 21 min period

of
15
N
2

feeding and 29 min of chase period. In Figure 15, the
15
N abundance of ammonia
increased rapidly after a few min of
15
N
2
exposure, and soon reached the
maximum value at about 0.5 % showing a hyperbolic curve. This suggests that
there are two or more compartments of ammonia in nodules, and one of which
may be the ammonia pool directly derived from nitrogen fixation. The size is
relatively small, less than 1% of total ammonia in nodules, but the turnover rate is
very rapid in a few min. Among amino acids, glutamine gave the highest
15
N
abundance until 10 min of
15
N supply (Figure 15). When the
15
N abundance of
amido-N and amino-N of glutamine was separately measured, the
15
N was rapidly
incorporated into amido-N, then amino-N after a few min lag-time. Following
glutamine, glutamic acid and alanine increased
15
N abundance. After changing gas
The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 17
phase from
15
N
2
to non-labeled conditions (Figure 16), ammonia and glutamine
showed the immediate decrease of
15
N abundance, this indicates the
characteristics of primary assimilatory products. On the other hand, the
15
N
abundance of glutamate alanine continue to increase for a few min after changing
to non-labeled conditions.
15
N was relatively rapidly incorporated into ureides (the
sum of allantoin and allantoic acid) in 10 min of
15
N
2
exposure (Figure 15),
although the
15
N abundance did not decrease during chase period (Figure16). This
data is the first experimental evidence that ureides are synthesized actively in
soybean nodules from fixed nitrogen. The incorporation of
15
N was faster in
allantoin than allantoic acid, suggesting that allantoic acid is formed from
allnatoin in nodules, and not vise verse (Ohyama and Kumazawa, 1978). The
15
N
was slowly incorporated into asparagine, although the time lag was longer than
ureides.

-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 10 15
ammonia
glutamine
glutamic acid
ureides
asparagine
alanine
5
Time (min)

Figure 15. Time course of
15
N labeling in soybean nodules after
15
N
2
exposure for 10
miniutes. From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1978
From the result obtained by the
15
N
2
pulse chase experiment, the ammonia
fixed by nitrogenase in bacteroids is located in a small compartment compared
with whole nodule ammonia pool. The rapid incorporation of
15
N

into glutamine
especially the amido-N, followed by glutamate, and amino-N of glutamine in this
sequence was in accordance with the initial assimilatory pathway be GS/GOGAT
pathway rather than GDH. This was supported by the evidence that the rapid
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 18
decline of
15
N

in glutamine but not glutamate immediately after changing to the
chase period.

-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
ammonia
glutamine
glutamic acid
ureides
asparagine
alanine

Figure 16. Time course of
15
N labeling in soybean nodules after 21 minutes of
15
N
2

exposure and hase period for 29 minuites. From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1978
The assimilatory pathway of ammonia produced by N
2
fixation was
confirmed by using specific metabolic inhibitors, methionine sulfoximine (MSX)
for GS and azaserine (AS) for GOGAT (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980a). The
MSX or AS solution was injected into intact nodules, and
15
N
2
was exposed to the
nodules for one hr. The MSX treatment increased the
15
N abundance of ammonia
more than 6 times, however, it depressed the
15
N abundance of amido-N of
glutamine and amino acids. In addition, the AS treatment increased the
15
N
content of ammonia and amido-N of glutamie, but it decreased the amino-N of
glutamine and other amino acids. Experiments with nodule slices pretreated with
MSX or AS solution, then they were fed with
15
N labeled ammonia or amido-
15
N
of glutamine showed the same trends (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980a). These
results strongly support that the ammonia produced by nitrogen fixation in
soybean nodules is mainly assimilated by GS/GOGAT pathway and not by GDH.


Time (min)
The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 19
2. N TRANSFER FROM BACTEROID TO CYTOSOL

In another experiment, fresh nodules are macerated in 0.2M sorbitol solution
at 4
o
C, and separated into bacteroid and cytosol fractions by centrifugation at
6000g for 15 min after filtration through nylon net. Each fraction was extracted
with 80% ethanol, and the concentration of N compounds was determined. Figure
17 shows the comparison of the N concentration of major compounds in bacteroid
and cytosol fractions. Two fractions gave quite different patterns of composition.
In cytosol, asparagine was most dominant compound, followed by ureides and
other amino acids. In bacteroid, ammonia concentration was relatively high, and
the concentration of ureides and asparagine was negligible. Among amino acids,
glutamate, alanine, 4-aminobutylate (GABA) were major compounds in bacteroid
fraction (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1978).

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Bacteroid Cytosol
ureides
asparagine
amino acids
ammonia

Figure 17. Major N constituents in bacteroid and cytosol fractions of soybean nodules.
From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1978

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n


μ
g
N
/
g
F
W
n
o
d
u
l
e
s
)

Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 5 10
glutamine
glutamic acid
alanine
asparagine
ureides

Figure 18. Time course of
15
N labeling in cytosol fraction of soybean nodule after
15
N
2

exposure for 10 minuites. From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980b
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 2 4 6 8 10
Glutamine
glutamic acid
alanine
asparagine
ureides

Figure 19. Time course of
15
N labeling in bacteroid fraction of soybean nodule after
15
N
2

exposure for 10 minuites. From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980b

Time (min)
Time (min)
The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 21
15
N assimilation was investigated in cytosol (Figure 18) and bacteroid (Figure
19) fractions of soybean nodules (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980b).
15
N
2
was
exposed to intact soybean nodules for 5 and 10 min, and bacteroid and cytosol
fractions were immediately separated by centrifugation. Although
15
N
2
feeding
period was very short, most of the
15
N was located in cytosol fraction, and only 3-
4% of soluble
15
N remained in bacteroid fraction. As shown in Figure 18, in
cytosol the
15
N abundance of glutamine was the highest and followed by
glutamate, alanine and ureides in this sequence. In bacteroid fraction (Figure 19),
glutamate showed the highest
15
N abundance followed by alanine and aspartate,
but
15
N incorporation was very slow into glutamine. When 1 mM
15
NH
4
+
was
supplied to the bacteroid suspension for 15 min,
15
N was rapidly incorporated into
glutamate and alanine, and glutamine was not labeled during this period (Ohyama
and Kumazawa 1980b).


3. PRIMARY EXPORT FORM OF FIXED NITROGEN FROM
BACTEROID IS AMMONIA NOT ALANINE

From these results, it was suggested that most of the fixed N is immediately
exported from bacteroid to cytosol and assimilated via GS/GOGAT pathway in
cytosol, then metabolized into various amino acids via transamination from
glutamate. Ureides, allantoin and allantoic acid are synthesized from amino acids
and amides (Figure 20). On the other hand, a small part of fixed N is metabolized
in bacteroids, and it is not by GS/GOGAT pathway but probably by GDH or
alanine dehydrogenase (ADH). Waters et al. (1998, 2000) proposed an alternative
N export from soybean bacteroid. They indicated that alanine not ammonia is the
main export compound from bacteroid to cytosol, based on the data that the
isolated bacteroid excrete
15
N labeled alanine when the suspension was exposed to
15
N
2
gas. However, Li et al. (2001) support the ammonia is the main export
compounds from soybean bacteroid, by careful preparation of bacteroid
suspension under optimum
15
N
2
feeding conditions.

Our previous results clearly
showed that bacteroid can synthesis alanine through GDH or ADH, but ammnonia
is a major export compound from bacteroid to cytosol.

Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 22
N
2
Glu
N
2
NH
4
+
Glu
NH
4
+
Ala
2-OG
Glu
Gln
Purine base
Uric acid
Allantoin
Allantoic acid
Infected cell
Uninfected cell
Bacteroid
PBM
Ureides

Figure 20. Nitrogen metabolism in soybean nodules
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Stems
Nodules
R
a
t
i
o

(
1
5
N
2
/
1
5
N
O
3
-
)

Figure 21. Comparison of the ratios of 15N abundance from 15N2/15NO3- in stems and
nodules. 1: nitrate, 2: ureides (arrow), 3: ammonia, 4: glutamine, 5: glutamate, 6:
asparagine, 7: aspartate, 8: alanine, 9: 4-aminobutylate, 10: serine, 11: isoleucine, leucine,
12: proline From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1979a
The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 23
4. UREIDE SYNTHESIS IN SOYBEAN

Some leguminous plants including soybean transport the fixed N mainly in
the form of ureides (allantoin and allantoate). All the species in Phaseoleae
(soybean, common bean, cowpea etc.) and some species in Robinieae,
Indigoforeae and Desmodieae transport ureides (Atkins 1991). Ishizuka et al.
discovered that nodulated soybean plants contain a large amount of ureides in
stems, while non-nodulating isoline contain much less amount of ureides
(Kushizaki et al. 1964). They hypothesized that ureides may be synthesized in the
root part where the metabolism might be disturbed by nodulation. On the other
hand, Matsumoto et al. (1975) suggested the site of ureide formation may be in
nodules and not in roots of soybean. Reviews on ureide biosynthesis in legume
nodules were published (Scubert 1986, Tajima et al. 2004).
We compared the labeling patterns of ureides and amino acids from
15
N
2
and
15
NO
3
-
(Ohyama and Kumazawa 1979ab). One group of soybean plants was
exposed to
15
N
2
and non-labeled NO
3
-
, and another group was fed with
15
NO
3
-
solution with non-labeled N
2
. After 8 hrs of treatments soybean plants were
harvested, and the
15
N abundance of ureides and ammonia, nitrate, and amino
acids were determined. The ratios of
15
N abundance from
15
N
2
and
15
NO
3
-
in stems
and nodules were calculated (Figure 21). The ratio of ureides (about 6) in stems
showed 10-50 fold higher than the ratios of other compounds (0.1-0.48),
indicating that most of ureides derived from fixed N rather than absorbed N.
When the same ratios were calculated in nodules, the ratios are mostly the same
including ureides except for nitrate. This suggested that ureides are mainly
synthesized in nodules either from fixed N
2
or from absorbed NO
3
-
but only small
amount of ureides are synthesized in the root part.
The experiment above was compared the metabolism of fixed N and absorbed
NO
3
-
in relatively short term, however, the same trends were observed by the long
term experiment in which soybean plants were cultivated with continuous supply
of
15
NO
3
-
. Soybean plants were cultivated with hydroponics, and
15
NO
3
-
was
supplied in the culture solution (Ohyama et al. 1981a). Soybean plants were
harvested at the initial flowering stage (R1) and initial pod filling stage (R3), and
the percentage of N derived from
15
NO
3
-
was determined by
15
N analysis (R shows
the reproductive stage proposed by Fher et al. 1971). The percentage of nitrogen
originating from
15
NO
3
-
in the stems, petioles, and leaf blades were almost the
same as in the nodules in both stages (about 10% at R1 and about 8% at R3).
However, the percentage in roots was higher about 20% at R1 and 14% at R3
stage. These results indicated that most of ureides in shoots derived from nodules,
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 24
and small portion of ureides is synthesized in the roots but it contributes very little
to nitrogen transport to the shoots.
The effects of various nitrogen fertilizers on the concentrations of ureides and
amino acids in the shoot were investigated in relation to nodule formation
(Ohyama et al. 1981a). The concentration of amino acids was unaffected by
nodulation. A low level of ureides was detected in all the plants including non-
nodulatated ones, and after a certain critical stage of nodule growth, the ureide
content increased in proportion to the increase in nodule fresh weight.
When the nodule slices were fed with
15
N labeled precursors of purine
biosynthesis, glutamine and glycine, for 30 min,
15
N incorporation into ureides
were observed (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1981b). In addition, from
14
C labeled
hypoxanthine feeding the radioactivity was detected in the Rf of xanthine, uric
acid, allantoin and allantoic acid separated by paper chromatography (Ohyama
and Kumazawa 1981b). Furthermore, a low O
2
condition depressed the ureide
synthesis in intact soybean nodules. These results are in accordance with the
ureide synthesis pathway through oxidative degradation of purine base.
The reason why nodules synthesize ureides although roots synthesize
asparagine is not fully understood yet. The ureides contain 4N with 4C in a
molecule and which is more efficient to transport form of N compared with
asparagine with 2N and 4C in a molecule. It is postulated that ureide synthesis in
nodule may be evolved to adapt to economical use of C because nodule needs a
lot of carbon source for N
2
fixation and assimilation. The trigar to accelerate
ureide synthesis has not know yet, but the high N or low C concentrations, low
pO
2
may be involved. Chen et al. (1999) investigated the profile of ureide
accumulation in various tissue of alfalfa which is amide type legume. In alfalfa
plants the ureide concentration was higher in the lateral roots and nodules than in
other tissues. In the main root the concentration of ureides increased gradually
towards the root tip.
Figure 22 shows the metabolic pathways and transport of N derived from N
2
fixation and NO
3
-
absorption in soybean plants. The N fixed by the bacteroid is
rapidly exported to the plant cytosol as in the form of ammonium, then the NH
4
+
is assimilated into glutamine by GS in the cytosol of infected cells. Then
glutamine is converted to 2 glutamate in the plastid via GOGAT. Then xanthine
and uric acid is formed by purine degradation, and uric acid is transported to the
neibering uninfected cells, then it is further degraded to allantoin and allantoic
acid. On the other hand, some part of the NO
3
-
absorbed in the roots are reduced in
the roots to NO
2
-
by nitrate reductase, then the NO
2
-
is further reduced to NH
4
+
by
plastidic nitrite reductase. Then the NH
4
+
is assimilated by GS/GOGAT pathway
in the roots, and metabolized to asparagine then transported to shoot via xylem.
The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 25
Some part of NO
3
-
is directly transported through xylem to the shoots. Ohtake et
al. (1995) reported the seasonal changes in amino acid composition in xylem sap
of soybean and they confirmed that asparagine was the principal amino acids in
xylem sap at any stages. Masuda et al. (2003) compared the concentration of
amino acids and ureides and the correlation was observed in non-nodulated
soybean but it was not observed in nodulated soybean cultivated in the field.

Nodule
N2
)NWVCOKPG
:JCPVKPG
#NNCPVQKP
bacteroid
infected
cell
Uninfected
cell
inner
cortex
vascular
bundle
2JQVQU[PVJCVG
#NNCPVQKECEKF
NO3
- NO3
-
NO2
-
NH4
+
NH4
+
)NWVCOKPG
#URCTCIKPG
Root
Shoot
xylem
2JQVQU[PVJCVG
#NNCPVQKECEKF
:JCPVKPG
Uric acid
Uric acid
Photoassimilate
Photoassimilate
NH
4
+
NO
2
-
NO
3
-
NO
3
-
Asparagine
Allantoic acid
Glutamine
Allantoic
acid
Allantoin
NH
4
+
Glutamine
N
2

Figure 22. Nitrogen metabolism and transport in nodules and roots of soybean plants.

5. NITROGEN METABOLISM IN SOYBEAN LEAVES

Plant leaves are the important organ for nitrogen metabolism, as well as
photosynthesis. The N absorbed from roots or fixed in root nodules is transported
via xylem in stems and petioles, and the N is translocated to the sink organ such
as pods and seeds via phloem. The flow of N in leaves was investigated by petiole
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 26
girdling and
15
N
2
or
15
NO
3
-
feeding experiment (Ohyama and Kawai 1983). The
petioles of the upper four leaves were girdled with hot steam. One hr after girdling,
15
N
2
or
15
NO
3
-
were fed for 10 hr, and the plants were harvested 24 hr after
15
N
2
or
15
NO
3
-
treatment. Compared with control leaves without girdling, sugar
concentration increased in the girdled leaves, such as fructose (x 3.5) glucose (x
3.2), and sucrose (x 1.8) due to blocking of phloem transport. Fellows et al.
(1978) reported that sucrose is a major photoassimlate from leaves to pod via
phloem by the pod leakage technique in soybean. Concerning to N compounds,
the accumulation of amino acids (x 2.5) especially asparagine (x 8.8) was
observed, indicating that these compounds are the major transport forms from
leaves to sink organ via phloem.

Ureides
NO
3
-
Asn
Proteins
Ureides
NO
3
-
Asn
Asn
Assimilation
Degradation
Xylem
Phloem
Asn

Figure 23. A model of N flow in soybean leaves.
However, nitrate and ureides remained in the same level as non-girdled leaves and
they are not accumulated in girdled leaves, suggesting that nitrate and ureides are
not transported from leaves to sink via phloem (Figure 23). There are tow
different ureide degradation pathways in soybean leaves, either by allantoate
amidinohydrolase or by allantoate amidohydrolase (Vadez and Sinclair, 2000).
The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 27
6. COMPARISON OF NITROGEN ALLOCATION DERIVED
FROM FIXED N
2
AND FROM ABSORBED NO
3
-


Comparative study on the nitrogen metabolism and transport was done at the
pod filling stage (Ohyama 1983). Nodulated soybean plants were hydroponically
cultivated with 0.7 mM nitrate, and
15
N
2
or
15
NO
3
-
treatment was conducted for 10
hr. Immediately after 10 hr of
15
N
2
treatment, the 36% of fixed N remained in
nodules, then the rest was located in roots (9%), stems (17%), leaves (18%), pods
(10%), and seeds (10%). During chase period of five consecutive days under non-
labeled conditions,
15
N content decreased in the nodules, roots and stems and the
corresponding amount of
15
N was translocated to the seeds (36% at 5
th
day). At
the end of 10 hr of
15
NO
3
-
treatment, 36% of absorbed
15
N was remained in the
roots, and the rest was located in nodules (0.4%), stems (17%), leaves (36%),
pods (5%), and seeds (5%), respectively. During chase period of 5 consecutive
days under non-labeled conditions,
15
N content decreased in the roots, stems and
leaves, and the corresponding amount of
15
N was translocated to the seeds (44% at
5
th
day).
Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the fates of N derived
from nitrogen fixation and N derived from nitrate absorption was different,
although both N sources can be utilized either for vegetative or reproductive
growth. Some portion of N derived from N
2
fixation is rapidly transported to the
pods and seeds, while another portion was derived from N once assimilated in the
nodules and other vegetative parts. On the other hand, most of N originated from
NO
3
-
was immediately assimilated into the proteins of roots and leaves, then the N
was resolublilized by protein degradation and redistributed to the pods and seeds.
Sato et al. (1999) analyzed nitrate absorption and distribution in nodulated
(T202) and non-nodulated (T201) soybean plants with
13
NO
3
-
and
15
NO
3
-
. Real
time observation of the accumulation pattern of
13
N was monitored by positoron
emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). The results showed that nitrate
absorption and intial translocation pattern was not affected by nodulation.
We proposed a model of N flow derived from N
2
and NO
3
-
in soybean plants
as in Figure 24 (Ohyama 1984). The N derived from N
2
fixed by the root nodules
is rapidly assimilated into ureides (allantoin and allantoate), and some ureides are
directly transported to pods and used for seed development. Ureides are also used
for leaf protein synthesis, but the contribution is relatively lower than N derived
from NO
3
-
absorbed from the roots. On the other hand, some part of NO
3
-

absorbed from the roots is immediately reduced in the roots, and transported in the
form of amino acids, especially asparagine. Another part of NO
3

is transported to
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 28
the leaf blades via transpiration, and assimilated into leaf protein. The
remobilization of storage protein in leaves and roots may be a major source for
seed N source in the case of NO
3
-
nutrition. The similar trends were reported in
two nodulated West African geocarpic legumes, Kersting’s bean (Macrotyloma
geocarpum L.) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.) (Dakora et al.
1992). The root xylem bleeding sap of both species showed ureides as
predominant solute of nitrogen over 90%, when plants were relying solely on
atmospheric N
2
. With increasing the level of nitrate supply, the levels of ureide
and glutamine decreased and those of asparagine and nitrate in xylem sap
increased.

Fate of N from NO
3
-
Fate of N from N
2
NO
3
-
Leaf
AA
AA
AA
AA
N
O
3
-
A
s
n
A
A
P
N
O
3
- ,

A
s
n
A
A
P
A
A
A
A
NO
3
-
N
2
Root
Seed
Pod
AA
AA
AA
AA
N
O
3
-
A
s
n
Ureides
A
A
U
r
e
i
d
e
s
P
U
r
e
i
d
e
s
A
A
P
A
A
A
A
Nodule
stem

Figure 24. Models of transport of N from N
2
fixation and NO
3
-
absorption in soybean
plants. AA: amino acids, Asn: asparagine, P: protein









Chapter 3



CHARACTERISTICS OF NITRATE
ABSORPTION AND
TRANSPORT IN SOYBEAN PLANTS


1. ABSORPTION AND ASSIMILATION OF AMMONIUM AND
NITRATE IN PLANT CELL

The outlines of absorption and metabolism of ammonium and nitrate in plant
cells are shown in Fig. 25. Ammonium which is most reduced form of nitrogen
and nitrate which is most oxidized form of nitrogen are two major inorganic
nitrogen compounds in soil. The NH
4
+
ion is absorbed through the membrane
bound protein, ammonium transporter. The NO
3
-
ion is absorbed through the
nitrate transporter with 2H
+
co-transport. There are two types of nitrate transporter,
a high affinity nitrate transporter system (HATS) and a low affinity nitrate
transporter system (LATS) (Crawford and Glass 1998).


2. CHARACTERISTICS OF NITRATE ABSORPTION IN
SOYBEAN ROOTS

The changes in NO
3
-
concentration in solution were monitored by nutrient
solution circulation system in which the UV absorbance was detected by UV
detector (Figure 26). The relationship between nitrate absorption rate and nitrate
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 30
concentration was shown as Figure 27. The kinetics of this pattern indicates the
presence of only one HATS which Km value is 19 μ mole in soybean roots. The
value is comparable to that in potato cultivars from11.2-17.3 μ mole (Sharifi and
Zebarth 2006).

NH
4
+
NO
3
-
NH
4
+
NO
2
-
NO
3
-
NO
3
-
NO
3
-
NO
2
-
NH
4
+
Glu
Proteins
Amino acids
Amino acids
Ammonium transporter
NO
3
-
Glu
Gln
Glu
Gln
2OG
NR
NiR
GOGAT GS2
GS1
Nitrate efflux
Nitrate transporter
Amino acids
vacuole
cytosol
plastid

Figure 25. A model of absorption and metabolism of ammonium and nitrate in plant cell.
Gln: glutamine, Glu: glutamate, GOGAT, glutamate synthase, GS1: glutamine synthetase
(cytosol), GS2: glutamine synthetase (plastid), NR nitrate reductase, NiR: nitrite reductase,
Using the same system the characteristics of NO
3
-
absorption was investigated.
Figure 28 shows the effect of pH of the solution from 5 to 8 on NO
3
-
absorption
rate. The NO
3
-
absorption rate was highest at pH 5, and decreased with increasing
pH. At pH 8, NO
3
-
absorption was stopped or some in roots was excreted to the
solution. This result was in accordance with H
+
co-transport of NO
3
-
absorption,
because the higher the pH the lower the [H
+
] concentration (electrochemical
potential). Figure 29 shows the NO
3
-
absorption rate under medium temperature
from 15 to 45
o
C. At low temperature 15
o
C, NO
3
-
absorption rate was low only
20% of that at 25
o
C. The NO
3
-
absorpton rate increased at 35
o
C, but it
completely stopped at 45
o
C. Concerning to temperature effect, this experiment
was conducted just after changing the temperature from room temperature around
25
o
C. After several hours of incubation at 45
o
C, the NO
3
-
absorption recovered
by adaptation to high temperature.
Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 31

Figure 26. Circulation system for detecting NO
3
-
concentration in culture solution. From
Ohyama et al. 1989b.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
NO
3
-
concentration ( μmole L
-1
)

Figure 27. NO
3
-
absorption rate vs NO
3
-
concentration in culture solution
The diurnal rhythm in NO
3
-
absorption by intact soybean plants was
investigated by sampling the culture solution every 15 min and analyzed by ion
chromatography (Ohyama et al. 1989b). When 10 mgN of nitrate was initially
supplied in the solution, the soybean absorbed NO
3
-
almost linearly irrespective of
the time during the day and night period or NO
3
-
concentration in the medium (Fig.
30). The NO
3
-
absorption rate was different between day (1.10 mgN L
-1
h
-1
) and
night period (0.77 mgN L
-1
h
-1
), and the level of the absorption rate in the night
was about 60-75% of that in the daytime. The temporary interruption of NO
3
-
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 32
absorption was observed twice a day at dawn and dusk. The same trends were
observed when the solution with 25 mgN L
-1
of nitrate was supplied. The
absorption rate during day time was 0.93 mgN L
-1
h
-1
, and that during night time
was 0.68 mgN L
-1
h
-1
. It was suggested that this rhythmic pattern of NO
3
-
absorption was not directly controlled by the shoots, because the rhythm
continued under the extended dark period (Figure 31) or by cutting the shoots
(Ohyama et al 1989b). When the roots were put in the water bath under constant
temperature at 30
o
C, the rhythm of NO
3
-
absorption disappeared (Figure 32),
suggesting that the nitrate absorption rate of soybean roots is controlled by
monitoring the root temperature changes. Different results were reported by
Delhon et al (1995a, 1995b). They reported diurnal regulation of NO
3
-
uptake in
soybean plants, and the NO
3
-
absorption was monitored in the non-nodulated
soybean plant during 14/10h light/dark period at a constant temperature of 26
o
C.
During the night NO
3
-
uptake rate and nitrate reduction was decreased. The
accumulation of NO
3
-
and asparagine were observed in the roots in dark period.

-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
4 5 6 7 8 9
pH

Figure 28. NO
3
-
absorption rate under different pH conditions of culture solution.
When 0.5 mM KCN, which inhibit O
2
respiration, was added to the solution,
NO
3
-
absorption was completely stopped after a time-lag of about 1 hr (Ohyama et
al. 1989b). The result suggests that NO
3
-
absorption is active transport, which
depends on the energy supply through O
2
respiration. The NO
3
-
absorption was
immediately stopped by the addition of 0.5mM CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-
chlorophenylhydrazone) to culture solution, which chancel the electrochemical
potential of H
+
across plasmamembrane (Finean et al. 1984). This confirms NO
3
-

Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 33
transport across plasmamembrane is supported by H
+
motive force from appoplast
to inside the cell through co-transport with H
+
.

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 10 20 30 40 50
Temperature (oC)

Figure 29. NO
3
-
absorption rate under different temperature conditions of culture solution.

Figure 30. Diurnal changes in NO
3
-
absorption rate by soybean root from culture solution.
From Ohyama et al. 1989b
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 34
When 1mM ammonium was added to the solution, the NO
3
-
absorption rate
reduced to about 33% of the initial rate, after a lag-phase of 1 hr (Ohyama et al.
1989b). This result indicates that ammonium ion does not directly inhibit NO
3
-
absorption, but the accumulation of assimilated N may cause the reduction of
NO
3
-
absorption rate as suggested by dwarf bean (Breteler and Siegerist 1984). On
the other hand, when 1mM NO
2
-
was added to the solution, the NO
3
-
absorption
was completely inhibited immediately.


Figure 31. NO
3
-
absorption rate by soybean root from culture solution under normal
day/nignt cycle and continuous dark conditions. From Ohyama et al. 1989b
Some of the absorbed NO
3
-
is known to excrete from cell to apoplast, which is
called nitrate efflux. Efflux from soybean roots occurred only in the presence of
NO
3
-
in the medium (Ohyama et al. 1989b). The precise mechanism of nitrate
efflux has not been understood yet, but this process may play a role in fine tuning
of net NO
3
-
absorption rate, which means influx rate minus efflux rate. The efflux
of NO
3
-
from the roots to the medium was confirmed when the soybean plants
were transferred from the
15
NO
3
-
medium to the non-labeled NO
3
-
medium
(Ohyama et al. 1989b). The results suggested that the presence of three steps of
efflux: first a rapid efflux (5 mgN hr
-1
) for the initial few min, and the second
efflux (0.9 mgN hr
-1
) for about 10 min, and the third efflux (0.4 mgN hr
-1
)
continued for a several hrs. When plants were transferred from
15
NO
3
-
solution to
Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 35
N-free solution, the efflux was very low compared with non-labeled NO
3
-
solution.
This suggests that nitrate efflux system in soybean roots operate only in the
presence of external NO
3
-
.


Figure 32. Diurnal changes in NO
3
-
absorption rate by soybean root from culture solution
under natural temperature changes ( closed circle ) and continuous temperature at 30
o
C
( open circle ).

3. NITRATE ASSIMILATION IN PLANTS

Some part of the NO
3
-
absorbed in the root cell is reduced to nitrite (NO
2
-
) by
nitrate reductase (NR) in cytosol, then reduced to ammonia by nitrite reductase
(NiR) in plastids followed by assimilation via GS/GOGAT pathway to amino
acids (Figure 25) . When a high concentration of NO
3
-
is supplied, a part of NO
3
-
is temporary stored in vacuoles. Some part of NO
3
-
is transported cell to cell via
symplast pathway and effluxed in the stele and transported via xylem with
transpiration stream in the form of NO
3
-
.
NR catalyzes the reaction as follows:
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 36
NO
3
-
+ NAD(P)H + H
+
→ NO
2
-
+ NAD(P)
+
+ H
2
O

Plant NR requires NADH or NAD(P)H witch means both NADH and
NADPH as electron donor. In soybean, there are tow types of NAD(P)H-NR and
one type of NADH-NR (Harper 1987).
NiR catalyzes the reaction as follows:

NO
2
-
+6 Fd
red
→ NH
4
+
+ 6Fd
ox
+ 2H
2
O

Where Fd
red
is reduced type of ferredoxin and Fd
ox
is oxidized type of
ferredoxin.


4. COMPARISON OF NO
3
-
, NO
2
-
AND NH
4
+
ABSORPTION
AND TRANSPORT IN SOYBEAN

Assimilation and transport of nitrate was compared with nitrite and
ammonium using
15
N labeled compounds (Ohyama et al. 1989a). The nodulated
soybean plants were treated with a culture solution containing 10 mgN L
-1
(0.7
mM)
15
NO
3
-
,
15
NO
2
-
, or
15
NH
4
+
, and the assimilation and transport of N originated
from these compounds was compared for 24 hr. The absorption rate of N and their
partitioning patterns among roots, nodules, stems and leaves were very similar for
15
NO
3
-
and
15
NH
4
+
(Figure 33).
The N from both N sources was rapidly transported to the stems and leaves
and readily assimilated into the protein (80% ethanol insoluble fraction). During
24 hr of
15
N feedings, approximately 70% of N originated from
15
NO
3
-
and
15
NH
4
+

was partitioned in the leaves plus stems. However, the absorption of
15
NO
2
-
was
about half as much as those of
15
NO
3
-
and
15
NH
4
+
. In addition, the N originating
from
15
NO
2
-
was accumulated in the roots, and not readily transported to the
shoots (only about 20% partitioning in leaves plus stems after 24hr). Different
from soybean, ammonium uptake was twice as fast as nitrate uptake in lupin
plants which were supplied with 2.8 mM NH
4
NO
3
(Atwell, 1992).
After the addition of
15
NO
3
-
in the solution, the asparagine concentration
increased markedly, indicating that asparagine is a major assimilatory compounds
of NO
3
-
in soybean roots. When
15
NH
4
+
was supplied in the solution, the
concentration of glutamine in roots increased very rapidly in 4 hr, then
asparagines concentration increased linearly in 24hr. On the other hand, when
Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 37
15
NO
2
-
was supplied, glutamine level increased rapidly in the roots, but the
concentration of asparagine did not.


Figure 33. Comparison of N absorption and translocation in soybean plants supplied with
NO
3
-
,. NO
2
-
or NH
4
+
. From Ohyama et al. 1989a
Nitrogen assimilation and transport of the plants supplied with
15
NO
3
-
was
investigated by analyzing xylem sap collected from decapitated soybean plants
(Ohyama et al. 1989c). The
15
N abundance of xylem sap increased very rapidly,
about 8% of N in xylem sap collected during first 15 min originated form the N
absorbed
15
NO
3
-
(Figure 34). The time course of the changes in the
15
N abundance
of xylem sap indicated that some part of absorbed NO
3
-
is very rapidly transported
through xylem, but, the other part may be transported slowly after once stored in
the roots. In xylem sap collected at flowering stage contained about the same
levels of NO
3
-
and asparagine, as primary compounds of NO
3
-
transport in
soybean.

Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 38

Figure 34.
15
N abundance (%) of xylem sap collected from the stamps of the roots supplied
with
15
NO
3
-
for 2 hours and chase period of 10hours. From Ohyama et al. 1989b

Figure 35. A model of

NO
3
-
absorption and metabolism in soybean roots. From Ohyama et
al. 1989b
Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 39
Concerning to nitrate assimilation and transport in the roots, we proposed the
hypothetic scheme as shown in Figure 35 (Ohyama et al. 1989a). Some part of
NO
3
-
absorbed in the roots is immediately exported to the shoots, whereas another
part of NO
3
-
is temporarily stored in the vacuoles of root cells then gradually
released to the xylem. On the other hand, some other part of NO
3
-
is reduced and
assimilated in the roots and synthesized in asparagine. Some part of asparagine is
transported immediately after assimilation in the root cytoplasm, while another
part of asparagine is once stored in vacuoles and released gradually. The
degradation product of root protein may be exported as in the form of asparagine.


5. NITRATE ABSORPTION AND ASSIMILATION IN
SOYBEAN NODULES

NO
3
-
transport pathway into soybean nodule was investigated by tungstate
and
15
NO
3
-
tracers (Mizukoshi et al. 1995). There are several possible pathways of
NO
3
-
transport into soybean nodules. First the NO
3
-
absorbed from the lower part
of roots is transported through the xylem and supplied to the nodules from xylem.
Second, NO
3
-
is supplied by phloem from shoots, which was transferred from
xylem to phloem in stems or leaves. Third, NO
3
-
is directly absorbed from nodule
surface. Forth, NO
3
-
absorbed from the adjacent root part is transported cell to cell
from root cortex to nodule cortex via the symplastic pathway. The importance of
symplastic transport of C unloaded from nodule phloem and N from infected cells
were suggested in soybean nodules (Brown et al., 1995).
Tungstatre (WO
4
2-
) was used as an anion tracer, and the distribution of
tungsten (W) in the roots and nodules was examined by electron probe X-ray
microanalysis (EPMA). At 3 days after 1 mM WO
4
2-
treatment in culture solution,
accumulation of W in the roots cortex was observed while the W movement into
root nodules was not detected. It was suggested that external anions cannot be
readily transported into nodules via apoplastic pathway.
In contrast, when 1.7 mM of
15
NO
3
-
was supplied to the solution for 1 day, an
appreciable amount of NO
3
-
and
15
N was detected in nodule cortex, although a
little was distributed in the infected region. In another experiment,
15
NO
3
-
solution
was supplied to one large nodule through a cheese cloth wrapping the nodule.
These results suggest that NO
3
-
can be absorbed from nodule surface (epidermal
cells or loosely packed lenticel cells), then it is transported from cell to cell into
cortex via simplistic pathway. Arrese-Igor et al. (1998) reported that nitrate
accumulation was 5 times higher in cortex than infected region of the soybean
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 40
nodules supplied with 10 mM NO
3
-
for 8 days. The nitrate treatment did not cause
free nitrite accumulation in nodules in 8 days.
The bacteroid has NR activity when soybean plants are cultivated without
nitrate. The characteristics of nitrate respiration of isolated soybean bacteroids
were reported (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1987). Under anaerobic conditions, the
respiratory CO
2
evolution was very low. When 1 mM NO
3
-
was added, the CO
2

evolution increased by 18 times. The CO
2
evolution associated with NO
3
-
reduction was inhibited by the addition of 1 mM DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol) or 1
mM HgCl
2
, but not by 1 mM KCN. On the other hand, aerobic respiration at
pO
2
=0.2 was severely depressed by 1 mM KCN and 1 mM HgCl
2
.








Chapter 4



NITROGEN INHIBITION ON NODULE
GROWTH AND NITROGEN FIXATION


1. NITRATE INHIBITION ON NODULE FORMATION AND
NITROGEN FIXATION

The inhibitory effects of externally supplied N especially NO
3
-
have been
reviewed (Streeter 1988, Harper 1987), however the nitrate inhibition is complex
and we cannot explain by a single mechanism. It has been suggested that there are
multiple effects of nitrate inhibition, such as the decrease in nodule number,
nodule mass, and N
2
fixation activity, as well as the acceleration of nodule
senescence or disintegration (Streeter 1988, Harter 1987). In addition, nitrate
inhibition of nodules is complex, because the effects of nitrate on nodule
formation and growth are influenced by nitrate concentration, placement and
treatment period as well as legume species (Harper and Gibson 1984, Gibson and
Harper 1985, Davidson and Robson, 1986).
Nitrate inhibition is primarily host plant dependent and it is independent of
nitrate metabolism of rhizobia (Gibson and Harper 1984, Carrol and Mathews
1990). Many hypothesis are proposed for the cause of nitrate inhibition of
nodulation and N
2
fixation, i.e. carbohydrate deprivation in nodules (Streeter 1988,
Vessy and Waterer 1992), feedback inhibition by a product of nitrate metabolism
such as glutamine (Neo and Layzell 197), asparagine (Bacanambo and Harper
1996, 1997), and decreased O
2
diffusion into nodules which restricts the
respiration of bacteroids (Schuller et al. 1988, Vessey et al. 1988, Gordon et al.
2002). Kanayama and Yamamoto proposed that NO formed from NO
3
-
binds to
Lb to make nitrosylleghemoglobin and defect the O
2
binding activity (Kanayama
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 42
and Yamamoto 1990abcd). On the other hand, Giannakis et al. (1988) suggested
that nitrate metabolism does not occur in symbiotic region of soybean nodule,
even when a dissimilatory NR is expressed, because of restricted access of nitrate.
It is well recognized that plant growth is affected by various environmental
factors, such as temperature, moisture, photoperiod, light intensity and quality, as
well as physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil. The degree of nitrate
inhibition was affected by soil medium composition with vermiculite and perlite,
where the proportion of solid, liquid and gas space was changed (Nishiwaki et al.
1995). The effect of planting density and nitrogen supply (0 mM and 5mM NO
3
-
)
was investigated at 31 days after planting (Nishiwaki et al. 1996). The higher the
planting density imposed, the lower the depression of nodulation. This may be
due to the rapid depletion of NO
3
-
from medium. The total N concentration of
leaves, stems and roots was significantly high in 5 mM NO
3
-
supply compared
with 0 mM NO
3
-
supply, although no significant difference was observed in
nodules. In 5 mM NO
3
-
supply, the total N concentration as well as nitrate and
total amino acids N concentration in leaves and stems decreased by increasing
planting density. The sugar concentration was lower in 5 mM NO
3
-
supply than 0
mM NO
3
-
supply in stems and roots but not in leaves. The consumption of sugars
in roots and stems may be accelerated for NO
3
-
absorption and assimilation.


2. LONG-TERM EFFECT OF NITRATE SUPPLY ON
NODULE FORMATION AND NITROGEN FIXATION

Local and systemic effect by nitrate on nodulation has been reported in
leguminous plants. The local effect of nitrate inhibition was shown in split-root
experiments where root systems had been separated into tow equivalent parts. The
strong and rapid nitrate inhibition of nodule growth and N
2
fixation activity is
restricted in the nodules attached to the root portions that are in direct contact with
nitrate; and no or milder inhibition is induced in the other part of the root system
receiving no nitrate (Tanaka et al., 1985). However, some systemic inhibition of
nitrate on nodulation and nitrogen fixation has also been observed with a high
concentration of nitrate in clover (Silsbury et al. 1986).
We investigated the local and systemic effect of continuous NO
3
-
supply by
using horizontal sprit root system in two layered pot system, where the lower part
of roots were supplied with culture solution containing 1mM NO
3
-
in the lower
pot, and the upper roots were in the vermiculite medium with N-free culture
solution in the upper pot (Ohyama et al. 1993a). The soybean plants (cv. Williams
Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 43
and Norin No.2) were cultivated with 0 mM or 1 mM NO
3

solution in the lower
pot, and harvested at maturing (R7) stage. In this stage, there are no nodules
remained in the lower part of roots. The dry weight of shoot and upper part of
roots were almost the same between 0 mM and 1 mM NO
3

supply, but 1 mM NO
3

supply decreased the dry weight of nodules attached in the upper part of roots in
both varieties. This result indicates that continuous long term supply of NO
3
may
impose systemic inhibition of nodulation or acceleration of nodule senescence in
soybean plants.

Lower pot with
cultrure solution
Upper pot with
vermiculite

Figure 36.Vertical split root expeiment using a two-layered pot system. From Yashima et
al. 2003
Systemic and local effects of long-term application of nitrate on nodule
growth and N
2
fixation in soybean plants were more precisely investigated using
tow layered pot system (Figure 36, 37). Four treatments were imposed i.e. 0/0, 0/5,
5/0 and 5/5, with the 0 mM or 5 mM NO
3
-
treatment in upper pot/ lower pot,
respectively. The plants were harvested at the initial flowering (R1) stage and pod
setting (R4) stage, and the effect of nitrate placement on nodule number, nodule
growth, and N
2
fixation was elucidated (Yashima et al. 2003). As shown in Figure
38, the development of the root system in the lower pots was quite different
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 44
between 0 and 5 mM NO
3
-
in the lower pot. The root length was longer in 0 mM
treatment in lower pot (0/0, 5/0), but a bunch of short lateral roots was formed in
the solution with 5 mM NO
3
-
in lower pot (0/5, 5/5). In the lower pot where the
nodules were in direct contact with 5 mM NO
3
-
, the inhibition on the nodule
number, nodule size and N
2
fixation was conspicuous. Systemic and local effect
on nodule number per plant did not occur in the upper nodules in vermiculite. On
the other hand, systemic inhibition on the nodule dry weight and N
2
fixation
activity in the upper pot was apparent. The 5/5 treatment depressed the nodule
growth and nitrogen fixation activity in the upper nodules. Nitrate accumulation
was observed only in the part of roots and nodules in direct contact with 5 mM
NO
3
-
either in the upper or lower pot. The concentration of total amino acids was
higher in the lower roots in 0/5 treatment than 0/0 treatment, however, that was
almost the same level in the roots and nodules of the upper part both at R1 and R4
stage.


Figure 37. A photograph of soybean plants cultivated with two-layered pot system.
The soluble sugar concentration in the lower roots in 0/5 treatment was lower
than that in the 0/0 treatment. The similar trend was observed in the upper roots of
0/5 treatment, suggesting that the absorption of NO
3

from the lower roots decrease
sugar concentration in both lower roots in direct contact with nitrate, and the
upper roots not contact with NO
3
-
.

Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 45

Figure 38. A photograph of soybean roots cultivated with two-layered pot system with 0/0,
0/5, 5/5, 5/0 treatments (from left to right). From Yashima et al. 2003

Figure 39. Effect of nitrate treatment on the dry weight of each part of soyban plants at R1,
R3 and R7 stages. 0-0, 1-1, 5-5, 0-5, 5-0 indicate nitrate concentration (mM) in the lower
pots from planting to R1, and R1 to R7. From Yashima et al. 2005.
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 46

Figure 40. Effect of nitrate treatment on the number of soyban nodules at R1, R3 and R7
stages. 0-0, 1-1, 5-5, 0-5, 5-0 indicate nitrate concentration (mM) in the lower pots from
planting to R1, and R1 to R7. From Yashima et al. 2005
Long-term effect of NO
3
-
application from the lower part of roots on the
nodulation of the upper part of roots was further investigated in relation to
concentration and treatment period (Yashima et al. 2005). The solution with 0
mM, 1mM or 5 mM NO
3
-
was supplied from transplanting to two-layered pot
system at 14 days after planting to R7 stage. Five treatments were imposed that 0-
0 treatment (continuous 0 mM NO
3
-
), 1-1 treatment (continuous 1 mM NO
3
-
), 5-5
treament (continuous 5 mM NO
3
-
), 0-5 treatment (0 mM until R3 then 5 mM NO
3
-
), and 5-0 treatment (5 mM until R3 then 0 mM NO
3
-
). Total plant dry weight and
seed dry weight was highest in 5-5 treatment, intermediate in the 1-1, 5-0, 0-5
treatments, and lowest in the 0-0 treatment (Figure 39). Figure 40 shows the
Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 47
nodule number per plant classified with nodule diameter. The nitrate supply in the
lower pot increased the total nodule number in the upper roots, although
decreased the number of nodules in the lower roots. The value of the nodule dry
weight per plant (Figure 41) and N
2
fixation activity (acetylene reduction activity:
ARA) per plant (Figure 42) and ARA per nodule dry weight (Figure 43) were
lowest in the 5-5 treatment. Interestingly, the nodule dry weight in the upper roots
was highest in the plants with 1-1 treatment and exceeded the 0-0 treatment
(Figure 40). The acetylene reduction activity per plant of the upper nodules at R3
stage was also highest in the 1-1 treatment (Figure 42). This was due to the
increase in nodule dry weight and not to ARA per dry weight of nodules. These
results indicated that continuous supply of low concentration of NO
3
-
from the
lower roots does not inhibit the nodule growth and N
2
fixation activity, but it can
promote nodulation and N
2
fixation. Figure 44 shows the example of soybean root
system cultivated with continuous supply of 1 mM nitrate at R3 stage. Nodulation
was enhanced in the upper roots by supplying 1mM NO
3
-
from the lower roots.
Withdrawal of 5 mM NO
3
-
after R3 stage in 5-0 treatment markedly enhanced
nodule growth (Figure 40) and acetylene reduction activity at R7 stage (Figure 42)
when the values of both parameters decreased in the other treatments. The nitrate
concentration of the nodules attached to the upper roots was very low, including
continuous supply of high concentration of NO
3
-
in 5-5 treatment. This result
indicated that the inhibitory effect of 5 mM NO
3
-
, or promotive effect of 1 mM
NO
3
-
was not directly controlled by nitrate itself, but was mediated through some
systemic regulation such as sucrose supply.


3. SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF NITRATE SUPPLY ON
NODULE FORMATION AND NITROGEN FIXATION

Concerning to direct effect of NO
3
-
on nodule growth and N
2
fixation activity,
Fujikake et al. recently discovered quick and reversible inhibition of nodule
growth by nitrate (Fujikake et al. 2002. 2003b). The upper part of nodulated
soybean root hydroponically cultured in a glass bottle was monitored using a
computer microscope under controlled environmental conditions, and the
diameter of individual nodules was measured from 10-24 days after planting
(Figure 45). The diameter of a nodule attached to the primary roots increased from
1 mm to 6 mm for 2 weeks under N free conditions (Figure 45a). The increase in
nodule diameter was almost completely stopped after 1 d of supplying 5 mM NO
3
-

Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 48
(Figure 45b). However, nodule growth quickly returned to the normal growth rate
following withdrawal of NO
3
-
from the solution (Figure 45c).


Figure 41. Effect of nitrate treatment on the dry weight of soyban nodules at R1, R3 and
R7 stages. 0-0, 1-1, 5-5, 0-5, 5-0 indicate nitrate concentration (mM) in the lower pots
from planting to R1, and R1 to R7. From Yashima et al. 2005
The reversible depression of nodule growth by NO
3
-
was similar to the
restriction of the photoassimilate supply by continuous dark conditions for 2days
followed by normal light/dark conditions (Fujikake et al. 2003b). In addition, the
Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 49
inhibitory effect of nitrate was partially alleviated by the addition of 3% sucrose
to the culture solution (Fujikake et al. 2003b).


Figure 42. Effect of nitrate treatment on ARA per plant of soyban nodules at R1, R3 and
R7 stages. 0-0, 1-1, 5-5, 0-5, 5-0 indicate nitrate concentration (mM) in the lower pots
from planting to R1, and R1 to R7. From Yashima et al. 2005
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 50

Figure 43. Effect of nitrate treatment on ARA of soyban nodules per g DW at R1, R3 and
R7 stages. 0-0, 1-1, 5-5, 0-5, 5-0 indicate nitrate concentration (mM) in the lower pots
from planting to R1, and R1 to R7. From Yashima et al. 2005.
Split-root system was made by cutting the primary root of soybean seedling at
24 days after planting. The split roots were supplied with solution containing with
0 mM or 5 mM NO
3
-
for 3 days from 27-29 days after planting. The positron
emitting radioisotope
11
CO
2
was supplied to the first trifoliolate leaves of 29 days
after planting for 10 min. The movement of
11
C was monitored by positoron
emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). Compared with the root system supplied
with 0 mM NO
3
-
and 5 mM NO
3
-
, the transport rate of
11
C was faster in the roots
supplied with 5 mM NO
3
-
than those in 0 mM NO
3
-
(Figure 46). Quantitative
evaluation was conducted using
14
C as a tracer. By supplying 5 mM NO
3
-
, the
14
C
Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 51
partitioning to nodule decreased from 9.1 % to 4.3%, while that to the roots
increased from 5.2 % to 9.1% (Figure 47).


Figure 44. Effect of nitrate treatment on nodule formation in the upper (left) and lower
parts of soybean roots cultivated with two-layered pot at R3 stage. 1 mM nitrate was
continuously supplied in the lower pots. From Yashima et al. 2005


Figure 45. Growth response of soybean nodules to 0 mM (blue arrows) or 5 mM nitrate
(red arrows) nitrate application in the culture solution. (a) 0 mM nitrate, (b) 5 mM nitrate,
(c) 0, 5, 0 mM nitrate. From Fujikake et al. 2003
10 d
a b c
15 d
20 d
24 d
A
B
N
o
d
u
l
e

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

(
m
m
)
10 15
Time (d)
20
c
6
4
2
0
b
6
4
2
0
a
6
4
2
0
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 52

Figure 46.
11
C traaanslocation in the split root systems of soybean plants. (A) Real time
images of the distribution of
11
C in soybean using Imaging Plant (BAS-1500). (B) Time
course for the accumulation of radioacrivity as monitored by PETIS (Positoron emitting
tracer imaging system), (C) The accumulation of radioactivity for the various point of
roots. From Fujikake et al. 2003
These results indicate that the decrease in photoassimilate supply to nodules
may be involved in the quick and reversible nitrate inhibition of soybean nodule
growth and N
2
fixation activity (Figure 48). The decrease in starch concentration
in nodules (Vessey et al. 1988, Gordon et al. 2002) and the down-regulation of
sucrose synthase transcript within 1 day of nitrate treatment (Gordon et al. 2002)
may imply that NO
3
-
reduces photoassimilate flow into nodules and sucrose
utilization in nodules.

Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 53

Figure 47. Partitioning of
14
C labeled photoassimilate in soybean plants supplied with 0
mM (-N) or 5 mM (+N) nitrate. From Fujikake et al. 2003

Figure 48. The mechanism of quick and reversible nodule growth and nitrogen fixation
activity by short term effect of nitrate.








Chapter 5



NITROGEN ASSIMILATION AND NITRATE
TORLERANCE OF HYPERNODULATION
MUTANTS OF SOYBEAN


1. HYPERNODULATION MUTANT OF SOYBEAN

Hypernodulation or supernodulation (in synonym) mutant lines of soybeans
has been selected from several different cultivars of soybean (Akao and Kouchi
1992, Carroll et al., 1985, Gremaud and Harper 1989). A genetic defect in
autoregulatory control of nodulation causes profuse nodulation than wild type
(Figure 49). By grafting experiment, the control of nodulation is based on the
communication between roots and shoots. Nodulation trait depends on shoot
genotype and not on root genotype (Figure 50). In wild type parents, some shoot
derived signal (autoregulation signal) arrests nodule primordia (Gerahty et al
1992) and suppresses nodule development in response to some signals (infection
signal) derived from nodulated roots after infection. Sato et al. (1997a) reported
that rooted single leaf of soybean retains autoregulation traits as shown in Figure
51. Only a few nodules are formed in Williams parent rooted leaf, but almost 50
nodules attached in the hypernodulation mutant line NOD1-3. This rooted single
leaf system does not have stems and shoot apical meristems, therefore,
autoregulation control of nodule number is controlled by mature leaves without
stems and shoot apical meristems.

Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 56

Figure 49. A photograph of nodulated roots of Williams (left) and its hypernodulation
mutant line NOD1-3 (right) cultivated with N free solution.

Figure 50. Evidence of shoot control of autoregulation by grafting experiment between
hypernodulation mutant and its parent. m: mutanti, p: parent.
Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 57

Figure 51. A photograph of nodulation of rooted single leaf of Williams (up) and its
hypernodulation mutant line NOD1-3 (down) cultivated with N free conditions. From Sato
et al. 1997

2. PARTIALLY NITRATE TOLERANT OF
HYPERNODULATION MUTANT

In spite of profuse nodulation, the root and shoot growth is usually inferior in
hypernodulation mutant lines compared with wild type either cultivated with 0
mM or with 5 mM nitrate (Figure 52).

NO
3
-
0 mM 5 mM
Line Williams NOD1-3 Wiliams NOD1-3

Figure 53 shows the dry weight and the distribution of dry matter of 18 days
after planting followed by 4 days of 0 mM or 5 mM NO
3
-
treatment (Fujikake et al
2003b). Total dry weight of Williams with 0 mM NO
3
-
was about 450 mg/plant,
and that of NOD1-3 was about 260 mg/plant. However, the nodule dry weight of
NOD1-3 was about 50 mg and almost twice as large as that of Williams. By
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 58
suppling 5 mM NO
3
-
, the dry weight of nodules decreased in both lines, while the
decrease in Williams was more significant than that in NOD1-3. All the
hypernodulation and supernodulation mutant lines have partially tolerant to NO
3
-
.
The supernodulation line first reported was named as “nts”, which means “nitrate-
tolerant symbiosis” mutant (Carroll et al. 1985).


Figure 52. A photograph of root system of Williams and its hypernodulation mutant line
NOD1-3 cultivated in a pot with 0 mM or 5 mM NO
3
-
conditions. From Sato et al. 1999
Figure 54 shows the changes in the nodule diameter in Williams and NOD1-3
during 4 days of 0 mM and 5 mM NO
3
-
treatment (Fujikake et al. 2003a). At 14
days after planting, the average nodule diameter of Williams was about 2.2 mm
and that of NOD1-3 was about 2.0 mm. The average nodule diameter of Williams
increased about 1.0 mm for 4 days, whereas the increase was about 0.6 mm in
NOD 1-3 under the 3 mM NO
3
-
conditions. The number of nodules are higher in
NOD1-3 but nodule growth was slow compared with nodules of Williams. The
nodule growth almost stopped after one day of 5 mM NO
3
-
in Williams, while the
nodule of NOD1-3 continued to grow until 2 days after 5 mM NO
3
-
treatment.
After 4 days of 5 mM nitrate treatment, the nodule dry weight decreased by 22%
in NOD1-3 and by 58% in Williams, respectively. The 5 mM nitrate treatment
decreased the ARA in NOD1-3 by 60% per plant and by 50% per nodule g DW
and these parameters were less sensitive to the treatment than those in Williams in
Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 59
which the inhibition rate was 90% per plant and 80% per nodule dry weight. A
whole shoot of Williams and NOD1-3 plants were exposed to
14
CO
2
for 120 min
followed by 0 or 5 mM nitrate treatment for 2 days, and the partitioning of
14
C
radioactivity between nodules and roots were 63% and 37% in Williams and 89%
and 11% in NOD1-3. Under the 5 mM nitrate conditions, the percentage of
distribution of
14
C between the nodule and roots changed to 14% and 86% in
Williams, and 39 and 61% in NOD1-3 , respectively. These results indicated that
the hypernodulation mutant NOD1-3 supplied a larger amount of photoassimilate
to the nodules than to the roots under nitrogen free conditions, and that the nitrate
depression of photoassimilate transport to the nodules was less sensitive than that
of the parent line. Hansen et al. (1992) compared Bragg and the supernodulating
mutant nts1007 with short-term (3 days) supply of 4 mM nitrate. Nodule
respiratory activity of Bragg was reduced by nitrate to 27% of control, but that of
nts1007 was 56%.


Figure 53. Comparison of dry weight and the distribution of Williams and its
hypernodulation mutant line NOD1-3 cultivated in a pot with 0 mM or 5 mM NO
3
-

conditions. Simbols in bar is nodules, roots, stems and leaves from down to up. From
Fujikake et al. 2003
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 60

Figure 54. Changes in nodule diameter of Williams (circle) and NOD1-3 (square)
cultivated with 0 mM (open) or 5 mM (closed) NO3- conditions. From Fujikake et al.
2003a
3. COMPARISON OF THE ASSIMILATION OF
15
N
2
AND
15
NO
3
-
BETWEEN HYPERNODULATION MUTANT AND PARENT

Assimilation of
15
N
2
and
15
NO
3
-
was compared among hypernodulation
mutant lines, NOD1-3, NOD2-4, and NOD3-7 and the parent Williams (Ohyama
et al. 1993b). Soybean seeds were inculated at planting and transplanted at day 7
to nutrient solution with 1 mM urea or 5 mM NO
3
-
. At 25 days after planting,
separate plants were exposed to
15
N
2
or
15
NO
3
-
from 3 to 48 hrs to evaluate N
2

fixation and NO
3
-
assimilation. Plant growth was less for hypernodulation mutant
lines than for Williams with both NO
3
-
or urea nutrition. With urea grown plants
the total mg
15
N fixed per plant for 24 h was 1.18 (Williams), 1.40 (NOD1-3),
Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 61
1.07 (NOD2-4) and 0.80 (NOD3-7) (Figure 55). Distribution patterns of
15
N

among organs were very similar among lines after a 24 h
15
N
2
fixation period;
approximately 40% in nodules, 12% in roots, 14% in stem, 34% in leaves. The 5
mM NO
3
-
treatment resulted in a 95 to 97% decrease in nodule mass and
15
N
2
fixation by Williams, while the three mutant lines retained 30 to 40% of the
nodule mass and 17 to 19% of the
15
N
2
fixation of respective urea grown controls.
The hypernodulation mutant lines, which had restricted root growth, absorbed less
15
NO
3
-
than Williams. The major part of
15
N from
15
N
2
fixation was incorporated
into insoluble fraction after 24 h, however, a larger part of
15
N

from
15
NO
3
-

retained in the soluble fraction of all plant parts through 24 h (Figure 56). These
results confirmed that nodule development is less sensitive to external NO
3
-
in
mutant lines than in the Williams parent, and subsequent N metabolism and
distribution within the plant was not different among lines. The partial tolerant of
nodulation for nitrate may be due to less NO
3
-
absorption activity and smaller
roots in NOD lines.
The effects of decapitation (shoot removal) treatment on
15
N
2
fixation,
transport and assimilation were determined in NOD 1-3 and the parent Williams
(Ohyama and Harper 1991). The root systems of intact plants were exposed to
15
N
2
and the shoots from half of the plants were removed 1 h after the onset of
15
N
2
exposure. Decapitated and intact plants were harvested at 2 h after
decapitation. N
2
fixation was markedly depressed by the decapitation treatment
and the amount of
15
N

in soluble and insoluble N in the nodules was decreased.
Simultaneously the concentration of amino-N, ureide-N and soluble carbohydrate
in the nodules also declined following shoot removal. The response to
decapitation was very similar between NOD1-3 and Williams. It is suggested that
the rapid decline in N
2
fixation following decapitation was primary due to the
interruption of the carbohydrate supply from shoot.


4. LEGHEMOGOLOBIN COMPONENTS IN
HYPERNODULATION MUTANT AND PARENT

Leghemoglobin (Lb) plays crucial role in N
2
fixation of leguminous nodules
by facilitating O
2
supply to the bacteroids. There are four major components of Lb
in soybean nodules, Lba, Lbc1, Lbc2, and Lbc3, and different roles among
components are suggested (Fuchsman et al. 1976), because Lba has higher affinity
for O
2
than has Lbc. The concentration of Lba and Lbc were separated by Native
PAGE (Nishiwaki and Ohyama 1995) or all the four components Lba, Lbc1, Lbc2,
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 62
and Lbc3 were separately determined by capillary electrophoresis (Figure 57)
(Sato et al. 1997b).


Figure 55. Total accumulation of
15
N labeled nitrogen in each part of Willams and the
hypernodulation mutant lines NOD1-3, NOD2-4 and NOD3-7. From Ohyama et al. 1993

Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 63

Figure 56. Accumulation of 80% ethanol soluble and insoluble
15
N labeled nitrogen in
each part of Willams and the hypernodulation mutant line NOD1-3. From Ohyama et al.
1993
The concentration and component ratios in hypernodulation mutant NOD1-3,
NOD2-4, and NOD3-7 from Williams parent, and in En6500 from Enrei parent
were compared in relation to their nodulation characteristics. Three mutants
(NOD1-3, NOD4 and En6500) were controlled by a single recessive allele rj
7
, but
NOD2-4 was non-allelic mutant to them (Vuong et al. 1996). Plants were
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 64
hydroponicully cultivated in N free solution, and the nodules were separated by
size. Concentration and composition of Lb components in the same size nodules
were analyzed by gel-electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis. In all NOD
mutants Lb concentration was about 70% of that in the parent Williams,
irrespective of nodule size and growth stages. In the hypernodulation mutant
En6500, the total Lb concentration was only 25% of that in the parent Enrei,
irrespective of nodule size. In Enrei, relative compositions of Lba, Lbc1, Lbc2 and
Lbc3 were 36, 26, 18 and 17%, respectively, and very stable irrespective of
nodule size. EN 6500 had relatively equal amounts of each component in which
the relative compositions of Lba, Lbc1, Lbc2 and Lbc3 were 30, 22, 22 and 26%.
The concentration of Lbc forms in nodules were decreased by addition of nitrate
to Enrei plants, but not to En6500. When the nodule morphology was compared
among hypernodulation mutant lines and parent lines, we noticed that mutant line
had thick cortical regions relative to the comparable parent nodules (Figure 10).
The relative volume of symbiotic regions was about 50-60% of total nodule
volume, but it accounted for only 40-50% in NOD mutants.


10 20 30 40
Migration time (minutes)
Figure 57. Analysis of leghemoglobin components by capillary electrophoresis From Sato
et al. 2001

Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 65

10 15 20 25 30 35
Days after sowing
Figure 58. Changes in acetylene reduction activity per plant of Williams (closed circle)
and NOD1-3 (open circle). From Sato et al. 2001
Sato et al. (2001) investigated the changes in four leghemoglobin components
in nodules of NOD1-3 and its parent in the early nodule developmental stage. The
hydroponically grown NOD1-3 and Williams were periodically sampled. All the
visible nodules were collected from the roots and then the four Lb components in
the largest nodules were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. In NOD 1-3
nodule development was faster than those of Williams. Acetylene reduction
activity was detected at 19 days after planting in NOD1-3 and at 22 days after
planting in Williams (Figure 58). In addition the Lbs were initially detected at 19
days after planting, a few days earlier than in Williams at 22 days after planting
(Figure 59). The Lbcs (Lbc1, Lbc2 and Lbc3) were the main component at the
earliest nodule growth stage, and the relative proportion of Lba increased with
nodule growth in both NOD 1-3 and Williams (Figure 60).
The hypernodulation soybean mutant lines (NOD1-3, NOD2-4, NOD3-7) and
the parent Williams and mutant line En6500 and the parent Enrei were cultivated
in a sandy dune field in Niigata, and the nodules and root bleeding xylem sap
were analyzed at 50, 70, 90 and 120 days after planting (Sato et al 1998). The
number of nodules of the hypernodulation mutant lines was about two to three
times higher than that of the parent lines irrespective of sampling date. The
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 66
concentration of Lb components was measured by capillary electrophoresis. The
concentration of Lb components in the hypernodulation mutant lines tended to be
lower than in the parents, but the component ratios were not different between
mutants and the parents.


Figure 59. Changes in leghemoglobin components in nodules of Williams (up) and NOD1-
3 (down) From Sato et al. 2001
Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 67

Figure 60. Changes in propotion of leghemoglobin components in nodules of Williams
(up) and NOD1-3 (down). From Sato et al. 2001

5. COMPARISON OF NODULATION AND XYLEM SAP
COMPOSITION BETWEEN HYPERNODULATION AND PARENT
CULTIVATED IN THE FIELD

The concentrations of major nitrogen compounds (nitrate, allantoin, allantoic
acid, and asparagine) in the xylem sap were also measured by capillary
electrophoresis (Sato et al 1998). Warren and Adams (2000) also reported
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 68
determination of major amino acids and sugars by capillary electrophoresis. The
concentration of ureide and nitrate in xylem sap decreased with the plant age, but
the asparagine concentration increased in the later stage. The concentration of
ureides and asparagine were relatively higher, and the nitrate concentration was
lower in the mutant lines than their parents, possibly due to higher dependence on
N
2
fixation than NO
3
-
utilization.


6. NON-INVOLVEMENT OF ETHYLENE ON NITRATE
INHIBITION OF SOYBEAN NODULATION

It has been reported in alfalfa that the inhibition of nodulation by nitrate was
reduced by medication of ethylene production inhibitor aminoethoxyvinilglycine
(Ligero et al. 1991). While the exogenous ethylene inhibited nodulation on the
primary and lateral roots of pea (Lee and LaRue 1992ab). Ethylene is one of the
important phytohormone regulating plant growth. Ethylene is produced through
oxidative decomposition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carbosylic acid (ACC), and
silver thiosulfate (STS) is a potent inhibitor of ethylene action in plant (Veen
1983). Sato et al. (1999c) investigated the effect of ethylene action on soybean
nodulation using ACC and STS in relation to the inhibitory mechanism of nitrate
using hypernodulation mutant NOD1-3 and the parent Williams. The
hypernodulation mutant of soybean NOD1-3 and its parent Williams were
cultivated in culture solution with or without NO
3
-
, and ACC or STS were added
in the solution. The nodule dry weight was decreased by both ACC and STS
treatments, however, the ratio in nodule dry weight in total plant dry weight were
not significantly influenced by these treatments with or without NO
3
-
. Therefore,
it was concluded that the decrease in nodule dry weight by ACC was caused by
inferior growth. In soybean the depression of nodulation and N
2
fixation by nitrate
is not mediated through ethylene action. Schmidt et al. (1999) also reported the
independence of ethylene signaling on the regulation of soybean nodulation.
Moreover, the nodulation of hypernodulation mutant was not specifically
influenced by ACC treatments. This suggests that autoregulation may not be
involved in ethylene action or transduction pathways in soybean plants.
Recently, defective long-distance auxin transport regulation was reported in
the Medicago truncatula super numeric nodules mutant (Van Noorden et al.,
2006). However, similar trend is not observed in hypernodulation mutants of
soybean. Terakado et al (2005) reported that systemic effect of brassinosteroid on
nodule formation in soybean after the foliar application of brassinolide and
Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 69
brassinazaole, the inhibitor of brasinosteroid formation. In addition, they reported
that shoot applied polyamines suppress nodule formation in soybean (Terakado et
al, 2006). Suzuki et al reported that nodule number is controlled by the abscisic
acid in Trifolium repense (white clover) and Lotus japonicus (Suzuki et al. 2004).


7. EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID SUPPLY ON NODULE
FORMATION OF HYPERNODULATION MUTANT

It is postulated that once the roots of soybean are infected with rhizobia, the
infection signal molecule(s) is synthesized in the roots and transported to the
shoot through xylem, and it induces the synthesis of autoregulation signal(s)
which in turn transported to roots and depress further development of the nodule
meristem. However, infection signal and autoregulation signals are not identified
yet. Plants display a mechanism of resistance to pathogenic microbes. Salicylic
acid is considered to be one of the endogenous signals in the systemic resistance
to pathogen infection (Malamy et al. 1990, Metraux et al. 1990, Loak and Grant
2007). If some pathogenic microbes infect a plant, a hypersensitive reaction
occurs in the infected portion of the plant where salicylic acid is synthesized.
Then salicylic acid is transported to other plant part as a pathogen infection signal,
and it induce gene expression of pathogen related proteins. On the other hand,
jasmonic acid also induces the gene expression of pathogen related proteins as a
signal of wound and viral infection (Gundlach et al 1992). Both the autoregulation
of nodulation and the systemic acquired resistance to pathogenic microbes are
mediated by some plant signals. Sato et al (2002) investigated the effect of
salicylic acid supply on nodulation of soybean to determine whether salicylic acid
affect the autoregulation of nodulation, using hypernodulation mutant lines,
NOD1-3 and NOD2-4 and their parent Williams.
Seedlings of the hypernodulation mutant, NOD1-3 and NOD2-4 and the
parent Williams were treated or not treated with a 100 μM salicylic acid solution
at 5 days before the inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110. The
nodulation of Williams decreased dramatically by the addition of 100 μM
salicylic acid. The nodule number with 100 μM salicylic acid was only 6,
although it was about 40 in control plant without salicylic acid. The decrease in
the nodule number was not caused by the reduction of the rhizobium number in
the medium. Salicylic acid inhibited only early nodule formation and did not
affect the growth of formed nodules. The inhibitory effect of salicylic acid on the
nodulation of NOD1-3 and NO2-4 was significantly less pronounced than that in
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 70
Williams. These results indicate that salicylic acid may be involved in signal
transmission in the autoregulation process.


8. INVOLVEMENT OF PHOTOASSIMILATE SUPPLY IN
NODULE FORMATION IN HYPERNODULATION
MUTANT OF SOYBEAN

Legume-rhizobia symbiosis depends on the exchanges of two major nutrients,
nitrogen and carbon (photoassimilate). Therefore efficient supply of
photoassimilate is very important to nodule initiation, nodule development, as
well as maintenance of nitrogen fixation and transport of fixed nitrogen
compounds. A continuous supply of photoassimilate is very important to support
N
2
fixation, because shoot removal treatment quickly decreased the
15
N
2
fixation
both in Williams and NOD1-3 after 2hrs (Ohyama and Harper 1991).
Sato et al (1999) investigated the involvement of photosynthetic supply in
changes of nodule characteristics of hypernodulation soybeans En6500 isolated
from Japanese cultivar Enrei by sink-source manipulations. Because En6500
exhibit profound nodulation but smaller shoots than Enrei, they adjusted the sink
and source size, either by decreasing the infection dose of Bradyrhizobium
japonicum USD110 for En6500, or cutting the leaves of Enrei. To compare the
nodule characteristics between the similar size of shoot with normal nodulation
number, it was found that acetylene reduction activity per nodule dry weight,
concentration and component ratio of leghemoglobin were similar. These results
suggest that the specific characteristics of the nodules of hypernodulation mutant,
such as low acetylene reduction activity per nodule dry weight, low
leghemoglobin concentration and different component ratio of leghemoglobin and
small infected region, is caused by the insufficient supply of photoassimilate to
each nodule, due to excess nodule number. On the other hand, the partial tolerance
of nodule growth and acetylene reduction activity per plant to nitrate was not
directly involved in photoassimilate supply.
Initial nodule growth may be determined by photosynthetic product supply in
relation to autoregulation of nodulation. Ito et al (2006a) investigated the
allocation of photosynthetic products in soybean during the early stages of nodule
formation. A time-course study was conducted in relation to nodule initiation.
Whole shoots were exposed to
14
CO
2
for 120 min and the distribution of
radioactivity in each organ was determined. During the early stages of nodule
formation at 4, 6, and 8 days after inoculation, the
14
C distribution to the
Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 71
inoculated roots did not increase when compared with uninoculated control roots.
In addition
14
C respired by underground parts was similar in both the inoculated
and the control uninoculated roots. At 8 days after inoculation, the accumulation
of starch and sugar was similar in both inoculated and uninoculated plants. These
results indicated that photoassimilate allocation for nodular initiation does not
increase markedly during the early stages of nodule formation. The rate of
photoassimilate supply itself may not be a trigger to develop the arrested nodule
meristems to functional nodules. After the emergence of nodules, photoassimilate
allocation to the inoculated roots gradually increased. In addition, the
consumption of current photoassimilate by the respiration of under-ground parts
increased at day 12 after inoculation to support nodule growth before starting
nitrogen fixation.
Ito et al. also reported the current photoassimilate allocation of
hypernodulation mutant of soybean NOD1-3 in early stage of nodule formation
(Ito et al. 2006b). Whole shoots were exposed to to
14
CO
2
for 120 min and the
distribution of radioactivity in each organ was determined. The
14
C distribution in
the roots of 8 days after inoculation did not increase when compared with
uninoculated control plants. In visualized images of radioactivity by imaging plate,
nodules were observed as strong signal spots in underground organ. These results
indicate that current photosynthate allocation to the inoculated root did not
increase markedly during the early stages of nodule formation, while small
nodules had already strong sink activity than the roots in 8 days after inoculation.
This is faster than the parent Williams. To investigate carbon status of plants at 8
days after inoculation, the starch and sugar concentration in the plants were
similar between inoculated and uninoculated roots of NOD1-3. It was concluded
that increase in photoassimilate supply does not occur for nodule initiation in
NOD1-3 until at 8 days after inoculation as same as the parent Williams.


9. CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY GROWTH OF
HYPERNODULATION MUTANTS

Characteristics of the initial growth of hypernodulation soybean lines, NOD1-
3, NOD2-4, and NOD3-7 were compared with the parent Williams (Ito et al.
2006c) at 7 or 8 days after with or without inoculation of Bradyrhizobium
japonicum. Total dry weight of each hypernodulation mutant lines were not
significantly different form that of Williams in inoculated and uninoculated
conditions. In inoculated conditions, nodule number at 8 days after inoculation
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 72
was higher in the order of NOD1-3 (56 nodules per plant), NOD2-4 (33), NOD3-7
(19) and Williams (17). In uninoculated conditions, the root growth of NOD1-3
and NOD3-7 were faster than that of Williams. Stem length and dry weight of
NOD3-7 were lower than those of other lines, so shoot growth of NOD3-7 might
be different from other lines. Seedling growth of NOD2-4 was very similar with
that of Williams, except nodule number.
The characteristics of the initial growth of hypernodulation soybean lines,
NOD1-3, NOD2-4, and NOD3-7 were compared with the parent Williams with or
without 5 mM nitrate in the solution (Ito et al. 2007). When the plants were grown
without inoculation, the total dry weight of all mutant lines was not different from
Williams, both in the absence and presence of nitrate. These results indicate that
the reduced accumulation of total dry matter of hypernodulation mutant lines may
be secondary effect of excess nodule formation. When plants were grown with
inoculation, the nodule number was decreased by the presence of nitrate in
Williams, NOD1-3 and NOD2-4 but not in NOD3-7. NOD3-7 may be the most
tolerant to nitrate inhibition of nodulation among the NOD mutant lines. In
contrast, the leaf growth of NOD3-7 and NOD1-3 was different from the wild
type. The expanded leaf was smaller, but the leaf emergence rate was faster
compared with Williams under all the conditions. This suggests that NOD3-7 and
NOD1-3 might decrease the ability for leaf expansion. A microscopic study
showed that NOD1-3 and NOD3-7 lines produced small-size leaves due to the
smaller number of leaf cells, compared with the Williams parent (Ito et al. 2008).
This phenotype was not affected by inoculation with bradyrhizobiua or nitrate
supply.
Recently, the genes were identified from hypernodulation lotus (HAR1) and
soybean (GmNARK), which play important roles in the autoregulation of
nodulation, and it was shown to encode a receptor-like kinase protein that
contains a leucine-rich repeat (Krusell et al. 2002; Nishimura et al. 2002; Searle et
al. 2003). These legume genes are homologous to Arabidopsis CLAVATA1
(CLV1), which is involved in the control of cell proliferation in the shoot apical
meristem (Clark et al. 1997). It is interesting that HAR1/GmNARK are expressed
in most tissues except the shoot apical meristem (Nishimura et al. 2002; Searle et
al. 2003), whereas CLV1 is expressed in shoot apical meristem (Clark et al. 1997).
The results of Ito et al. suggest that the protein coded by GmNARK may play
some roles on leaf growth as well as nodule growth by autoregulation.
There is growing evidence that processes leading to nodule initiation and
mycorrhizae are similarly regulated (Hirsch and Kapulnik 1998, Shrihari et al.
2000). Suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation in
split-root systems of alfalfa was observed (Catford et al. 2003), suggesting that
Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 73
autoregulation mechanism may be shared in the rhizobial and the arbuscular
mycorrhizal symbiosis. Recently, Meixner et al. (2007) reported that AMF
precolonization to one part of split roots reduced secondary mycorrhization in
wild type of soybean, while supernodulation mutant nts1007 from Bragg fail to
control secondary mycorrhization. However, the supernodulating mutants En6500
from Enrei, NOD1-3 and NOD2-4 from Williams retained their ability to
autoregulate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These results showed that
supernodulation mutants, despite a common nodulation phenotype, differ in their
ability to autoregulate AMF colonization (Meixner et al. 2007).


10. PRACTICAL USE OF HYPERNODULATION SOYBEAN

The hypernodulation mutant lines of soybean may have some advantages,
such as higher N
2
fixation or nitrate tolerant to nodulation. Wu and Harper (1991)
evaluated the N
2
fixation potential and yield of hypernodulating soybean NOD1-3,
NOD2-4 and NOD3-7 compared with the parent Williams. In the absence of N
fertilizer, all hypernodulation mutants had greater N
2
fixation potential than did
Williams in early growth stages. However, the seed yields from the
hypernodulation mutants were 10 to 30% less than that from Williams. Suganuma
et al. (2001) also compared the growth and N
2
fixation activity of NOD1-3 and
Williams in sandy dune field. The relative dependence on N
2
fixation evaluated
by simple relative ureide method was higher in NOD1-3 (65%) than that of
Williams (58%), but total accumulation of N was lower in NOD1-3 compared
with Williams due to inferior growth. The hypernodulation mutant lines have not
been used for practical cultivar, but recently Sakukei No. 4 bred from En6500 has
been used in agriculture. The Sakukei No. 4 is smaller than Enrei, however, by
increasing planting density, the yield can be over than Enrei. Field assessment of
supernodulating mutant of soybean showed that cropping is beneficial to
subsequent cereal crops (Song et al., 1995), or mixed-cropping with sorghum
(Ofosu-Budu et al. 1995).








Chapter 6



EFFECT OF NITROGEN NUTRITION ON
SOYBEAN SEED STORAGE PROTEIN
COMPOSITION


1. STORAGE PROTEIN IN SOYBEAN SEEDS

Soybean seed is one of the most important protein sources for human and live
stocks. The storage proteins of soybean seeds mainly consists of glycinin and β-
conglycinin. β-conglycinin comprises of three subunits, designated as α’, α, and
β subunits (Shuttuck-Eidens and Beachy 1985). Of the three subunits of β-
conglycinin the β-subunit genes are known for their unique expression. Gayler
and Sykes (1985) reported that soybean seeds cultured under sulphate deficiency
showed a 40% decrease in the level of glycinin and a 3-fold increase in the
amount of β-conglycinin. On the other hand, soybean cotyledons cultured in vitro
in the presence of methionine lacked the β-subunit, and the gene expression was
down regulated at the level of mRNA accumulation (Creason et al. 1983,
Holowach et al. 1984, 1986). The β-subunit of β-conglycinin is especially low in
sulfur amino acids, containing only one cysteine and no methionine residue in its
mature form (Coates et al. 1985). Therefore, it may be reasonable to accumulate
β-subunit of β-conglycinin in S-deficit conditions, and decrease it under S-
suficient conditions.



Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 76
2. DISCOVERY OF N REGULATION ON β-SUBUNIT
OF β-CONGLYCININ

We happened to discover the lack of β-subunit of β-conglycinin in several
non-nodulated soybean lines, although an electrophoretic protein band due to this
protein was clearly detected in the corresponding nodulated isolines (Figure 61)
(Ohtake et al, 1994). In two dimensional electrophoresis, several β-subunit
polypeptide spots were present in nodulated line (T202) but corresponding spots
were not detected in non-nodulated T201 seeds.

A B C D E F G H I
KDa
200
97.4
46
30
21.5

Figure 61. SDS-PAGE pattern of seed storage protein of nodulating and non-nodulating
isolines. A: Molecular marker, B: T202, C: T201, D: Fujimijiro, E: Totan No. 90, F: Norin
No. 2, G: Totan No. 89, H: A62-1, I A62-2. Nodulating lines (B,D, F, H), Non-nodulating
lines (C,E,G,I) From Ohtake et al. 1994
Nodulated (T202) and non-nodulated (T201) isolines of soybean were
cultivated in a rotated paddy field in Niigata, Japan (Ohtake et al. 1996). The pods
and seeds were harvested at 7-days intervals until maturity, and the subunit
compositions of seed storage proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE (Figure 62).
The β-subunit of β-conglycinin could scarcely be detected in the non-nodulating
Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition… 77
isoline, T201, at any period throughout seed development, although it was a major
component in T202.

Month August September October
Day 18 25 1 8 15 22 29 6 10
T202 α’


Acidic

Basic
T201


Acidic

Basic
β
α
α’
β
α

Figure 62. Changes in SDS-PAGE pattern of seed storage protein of nodulating (T202)
and non-nodulating (T201) isolines. From Ohtake et al. 1997
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 78
Northern hybridization could not detect the β-subunit mRNA in immature
T201 seeds, while it was pronounced in T202 (Figure 63). These results indicate
that the suppression of the β-subunit in the non-nodulating isoline T201 is
regulated at the level of mRNA accumulation. The α’- and α-subunits mRNAs
were actively expressed in both lines. Total N concentration was consistently
lower in non-nodulating T201 than nodulating T202, although no significant
difference was observed in either the free amino acid or ureide concentrations in
seeds.
September 8 September 15
T202 T201 T202 T201
α’, α mR
β mR

Figure 63. Accumulation of mRNA in the seed of nodulating (T202) and non-nodulating
(T201) isolines. From Ohtake et al. 1997
The distribution of mineral elements and cell morphology in nodulated and
non-nodulated soybean seeds were observed (Ohtake et al. 1997a). The
distribution patterns of K, Ca, Mg, P, S, and N were similar between T201 and
T202 seeds by EPMA. Protein bodies in cotyledon cells were observed by a
microscope after a thin section was stained with coomassie brilliant blue solution
(Figures 64, 65). The protein bodies of non-nodulated T201 were smaller than
those of nodulated T202. Average cell size of T201 was significantly smaller
about 30% than that of T202, while the total cell number in a seed was not
significantly different between lines. This suggests that the nitrogen deficiency
Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition… 79
did not affect cell proliferation of seeds, but it depressed the cell expansion and
protein body accumulation.


Figure 64. Microscopic observation of cotyledon cells of seed of nodulating T202. From
Ohtake et al. 1997

Figure 65. Microscopic observation of cotyledon cells of seed of non-nodulating T201.
From Ohtake et al. 1997
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 80
Nitrogen regulation of storage protein subunit levels of soybean seeds was
evaluated using T201 and T202 with solution culture in the greenhouse (Ohtake et
al. 1997b). With a continuous 2 mM NO
3
-
supply, seed dry weight and N
concentration of the T201 were significantly lower than those in the T202 seeds,
and the β-conglycinin proortion was lower in T201 than T202. When 5 mM NO
3
-
was supplied, the subunit proportion of the seed storage protein was similar in
nodulating and non-nodulating isolines. Furthermore, in T202 plants treated with
10 mM NO
3
-
the proportion of β-conglycinin increased markedly.

600
500

400
300
200
100
0
40 50 60 70 80 90
Seed nitrogen concentration (mg N g
-1
DW)

Figure 66. Relationship between seed storage protein accumulation and total nitrogen
concentration in seeds. From Ohtake et al. 1997
The results indicate that non-nodulated T201 has a normal, non-defective, β-
subunit genes, and that limited N availability decreases accumulation of β-
conglycinin, whereas high N availability decreases accumulation of β-conglycinin
in soybean seeds, irrespective of whether N was derived from N
2
fixation or from
NO
3
-
absorption. Figure 66 shows the relationship between seed storage protein
composition and the total N concentration of seeds, which were harvested from
soybean plant with various N conditions. The concentration of glycinin was
Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition… 81
relatively constant irrespective of total N concentration of seeds. On the other
hand, the accumulation of β-conglycinin especially the β-subunit was
significantly influenced by N concentration, and it was lost by severe N
deficiency and it was stored with excess N concentrations. This was the fist
discovery of N regulation of soybean storage protein accumulation. This result
was confirmed by following researches (Paek et al. 1997, Nakasathien S, 2000).
Ohtake et al. (2002) reported the effect of short-term application of nitrogen
on the accumulation of β-subunit of β-conglycinin mRNA and protein in intact
seeds and in vitro cotyledon culture system. Non-nodulating isoline (T201) were
cultivated with low N (0.5 mM NO
3
-
) conditions, and they were transferred to N-
sufficient condition (5 mM NO
3
-
) conditions. The β-subunit mRNA and the
protein were detected in immature seeds within 2 days after transfer to 5 mM
NO
3
-
medium. Among the free amino acids in immature seeds, asparagine
concentration increased rapidly within 2 days. In the in vitro cotyledon culture
system, the application of glutamine induced the accumulation of β-subunit
mRNA within 12 hr, while asparagine did not induce the accumulation of β-
subunit mRNA for 7days. From these results, it was concluded that the
accumulation of β-subunit mRNA and the protein may be regulated by glutamine
concentration, or its metabolites or related compounds. Rainbird et al. (1984)
reported that glutamine was the principal N to cotyledon, contributing 55% of the
embryo nitrogen requirement, and 20% from asparagine, and negligible from
ureides, allantoin and allantoic acid. Haga and Sodek (1987) also reported that
glutamine was the most efficient source in terms of protein accumulation in the
cultured soybean cotyledons, while asparagine was less efficient and allantoin was
a poor source of nitrogen.
Concerning to C supply to the seeds, sucrose is a principal C source for pods
and seeds (Fellows et al. 1978). Yanagisawa et al. (1986) showed by
13
CO
2
,
15
N
2

and
15
NO
3
-
labeling experiment that the assimilated
13
C was rapidly transported to
each organ compared with
15
N

from
15
N
2
fixation and
15
NO
3
-
absorption.
Yamagata et al. (1987) reported that 96% of C in matured soybean seed carbon
derived from photosynthate after anthesis.
Ohtake et al. (2001b) reported that the rapid N transport to pods and seeds in
N-deficient soybean plants compared with N-sufficient plant. Non-nodulated
soybean plant (T201) was cultivated hydroponically under N-sufficient or N-
deficient conditions.
13
N or
15
N labeled NO
3
-
was supplied from cut end of the
stems, and the accumulation of nitrate derived N was compared.
Figure 67 shows the outline of the N flow in soybean seed (cotyledon).
Ureide is transported from the root nodules via xylem and accumulated in the pod.
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 82
Allantoin and allantoic acid are metabolized to amino acids and excreted into seed
coat. Asparagine from roots via xylem or from leaves via phloem is also
metabolized to amino acids then provided into the apoplast space between seed
coat and cotyledon. The cotyledon cells absorb amino acids and they synthesize
storage proteins and accumulate them into protein bodies.

Ureides,
Asn
Ureides, Asn
Amino acids
Storage protein
Amino acids
Storage
protein
seed protein
body
seed
coate
vascular
bundle
pod

Figure 67. A model of N flow in soybean seed.









Chapter 7



DEVELOPMENT OF NEW FERTILIZATION
TECHNIQUE TO PROMOTE NITROGEN
FIXATION AND SEED YIELD


1. NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN SOYBEAN CULTIVATION

Soybean requires a large amount of N relative to other crops. About 80 % of
total N was assimilated after initial flowering stage (R1). Sole N
2
fixation is
generally insufficient to support vigorous growth of shoot and roots, which results
in the reduction of plant growth and seed yield. On the other hand, a heavy supply
of N fertilizer often depresses nodule development and N
2
fixation activity and
induces nodule senescence, which also results in the no-effect or sometimes in
reduction of seed yield. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizer is not applied for soybean
cultivation or only a small amount of N fertilizer is applied as a “starter N” to
promote initial growth. Basal dressing of ammonium sulfate (about 10-30kgN ha
-1

of ammonium sulfate) is applied in Japan.
Top dressing of N fertilizer sometimes gave positive effect on seed yield, but
not consistent. Gan et al (2003) reported that N top dressing of urea ( 50 kgN ha
-1
)
at either V2 or R1 stage significantly increased N accumulation, yield and total
amount of N
2
fixed, although the N top dressing at either R3 or R5 stage did not
show this positive results in China. Takahashi et al (2006) reported the effect of
basal side-dressing of various types of coated urea fertilizer on shoot growth and
yield of soybean. The yield was significantly higher in all the coated urea basal
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 84
side-dressing compared with control, particularly in the CUS120 which release
urea sigmoidally from 60 to 120 days after planting.
We have developed a new fertilization technique for soybean cultivation to
supplement N during seed filling stage without concomitant depression of N
2

fixation by deep placement (20 cm depth from soil surface) of slow release N
fertilizers, coated urea and lime nitrogen, including calcium cyanamide as a major
component. We analyzed the beneficial effects from both plant nutrition and soil
analysis sides. We would like to introduce the outline of our study and review the
characteristics of soybean N nutrition and N fertilization to promote high and
stable soybean seed production.


2. DEEP PLACEMENT OF COATED UREA

A polymer coated controlled release N fertilizer (commercial name LP in
Japan or MEISTER outside Japan) has been invented by Fujita and coworkers
(Fujita and Shoji 1999) Linear types of coated urea were first marketed in 1982.
This type of fertilizer has spherical shape about 3mm diameter with 50-60 μm
coat thickness which consists of polyolefin (polyethylene), ethylene vinyl acetate
and talc mineral. An example is shown in Figure 68.


Figure 68. Coated urea fertilizer.
Development of New Fertilization Technique… 85
Different from chemically synthesized slow release N fertilizer such as CDU
(Crotonylidene diurea), IBDU (Isobutylidene diurea), the N release rate from
coated urea is temperature dependent and not affected by other chemical, physical
and biological conditions, and the release pattern can be predicted as a function of
temperature and time period after application. Since the release of N from the
fertilizer meets the plant N demand, and the fertilizer efficiency (recovery rate of
N in plants from fertilizer) is high, the use of coated urea can reduce the
environmental problems by decreasing nitrate accumulation and leaching in the
soil. Also the use of coated urea saves the labor of farmers by eliminating top
dressing to supply N during later stage.


Figure 69. Fertilizer injecter for deep placement. From Takahashi et al. 1993
Takahashi et al. (1991a, 1992, 1993b, 1994) developed a new fertilization
technique for soybean to supplement N during the seed filling stage without
concomitant depression of symbiotic N
2
fixation by deep placement of coated
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 86
urea slow release N fertilizer. They applied 100 kg N ha
-1
coated urea by deep
placement (20 cm depth from soil surface) using fertilizer injector devised by
Shioya (Figure 69).
They used CU-100, a 100 day type coated urea, the commercial name “LP-
100” produced by Chisso Co, Japan. CU-100 linearly releases urea and 80 % of
which is released in 100 days in water at 25
o
C (Figure 70).

100
40
80
60
0
20
80 60 40 20 0 100
lncubation period (day)
Linear release
(80 day type)
Sigmoidal release
(100 day type)
C
u
m
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

N

r
e
l
e
a
s
e

(
%
)

Figure 70. N release patterns of linear type and sigmoidal type ofcoated urea . From
Ohyama et al. 2004
Fertilizer experiments were carried out from years 1989 to 1991 in the field,
which had been converted from a paddy rice field in the previous year. The soil is
a Fine-Textured Gray Lowland soil. Average chemical properties of the soil were
as follows: texture; CL, pH(H
2
O); 6.6, CEC; 28.8 (cmol(+) kg
-1
), total carbon
content; 10.9 g kg
-1
, total N content; 1.02 g kg
-1
, amount of mineralized N
determined by the incubation of air dry soil under upland conditions for 4 weeks
at 30
o
C; 47 mg kg
-1
(Takahashi et al. 1994).
Development of New Fertilization Technique… 87
Conventional basal dressing of ammonium sulfate (16 kgN ha
-1
), fused
magnesium phosphate (60 kgP
2
O
5
ha
-1
) and potassium chloride (80 kgK
2
O ha
-1
)
fertilizers were mixed in plow layer (0-13 cm depth) of all experimental plots.
Three fertilizer treatments were conducted as follows. Control; no additional
fertilizer. Deep placement of 100 day type coated urea; basal deep placement
(20cm depth from soil surface) of CU-100 below sowing planting line (100 kgN
ha
-1
). Top dressing of 70 day type coated urea; top dressing of CU-70 (100 kgN
ha
-1
) just before the flowering stage with intertillage and earthing up. The seeds of
soybean (Glycine max [L.] merr. cv. Enrei) were sown by single stem training
(75cm x 15cm; planting density, 8.9 plants m
-2
).

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
S
e
e
d

y
i
e
l
d

(
t
/
h
a
)
1989 1990 1991
Year
Control
Deep Placement

Figure 71. Seed yield of soybean plants cultivated in rotated paddy field with or without
(control) deep placement of coated urea (LP-100) for three years. From Takahashi et al.
1995
As shown in Figure 71 the seed yield was significantly higher in the plants
with the deep placement of CU-100 than control in each year. The seed yield was
from 10 (1991) to 23 % (1990) higher in deep placement than the control
treatments. The promotion of leaf growth and retardation of leaf senescence were
observed during the maturing stage. In 1990, the seed yield was very high about 6
t ha
-1
in deep placement due to the favorable climatic conditions compared with
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 88
years 1989 and 1991. The absorption efficiency of fertilizer N determined by
15
N
labeled fertilizers was calculated from recovery of
15
N in the shoots at R7 stage
(Figure 72). In 1990, the absorption efficiency at R7 from the deep placement of
CU-100 was 62 %, which was much higher than the top dressing of CU-70 (33 %)
and basal application of ammonium sulfate (9 %).

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1 2 3
Stage
AS
CU 100
CU 70

Figure 72. Recovery rate (%) of fertilizer N from basal deep placement of CU100, top
dressing of CU70 and basal dressing of ammonium sulfate.Stage 1; Planting, Stage 2; R3,
Stage 3; R7 From Takahashi et al. 1995
In the experiments conducted by Takahashi et al. (1991a,1992,1994, 1995)
included the top dressing of linear type coated urea (CU-70, 100 kgN ha
-1
) just
before flowering stage with intertillage and earthing up. Although CU-70 is also
control released N fertilizer, the top dressing of CU-70 did not consistently
increase seed yields, due to depression of N
2
fixation activity during reproductive
stage from the analysis. Fertilizer efficiency was about 30 % and much lower than
deep placement of CU-100.



Development of New Fertilization Technique… 89
3. N ORIGIN OF PLANTS BY DEEP PLACEMENT OF COATED
UREA

By periodical sampling of soybean plants and xylem sap, quantitative
estimation of the seasonal changes in N
2
fixation activity and N absorption rate
has been published (Takahashi et al 1992). Table 1 shows the estimation of daily
N
2
fixation activity and N absorption rate of soybean plant in 1990 by simple
relative ureide method (Takahashi et al. 1993a, FNCA 2006). Compared with
control plants, the plants with deep placement of CU100 show higher N
accumulation rate at any stages. It is remarkable that the deep placement of coated
urea did not depress N
2
fixation activity. In addition N absorption rate was always
higher in deep placement than that of control plant at any stages.

Table 1. Estimation of daily N
2
fixation activity and N absorption rate of
soybean plants estimated by simple relative ureide method.
Period N accumulation N Fixation N Absorption
(DAS) (mg m
-2
day
-1
) (mg m
-2
day
-1
)

(mg m
-2
day
-1
)
Cont DP Cont DP Cont DP
0-34 55 70 36 41 19 29
34-44 (R1) 110 251 83 172 27 79
44-60 (R3) 352 361 310 274 42 87
60-74 (R5) 478 591 414 436 64 154
74-116(R7) 423 485 279 276 143 210
DAS; days after sowing, Cont; control treatment, DP; Deep placement of coated urea.
(Recalculated from the data in Takahashi et al. (1992))

Table 2 shows the comparison of the total amount of fixed N and absorbed N
from fertilizer N and soil N at R7 stage. The plants with deep placement of
CU100 absorbed about 6.4 gN m
-2
from fertilizer and it was much higher than that
(0.15 gN m
-2
) in the control plants. The fertilizer efficiency of deep placement of
CU100 was very high about 64 %, although that from basal application of
ammonium sulfate was less than 10 %. It was remarkable to note that the amount
of fixed N in deep placement of CU100 was about 25.2 g m
-2
and not lower than
that in control plants (24.5 g m
-2
). This indicates that the deep placement of
CU100 did not depress N
2
fixation activity with efficient supplement of N from
the lower part of the roots. Consequently, the plant growth and seed yield were
much exceeded mainly by increasing pod number in comparison to control
cultivation without deep placement. Board and Tan (1995) reported that source
strength influenced pod umber from R1 to 10 to 12 days after R5 stage. Pod per
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 90
reproductive node were regulated by pod initiation (pods at least 0.5 cm long) and
/ or abortion of initiated pods.

Table 2. Comparison of the amount of fixed N, absorbed fertilizer N and soil
N and total accumulated N between control and deep placement of coated
urea at R7 stage (116DAS).
Total N Fixed N Fertilizer N Soil N
Treatment
(g m
-2
)

(g m
-2
)

(g m
-2
)

(g m
-2
)
Control 33.04 24.52 0.15 8.37
Deep placement 39.34 25.21 6.39 7.74
Recalculated from the data in Takahashi et al. (1992)

It was observed that the CU100 deep placement increased root growth and
water and nutrient absorption activity revealed by rubidium uptake tracer
experiment (Takahashi et al. 1991b). Owing to the promotion of root growth and
absorption activity in the deep place with supplementing N fertilizer without
depression of N
2
fixation, plant growth was promoted from early vegetative stage
till late maturing stage. Leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content were
always higher in CU100 deep placement than those in control, and the leaf
senescence was retarded at R7 stage (Takahashi et al. 1994) It was suggested that
leaf senescence and N redistribution during seed filling may limit soybean yield
by restricting the seed filling period (Hayati et al. 1995).
The seed quality related to the chemical composition of soybean cultivated
with deep placement of coated urea was compared with control seeds (Ohyama et
al. 1994b). The N concentration in the seeds was almost the same as in the case of
control seeds. In addition, the concentration of oil, starch, and minerals (P, K, Ca,
Mg, Na and Fe) in both seeds were almost the same between treatments.


3. FATE OF N FROM COATED UREA IN SOIL

Takahashi et al. (1993b) analyzed the concentration of urea, ammonium and
nitrate in the upper 0-10cm and lower 15-25cm layers of control and deep
placement of CU100 treatments. In the upper layer, the concentration of urea and
nitrate was very low (less than 10 mgN kg
–1
soil) both in control and deep
placement of CU100 treatments. However, the accumulation of ammonium (up to
150 mgN kg
-1
) and nitrate (up to 50 mgN kg
-1
) was observed in August in the
lower layer of deep placement of CU100. Although the urea released from coated
urea was rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia, NH
4
+
-N could not be easily nitrified in
Development of New Fertilization Technique… 91
the deep soil layers of the converted rice field owing to the low activity of
nitrification and restricted O
2
supply. Also both ammonium and nitrate
concentrations in the surface layer did not change by deep placement of CU-100
treatment. As a result, the nodulation and N
2
fixation in the surface layer were not
depressed, and rather promoted through the improvement of the plant growth and
photosynthetic activity.


4. THE MECHANISM OF PROMOTION OF DEEP
PLACEMENT OF COATED UREA FOR
SOYBEAN GROWTH AND SEED YIELD

The mechanism of promotion of deep placement of coated urea for soybean
growth and seed yield is summarized in Figure 73.

a. Deep placement of coated urea slowly releases urea inside and the urea is
rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonium and the ammonium does not easily
leach out from the fertilization sites.
b. The abundant supply of N in the lower layer promotes the root growth,
and water and nutrients absorption activity and fertilized N is efficiently
absorbed from the lower roots.
c. The abundant supply of N from lower part of roots promotes leaf growth
and extends the photosynthetic activity until maturing stage. The leaf area
and chlorophyll content was higher in the leaves of deep placement than
those in control ones.
d. Abundant supply of photoassimilate to nodules supports the nodule
growth and N
2
fixation activity for an extended period during maturing
stage.
e. Continuous supply of N from nodules and roots with increased
photoassimilate supply promotes seed yield without decreasing the
quality.

Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 92
Coated
urea
NO
3
- Urea
NH
4
+
NH
4
+
Inhibition
Coated
urea
Urea

Figure 73. Effect of deep placement of coated urea.

5. DEEP PLACEMENT OF LIME NITROGEN WITH
DIFFERENT INOCULATION METHODS

Recently, Tewari et al. (2002, 2003, 2004a) investigated the effects of deep
placement of lime nitrogen (calcium cyanamide, CaCN
2
,) in comparison with
coated urea. The fertilizer experiments were combined with new inoculation
method of bradyrhizobia using a paper pot inoculation method. All the experiment
was carried out in 2001 in three different sites in Niigata Prefecture. A first
cropping field after reclamation with the dressing of mountain soil without
indigenous bradyrhizobia (Tewari et al. 2002), a rotated paddy field in Niigata
Agricultural Research Institute (Tewari et al. 2003), and a sandy dune field of
Faculty of Agriculture in Niigata University (Tewari et al. 2004a). The effects of
the application of different fertilizers, urea, coated urea and lime nitrogen on the
growth, N accumulation and N
2
fixation activity of soybean plants were compared.
Lime nitrogen contains about 60% of calcium cyanamide (CaCN
2
)

with
calcium oxide and carbon, and the N content is about 20-23%. It corresponds
chemically and physiologically to a basic fertilizer and it neutralizes the soil
acidity. After application to soil, the calcium cyanamide is converted to urea,
which is again degraded into NH
3

and CO
2
. Dicyandiamide contained in lime
Development of New Fertilization Technique… 93
nitrogen or formed during the degradation of calcium cyanamide retards the
oxidation of NH
4
+

to NO
3
-
, since it is a potent nitrification inhibitor. Therefore the
ammonium produced by CaCN
2
decomposition persists for longer period of time
and the nitrate concentration remains low in the soil. It is expected that the
inhibition of nodulation and of the N
2
fixation activity may be alleviated by low
level of nitrate accumulation in the soil. Also this fertilizer exerts some hormonal
effects on plants and is used for controlling soil diseases caused by bacteria and
fungi.
Nitrogen (ammonium), phosphorus, potassium and calcium fertilizers in basal
application (16 kgN ha
-1
, 60 kgP
2
O
5
ha
-1
, 80 kgK
2
O ha
-1
, 1000 kg Ca(OH)
2
ha
-1
,
respectively) were incorporated into the plow layer at about 0-10 cm depths for all
the experimental plots. Thereafter, deep placement was performed at a 20 cm
depth under the planting spot with different treatments as follows. Control;
without additional fertilizers, Urea; Deep placement of urea 100 kgN ha
-1
, CU-
100; Deep placement of 100-day type coated urea, 100 kgN ha
-1
, CaCN
2
; Deep
placement of lime nitrogen, 100 kgN ha
-1
.
In each of these fertilizer treatments, IPP (Inoculated paper pot), DT (Direct
transplantation of inoculated seedlings without paper pot) and NIPP (Non-
inoculated paper pot) seedlings were transplanted in separate plots. Paper pots
(height 13.5 cm, diameter 3 cm) are made of a biodegradable paper designed to
break down in the field. The pots are open at the bottom to allow root expansion
below the pot, although radial expansion of the soybean root system through the
paper was restricted in some fields. Inoculation of legume seed is most
conventional way of introducing effective rhizobia to soil, but full potential of
incoluation is not always achieved (Deaker et al. 2004). Senoo et al (2002)
reported that soil aggregate-based inoculant is more effective for soybean and red
kidney bean growth and nodule occupancy.
As shown in Figure 74, paper pot was filled with vermiculite and a seed was
planted in each pot, and followed by inoculation of one ml of suspension of
Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 about 10
8
cells ml
-1
. Since the
bradyrhizobium population increases about 100 times in vermiculite for a few
weeks (Minagawa et al. 1997), efficient infection of inoculated bradyrhizobia can
also be expected by paper pot inoculation with vermiculite. The use of paper pots
leads to uniform germination and seedling growth, and transplantation protects the
seeds from feeding by pigeons. Therefore, injury and delay in germination, which
often result in severe damage to soybean cultivation, can be avoided. In these
experiments holes at a depth of about 20 cm were dug with a scoop at the
transplanting sites. Thereafter, the previously weighed fertilizers urea, CU-100
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 94
and CaCN
2
were applied in the respective holes just under the seedling placement.
Then the seedlings were transplanted above the fertilizer application sites.

Paper pot preparation with vermiculite Sowing a seed in each paper pot
Inoculation of rhizobia Soybean seedling for transplanting

Figure 74. Paper pot inoculation method.
Table 3 summarized the seed yield of three different sites in 2001. In the
reclaimed field, the most conspicuous effect was observed by inoculation and
deep placement (Figure 75). The seed yield was higher in rotated paddy field
where mineralized N from soil organic matter is relatively abundant compared
with reclaimed field and sandy dune field where soil fertility is very low.
Concerning to the inoculation method, IPP (inoculated paper pot) tended to show
the highest seed yield than DT and NIPP treatments. Especially in newly
reclaimed field with dressing of mountain soil without indigenous rhizobia, the
inoculation by IPP or DT promoted seed yield more than twice as much in the
control treatment. Among the inoculation methods, the IPP and DT seedlings
Development of New Fertilization Technique… 95
showed a higher seed yield than the NIPP seedlings; especially the difference was
statistically significant in the CU-100 and CaCN
2
treatments to control plants.

Table 3. Seed yield of soybean with fertilizers and inoculation treatments at
different fields in 2001

Inoculation Fertilization Seed yield (t ha
-1
) in Experimental fields
Methods Deep Placement
Rotated paddy
field
Reclaimed
field
Sandy dune
field
NIPP Control 2.88 b 0.78 b 1.72 b
Urea 4.53 a 2.86 a 2.46 a
CU-100 4.29 a 3.58 a 2.49 a
CaCN
2
4.60 a 3.40 a 2.50 a
DT Control 3.14 b 1.94 b 1.91 b
Urea 4.22 ab 3.36 a 2.62 a
CU-100 5.35 a 3.97 a 2.71 a
CaCN
2
5.41 a 3.56 a 2.67 a
IPP Control 3.31 b 2.01 c 1.83 b
Urea 4.67 b 2.90 b 2.73 a
CU-100 6.04 a 4.00 a 3.05 a
CaCN
2
6.12 a 4.19 a 3.32 a
NIPP; non-inoculated paper pot, DT; direct transplanting of inoculated seedlings, IPP;
inoculated paper pot, Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different by
5% level in the same inoculation method in the same field.
(From Tewari et al. 2002, 2003, 2004)

As a consequence of the promotion of N acquisition and plant growth,
significantly higher seed yields in the rotated paddy field were obtained with the
deep placement of CaCN
2
IPP (6.12 t ha
-2
) and CU-100 IPP (6.04 t ha
-2
),
compared with the Urea IPP (4.67 t ha
-2
) and Control IPP (3.31 t ha
-2
) treatments
(Figure 76), (Tewari et al 2003). The promotive effects of slow release fertilizers
on soybean seed yield resulted in the yield about 49-85 % higher than that of the
control yield. The similar effect was observed in reclaimed field and sandy dune
field, where deep placement of lime nitrogen was almost the same or better seed
yields.
The promotive effect on seed yield (dry weight) of the deep placement can be
analyzed based on the yield components in paddy field (Tewari et al. 2004a), The
number of pods per m
2
with the slow release fertilizers CU-100 and CaCN
2
was
significantly higher than that in the Control and Urea treatments. The higher yield
by deep placement of CU-100 and CaCN
2
was mainly due to the significant
increase in the total pod and seed numbers. The seed weight and N content were
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 96
also found to be highest with the CaCN
2
treatment followed by the CU-100
treatment.

Deep placement of N fertilizer
Control Urea Coated urea Lime nitrogen
IPP
DT
NIPP

Figure 75. Effect of deep placement of urea, coated urea or lime nitrogen and paper pot
inoculation method in Yamakita. IPP: Inoculation paper pot transplantation, DT: Direct
transplanting with seed inculation, NIPP: Non-inoculated paper pot transplantation. From
Tewari et al. 2002
The N content of the shoot vegetative organs was significantly higher in the
deep placement of N fertilizers compared with the control, both at the R1 and at
R7 stages. At the R1 stage, it was highest in the Urea with DT treatment but later
at the R7 stage, the N content increased with the application of slow release
fertilizers, CaCN
2
and CU-100. This may be due that urea is a readily available N
fertilizer and CU-100 and CaCN
2
are slow release N fertilizers. The total N
content of the shoot organs including leaves, stems, pods, and seeds was also
found to be highest with CaCN
2
among the fertilizer treatments and with the IPP
among the inoculation methods.
The %Ndfa estimated by the simple relative ureide method in the Control
accounted for 50, 54, and 54 % in the IPP, DT and NIPP methods, respectively.
On the contrary, in the plants with deep placement of CU-100 and CaCN
2
,
the %Ndfa ranged between 60-79 % in all the inoculation methods, suggesting
that deep placement of these slow release fertilizers promoted the N
2
fixation
activity. In the deep placement of Urea, the %Ndfa was found to be as low as 47
and 43 % in the IPP and NIPP methods, respectively, suggesting that N
2
fixation
activity was inhibited by this treatment. When the inoculation methods were
compared, the DT plants showed a higher %Ndfa than the IPP and NIPP plants.
Development of New Fertilization Technique… 97
Control Urea

CU-100 Lime nitrogen

Figure 76. Effect of deep placement of urea, coated urea or lime nitrogen and paper pot
with inoculation paper pot transplantation in Nagaoka. From Tewari et al. 2003
Table 4. Estimation of the amount of N originating from various N sources
based on the
15
N dilution method.

Deep Ndfa Ndfs Ndff Total N
Line
Plancement (g/plant
-1
) (g/plant
-1
) (g/plant
-1
) (g/plant
-1
)
Enrei AS 2.24 b 0.78 c 0.09 c 3.12 b
U 2.32 b 1.07 b 0.23 b 3.62 b
CU 2.82 b 1.05 b 0.41 a 4.28 ab
LN 3.61 a 1.34 a 0.48 a 5.43 a
AS; ammonium sulfate, U; urea, CU; coated urea, LN; lime nitrogen. Means followed by
the same letter are not significantly different by 5% level. (From Tewari et al. 2007)

A significant increase in seed yield was observed in the IPP and DT methods
compared with the NIPP method (Tewari et al. 2002, 2003, 2004a), suggesting
that the inoculation of efficient strains such as Bradyrhizobium japonicum
USDA110 might have improved soybean seed production. The promotive effect
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 98
of inoculation may be due to the low density of the bradyrhizobial population in
the field as in the reclaimed field.
Minagawa et al. (1997) used the gus marked Bradyrhizobium japonicum
strain for estimation of inoculated strain number in soil. The proliferation and
mobility of inoculated gus-strain was examined in a rhizobox containing various
soil types (Table 5). At 25 days after inoculation, rhizobial population in rhizobox
increased 1218 times in Nagakura soil (alluvial soil), 538 times in Nakazawa soil
(volcanic ash soil), 513 times in Sonoki soil (alluvial soil), 173 times in Ikarashi
soil (sandy dune soil), and 98 times in vermiculite. Soybean cultivion had been
frequently repeated in Nagakura and Nakazawa fields by rotation between paddy
rice and soybean. Soybean cultivation was absent for a long time in Sonoki and
Ikarashi fields. The indigenous rhizobium population per one g soil estimated by
MPN (most probable number) method was 5.8 x 10
5
cells in Nagakura, 3.1 x 10
5

cells in Nakazawa, 1.7 x 10
4
cells in Sonoki, 8 cells in Ikarashi.
The effectiveness of paper pot inoculation in the field with high rhizobial
density may be due to the difficulty for indigenous bradyrhizobia to infect the
upper parts of the roots, by increasing the populations of efficient strain
USDA110 during seedling nursery. As a result the infection rate of USDA 110
might increase and ultimately N
2
fixation became higher. In addition, the
inoculation of uptake hydrogenase-positive (hup
+
) strain USDA110 promoted
soybean growth compared with the uptake hydrogenase-negative (hup
-
) strains.
Based on the fingerprint analysis of repeated sequences of genes, the incidence of
Bradyrhizobium japonicum hup
+
was dominant in the Nagakura field compared
with other sites in Japan (Minamisawa et al 1999). At the Nagakura site where the
bradyrhizobia population appeared to be relatively abundant, the inoculation of
USDA110 was associated with a promotive effect. Therefore, the inoculation
practice may contribute to enhancing the soybean seed yield in the fields where a
high indigenous bradyrhizobium population had been established.


6. ANALYSIS OF THE PROMOTIVE EFFECT OF DEEP
PLACEMENT OF SLOW RELEASE N FERTILIZERS ON
GROWTH AND SEED YIELD OF SOYBEAN BY
15
N ANALYSIS

The effect of deep placement of ammonium sulfate (AS), urea (U), coated
urea (CU) and lime nitrogen (LN) on the N origin was investigated by
15
N
dilution method (Tewari et al. 2005). Deep placement of
15
N labeled fertilizers
(100kgN ha
-1
) was applied in converted paddy field in the same field as above
Development of New Fertilization Technique… 99
(Nagaoka). Soybean plants cv. Enrei and the non-nodulated isogenic line En1282
were planted. Whole plants were sampled at maturing stage, and
15
N abundance
and N concentration in each part were analyzed. The evaluation of Ndfa, Ndfs and
Ndff was conducted by
15
N dilution method using En1282 as a reference plant as
shown in Table 4. In all the treatment, non-nodulated line exhibited only 36-40%
of total dry weight and 16-30% of total N accumulation compared with the
nodulated line Enrei, due to N deficiency associated with the lack of nitrogen
fixation. The value of the seed weight per plant of Enrei was highest in LN (73g)
followed by CU (63g), U (47g), AS (37g) and control without deep placement
(26g). The value of Ndfa per plant estimated by
15
N dilution method was higher in
LN (3.6g) and CU (2.8g) than in U (2.3g) and AS (2.3g) treatments. The recovery
rate of fertilizer N was higher in LN (43%) and CU (36%) than U (21%) and AS
(21%) treatments. These results confirmed that deep placement of both LN and
CU is effective to improve soybean growth and seed yield by promoting nitrogen
fixation by root nodules.

Table 5. Characters of soils used for rhizobial proliferation and infection.

Location Soil type pH CEC Total N Available N Available P

(H
2
O
)
(meq 100 g
-
1
)
(%) (mg 100 g
-1
) (mg 100 g
-1
)
Nagakura loam 6.52 27.36 0.08 3.49 20.03
Nakazawa light clay 6.50 34.86 0.23 6.34 32.67
Sonoki clay loam 6.64 21.64 0.13 12.85 57.10
Ikarashi loamy sand 6.75 4.60 0.03 2.04 7.28
Vermi-
culite
- 6.78 64.73 0.00 0.56 2.10
(From Minagawa et al. 1997)

To investigate the utilization of N from LN compared with CU, soybean
plants were periodically sampled with deep placement of
15
N labeled LN and CU
(Tewari et al 2007). Figure 77 shows the absorption pattern of labeled N from LN
and CU. The N absorption was initially lower with LN than CU at the R3 and R5
stages, but the absorption was from LN exceeded CU at R7 stage. The recovery
rate was 70% in LN and 61% in CU.
The daily N
2
fixation activity and N absorption rate was calculated by a
simple relative ureide method (Figure 78). Average daily N assimilation rate in
which N from N
2
fixation plus N from N absorption was relatively low until 61
DAS (R1 stage). Daily N
2
fixation activity from planting to R1 was higher in CU
than Cont and LN treatments, although N absorption was high in LN during the
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 100
same period. From 61 to 102 DAS (from R1 to R5 stage), both the nitrogen
absorption rate and N
2
fixation activity were shown to be high in LN and CU
treatments, in comparison to Cont treatment. In all the treatments, the higher N
2

fixation activity was found during R3 and R5 stages with LN (630 mg m
-2
d
-1
),
CU (616 mg m
-2
d
-1
), and Cont (464 mg m
-2
d
-1
) treatments. The N
2
fixation
activity declined during the maturation stage (102-130 DAS) (R5-R7) in all the
treatments. The distribution patterns of labeled N from LN and CU were similar
among organs (Figure 79).


Figure 77. Changes in N recovery from coated urea and lime nitrogen with deep placement
in the rotated paddy field in Nagaoka. From Tewari et al. 2003
The seed yield per plant was 37 g (Cont), 67 g (CU), and 71 g (LN), which
are equivalent to 3.2 t, 5.8 t and 6.2 t per hectare respectively. The results of the
naked eye examination of the seed quality are presented in Figure 80. The
percentage of good seeds were 58% (Cont), 62% (CU), and 65% (LN), and thus
the effect of deep placement of LN and CU on improving visual quality could be
confirmed from this result. It can also be seen that there was a reduction in bad
seeds, especially side wrinkle, whose percentage was slightly reduced by LN
(17%) and CU (19%) treatment, compared to Cont (26%).

Development of New Fertilization Technique… 101

Figure 78. Changes in N
2
fixation activity and N absorption rate with deep placement of
coated urea and lime nitrogen in the rotated paddy field in Nagaoka. From Tewari et al.
2007

Figure 79. Distribution of labeled N at R7 stage from deep placement of coated urea and
lime nitrogen in the rotated paddy field in Nagaoka..
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 102

Figure 80. Seed quality with deep placement of coated urea and lime nitrogen in the
rotated paddy field in Nagaoka. From Tewari et al. 2007

7. PROMOTIVE EFFECTS OF DEEP PLACEMENT OF LIME
NITROGEN ON SEED YIELD.

The efficient supply of N after flowering and non-depressing or promotive
effect on N
2
fixation activity may account for the high seed yields of the soybean
plants with deep placement of CaCN
2
and CU-100. The yield increase by deep
placement of CU-100 and CaCN
2
was mainly due to the increase in the pod
number per plant. It has been suggested that optimum vegetative growth and
sufficient nutrient supply is necessary to obtain an appropriate pod setting number.
The number of total nodes includes the nodes of the main stem and branches is
also important to increase pod number. The node number of the main stem is
determined during the early vegetative growth period. Therefore, the increase of
the seed yield could be achieved through the increase of the number of branches
and pods per node by management practices. The deep placement of CU-100 as
well as CaCN
2
contributed to the increase of the total node number in the
Development of New Fertilization Technique… 103
branches and the pod number per node, leading to the increase of seed yield.
Based on the results obtained here, the deep placement of slow release N
fertilizers on promotive effect of N
2
fixation may have enabled to maintain the
supply of N to the shoot. Consequently, this condition may prevent flower and
pod shedding due to nutrient competition or stress during the transition from the
vegetative to the reproductive growth, which may account for the good yield
obtained with both the CaCN
2
and CU-100 treatments. The number of pods
increased by deep placement at the early reproductive stage. Thereafter, the
abundant photoassimilate and continuous higher N supply could fill the pods
during the seed growth period, which may account for the fact that the N content
in seeds with CaCN
2
as well as CU-100 was also higher than that in the control
and urea treatments.
Generally, N fertilization is known to depress nodulation and the N
2
fixation
activity. The present results suggested that the deep placement of CaCN
2
as well
as CU-100 alleviated the depression of nodulation and N
2
fixation. The continuous
supply of a low level of ammonium or nitrate may be beneficial to keep leaves
active over a long period of time, because the absorbed N tended to be primarily
translocated to the leaves and then re-exported to the other growing parts
(Ohyama 1983, Ohyama and Kawawi 1983) Moreover, the non-depressing effect
of deep placement of CU-100 and CaCN
2
on N
2
fixation may be due to the fact
that the inhibitory effect of NO
3
-
(major form of absorbed N) is restricted to the
root system, which is directly in contact with NO
3
-
. It can be considered that a
large number of active nodules are distributed in the surface layers of soil due to
the adequate supply of N
2
and O
2
by diffusion through soil from air. Since the N
released from deep placement of CU-100 and CaCN
2
may be absorbed in the deep
layers, the inhibitory effect on N
2
fixation of the nodules in the upper layers may
be attenuated. As a result, deep placement of controlled release fertilizers (100
kgN ha
-1
of 100 day type coated urea or lime nitrogen) into 20 cm depth from soil
surface with basal dressing of ammonium sulfate (16 kgN ha
-1
) in the plow layer
enabled to increase the soybean seed yield by about 10-85 % over the
conventional cultivation.
The mechanism of promotion of deep placement of lime nitrogen for soybean
growth and seed yield is summarized in Figure 81.

a. Deep placement of lime nitrogen is hydrolyzed to urea, then to
ammonium and carbondioxiside. The ammonium does not easily leach
out from the fertilization sites at 20 cm depth. Dicyandiamide contained
in lime nitrogen or formed in the soil from lime nitrogen depresses
nitrification to prevent ammonium oxidation to nitrate. As a result, nitrate
Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi

et al. 104
leaching and dinitrification is reduced and the ammonium can be
sustained in the deep place for a long term.
b. The abundant supply of N in the lower layer promotes the lower root
growth, and water and nutrients absorption activity and fertilized N is
efficiently absorbed from the lower roots.
c. The abundant supply of N from lower part of roots promotes leaf growth
and extends the photosynthetic activity until maturing stage. The leaf area
and chlorophyll content was higher in the leaves of deep placement than
those in control ones.
d. Abundant supply of photoassimilate to nodules supports the nodule
growth and N
2
fixation activity for an extended period during maturing
stage.
e. Continuous supply of N from nodules and roots with increased
photoassimilate supply promotes seed yield without decreasing the
quality.

Lime
NO
3
-
NH
4
+
Inhibition
Lime
N
Dicyan
diamide
Urea

Figure 81. Fate N from deep placement of lime nitrogen in soil.










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INDEX


A
abortion, 90
absorption, vii, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33,
34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 42, 44, 61, 80, 81, 88, 89,
90, 91, 99, 101, 104, 113, 114, 115, 118,
119, 120
Abundance, 115
ACC, 68
access, 42
acetate, 84
acetylene, 47, 65, 70
acid, vii, 16, 17, 21, 24, 67, 68, 69, 78, 81, 82,
108, 111, 112, 116, 117
acidity, 92
active transport, 32
Adams, 67, 120
adaptation, 30
ADH, 21
ADP, 14, 15
aerobic, 40
age, 68
agriculture, 3, 73
air, 13, 86, 103
alanine, vii, 16, 19, 21, 22
alfalfa, 24, 68, 72, 106
algae, 14
allantoic, vii, 16, 17, 21, 24, 67, 81, 82
allele, 63
alleles, 111
alluvial, 98
alternative, 14, 21
AMF, 73
amide, 24
amino, vii, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26,
27, 28, 35, 42, 44, 61, 68, 75, 78, 81, 82,
111, 114, 120
amino acid, vii, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26,
27, 28, 35, 42, 44, 68, 75, 78, 81, 82, 111,
114, 120
amino acids, vii, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26,
27, 28, 35, 42, 44, 68, 75, 81, 82, 111, 114,
120
ammonia, vii, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21,
22, 23, 35, 90, 113, 114, 120
ammonium, 15, 24, 29, 30, 34, 36, 83, 87, 88,
89, 90, 91, 93, 97, 98, 103, 105, 106, 117
anaerobic, 40
animals, 1
anion, 39
anions, 39
application, 43, 46, 51, 68, 81, 85, 88, 89, 92,
93, 94, 96, 113, 118, 120, 121
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, 73
Argentina, 1
ash, 98
asparagines, 16, 36
aspartate, 21, 22
assessment, 73, 117
assimilation, vii, 2, 8, 9, 15, 21, 24, 35, 36, 37,
39, 42, 60, 61, 99, 105, 110, 113, 114
Index 124
associations, 109
ATP, 14, 15
autoregulate, 73
availability, 80
B
bacteria, 2, 93, 117
BAS, 52
beneficial effect, 84
binding, 41
biodegradable, 93
biological, 1, 42, 85, 110, 114, 116
biological nitrogen fixation, 106, 110, 116
biomass, 112
biosynthesis, 23, 24, 117
bleeding, 28, 65
bradyrhizobial, 98
Bradyrhizobium, 7, 69, 70, 71, 93, 97, 98, 105,
108, 117
brassinolide, 68, 118
Brazil, 1
breeding, 109
C
calcium, viii, 84, 92, 93, 119
capacity, 105
capillary, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 115
carbohydrate, 41, 61
carbon, 24, 70, 71, 81, 86, 92, 108
catabolism, 8
cation, 14
cDNA, 8
CEC, 86, 99
cell, 7, 9, 10, 30, 33, 34, 35, 39, 72, 78, 105,
108, 112
cell culture, 108
cell division, 7
chemical, 1, 42, 85, 86, 90, 115
chemical composition, 90, 115
chemical properties, 86
China, 1, 83, 111
chloride, 87
chlorophyll, 90, 91, 104
chloroplast, 14
chromatography, 24, 31
circulation, 29
classified, 9, 47
clay, 99
Co, 86
CO2, 40, 92
colonization, 72, 106
commercial, 84, 86
communication, 55
competition, 103
components, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 95, 105, 107,
112, 115, 116, 118
composition, 19, 25, 42, 64, 80, 90, 109, 112,
115, 118
compositions, 64, 76, 112
compounds, 7, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 29, 36, 37,
67, 70, 81, 113
computer, 47
concentration, vii, 9, 10, 11, 15, 19, 24, 25, 26,
29, 30, 31, 35, 36, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48,
49, 50, 52, 61, 63, 66, 68, 70, 71, 78, 80, 81,
90, 93, 99, 105, 112, 115
conductance, 10
Congress, iv, 116
consumption, 42, 71
control, 26, 55, 56, 59, 69, 71, 72, 73, 84, 87,
88, 89, 90, 91, 94, 95, 96, 99, 103, 104, 107,
108, 110, 115
controlled, 10, 32, 47, 55, 63, 69, 84, 103, 117,
118
correlation, 25
cortex, 7, 10, 12, 39, 116
cortical, 10, 64
cotyledon, 78, 79, 81
CRC, 106, 117
crops, 1, 73, 83, 117
cultivation, 6, 83, 84, 89, 93, 98, 103, 111,
117, 118
culture, 23, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 42, 49,
51, 68, 80, 81, 108, 112
cyanamide, viii, 84, 92, 119
cyanide, 32
cyanobacterium, 120
Index 125
cysteine, 75
cytoplasm, 39, 105
cytosol, vii, 13, 19, 20, 21, 24, 30, 35, 113
cytosolic, 14
D
decomposition, 68, 93
defense, 8
deficiency, viii, 2, 75, 78, 81, 99
deficit, 75
degradation, 24, 26, 27, 39, 93, 120
degradation pathway, 26, 120
degree, 42
dehydrogenase, 21
demand, 85, 110
density, 1, 3, 4, 42, 73, 87, 98
depressed, 18, 24, 40, 44, 61, 79, 91
depression, 42, 48, 59, 68, 84, 85, 88, 90, 103
deprivation, 41
diffusion, 10, 41, 103, 112, 116
Discovery, 76
diseases, 93
distribution, 12, 27, 39, 52, 57, 59, 61, 70, 71,
78, 100, 106, 114
diurnal, 31
division, 7
DNA, 110
dominance, 2
donor, 14, 15, 36
down-regulation, 52
dry, 9, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 57, 58, 59, 68, 70,
71, 72, 80, 86, 95, 99
dry matter, 57, 72
E
electrochemical, 30, 32
electron, 14, 15, 36, 39
electronic, iv
electrophoresis, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 76, 115,
120
electrostatic, iv
embryo, 81
embryogenesis, 117
emission, 16
endogenous, 69, 111
energy, 9, 15, 32
energy supply, 32
environment, 111
environmental, 2, 42, 47, 85
environmental conditions, 2, 47
environmental factors, 42
enzyme, 9, 13, 14, 15
epidermal, 39
epidermal cells, 39
epidermis, 10
ethanol, 16, 19, 36, 63
ethylene, 68, 84, 110, 111, 116
evidence, 13, 17, 72
evolution, 40
exogenous, 68, 106, 109, 116
expert, iv
exposure, 13, 16, 17, 18, 20, 61, 113, 118
expressed sequence tag, 8
extraction, 111
eye, 100
F
farmers, 85
feedback, 41, 105
feedback inhibition, 41
feeding, 15, 16, 21, 24, 26, 93
fertility, 94
fertilization, viii, 84, 85, 91, 103, 115
fertilizer, viii, 6, 73, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89,
90, 92, 93, 94, 96, 99, 108, 112, 115, 117,
118, 119
fertilizers, 24, 84, 87, 88, 92, 93, 95, 96, 98,
103, 118, 119
filtration, 19
fine tuning, 34
fixation, vii, viii, 2, 6, 9, 10, 13, 16, 18, 24, 27,
28, 41, 42, 43, 47, 52, 53, 60, 61, 68, 70, 71,
73, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93,
96, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106,
107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116,
117, 118, 119, 120, 121
Index 126
flow, 25, 26, 27, 52, 81, 82
fructose, 26
fungi, 73, 93, 116
G
GABA, 19
gas, vii, 15, 16, 21, 42, 113, 114, 120
gas phase, 17
gel, 64
gene, 8, 69, 75, 106, 110
gene expression, 8, 69, 75, 110
genes, 7, 8, 72, 75, 80, 98, 112
genetic, 55
genetic defect, 55
genetics, 117
genistein, 7
genome, 8, 116
genome sequencing, 8
genomics, 117
genotype, 55, 108
genotypes, 117
germination, 93
glass, 47
glucose, 26
glutamate, vii, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24,
30, 118
glutamic acid, 16
glutamine, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 28,
30, 36, 41, 81, 112
glycine, 24
grafting, 55, 56
grasses, 1
greenhouse, 80
growth, vii, 6, 7, 9, 24, 27, 41, 42, 43, 47, 48,
52, 53, 57, 58, 60, 64, 65, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72,
73, 83, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 98, 99,
102, 103, 104, 107, 108, 109, 112, 116, 117,
118, 119, 120, 121
growth rate, 48
gus, 98, 111
H
height, 93
high temperature, 30
homogenized, 16
homolog, 8
hormones, 109
Horticulture, 114
host, 7, 13, 41, 107
human, 1, 75
hybridization, 78
hydrolyzed, 90, 91, 103
hydroponics, 23
hyperbolic, 16
hypernodulation, vii, 11, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60,
62, 63, 65, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 107, 109,
112, 115, 116, 120
hypersensitive, 69
hypothesis, 41
I
id, viii, 71, 79, 89, 91
images, 52, 71
imaging, 27, 50, 52, 71
in vitro, 75, 81, 109
incidence, 98
incubation, 30, 86
independence, 68
India, 1
indigenous, 2, 92, 94, 98, 111
indirect effect, vii
infection, 2, 7, 8, 55, 69, 70, 93, 98, 99, 111,
117
inhibition, vii, 41, 42, 43, 44, 47, 52, 59, 68,
72, 93, 105, 106, 107, 110, 111, 116, 120
inhibitor, vii, 68, 69, 93, 111
inhibitors, 18
inhibitory, vii, 41, 47, 49, 68, 69, 103, 120
inhibitory effect, 41, 47, 49, 69, 103, 120
initiation, 70, 71, 72, 90, 115
injury, iv, 93
inoculation, 69, 70, 71, 72, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96,
97, 98, 106, 109, 119
Index 127
inorganic, 29
insects, 2
intensity, 42
interaction, 8, 116
interactions, 107
isoflavonoid, 7
isoflavonoids, 7
isoforms, 14
isoleucine, 22
Israel, 112
J
Japan, 1, 76, 83, 84, 86, 98, 109, 110, 111,
116
Japanese, 70, 109
K
kidney, 93, 116
kinase, 72, 106, 110, 111, 116
kinetic parameters, 116
kinetics, 30
L
labeling, 17, 18, 20, 23, 81
labor, 85
lateral roots, 24, 44, 68
late-stage, 113
leach, 91, 103
leaching, 85, 104
Leaf area index (LAI), 90
leaf blades, 23, 28
leakage, 26, 107
legume, 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 23, 24, 41, 72, 93, 105,
109, 110, 112, 115, 117, 120
legumes, 8, 28, 106, 109, 116
leucine, 22, 72
limitation, 120
linear, 86, 88
long period, 103
long-distance, 68, 120
long-term, 43, 120
Lotus japonicus, 8, 69, 110
M
Madison, 106, 109
magnesium, 87
magnetic, iv
maintenance, 70
management, 102
management practices, 102
maturation, 100
measurement, 112
mechanical, iv
Medicago truncatula, 68, 120
medication, 68
medium composition, 42, 112
meristem, 7, 69, 72, 106
metabolic, 18, 24, 108
metabolic pathways, 24
metabolism, vii, 22, 23, 25, 27, 29, 30, 38, 41,
61, 105, 108, 116, 120
metabolite, 111
metabolites, 81, 120
methionine, 18, 75, 106, 109
Mg
2+
, 14
microbes, 13, 69, 111
microscope, 47, 78
mineralized, 6, 86, 94
minerals, 12, 90
mitochondria, 14
mobility, 98
moisture, 42
mole, 13, 30
morphology, 64, 78, 112
mosaic, 9
movement, 39, 50
mRNA, 75, 78, 81, 106, 109
mutant, vii, 11, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63,
65, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 105, 106, 107,
108, 109, 114, 116, 117
mutants, vii, 63, 66, 68, 73, 108, 109, 112,
115, 116, 120
Index 128
N
NAD, 36
NADH, 14, 15, 36
natural, 35
NC, 106, 115
network, 10
New York, iii, iv
Nielsen, 106
nitrate, vii, 13, 16, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29,
30, 31, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 57, 58, 61, 64,
67, 68, 70, 72, 73, 81, 85, 90, 93, 103, 105,
106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 113, 114, 115, 116,
117, 118, 120, 121
nitrification, 91, 93, 103
Nitrite, 109
nitrogen, vii, viii, 2, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18,
23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 42, 44, 53, 59, 62, 63,
67, 70, 71, 78, 80, 81, 83, 84, 92, 93, 95, 96,
97, 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106,
108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116,
117, 119, 120
nitrogen compounds, 16, 29, 67, 70
nitrogen fixation, vii, viii, 2, 9, 13, 16, 18, 27,
42, 44, 53, 70, 71, 99, 105, 106, 108, 109,
110, 112, 116, 117
nitrogen fixing, 14
nitrogen gas, 120
nodes, 102
nodulation, vii, viii, 7, 8, 23, 24, 27, 41, 42, 43,
46, 55, 57, 61, 63, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 91, 93,
103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112,
115, 116, 117, 121
nodule growth, vii, 7, 9, 24, 42, 43, 47, 48, 52,
53, 58, 65, 70, 72, 91, 104, 107, 121
nodules, vii, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18,
19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42,
43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 55, 58, 59,
61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 81, 91,
99, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110,
111, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 120
normal, 34, 48, 70, 80
nutrient, 2, 10, 29, 60, 90, 102, 111
nutrients, 70, 91, 104
nutrition, viii, 28, 60, 84, 110, 111, 115, 118,
119, 120
nylon, 19
O
oil, 90, 98
oligosaccharide, 7
optical, 16
organ, 2, 12, 25, 70, 71, 81, 112
organic, 7, 94
organic matter, 7, 94
oxidation, 93, 103
oxidative, 24, 68
oxide, 92
oxygen, 2, 116
P
paper, 24, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98
parents, vii, 55, 66, 68
pathogenic, 69
pathogens, 8
pathways, 24, 26, 39, 68, 109, 120
permeability, 10
pH, 2, 30, 32, 86, 99
phenol, 111
phenotype, 72, 73
phloem, 7, 25, 26, 39, 82, 107, 120
phosphate, 87
phosphorus, 93, 111
photoperiod, 42
photosynthesis, 25
photosynthetic, 15, 70, 91, 104, 109, 115
physiological, 106
Pisum sativum, 110
plants, viii, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 13, 15, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 31, 34, 36, 37, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45,
47, 52, 53, 59, 60, 61, 64, 68, 71, 72, 80, 81,
85, 87, 89, 92, 93, 95, 96, 99, 102, 106, 107,
109, 110, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119
plastid, 15, 24, 30
play, 34, 72
polyethylene, 84
Index 129
polymer, 84
polyolefin, 84
polypeptide, 76
poor, 2, 6, 81
population, 2, 93, 98, 112
positron, 50
potassium, 87, 93
potato, 30, 116
preparation, iv, 21, 114
probe, 39
production, 1, 2, 68, 84, 97, 108, 112
productivity, 1, 110, 118
proliferation, 7, 9, 72, 79, 98, 99
promote, viii, 6, 47, 83, 84
property, iv
protein, viii, 5, 9, 27, 28, 29, 36, 39, 72, 75, 76,
77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 106, 109, 112, 113, 115,
116
protein synthesis, 27
proteins, 27, 69, 75, 76, 82, 108
pulse, 17
purification, 114
Q
quantitative estimation, 89
R
radioisotope, 50
range, 107
recessive allele, 63
reclamation, 92
recognition, 7
recovery, 85, 88, 99, 100
redistribution, 90
reduction, 6, 32, 34, 40, 47, 65, 69, 70, 83,
100, 110, 117
re-export, 103
regulation, 10, 32, 47, 52, 68, 80, 81, 107, 109,
112, 120
relationship, 29, 80
research, 111
resistance, 69, 111
resources, 8, 116
respiration, 9, 32, 40, 41, 71, 114
respiratory, 40, 59
retardation, 87
rhizobia, vii, 2, 7, 8, 9, 41, 69, 70, 93, 94, 117
rhythm, 31, 114
rice, 6, 86, 91, 98
rice field, 86, 91
room temperature, 30
root hair, 7
rubidium, 90, 118
S
sampling, 31, 65, 89
sand, 99
science, 120
sclerenchyma, 10, 12
SDS, 76, 77
SE, 106
search, 120
seed, viii, 1, 5, 27, 46, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79,
80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93,
94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104,
106, 108, 112, 113, 115, 118, 119
seedlings, 93, 94, 95
seeds, 2, 5, 25, 27, 60, 75, 76, 78, 80, 81, 87,
90, 93, 96, 100, 103, 112, 113, 115, 120
Self, 110
senescence, 6, 41, 43, 83, 87, 90, 108
sequencing, 8, 116
serine, 22
services, iv
shape, 84
sharing, 10, 120
shoot, 24, 43, 55, 56, 57, 59, 61, 69, 70, 72, 83,
96, 103, 105, 106, 114, 118
shortage, 2
short-term, 59, 81, 108, 113
sigmoid, 84
signaling, 68, 116
signals, 7, 55, 69
silver, 68
sites, 91, 92, 93, 94, 98, 103
Index 130
soil, viii, 1, 6, 7, 29, 42, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90,
92, 93, 94, 98, 103, 104, 111, 116, 118, 119
soil analysis, 84
soils, 99
sorbitol, 19
soybean, vii, viii, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,
27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40,
42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 61, 65,
68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 80, 81, 82,
83, 84, 85, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 97, 98,
99, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110,
111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119,
120, 121
soybean nodules, vii, 7, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21,
22, 24, 39, 40, 51, 61, 105, 110, 111, 113,
114
soybean seed, viii, 1, 5, 50, 75, 78, 80, 81, 82,
84, 95, 97, 98, 103, 112, 113, 115, 120
soybeans, 55, 70, 108, 110, 114, 115
species, 1, 7, 23, 28, 41, 108, 117, 120
specificity, 7
stages, 8, 23, 25, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 64, 70, 71,
73, 89, 96, 99, 100, 108, 109, 110, 113, 120
starch, 52, 71, 90
stele, 35
storage, viii, 28, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82, 106, 108,
109, 113, 114, 115
strain, 98
strains, 2, 97, 98
strength, 89
stress, 2, 103, 108
sucrose, 26, 47, 49, 52, 81, 107
sugar, 26, 42, 44, 71
sugars, 42, 68, 120
sulfate, 15, 83, 87, 88, 89, 97, 98, 103
sulfur, 75
sulphate, 75
summer, 118
supply, vii, 2, 6, 10, 16, 23, 28, 32, 42, 47, 48,
52, 59, 61, 69, 70, 71, 72, 80, 81, 83, 85, 91,
102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112,
113, 115, 116, 120
suppression, 78
surface layer, 12, 91, 103
symbiosis, 58, 70, 73, 105, 109, 111, 117
symbiotic, vii, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 42, 64, 85,
106, 108, 111, 112
synthesis, 21, 24, 27, 69, 114
systems, 42, 52, 61, 72, 106
T
talc, 84
technology, 106
temperature, 30, 32, 33, 35, 42, 85
thiosulphate, 120
Thomson, 107, 109
time, 16, 17, 27, 31, 32, 37, 52, 64, 70, 85, 93,
98, 103
TIP, 116
tissue, 24
tobacco, 111
Tokyo, 110
tolerance, 70, 108
toxic, 15
tracers, 39
training, 87
traits, 55, 115
transcript, 52
transduction, 68, 109
transfer, 81, 112
transition, 103
translocation, 13, 27, 37, 107
transmission, 70
transpiration, 28, 35
transplantation, 93, 96, 97
transport, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 36,
37, 39, 50, 59, 61, 68, 70, 81, 106, 111, 113,
114, 115, 116, 120
trees, 1
trend, 44, 68
tungsten, 39
turnover, 16
U
UK, 110
uniform, 93
Index 131
urea, viii, 60, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91,
92, 93, 96, 97, 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 115,
117, 118, 119
uric acid, 24
USDA, 98
UV, 29
V
values, 47
variable, 3
variation, 107, 111
vascular, 7, 10
vascular bundle, 7, 10
vermiculite, 42, 44, 93, 98
viral, 69, 111
viral infection, 69, 111
visible, 65
visual, 100
W
water, 2, 10, 32, 86, 90, 91, 104
West Africa, 28, 106
wild type, 11, 55, 57, 72, 73, 115, 116
withdrawal, 48
X
X-ray, 12, 39
xylem, vii, 7, 24, 25, 28, 35, 37, 38, 39, 65, 67,
69, 81, 89, 106, 111, 112, 114, 115
Y
yield, viii, 1, 5, 73, 83, 87, 89, 90, 91, 94, 95,
97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108,
109, 117, 118, 119, 120

NITROGEN FIXATION AND METABOLISM IN SOYBEAN PLANTS
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YOSHIFUMI NAGUMO.NITROGEN FIXATION AND METABOLISM IN SOYBEAN PLANTS TAKUJI OHYAMA. SATOMI ISHII AND TAKASHI SATO Nova Science Publishers. NORIKUNI OHTAKE. TOSHIKAZU NISHIWAKI. KUNI SUEYOSHI. New York . SAYURI ITO. Inc. YOSHIHIKO TAKAHASHI. KAUSHAL TEWARI.

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CONTENTS Preface Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 References Index Introduction The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybeean Nodules Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Torlerance of Hypernodulation Mutants of Soybean Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition on Soybean Seed Storage Protein Composition vii 1 13 29 41 55 75 Development of New Fertilization Technique to Promote Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Yield 83 105 123 .

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allantoin and allantoic acid. The continuous supply of low levels of nitrate from the lower part of roots promoted the nodulation and nitrogen fixation of the upper part of the roots. Hypernodulation mutant lines of soybean were isolated which have profuse nodulation compared with parents. A small portion of fixed N was assimilated in the bacteroids directly into glutamate and alanine. The characteristics of hypernodulation mutant lines were studied in relation to nitrate inhibition. On the other hand. and then transported to the shoots via xylem. The characteristics of nitrate absorption and metabolism was studied. The indirect effects of nitrate on nodule growth and nitrogen fixation activity were different among treatment concentration and period of supply. They also exhibit partial-nitrate tolerant to nodulation. The results indicated that major part of fixed N in bacteroids (a symbiotic state of rhizobia) is excreted rapidly to cytosol of infected cells in the form of ammonia. nitrate absorbed from the roots are mainly assimilated into asparagine. We recently found that nitrate depresses individual nodule growth and nitrogen fixation activity rapidly and reversibly when nodules were in direct contact with nitrate. although the inhibitory mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated the fate of nitrogen fixed in soybean nodules by tracer experiment with 15N2 gas. we would like to introduce the progress of researches on nitrogen metabolism of soybean nodules and roots. Then the fixed nitrogen is assimilated into ureides.PREFACE In the first part. . The results suggested that lower nitrate absorption and assimilation activity in hypernodulation mutants may be one reason to milder inhibition by nitrate on hypernodulation mutant lines. then the ammonia is assimilated into amino acids via GS/GOGAT pathway. It is well known that nitrate is a potent inhibitor to nodulation and nitrogen fixation.

When soybean plants suffer N deficiency. We discovered that nitrogen nutrition affects seed storage protein subunit accumulation. which promote nitrogen fixation and seed yield of soybean. . glycinin and β-conglycinin. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. then promoted total N accumulation and seed yield.viii Takuji Ohyama. The N released from the deep place did not inhibit nodulation and nitrogen fixation activity. Also we used lime nitrogen fertilizer which contain calcium cyanamide is as effective as coated urea fertilizer. Slow release N fertilizer (coated urea) of 100 kg N ha-1 was applied at 20cm below soil surface. Norikuni Ohtake. soybean seed did not accumulate the β-subunit of β-conglycinin. Soybean seed contains two major storage protein. deep placement of slow release nitrogen fertilizer. The new fertilization technique.

000 species including annual grasses and perennial trees. First. The highest yield of soybean in Japan was recorded at 7. 2001).) Merr. Takahashi et al. China (17). Soybean production in Japan was 225.3 t ha-1 in 2005. chemical and biological conditions of soil as well as climatic conditions. and India (7). IMPORTANCE OF NITROGEN FIXATION IN SOYBEAN CULTIVATION Leguminous plant consists a large group about 18.g. 1992). The world average seed yield is 2.8 t ha-1 (Konno 1976).Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Mimosoideae. Although only small numbers of leguminous species are selected as crops. and soybean seed yield can reach 4-6 t ha-1 with well-managed fields under good climatic and soil conditions (e. they are very important for foods and feed for animals world wide.68 t ha-1 in 2005. The low average yield compared with potential productivity may be due to several reasons.000 t.) seed (Figure 1) production is 215 million t year-1 in 2005 (FAOSTAT). Argentina (38). accounts for a half of all the leguminous crops due to the nutritional value both for human and livestocks. are USA (85). soybean plants are very susceptible to physical. This plant had very thick basal part of stem (25 mm . and the seed yield was 1. Brazil (51). and Papilionoideae recognized soon after (Sprent and James 2007). Williams cultivated with low planting density at 2 plants m-2 (Suganuma et al. Major soybean production countries (annual production million t year-1 in 2005). The origin of legume was dated at about 59 million years before present. Caesalpinioideae. Figure 2 shows an example of giant soybean cv. with three subfamilies. Soybean (Glycine max (L.

may depress nodule formation and nitrogen fixation activity. and 600 pods as shown in Figure 3. Ohyama et al. insects. low population of compatible rhizobia or the dominance of inefficient strains of indigenous rhizobia in the field may decrease nitrogen fixation activity.2 Takuji Ohyama. such as a shortage of water. and weeds. nitrogen fixation with rhizobia is very important for soybean production (Atkins 1986. 1993a. decrease in oxygen supply in soil. diameter) and it had 1874 nodules on the roots. soybean seed yield often severely declines with pest infection. nutrient deficiency or imbalance etc. Therefore.] Merr). the nodule formation and nitrogen fixation is very sensitive to deleterious environmental conditions. many stress conditions. Enrei and the non-nodulated isogenic line En1282 planted in the field of Niigata Agricultural Research Institute. Bohlool et al. 1992). 1992. high or low pH. cultivar Enrei. which is a symbiotic organ with soil bacteria. Figure 5 shows nodulated soybean plants cv. 1992). It is well known that soybean plants can fix atmospheric N2 by the root nodule (Figure 4). In Niigata fields. but it is difficult to obtain optimum condition of nitrogen fixation. rhizobia. Keyser and Li. In addition. The legume nitrogen fixation is . Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Third. in which all the leaves are removed to show structures of stems. about 60-75% of N assimilation in soybean was shown to derive from N2 fixation (Takahashi et al. Figure 1. It is obvious that non-nodulated soybean grew very poor with pale leaf color due to N deficiency by the lack of nitrogen fixation. However. Norikuni Ohtake. Nagaoka. Photograph of seeds of soybean (Glycine max [L. Second.

(From Suganuma et al. Herridge and Rose 2000) Figure 2. One plant of soybean cv.Introduction 3 variable. 1995. Williams cultivated with low density 2 plants m-2. Herridge and Danso. but it is a valuable process in world agriculture (Harderson 1993. 2001) .

Williams cultivated with low density 2 plants m-2. 2001) . Pod number 600 Stem 25mm Nodule number 1874 Figure 3. All the leaves were removed. Soybean cv.4 Takuji Ohyama. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Norikuni Ohtake.(From Suganuma et al.

Enrei) and the non-nodulated isoline (En1282) grown in the same field.Introduction 5 Figure 4. Photograph of nodulated root of soybean (cv. Comparison of nodulated (left) soybean (cv. Figure 5. Soybean seeds contain a large amount of protein N and the total amount of N assimilated in a plant is highly correlated with the soybean seed yield. Williams). One t of .

Norikuni Ohtake. Sole N2 fixation is often insufficient to support vigorous vegetative growth. which is about four times more than in the case of rice (Hoshi 1982). it is necessary to use both N2 fixation and absorbed N from roots (Harper 1974. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. For the maximum seed yield of soybean. On the other hand. In addition N fertilizer often causes over luxuriant growth. which results in the reduction of seed yield. Soybean plants assimilate the N from three sources. Therefore. and N derived from fertilizer when applied (Ndff) (Figure 6). no nitrogen fertilizer is applied for soybean cultivation or only a small amount of N fertilizer is applied as a starter N to promote initial growth. which resulted in lodging or poor pod formation. Nitrogen fixation Fertilizer nitrogen Soil nitrogen Figure 6.6 Takuji Ohyama. 1987). which sometimes results in the reduction of seed yield. N derived from atmospheric nitrogen by symbiotic N2 fixation in root nodules (Ndfa). soybean seed requires about 70-90 kg N. absorbed N derived from soil mineralized N (Ndfs). a heavy supply of N fertilizer often depresses nodule development and N2 fixation activity and induces nodule senescence. Three sources of N for soybean growth .

Host plant makes the infection thread. and NOD genes are expressed by specific isoflavonoid signals to make NOD factor. Plant cell division and rhizobium proliferation occur and nodule structure develops. Nodule vascular bundles connect to the root vascular bundles and nodules and roots exchange materials through phloem and xylem. 7). 1). the recognition. One or several rhizobia is enclosed in PBM (peribacteroid membrane) or symbiosome membrane in synonym. 1992. and they don’t fix atmospheric N2. Compatible rhizobia. Stacey 1995. Rhizobia live heterotrophically depending on the organic matter in soil. so we briefly introduce the outline shown in Figure 7. Crespi and Galves 2000. Denarie et al. In the case of soybean nodules. Finally rhizobia are released into the proliferating nodule meristem cells. 6). Stougaard J. The NOD factor is a lipochitine oligosaccharide with some modification. 3). 5). Lhuissier et al. recognize the isoflavonoid released from host legume. RECENT ADVANCES IN INFECTION AND NODULATION PROCESSES Recently. Sprent 1989. a symbiotic state of rhizobia. 2001. usually species Bradyrhizobium japonicum for soybean. host specificity and initial nodulation processes between leguminous plants and compatible rhizobia has been rapidly uncovered. Ferguson and Mathesius 2003. 2003). Rhizobia attached to the extending root hair. The structures of NOD factors are different among rhizobia species and only compatible NOD factor can induce nodule formation in host plants with very low concentrations. Daizein and genistein are two major isoflavonoids released from soybean roots. which has a tunnel like structure. start to fix N2. Nodules are formed and bacteroid. nodule organogenesis completed in the initial stage when nodule diameter is about 1 mm and further nodule growth is mostly depending on the cell expansion rather than cell proliferation. The cell division in the cortex restores to prepare nodule formation.Introduction 7 2. . Spaink 1995. Then root hair entraps the rhizobia by root hair curling. and rhizobia can enter into the roots through it. 2). Rhizobia move to the host roots and proliferate near the root surface. The host legume roots excrete species specific isoflavonoid compounds. 2001. Hirsch and Fang 1994. There are many good reviews about this aspect (Rolfe and Gresshoff 1988. 4). Lum and Hirsch 2003. Limpens and Bisseling.

076 genes was significantly accelerated during the successive stages after infection of compatible rhizobia. Norikuni Ohtake. Using the cDNA array of 18. A number of genes involved in the defense responses to pathogens and other stresses were induced abundantly in the infection process. These include 32 nodulin and nodulin-homolog genes as well as a number of genes involved in the catabolism of photosynthates and assimilation of fixed nitrogen.144 non-retundant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from L. L. . japonicus and Medicago truncathula have been available for many aspects of legume studies (Sato et al. but their expressions was suppressed during subsequent nodule formation.8 Takuji Ohyama. Mesorhizobium loti. 2004). 2007). Kuni Sueyoshi et al. 1 (daizeine) 7 Nodule growth N2 fixation (rhizobia) (genistein) NOD facter 2 methylfucosyl Proliferation 3 Cell division Nodule development 6 Root hair curing Infection thread Release rhiaobia Root hair attachment 4 5 Figure 7. The genome sequencing information and genome resources in model legumes. japonicus. and the expression of 1. A model of infection and nodulation processes between soybean and rhizobia Recently gene expression analysis can be applied for model legume Lotus japonicus by cDNA array analysis (Kouchi et al. The gene expression profile in early stages of rhizobium-legume interaction was considerably different from that in subsequent nodule development.

therefore. A model of structure of soybean root nodule 3. which consists the mosaic of large infected cells and small uninfected cells. which has a spherical form. The infected cells are filled with bacteroids (the symbiotic forms of rhizobia) and they are easily recognized by the red color with nodule specific protein. nodule respiration is about four times higher than that of roots based on dry weight. and nodule growth is mainly due to cell expansion after initial cell proliferation and development (Figures 8-10). leghemoglobin (Lb) discovered by Kubo (1939). Lb is a most abundant protein in nodules (about 20% of total protein) and it can bind with O2 to form LbO2 to decrease free O2 concentration in infected cells. To support active . The soybean nodule has the symbiotic region (or infected region in synonym) in the center. NODULE MORPHOLOGY OF SOYBEAN Soybean nodule is classified to determinate type nodule. is very susceptible to free O2 and irreversibly destroyed by O2. free O2 concentration should be kept very low in symbiotic region of nodules.Introduction Root Nodule Epidermis Lenticel Peridermis Vascular bundle 9 Outer cortex Inner cortex Symbiotic region Figure 8. The nitrogenase. therefore. an enzyme to fix N2 in bacteroid. On the other hand nitrogen fixation and assimilation processes require a large amount of energy and reductant produced by O2 respiration.

respiration. Epidermis Lenticel Peridermis Outer cortex Sclerenchyma Inner cortex Vascular bundle Symbiotic region Figure 9. A model of structure of soybean root nodule stained with CBB From Mizukoshi et al.10 Takuji Ohyama. abundant supply of O2 is essential. Lb in legume nodules solves the dilemma to keep free O2 concentration low and sufficient supply of O2 for bacteroid respiration. The sclerenchyma cells which have thick cell wall were located in the outer cortex (Figure 9). 2007). there is a peridermis. 1995 Symbiotic region is surrounded by nodule cortex in which the network of vascular bundles surrounding the symbiotic region to supply photoassimilate to bacteroids and to receive N fixation products from them (Figures 8. 1995). a tightly packed one layer of cells. which may restrict free diffusion of solutes between inside the nodule and medium solution (Mizukoshi et al. and the O2 permeability is flexibly controlled by this layer. Nodule cortex consists of inner cortex with small cells and outer cortex with large loosely packed cells. Under the epidermis. 10). 1998). There are lenticels outside of nodules and one layer of epidermis. 9. . Kuni Sueyoshi et al. The nutrient sharing between symbionts was reviewed recently (White et al. It is hypothesized that a reversible exchange of intercellular water by the inner cortical cells plays a role in the regulation of nodule conductance to O2 diffusion (Serraj et al. O2 concentration decreases sharply through the inner cortex. Norikuni Ohtake.

Ca and Mg in the noduled root of structure of soybean. 1997 Root cortex Vascular bundle Stele Vascular bundle Nodule cortex Infected region f high Figure 11. H: high concentration. 1995 . L: low concentration From Mizukoshi et al. NOD1-3. P. Williams and its hypernodulation mutant lines. Cl.Introduction 11 Williams NOD2-4 NOD1-3 NOD3-7 Figure 10. K. Nodule structure of wild type soybean cv. NOD2-4 and NOD3-7 From Nishiwaki et al. Distribution of N.

sclerenchyma cells and inner cortex. 1995). . The concentrations of N and P were higher but those of K and Cl were lower in the symbiotic region compared with nodule cortex. Soybean nodule is highly organized complex organ as shown by the distribution of minerals examined by EPMA (Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis).12 Takuji Ohyama. Mg specifically accumulated in the inner and outer cortex inside sclerenchyma cells but not outside them (Mizukoshi et al. Ca was locally distributed in the surface layer. but the content was low in the symbiotic region. Figure 11 shows the distribution of minerals in nodulated roots. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Norikuni Ohtake.

no direct evidence was obtained how the fixed N in bacteroids is transported to the host plant cytosol. Until 1970. the ammonia absorbed in the roots and reduced from nitrate was also believed to be assimilated by GDH enzyme. Until late 1970th. Figure 12 shows the structures of glutamine (Gln). and how it is metabolized to translocation forms of N to the shoots. Not only ammonia produced by nitrogen fixation. Bergersen (1965) observed that after the exposure of 15N2 to soybean nodules for 1 min. The Km value (Michaelis cnstant) of N2 for nitrogen fixation by purified nitrogenase was 8-16%. more than 90% of the fixed N in soluble fraction was detected as ammonia. and that in the detached nodule in the air is 5% in the air and that in solution was 0. GDH catalyzes the reaction as follows (Layzell 1990): NH4+ + 2-oxoglutarate + 2 e.→ glutamate .029 mole m-3 (Bergersen 1999). glutamate (Glu) and 2oxo-glutarate (2-OG). INITIAL PROCESSES OF THE ASSIMILATION OF FIXED N IN SOYBEAN NODULES Ammonia is known to be the initial product of nitrogenase. the fixed ammonia had been considered to be initially combined with 2-OG producing Glu catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenenase (GDH) in plants and microbes.Chapter 2 THE FATE OF NITROGEN FIXED IN SOYBEEAN NODULES 1.

and 2-oxoglutarate. GOGAT catalyzes the following reaction: glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + 2 e-→ 2 glutamate . Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Norikuni Ohtake. There are a number of isoforms of GS. 1970). the enzyme is located in mitochondria or chloroplast. Wolk et al (1976) demonstrated that the fixed ammonia is assimilated through GS/GOGAT pathway in nitrogen fixing blue green algae. GS catalyzes the following reaction: NH4+ + glutamate + ATP → glutamine + ADP + Pi This reaction requires divalent cation. such as Mg2+. In roots or leaves. it is confirmed that ammonia can be assimilated via alternative of GDH.14 Takuji Ohyama. After discovering a new enzyme glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Aerobacter aerogenes (Tempest et al. GSr root cytosolic form. and the electron donor may be either NADH or NADPH. and GSn nodule cytosolic form. Structure of glutamine. GS1 (cytosolic) and GS2 (chloroplast) forms of leaves. via glutamine synthetase (GS) and GOGAT pathway. Anabaena cylindrica by using 13N as a tracer. O C HC OH NH2 O C HC OH NH2 O C C OH O C H2 C H2 C O NH2 O C H2 C H2 C OH O C H2 C H2 C OH glutamine glutamate 2-oxoglutarate Figure 12. Mn2+ or Co2+ as a cofactor. glutamate.

15N2 gas was prepared from 15N labeled ammonium sulfate then mixed with He and O2 (15 .+ ATP → glutamate + ADP + Pi Compared with GDH reaction. In leaves most activity is Fd-dependent enzyme. Figure 13. GS/GOGAT pathway requires one extra ATP as a substrate. the GS with lower Km for ammonia has an advantage to assimilate ammona at low concentration in cells before reaching toxic level. Apparatus for 15N2 feeding experiment with intact soybean plants. The net reaction of GS/GOGAT pathway is as follows: NH4+ + 2-oxoglutarate + 2 e. and it means GS/GOGAT needs more energy than GDH. Although the higher cost of the ammonia assimilation by GS/GOGAT than GDH. and NADH-GOGAT locates in the plastid of non-photosynthetic tissues. To elucidate the initial ammonia assimilation pathway in soybean nodules. the intact nodules attached to the upper part of the roots were exposed to 15N2 gas for 21 min (Figure 13) (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1978).The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 15 The electron donor is ferredoxin (Fd) or NADH in higher plants.

allantoic acid. but the turnover rate is very rapid in a few min. less than 1% of total ammonia in nodules. 15. FNCA 2006). The 21 min of 15N2 exposure was followed by non-labeled conditions for 29 min (chase period). N2:He:O2=1:7:2) (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1981c).5 % showing a hyperbolic curve. and the nodules were harvested at 2. Among amino acids. Ohyama et al. and soon reached the maximum value at about 0. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. nitrate and asparagines. nitrate and asparagine.10. 4. then amino-N after a few min lag-time. O H 2N C O N H C C C N H O Nitrate O C OH C C N H N H HC NH2 C O O C NH2 Asparagine NH2 OH H N NO3- Allantoin O H 2N C O C H2 Allantoic acid Figure 14. Structure of allantoin. Ohyama 1982. Figure 14 shows the structures of allantoin. and Figure16 shows the time course including 21 min period of 15N2 feeding and 29 min of chase period. the 15N abundance of ammonia increased rapidly after a few min of 15N2 exposure. Figure 15 shows the time course of 15N incorporation into N compounds until 10 min. Following glutamine. 50 min after starting 15 N2 exposure. Norikuni Ohtake. and ammonia. amino acids and ureides (allantoin and allatoic acid) were extracted. After changing gas . and one of which may be the ammonia pool directly derived from nitrogen fixation. 35. allantoic acid. When the 15N abundance of amido-N and amino-N of glutamine was separately measured. 2004. The size is relatively small. 30. The fresh nodules were rapidly homogenized with 80% ethanol. glutamic acid and alanine increased 15N abundance. The incorporation of 15N into various nitrogen compounds was determined by the optical emission spectrometry (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1979b. glutamine gave the highest 15N abundance until 10 min of 15N supply (Figure 15).16 Takuji Ohyama. the 15N was rapidly incorporated into amido-N. This suggests that there are two or more compartments of ammonia in nodules. 6. In Figure 15. 25. 20. 40.

On the other hand. The incorporation of 15N was faster in allantoin than allantoic acid. the 15N abundance of glutamate alanine continue to increase for a few min after changing to non-labeled conditions.5 0 0 -0. suggesting that allantoic acid is formed from allnatoin in nodules.5 1 0. and amino-N of glutamine in this sequence was in accordance with the initial assimilatory pathway be GS/GOGAT pathway rather than GDH. ammonia and glutamine showed the immediate decrease of 15N abundance. This data is the first experimental evidence that ureides are synthesized actively in soybean nodules from fixed nitrogen.5 ammonia 2 1. The 15N was slowly incorporated into asparagine. 15N was relatively rapidly incorporated into ureides (the sum of allantoin and allantoic acid) in 10 min of 15N2 exposure (Figure 15). 3. This was supported by the evidence that the rapid . The rapid incorporation of 15N into glutamine especially the amido-N. From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1978 15 N2 exposure for 10 From the result obtained by the 15N2 pulse chase experiment. although the 15N abundance did not decrease during chase period (Figure16).5 3 2. this indicates the characteristics of primary assimilatory products. and not vise verse (Ohyama and Kumazawa. although the time lag was longer than ureides. followed by glutamate. the ammonia fixed by nitrogenase in bacteroids is located in a small compartment compared with whole nodule ammonia pool. 1978).5 Time (min) 5 10 15 glutamine glutamic acid ureides asparagine alanine Figure 15.The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 17 phase from 15N2 to non-labeled conditions (Figure 16). Time course of 15N labeling in soybean nodules after miniutes.

however. and 15N2 was exposed to the nodules for one hr. Experiments with nodule slices pretreated with MSX or AS solution. but it decreased the amino-N of glutamine and other amino acids. Time course of 15N labeling in soybean nodules after 21 minutes of exposure and hase period for 29 minuites. The MSX or AS solution was injected into intact nodules. it depressed the 15N abundance of amido-N of glutamine and amino acids. In addition. These results strongly support that the ammonia produced by nitrogen fixation in soybean nodules is mainly assimilated by GS/GOGAT pathway and not by GDH. the AS treatment increased the 15N content of ammonia and amido-N of glutamie.18 Takuji Ohyama. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ammonia glutamine glutamic acid ureides asparagine alanine Figure 16. From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1978 Time (min) 15 N2 The assimilatory pathway of ammonia produced by N2 fixation was confirmed by using specific metabolic inhibitors. Norikuni Ohtake. decline of 15N in glutamine but not glutamate immediately after changing to the chase period. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. methionine sulfoximine (MSX) for GS and azaserine (AS) for GOGAT (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980a). The MSX treatment increased the 15N abundance of ammonia more than 6 times. then they were fed with 15N labeled ammonia or amido-15N of glutamine showed the same trends (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980a). .

In cytosol. glutamate. Two fractions gave quite different patterns of composition. In bacteroid. and the concentration of N compounds was determined.2M sorbitol solution at 4 oC. 4-aminobutylate (GABA) were major compounds in bacteroid fraction (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1978). asparagine was most dominant compound. ammonia concentration was relatively high. alanine. Major N constituents in bacteroid and cytosol fractions of soybean nodules. fresh nodules are macerated in 0. 600 500 400 Concentration (μgN/gFWnodules) ureides asparagine amino acids ammonia 300 200 100 0 Bacteroid Cytosol Figure 17.The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 19 2. Figure 17 shows the comparison of the N concentration of major compounds in bacteroid and cytosol fractions. Each fraction was extracted with 80% ethanol. Among amino acids. and separated into bacteroid and cytosol fractions by centrifugation at 6000g for 15 min after filtration through nylon net. and the concentration of ureides and asparagine was negligible. N TRANSFER FROM BACTEROID TO CYTOSOL In another experiment. From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1978 . followed by ureides and other amino acids.

5 1 0.5 3 2. From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980b 15 N2 3. 3.5 2 1. Kuni Sueyoshi et al.5 2 1. Time course of 15N labeling in bacteroid fraction of soybean nodule after 15N2 exposure for 10 minuites. Norikuni Ohtake.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Glutamine glutamic acid alanine asparagine ureides Time (min) Figure 19.5 1 0.5 3 2.5 0 0 5 10 glutamine glutamic acid alanine asparagine ureides Time (min) Figure 18.20 Takuji Ohyama. Time course of 15N labeling in cytosol fraction of soybean nodule after exposure for 10 minuites. From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980b .

Li et al. based on the data that the isolated bacteroid excrete 15N labeled alanine when the suspension was exposed to 15 N2 gas. a small part of fixed N is metabolized in bacteroids. When 1 mM 15NH4+ was supplied to the bacteroid suspension for 15 min. most of the 15N was located in cytosol fraction. Our previous results clearly showed that bacteroid can synthesis alanine through GDH or ADH. by careful preparation of bacteroid suspension under optimum 15N2 feeding conditions. it was suggested that most of the fixed N is immediately exported from bacteroid to cytosol and assimilated via GS/GOGAT pathway in cytosol. In bacteroid fraction (Figure 19). and only 34% of soluble 15N remained in bacteroid fraction. PRIMARY EXPORT FORM OF FIXED NITROGEN FROM BACTEROID IS AMMONIA NOT ALANINE From these results. and bacteroid and cytosol fractions were immediately separated by centrifugation. and glutamine was not labeled during this period (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980b). but 15N incorporation was very slow into glutamine. allantoin and allantoic acid are synthesized from amino acids and amides (Figure 20). Waters et al. . Although 15N2 feeding period was very short. and it is not by GS/GOGAT pathway but probably by GDH or alanine dehydrogenase (ADH). 15N was rapidly incorporated into glutamate and alanine. 3. glutamate showed the highest 15N abundance followed by alanine and aspartate. They indicated that alanine not ammonia is the main export compound from bacteroid to cytosol. 15N2 was exposed to intact soybean nodules for 5 and 10 min. Ureides. but ammnonia is a major export compound from bacteroid to cytosol. (1998. in cytosol the 15N abundance of glutamine was the highest and followed by glutamate. alanine and ureides in this sequence. 2000) proposed an alternative N export from soybean bacteroid.The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 15 21 N assimilation was investigated in cytosol (Figure 18) and bacteroid (Figure 19) fractions of soybean nodules (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1980b). However. (2001) support the ammonia is the main export compounds from soybean bacteroid. On the other hand. then metabolized into various amino acids via transamination from glutamate. As shown in Figure 18.

01 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0. 2: ureides (arrow). 6: asparagine.1 0. 5: glutamate. 11: isoleucine.01 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Figure 21. N2 Infected cell N2 Bacteroid Glu NH4 Ala + Glu NH4+ Gln Glu 2-OG PBM Purine base Uric acid Allantoin Ureides Allantoic acid Uninfected cell Figure 20. 1: nitrate. 8: alanine. Nitrogen metabolism in soybean nodules Stems 100 100 Nodules Ratio (15N2/15NO3-) 10 10 1 1 0. 7: aspartate. 4: glutamine. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. 12: proline From Ohyama and Kumazawa 1979a . 3: ammonia.22 Takuji Ohyama. Norikuni Ohtake.in stems and nodules. Comparison of the ratios of 15N abundance from 15N2/15NO3. leucine.1 0. 9: 4-aminobutylate. 10: serine.

the same trends were observed by the long term experiment in which soybean plants were cultivated with continuous supply of 15NO3.in the stems.was supplied in the culture solution (Ohyama et al. while non-nodulating isoline contain much less amount of ureides (Kushizaki et al. and amino acids were determined. This suggested that ureides are mainly synthesized in nodules either from fixed N2 or from absorbed NO3.) and some species in Robinieae. All the species in Phaseoleae (soybean. The experiment above was compared the metabolism of fixed N and absorbed NO3. and leaf blades were almost the same as in the nodules in both stages (about 10% at R1 and about 8% at R3). however. Tajima et al. The ratios of 15N abundance from 15N2 and 15NO3. (1975) suggested the site of ureide formation may be in nodules and not in roots of soybean. These results indicated that most of ureides in shoots derived from nodules. Soybean plants were cultivated with hydroponics.1-0. and another group was fed with 15NO3solution with non-labeled N2. indicating that most of ureides derived from fixed N rather than absorbed N. On the other hand. The percentage of nitrogen originating from 15NO3. UREIDE SYNTHESIS IN SOYBEAN Some leguminous plants including soybean transport the fixed N mainly in the form of ureides (allantoin and allantoate).The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 23 4.. The ratio of ureides (about 6) in stems showed 10-50 fold higher than the ratios of other compounds (0.in stems and nodules were calculated (Figure 21). When the same ratios were calculated in nodules. and the percentage of N derived from 15NO3. common bean.but only small amount of ureides are synthesized in the root part. Reviews on ureide biosynthesis in legume nodules were published (Scubert 1986. However. petioles. They hypothesized that ureides may be synthesized in the root part where the metabolism might be disturbed by nodulation. 2004). . 1981a). and the 15N abundance of ureides and ammonia. discovered that nodulated soybean plants contain a large amount of ureides in stems. After 8 hrs of treatments soybean plants were harvested. cowpea etc. 1971).was determined by 15N analysis (R shows the reproductive stage proposed by Fher et al.48). We compared the labeling patterns of ureides and amino acids from 15N2 and 15 NO3. One group of soybean plants was exposed to 15N2 and non-labeled NO3-. Soybean plants were harvested at the initial flowering stage (R1) and initial pod filling stage (R3). nitrate. Matsumoto et al. the ratios are mostly the same including ureides except for nitrate. the percentage in roots was higher about 20% at R1 and 14% at R3 stage. Ishizuka et al. 1964).in relatively short term.(Ohyama and Kumazawa 1979ab). Indigoforeae and Desmodieae transport ureides (Atkins 1991). and 15NO3.

. A low level of ureides was detected in all the plants including nonnodulatated ones.24 Takuji Ohyama. Kuni Sueyoshi et al.by nitrate reductase. some part of the NO3. glutamine and glycine. The effects of various nitrogen fertilizers on the concentrations of ureides and amino acids in the shoot were investigated in relation to nodule formation (Ohyama et al. then the NO2. Figure 22 shows the metabolic pathways and transport of N derived from N2 fixation and NO3. and uric acid is transported to the neibering uninfected cells. uric acid. Then xanthine and uric acid is formed by purine degradation. Then glutamine is converted to 2 glutamate in the plastid via GOGAT. Norikuni Ohtake. 15N incorporation into ureides were observed (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1981b).absorption in soybean plants. 1981a). These results are in accordance with the ureide synthesis pathway through oxidative degradation of purine base. The concentration of amino acids was unaffected by nodulation. for 30 min. a low O2 condition depressed the ureide synthesis in intact soybean nodules. The reason why nodules synthesize ureides although roots synthesize asparagine is not fully understood yet.is further reduced to NH4+ by plastidic nitrite reductase. then the NH4+ is assimilated into glutamine by GS in the cytosol of infected cells. then it is further degraded to allantoin and allantoic acid. In addition. Then the NH4+ is assimilated by GS/GOGAT pathway in the roots. from 14C labeled hypoxanthine feeding the radioactivity was detected in the Rf of xanthine. The ureides contain 4N with 4C in a molecule and which is more efficient to transport form of N compared with asparagine with 2N and 4C in a molecule. low pO2 may be involved. Furthermore. and after a certain critical stage of nodule growth. In alfalfa plants the ureide concentration was higher in the lateral roots and nodules than in other tissues. On the other hand.absorbed in the roots are reduced in the roots to NO2. In the main root the concentration of ureides increased gradually towards the root tip. It is postulated that ureide synthesis in nodule may be evolved to adapt to economical use of C because nodule needs a lot of carbon source for N2 fixation and assimilation. the ureide content increased in proportion to the increase in nodule fresh weight. The trigar to accelerate ureide synthesis has not know yet. but the high N or low C concentrations. When the nodule slices were fed with 15N labeled precursors of purine biosynthesis. and small portion of ureides is synthesized in the roots but it contributes very little to nitrogen transport to the shoots. and metabolized to asparagine then transported to shoot via xylem. (1999) investigated the profile of ureide accumulation in various tissue of alfalfa which is amide type legume. The N fixed by the bacteroid is rapidly exported to the plant cytosol as in the form of ammonium. allantoin and allantoic acid separated by paper chromatography (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1981b). Chen et al.

and the N is translocated to the sink organ such as pods and seeds via phloem. Nitrogen metabolism and transport in nodules and roots of soybean plants. NITROGEN METABOLISM IN SOYBEAN LEAVES Plant leaves are the important organ for nitrogen metabolism. The N absorbed from roots or fixed in root nodules is transported via xylem in stems and petioles. Ohtake et al. 5. (1995) reported the seasonal changes in amino acid composition in xylem sap of soybean and they confirmed that asparagine was the principal amino acids in xylem sap at any stages.The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 25 Some part of NO3. (2003) compared the concentration of amino acids and ureides and the correlation was observed in non-nodulated soybean but it was not observed in nodulated soybean cultivated in the field. The flow of N in leaves was investigated by petiole . as well as photosynthesis. Masuda et al. N2 N2 Photoassimilate Allantoic acid + NH4 + NH 4 Photoassimilate Allantoic acid Allantoin Uric acid Glutamine Uric acid Asparagine Glutamine NH NH44+ + NO NO22- NO NO3 3 - NO3 -- NO3 Figure 22.is directly transported through xylem to the shoots.

5) glucose (x 3. sugar concentration increased in the girdled leaves. Degradation Asn Asn Phloem Xylem Ureides NO3Asn Ureides NO3Asn Figure 23. and sucrose (x 1. Fellows et al. suggesting that nitrate and ureides are not transported from leaves to sink via phloem (Figure 23). either by allantoate amidinohydrolase or by allantoate amidohydrolase (Vadez and Sinclair. nitrate and ureides remained in the same level as non-girdled leaves and they are not accumulated in girdled leaves.26 Takuji Ohyama. A model of N flow in soybean leaves. indicating that these compounds are the major transport forms from leaves to sink organ via phloem. Proteins Assimilation However. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. One hr after girdling. such as fructose (x 3.feeding experiment (Ohyama and Kawai 1983). girdling and 15N2 or 15NO3. and the plants were harvested 24 hr after 15N2 or 15 NO3. the accumulation of amino acids (x 2.5) especially asparagine (x 8. Norikuni Ohtake.8) due to blocking of phloem transport. There are tow different ureide degradation pathways in soybean leaves. Compared with control leaves without girdling. Concerning to N compounds.were fed for 10 hr. (1978) reported that sucrose is a major photoassimlate from leaves to pod via phloem by the pod leakage technique in soybean. 15 N2 or 15NO3.treatment. The petioles of the upper four leaves were girdled with hot steam.8) was observed. 2000).2). .

Based on the results obtained. Immediately after 10 hr of 15N2 treatment. and seeds (5%). 15N content decreased in the roots. During chase period of 5 consecutive days under non-labeled conditions. especially asparagine. Nodulated soybean plants were hydroponically cultivated with 0. leaves (36%). and the rest was located in nodules (0. 36% of absorbed 15N was remained in the roots.in soybean plants as in Figure 24 (Ohyama 1984). and 15N2 or 15NO3.7 mM nitrate. while another portion was derived from N once assimilated in the nodules and other vegetative parts. 15N content decreased in the nodules. and the corresponding amount of 15N was translocated to the seeds (44% at 5th day). Ureides are also used for leaf protein synthesis. the 36% of fixed N remained in nodules.treatment was conducted for 10 hr. On the other hand. COMPARISON OF NITROGEN ALLOCATION DERIVED FROM FIXED N2 AND FROM ABSORBED NO3 Comparative study on the nitrogen metabolism and transport was done at the pod filling stage (Ohyama 1983). We proposed a model of N flow derived from N2 and NO3. then the rest was located in roots (9%). although both N sources can be utilized either for vegetative or reproductive growth. and transported in the form of amino acids. roots and stems and the corresponding amount of 15N was translocated to the seeds (36% at 5th day). Sato et al.The Fate of Nitrogen Fixed in Soybean Nodules 27 6.absorbed from the roots. most of N originated from NO3. then the N was resolublilized by protein degradation and redistributed to the pods and seeds. leaves (18%). and some ureides are directly transported to pods and used for seed development. pods (5%). stems and leaves. Another part of NO3 is transported to . respectively. (1999) analyzed nitrate absorption and distribution in nodulated (T202) and non-nodulated (T201) soybean plants with 13NO3. some part of NO3absorbed from the roots is immediately reduced in the roots. stems (17%). The results showed that nitrate absorption and intial translocation pattern was not affected by nodulation.4%). and seeds (10%). it was concluded that the fates of N derived from nitrogen fixation and N derived from nitrate absorption was different. Some portion of N derived from N2 fixation is rapidly transported to the pods and seeds.treatment.was immediately assimilated into the proteins of roots and leaves. but the contribution is relatively lower than N derived from NO3. On the other hand. The N derived from N2 fixed by the root nodules is rapidly assimilated into ureides (allantoin and allantoate). stems (17%). During chase period of five consecutive days under nonlabeled conditions. pods (10%). Real time observation of the accumulation pattern of 13N was monitored by positoron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS).and 15NO3-. At the end of 10 hr of 15NO3.

AA Ur ei de s P Leaf 3 .Asn stem AA AA AAA A AA AA P Ureides N2 NO3NO3- Nodule Root Fate of N from N2 Fate of N from NO3- Figure 24. when plants were relying solely on atmospheric N2.nutrition. Models of transport of N from N2 fixation and NO3.Asn P Seed NO3. and assimilated into leaf protein. the leaf blades via transpiration. With increasing the level of nitrate supply.) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.absorption in soybean plants. 1992). P: protein . Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Asn: asparagine. The root xylem bleeding sap of both species showed ureides as predominant solute of nitrogen over 90%.28 Takuji Ohyama. the levels of ureide and glutamine decreased and those of asparagine and nitrate in xylem sap increased. AA As n P AA AA Ure AA ide s NO Pod AAA A AA AA AA NO3. AA: amino acids. The remobilization of storage protein in leaves and roots may be a major source for seed N source in the case of NO3. Norikuni Ohtake. Kersting’s bean (Macrotyloma geocarpum L. The similar trends were reported in two nodulated West African geocarpic legumes.) (Dakora et al.

ammonium transporter. 25. ABSORPTION AND ASSIMILATION OF AMMONIUM AND NITRATE IN PLANT CELL The outlines of absorption and metabolism of ammonium and nitrate in plant cells are shown in Fig. The NH4+ ion is absorbed through the membrane bound protein.Chapter 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF NITRATE ABSORPTION AND TRANSPORT IN SOYBEAN PLANTS 1. There are two types of nitrate transporter.concentration in solution were monitored by nutrient solution circulation system in which the UV absorbance was detected by UV detector (Figure 26).ion is absorbed through the nitrate transporter with 2H+ co-transport. a high affinity nitrate transporter system (HATS) and a low affinity nitrate transporter system (LATS) (Crawford and Glass 1998). 2. The relationship between nitrate absorption rate and nitrate . The NO3. Ammonium which is most reduced form of nitrogen and nitrate which is most oxidized form of nitrogen are two major inorganic nitrogen compounds in soil. CHARACTERISTICS OF NITRATE ABSORPTION IN SOYBEAN ROOTS The changes in NO3.

The value is comparable to that in potato cultivars from11.absorpton rate increased at 35 oC. because the higher the pH the lower the [H+] concentration (electrochemical potential). At pH 8. The NO3. Gln GS1 Glu NH4+ Ammonium transporter plastid 2OG Gln GS2 GOGAT NH4+ NH4 NO2- Glu + NiR Glu Amino acids NO3Nitrate transporter NO3- NR NO2- Amino acids NO3Nitrate efflux NO3- NO3Amino acids Proteins vacuole cytosol Figure 25. concentration was shown as Figure 27. NO3. but it completely stopped at 45 oC.absorption. . GS2: glutamine synthetase (plastid). At low temperature 15 oC. Concerning to temperature effect.absorption rate was low only 20% of that at 25 oC. NO3. the NO3. Kuni Sueyoshi et al.absorption was investigated.30 Takuji Ohyama. GS1: glutamine synthetase (cytosol). This result was in accordance with H+ co-transport of NO3. GOGAT.2-17. The NO3.absorption recovered by adaptation to high temperature. Glu: glutamate. Using the same system the characteristics of NO3.absorption rate under medium temperature from 15 to 45 oC. Figure 28 shows the effect of pH of the solution from 5 to 8 on NO3. Gln: glutamine. Norikuni Ohtake. The kinetics of this pattern indicates the presence of only one HATS which Km value is 19 μ mole in soybean roots.absorption rate. After several hours of incubation at 45 oC.absorption rate was highest at pH 5. glutamate synthase.3 μ mole (Sharifi and Zebarth 2006). NiR: nitrite reductase. and decreased with increasing pH.absorption was stopped or some in roots was excreted to the solution. A model of absorption and metabolism of ammonium and nitrate in plant cell. this experiment was conducted just after changing the temperature from room temperature around 25 oC. Figure 29 shows the NO3. NR nitrate reductase.

Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 31 Figure 26.absorption rate vs NO3.6 1.absorption rate was different between day (1. When 10 mgN of nitrate was initially supplied in the solution.8 1.concentration in culture solution The diurnal rhythm in NO3. Circulation system for detecting NO3.77 mgN L-1 h-1). The NO3.6 0.concentration ( μmole L-1 ) Figure 27.2 1 0.concentration in culture solution. 30). 2 1. and the level of the absorption rate in the night was about 60-75% of that in the daytime. the soybean absorbed NO3.almost linearly irrespective of the time during the day and night period or NO3. The temporary interruption of NO3- .4 1.concentration in the medium (Fig. From Ohyama et al.10 mgN L-1 h-1) and night period (0. 1989b). 1989b.4 0.2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 NO3.8 0. NO3.absorption by intact soybean plants was investigated by sampling the culture solution every 15 min and analyzed by ion chromatography (Ohyama et al.

3 0.32 Takuji Ohyama. because the rhythm continued under the extended dark period (Figure 31) or by cutting the shoots (Ohyama et al 1989b). NO3.8 0. It was suggested that this rhythmic pattern of NO3absorption was not directly controlled by the shoots.93 mgN L-1 h-1. The same trends were observed when the solution with 25 mgN L-1 of nitrate was supplied.5mM CCCP (carbonyl cyanide mchlorophenylhydrazone) to culture solution. They reported diurnal regulation of NO3.7 0. Norikuni Ohtake. The accumulation of NO3.1 0 4 -0. 1995b).absorption disappeared (Figure 32). During the night NO3. and that during night time was 0. 1989b). The NO3.absorption is active transport. which depends on the energy supply through O2 respiration.and asparagine were observed in the roots in dark period. was added to the solution.absorption was monitored in the non-nodulated soybean plant during 14/10h light/dark period at a constant temperature of 26 oC.absorption was completely stopped after a time-lag of about 1 hr (Ohyama et al. NO3. This confirms NO3- . When the roots were put in the water bath under constant temperature at 30 oC. Different results were reported by Delhon et al (1995a. which inhibit O2 respiration.absorption was immediately stopped by the addition of 0.uptake rate and nitrate reduction was decreased.5 0. suggesting that the nitrate absorption rate of soybean roots is controlled by monitoring the root temperature changes.uptake in soybean plants. which chancel the electrochemical potential of H+ across plasmamembrane (Finean et al. and the NO3. the rhythm of NO3. 1984).4 0. 0. absorption was observed twice a day at dawn and dusk.absorption rate under different pH conditions of culture solution. The absorption rate during day time was 0.68 mgN L-1 h-1.5 mM KCN.2 0. The result suggests that NO3.6 0. Kuni Sueyoshi et al.1 pH 5 6 7 8 9 Figure 28. When 0.

Diurnal changes in NO3. From Ohyama et al.5 1 0.5 2 1.5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Temperature (oC) Figure 29.absorption rate by soybean root from culture solution.Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 33 transport across plasmamembrane is supported by H+ motive force from appoplast to inside the cell through co-transport with H+.absorption rate under different temperature conditions of culture solution. Figure 30.5 3 2. 1989b . 3. NO3.

On the other hand. but the accumulation of assimilated N may cause the reduction of NO3. Figure 31. 1989b). and the third efflux (0.absorption rate reduced to about 33% of the initial rate. When plants were transferred from 15NO3. The precise mechanism of nitrate efflux has not been understood yet. 1989b).absorption rate by soybean root from culture solution under normal day/nignt cycle and continuous dark conditions. which is called nitrate efflux. When 1mM ammonium was added to the solution.absorption was completely inhibited immediately. 1989b). NO3. when 1mM NO2.in the medium (Ohyama et al. This result indicates that ammonium ion does not directly inhibit NO3absorption. Efflux from soybean roots occurred only in the presence of NO3.medium to the non-labeled NO3. 1989b Some of the absorbed NO3. after a lag-phase of 1 hr (Ohyama et al. the NO3. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. the NO3.was added to the solution.is known to excrete from cell to apoplast. From Ohyama et al. which means influx rate minus efflux rate.medium (Ohyama et al. The results suggested that the presence of three steps of efflux: first a rapid efflux (5 mgN hr-1) for the initial few min.absorption rate.4 mgN hr-1) continued for a several hrs. and the second efflux (0. Norikuni Ohtake. but this process may play a role in fine tuning of net NO3. The efflux of NO3.9 mgN hr-1) for about 10 min.34 Takuji Ohyama.solution to .absorption rate as suggested by dwarf bean (Breteler and Siegerist 1984).from the roots to the medium was confirmed when the soybean plants were transferred from the 15NO3.

NR catalyzes the reaction as follows: .solution.is transported cell to cell via symplast pathway and effluxed in the stele and transported via xylem with transpiration stream in the form of NO3-. a part of NO3is temporary stored in vacuoles. This suggests that nitrate efflux system in soybean roots operate only in the presence of external NO3-. When a high concentration of NO3.absorbed in the root cell is reduced to nitrite (NO2-) by nitrate reductase (NR) in cytosol. Figure 32.absorption rate by soybean root from culture solution under natural temperature changes ( closed circle ) and continuous temperature at 30 oC ( open circle ). then reduced to ammonia by nitrite reductase (NiR) in plastids followed by assimilation via GS/GOGAT pathway to amino acids (Figure 25) . the efflux was very low compared with non-labeled NO3. Some part of NO3. 3.Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 35 N-free solution.is supplied. Diurnal changes in NO3. NITRATE ASSIMILATION IN PLANTS Some part of the NO3.

the absorption of 15NO2. and not readily transported to the shoots (only about 20% partitioning in leaves plus stems after 24hr). 15NO2-. 1989a). Kuni Sueyoshi et al. During 24 hr of 15N feedings. nodules. In addition. the asparagine concentration increased markedly. Different from soybean.+ NAD(P)+ + H2O Plant NR requires NADH or NAD(P)H witch means both NADH and NADPH as electron donor. NO3.and 15NH4+.and 15NH4+ was partitioned in the leaves plus stems. indicating that asparagine is a major assimilatory compounds of NO3. Norikuni Ohtake. NiR catalyzes the reaction as follows: NO2.was accumulated in the roots.was about half as much as those of 15NO3. However. The nodulated soybean plants were treated with a culture solution containing 10 mgN L-1 (0. stems and leaves were very similar for 15 NO3. When 15NH4+ was supplied in the solution. the concentration of glutamine in roots increased very rapidly in 4 hr. or 15NH4+.in the solution. After the addition of 15NO3.and 15NH4+ (Figure 33). NO2. the N originating from 15NO2.36 Takuji Ohyama.in soybean roots. On the other hand. there are tow types of NAD(P)H-NR and one type of NADH-NR (Harper 1987). The N from both N sources was rapidly transported to the stems and leaves and readily assimilated into the protein (80% ethanol insoluble fraction). The absorption rate of N and their partitioning patterns among roots. when . then asparagines concentration increased linearly in 24hr. In soybean.+ NAD(P)H + H+ → NO2. and the assimilation and transport of N originated from these compounds was compared for 24 hr.8 mM NH4NO3 (Atwell.AND NH4+ ABSORPTION AND TRANSPORT IN SOYBEAN Assimilation and transport of nitrate was compared with nitrite and ammonium using 15N labeled compounds (Ohyama et al. 4.7 mM) 15NO3-. 1992). ammonium uptake was twice as fast as nitrate uptake in lupin plants which were supplied with 2. approximately 70% of N originated from 15NO3.+6 Fdred → NH4+ + 6Fdox + 2H2O Where Fdred is reduced type of ferredoxin and Fdox is oxidized type of ferredoxin. COMPARISON OF NO3-.

The time course of the changes in the 15N abundance of xylem sap indicated that some part of absorbed NO3. but.and asparagine.was supplied. In xylem sap collected at flowering stage contained about the same levels of NO3.transport in soybean. . but the concentration of asparagine did not.Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 15 37 NO2. the other part may be transported slowly after once stored in the roots. glutamine level increased rapidly in the roots. NO2. as primary compounds of NO3.(Figure 34). about 8% of N in xylem sap collected during first 15 min originated form the N absorbed 15NO3.or NH4+. 1989a Nitrogen assimilation and transport of the plants supplied with 15NO3.. 1989c). Comparison of N absorption and translocation in soybean plants supplied with NO3-.was investigated by analyzing xylem sap collected from decapitated soybean plants (Ohyama et al.is very rapidly transported through xylem. From Ohyama et al. Figure 33. The 15N abundance of xylem sap increased very rapidly.

absorption and metabolism in soybean roots. 1989b Figure 35.38 Takuji Ohyama. From Ohyama et al. 15N abundance (%) of xylem sap collected from the stamps of the roots supplied with 15NO3. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Figure 34. 1989b . From Ohyama et al.for 2 hours and chase period of 10hours. Norikuni Ohtake. A model of NO3.

transport pathway into soybean nodule was investigated by tungstate and 15NO3. At 3 days after 1 mM WO42. when 1. (1998) reported that nitrate accumulation was 5 times higher in cortex than infected region of the soybean . The importance of symplastic transport of C unloaded from nodule phloem and N from infected cells were suggested in soybean nodules (Brown et al. Some part of asparagine is transported immediately after assimilation in the root cytoplasm. Forth. some other part of NO3. an appreciable amount of NO3.was supplied to the solution for 1 day.solution was supplied to one large nodule through a cheese cloth wrapping the nodule.absorbed in the roots is immediately exported to the shoots. Second. whereas another part of NO3. while another part of asparagine is once stored in vacuoles and released gradually. then it is transported from cell to cell into cortex via simplistic pathway. 1989a). First the NO3.tracers (Mizukoshi et al. NO3. 5. The degradation product of root protein may be exported as in the form of asparagine. accumulation of W in the roots cortex was observed while the W movement into root nodules was not detected.is reduced and assimilated in the roots and synthesized in asparagine..is directly absorbed from nodule surface. In another experiment. 15NO3. There are several possible pathways of NO3. Some part of NO3. 1995).treatment in culture solution. NITRATE ABSORPTION AND ASSIMILATION IN SOYBEAN NODULES NO3. NO3.absorbed from the adjacent root part is transported cell to cell from root cortex to nodule cortex via the symplastic pathway.absorbed from the lower part of roots is transported through the xylem and supplied to the nodules from xylem. 1995). In contrast. and the distribution of tungsten (W) in the roots and nodules was examined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). Third.is supplied by phloem from shoots. It was suggested that external anions cannot be readily transported into nodules via apoplastic pathway.can be absorbed from nodule surface (epidermal cells or loosely packed lenticel cells). These results suggest that NO3.7 mM of 15NO3. Arrese-Igor et al. On the other hand.is temporarily stored in the vacuoles of root cells then gradually released to the xylem.and 15N was detected in nodule cortex. although a little was distributed in the infected region. we proposed the hypothetic scheme as shown in Figure 35 (Ohyama et al. NO3. which was transferred from xylem to phloem in stems or leaves.Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 39 Concerning to nitrate assimilation and transport in the roots.transport into soybean nodules. Tungstatre (WO42-) was used as an anion tracer.

2 was severely depressed by 1 mM KCN and 1 mM HgCl2.was added.4-dinitrophenol) or 1 mM HgCl2. aerobic respiration at pO2=0. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. The characteristics of nitrate respiration of isolated soybean bacteroids were reported (Ohyama and Kumazawa 1987). the CO2 evolution increased by 18 times. On the other hand. The nitrate treatment did not cause free nitrite accumulation in nodules in 8 days. nodules supplied with 10 mM NO3. . Norikuni Ohtake. When 1 mM NO3.40 Takuji Ohyama. The CO2 evolution associated with NO3reduction was inhibited by the addition of 1 mM DNP (2. The bacteroid has NR activity when soybean plants are cultivated without nitrate. Under anaerobic conditions. but not by 1 mM KCN. the respiratory CO2 evolution was very low.for 8 days.

because the effects of nitrate on nodule formation and growth are influenced by nitrate concentration.binds to Lb to make nitrosylleghemoglobin and defect the O2 binding activity (Kanayama . NITRATE INHIBITION ON NODULE FORMATION AND NITROGEN FIXATION The inhibitory effects of externally supplied N especially NO3. as well as the acceleration of nodule senescence or disintegration (Streeter 1988. placement and treatment period as well as legume species (Harper and Gibson 1984. Harper 1987). Nitrate inhibition is primarily host plant dependent and it is independent of nitrate metabolism of rhizobia (Gibson and Harper 1984. Gibson and Harper 1985. 1988. nodule mass. 1997). In addition.e. however the nitrate inhibition is complex and we cannot explain by a single mechanism. and N2 fixation activity. Kanayama and Yamamoto proposed that NO formed from NO3. asparagine (Bacanambo and Harper 1996. Carrol and Mathews 1990). Harter 1987). Davidson and Robson. such as the decrease in nodule number. nitrate inhibition of nodules is complex.have been reviewed (Streeter 1988. It has been suggested that there are multiple effects of nitrate inhibition. 2002).Chapter 4 NITROGEN INHIBITION ON NODULE GROWTH AND NITROGEN FIXATION 1. 1988. Vessey et al. i. and decreased O2 diffusion into nodules which restricts the respiration of bacteroids (Schuller et al. feedback inhibition by a product of nitrate metabolism such as glutamine (Neo and Layzell 197). Many hypothesis are proposed for the cause of nitrate inhibition of nodulation and N2 fixation. 1986). Vessy and Waterer 1992). Gordon et al. carbohydrate deprivation in nodules (Streeter 1988.

and Yamamoto 1990abcd). 1996). The local effect of nitrate inhibition was shown in split-root experiments where root systems had been separated into tow equivalent parts. photoperiod. chemical. where the proportion of solid. liquid and gas space was changed (Nishiwaki et al.absorption and assimilation. On the other hand. stems and roots was significantly high in 5 mM NO3. light intensity and quality..) was investigated at 31 days after planting (Nishiwaki et al. (1988) suggested that nitrate metabolism does not occur in symbiotic region of soybean nodule. Norikuni Ohtake. even when a dissimilatory NR is expressed.supply compared with 0 mM NO3. The higher the planting density imposed. and biological properties of soil. 1985).supply in stems and roots but not in leaves. Williams .supply by using horizontal sprit root system in two layered pot system. and the upper roots were in the vermiculite medium with N-free culture solution in the upper pot (Ohyama et al. as well as physical. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. 1986). In 5 mM NO3. The total N concentration of leaves. The degree of nitrate inhibition was affected by soil medium composition with vermiculite and perlite. the total N concentration as well as nitrate and total amino acids N concentration in leaves and stems decreased by increasing planting density. the lower the depression of nodulation. This may be due to the rapid depletion of NO3. However. although no significant difference was observed in nodules. 1995).supply. moisture. where the lower part of roots were supplied with culture solution containing 1mM NO3. The sugar concentration was lower in 5 mM NO3.in the lower pot.from medium. The effect of planting density and nitrogen supply (0 mM and 5mM NO3. The soybean plants (cv. and no or milder inhibition is induced in the other part of the root system receiving no nitrate (Tanaka et al. such as temperature. We investigated the local and systemic effect of continuous NO3.42 Takuji Ohyama. It is well recognized that plant growth is affected by various environmental factors. Giannakis et al. some systemic inhibition of nitrate on nodulation and nitrogen fixation has also been observed with a high concentration of nitrate in clover (Silsbury et al.supply than 0 mM NO3. 1993a). The strong and rapid nitrate inhibition of nodule growth and N2 fixation activity is restricted in the nodules attached to the root portions that are in direct contact with nitrate. The consumption of sugars in roots and stems may be accelerated for NO3.supply. because of restricted access of nitrate. 2. LONG-TERM EFFECT OF NITRATE SUPPLY ON NODULE FORMATION AND NITROGEN FIXATION Local and systemic effect by nitrate on nodulation has been reported in leguminous plants.

e. In this stage. and N2 fixation was elucidated (Yashima et al. 0/0. As shown in Figure 38. Four treatments were imposed i. 2003). Figure 36. respectively. From Yashima et al. with the 0 mM or 5 mM NO3. and the effect of nitrate placement on nodule number.treatment in upper pot/ lower pot. 2003 Systemic and local effects of long-term application of nitrate on nodule growth and N2 fixation in soybean plants were more precisely investigated using tow layered pot system (Figure 36. 5/0 and 5/5. 0/5.2) were cultivated with 0 mM or 1 mM NO3 solution in the lower pot. the development of the root system in the lower pots was quite different . The dry weight of shoot and upper part of roots were almost the same between 0 mM and 1 mM NO3 supply. there are no nodules remained in the lower part of roots. This result indicates that continuous long term supply of NO3 may impose systemic inhibition of nodulation or acceleration of nodule senescence in soybean plants. 37). but 1 mM NO3 supply decreased the dry weight of nodules attached in the upper part of roots in both varieties. and harvested at maturing (R7) stage. The plants were harvested at the initial flowering (R1) stage and pod setting (R4) stage. nodule growth.Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 43 and Norin No.Vertical split root expeiment using a two-layered pot system.

The concentration of total amino acids was higher in the lower roots in 0/5 treatment than 0/0 treatment. between 0 and 5 mM NO3. 5/0). and the upper roots not contact with NO3-. Figure 37. suggesting that the absorption of NO3 from the lower roots decrease sugar concentration in both lower roots in direct contact with nitrate. A photograph of soybean plants cultivated with two-layered pot system. The soluble sugar concentration in the lower roots in 0/5 treatment was lower than that in the 0/0 treatment. nodule size and N2 fixation was conspicuous. but a bunch of short lateral roots was formed in the solution with 5 mM NO3. Norikuni Ohtake. Systemic and local effect on nodule number per plant did not occur in the upper nodules in vermiculite. Nitrate accumulation was observed only in the part of roots and nodules in direct contact with 5 mM NO3. the inhibition on the nodule number. On the other hand. that was almost the same level in the roots and nodules of the upper part both at R1 and R4 stage. The similar trend was observed in the upper roots of 0/5 treatment. systemic inhibition on the nodule dry weight and N2 fixation activity in the upper pot was apparent. The root length was longer in 0 mM treatment in lower pot (0/0. . The 5/5 treatment depressed the nodule growth and nitrogen fixation activity in the upper nodules. 5/5).in the lower pot.44 Takuji Ohyama. In the lower pot where the nodules were in direct contact with 5 mM NO3-. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. however.in lower pot (0/5.either in the upper or lower pot.

1-1. From Yashima et al. . R3 and R7 stages. and R1 to R7.Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 45 Figure 38. 0-5. A photograph of soybean roots cultivated with two-layered pot system with 0/0. Effect of nitrate treatment on the dry weight of each part of soyban plants at R1. 2003 Figure 39. 5-5. 5-0 indicate nitrate concentration (mM) in the lower pots from planting to R1. 5/5. 0-0. 2005. 0/5. 5/0 treatments (from left to right). From Yashima et al.

Five treatments were imposed that 00 treatment (continuous 0 mM NO3-). Norikuni Ohtake. From Yashima et al. 2005 Long-term effect of NO3. 0-5 treatment (0 mM until R3 then 5 mM NO3). Kuni Sueyoshi et al. R3 and R7 stages. 0-5. 5-0 indicate nitrate concentration (mM) in the lower pots from planting to R1. and lowest in the 0-0 treatment (Figure 39).46 Takuji Ohyama. Total plant dry weight and seed dry weight was highest in 5-5 treatment. 2005). and 5-0 treatment (5 mM until R3 then 0 mM NO3-). 1-1 treatment (continuous 1 mM NO3-). and R1 to R7. 0-5 treatments. Figure 40 shows the .application from the lower part of roots on the nodulation of the upper part of roots was further investigated in relation to concentration and treatment period (Yashima et al. 1mM or 5 mM NO3. Figure 40. 5-5. Effect of nitrate treatment on the number of soyban nodules at R1. 1-1. 5-0. 0-0. 5-5 treament (continuous 5 mM NO3-). The solution with 0 mM.was supplied from transplanting to two-layered pot system at 14 days after planting to R7 stage. intermediate in the 1-1.

the nodule dry weight in the upper roots was highest in the plants with 1-1 treatment and exceeded the 0-0 treatment (Figure 40). 2002. 2003b).after R3 stage in 5-0 treatment markedly enhanced nodule growth (Figure 40) and acetylene reduction activity at R7 stage (Figure 42) when the values of both parameters decreased in the other treatments.from the lower roots does not inhibit the nodule growth and N2 fixation activity. These results indicated that continuous supply of low concentration of NO3. Withdrawal of 5 mM NO3.Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 47 nodule number per plant classified with nodule diameter. The increase in nodule diameter was almost completely stopped after 1 d of supplying 5 mM NO3- . Nodulation was enhanced in the upper roots by supplying 1mM NO3. SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF NITRATE SUPPLY ON NODULE FORMATION AND NITROGEN FIXATION Concerning to direct effect of NO3. Fujikake et al. or promotive effect of 1 mM NO3. including continuous supply of high concentration of NO3.from the lower roots. The diameter of a nodule attached to the primary roots increased from 1 mm to 6 mm for 2 weeks under N free conditions (Figure 45a). and the diameter of individual nodules was measured from 10-24 days after planting (Figure 45).on nodule growth and N2 fixation activity. This was due to the increase in nodule dry weight and not to ARA per dry weight of nodules.was not directly controlled by nitrate itself. The upper part of nodulated soybean root hydroponically cultured in a glass bottle was monitored using a computer microscope under controlled environmental conditions. but it can promote nodulation and N2 fixation. The nitrate supply in the lower pot increased the total nodule number in the upper roots.in 5-5 treatment. The acetylene reduction activity per plant of the upper nodules at R3 stage was also highest in the 1-1 treatment (Figure 42). recently discovered quick and reversible inhibition of nodule growth by nitrate (Fujikake et al. although decreased the number of nodules in the lower roots. Figure 44 shows the example of soybean root system cultivated with continuous supply of 1 mM nitrate at R3 stage. The value of the nodule dry weight per plant (Figure 41) and N2 fixation activity (acetylene reduction activity: ARA) per plant (Figure 42) and ARA per nodule dry weight (Figure 43) were lowest in the 5-5 treatment. but was mediated through some systemic regulation such as sucrose supply. Interestingly. 3. This result indicated that the inhibitory effect of 5 mM NO3-. The nitrate concentration of the nodules attached to the upper roots was very low.

Norikuni Ohtake. 1-1. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. 5-0 indicate nitrate concentration (mM) in the lower pots from planting to R1. (Figure 45b). the . However.from the solution (Figure 45c). 2005 The reversible depression of nodule growth by NO3. From Yashima et al. 0-0. 0-5. Effect of nitrate treatment on the dry weight of soyban nodules at R1.48 Takuji Ohyama. and R1 to R7. R3 and R7 stages. nodule growth quickly returned to the normal growth rate following withdrawal of NO3. In addition. Figure 41. 5-5.was similar to the restriction of the photoassimilate supply by continuous dark conditions for 2days followed by normal light/dark conditions (Fujikake et al. 2003b).

5-0 indicate nitrate concentration (mM) in the lower pots from planting to R1. and R1 to R7. 1-1. 5-5. 2003b). 0-0. From Yashima et al. R3 and R7 stages. Effect of nitrate treatment on ARA per plant of soyban nodules at R1. 0-5. 2005 . Figure 42.Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 49 inhibitory effect of nitrate was partially alleviated by the addition of 3% sucrose to the culture solution (Fujikake et al.

Quantitative evaluation was conducted using 14C as a tracer. From Yashima et al. 2005. The movement of 11C was monitored by positoron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). 0-5. Norikuni Ohtake.for 3 days from 27-29 days after planting.50 Takuji Ohyama. 5-0 indicate nitrate concentration (mM) in the lower pots from planting to R1.(Figure 46). The split roots were supplied with solution containing with 0 mM or 5 mM NO3. The positron emitting radioisotope 11CO2 was supplied to the first trifoliolate leaves of 29 days after planting for 10 min. Compared with the root system supplied with 0 mM NO3. Effect of nitrate treatment on ARA of soyban nodules per g DW at R1. 5-5. 1-1.and 5 mM NO3-. R3 and R7 stages. Split-root system was made by cutting the primary root of soybean seedling at 24 days after planting. and R1 to R7. By supplying 5 mM NO3-.than those in 0 mM NO3. the 14C . Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Figure 43. the transport rate of 11C was faster in the roots supplied with 5 mM NO3. 0-0.

From Yashima et al. 1 mM nitrate was continuously supplied in the lower pots. 0 mM nitrate. (a) 0 mM nitrate.1 % to 4. 5. From Fujikake et al.3%. Growth response of soybean nodules to 0 mM (blue arrows) or 5 mM nitrate (red arrows) nitrate application in the culture solution. while that to the roots increased from 5. 2005 A 10 d a b c B 6 4 2 Nodule diameter (mm) 0 6 4 2 0 6 4 2 a 15 d b 20 d c 24 d 0 10 15 20 Time (d) Figure 45.Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation 51 partitioning to nodule decreased from 9.2 % to 9. (c) 0. Effect of nitrate treatment on nodule formation in the upper (left) and lower parts of soybean roots cultivated with two-layered pot at R3 stage. (b) 5 mM nitrate. Figure 44. 2003 .1% (Figure 47).

52

Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi et al.

Figure 46. 11C traaanslocation in the split root systems of soybean plants. (A) Real time images of the distribution of 11C in soybean using Imaging Plant (BAS-1500). (B) Time course for the accumulation of radioacrivity as monitored by PETIS (Positoron emitting tracer imaging system), (C) The accumulation of radioactivity for the various point of roots. From Fujikake et al. 2003

These results indicate that the decrease in photoassimilate supply to nodules may be involved in the quick and reversible nitrate inhibition of soybean nodule growth and N2 fixation activity (Figure 48). The decrease in starch concentration in nodules (Vessey et al. 1988, Gordon et al. 2002) and the down-regulation of sucrose synthase transcript within 1 day of nitrate treatment (Gordon et al. 2002) may imply that NO3- reduces photoassimilate flow into nodules and sucrose utilization in nodules.

Nitrogen Inhibition on Nodule Growth and Nitrogen Fixation

53

Figure 47. Partitioning of 14C labeled photoassimilate in soybean plants supplied with 0 mM (-N) or 5 mM (+N) nitrate. From Fujikake et al. 2003

Figure 48. The mechanism of quick and reversible nodule growth and nitrogen fixation activity by short term effect of nitrate.

therefore. This rooted single leaf system does not have stems and shoot apical meristems. the control of nodulation is based on the communication between roots and shoots. A genetic defect in autoregulatory control of nodulation causes profuse nodulation than wild type (Figure 49). Sato et al. Gremaud and Harper 1989). Nodulation trait depends on shoot genotype and not on root genotype (Figure 50).Chapter 5 NITROGEN ASSIMILATION AND NITRATE TORLERANCE OF HYPERNODULATION MUTANTS OF SOYBEAN 1. In wild type parents. By grafting experiment. HYPERNODULATION MUTANT OF SOYBEAN Hypernodulation or supernodulation (in synonym) mutant lines of soybeans has been selected from several different cultivars of soybean (Akao and Kouchi 1992. but almost 50 nodules attached in the hypernodulation mutant line NOD1-3. . (1997a) reported that rooted single leaf of soybean retains autoregulation traits as shown in Figure 51. some shoot derived signal (autoregulation signal) arrests nodule primordia (Gerahty et al 1992) and suppresses nodule development in response to some signals (infection signal) derived from nodulated roots after infection.. Carroll et al. 1985. autoregulation control of nodule number is controlled by mature leaves without stems and shoot apical meristems. Only a few nodules are formed in Williams parent rooted leaf.

Norikuni Ohtake.56 Takuji Ohyama. Evidence of shoot control of autoregulation by grafting experiment between hypernodulation mutant and its parent. Figure 49. m: mutanti. A photograph of nodulated roots of Williams (left) and its hypernodulation mutant line NOD1-3 (right) cultivated with N free solution. p: parent. . Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Figure 50.

Total dry weight of Williams with 0 mM NO3.Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 57 Figure 51. By . From Sato et al. the nodule dry weight of NOD1-3 was about 50 mg and almost twice as large as that of Williams. A photograph of nodulation of rooted single leaf of Williams (up) and its hypernodulation mutant line NOD1-3 (down) cultivated with N free conditions. NO3Line 0 mM Williams NOD1-3 5 mM Wiliams NOD1-3 Figure 53 shows the dry weight and the distribution of dry matter of 18 days after planting followed by 4 days of 0 mM or 5 mM NO3. PARTIALLY NITRATE TOLERANT OF HYPERNODULATION MUTANT In spite of profuse nodulation.was about 450 mg/plant. 1997 2.treatment (Fujikake et al 2003b). and that of NOD1-3 was about 260 mg/plant. the root and shoot growth is usually inferior in hypernodulation mutant lines compared with wild type either cultivated with 0 mM or with 5 mM nitrate (Figure 52). However.

The nodule growth almost stopped after one day of 5 mM NO3. suppling 5 mM NO3-. while the nodule of NOD1-3 continued to grow until 2 days after 5 mM NO3.treatment (Fujikake et al.0 mm. Figure 52. the dry weight of nodules decreased in both lines. All the hypernodulation and supernodulation mutant lines have partially tolerant to NO3-. Norikuni Ohtake.58 Takuji Ohyama.conditions. The average nodule diameter of Williams increased about 1. 2003a).6 mm in NOD 1-3 under the 3 mM NO3. After 4 days of 5 mM nitrate treatment.conditions. A photograph of root system of Williams and its hypernodulation mutant line NOD1-3 cultivated in a pot with 0 mM or 5 mM NO3.treatment. the average nodule diameter of Williams was about 2.0 mm for 4 days.2 mm and that of NOD1-3 was about 2.in Williams. the nodule dry weight decreased by 22% in NOD1-3 and by 58% in Williams. 1999 Figure 54 shows the changes in the nodule diameter in Williams and NOD1-3 during 4 days of 0 mM and 5 mM NO3. The 5 mM nitrate treatment decreased the ARA in NOD1-3 by 60% per plant and by 50% per nodule g DW and these parameters were less sensitive to the treatment than those in Williams in . At 14 days after planting. respectively. From Sato et al. The supernodulation line first reported was named as “nts”. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. which means “nitratetolerant symbiosis” mutant (Carroll et al. while the decrease in Williams was more significant than that in NOD1-3. The number of nodules are higher in NOD1-3 but nodule growth was slow compared with nodules of Williams. 1985). whereas the increase was about 0.

Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 59 which the inhibition rate was 90% per plant and 80% per nodule dry weight. Figure 53. A whole shoot of Williams and NOD1-3 plants were exposed to 14CO2 for 120 min followed by 0 or 5 mM nitrate treatment for 2 days. Comparison of dry weight and the distribution of Williams and its hypernodulation mutant line NOD1-3 cultivated in a pot with 0 mM or 5 mM NO3conditions. These results indicated that the hypernodulation mutant NOD1-3 supplied a larger amount of photoassimilate to the nodules than to the roots under nitrogen free conditions. roots. and 39 and 61% in NOD1-3 . 2003 . Simbols in bar is nodules. and that the nitrate depression of photoassimilate transport to the nodules was less sensitive than that of the parent line. Hansen et al. and the partitioning of 14C radioactivity between nodules and roots were 63% and 37% in Williams and 89% and 11% in NOD1-3. stems and leaves from down to up. the percentage of distribution of 14C between the nodule and roots changed to 14% and 86% in Williams. respectively. but that of nts1007 was 56%. From Fujikake et al. Under the 5 mM nitrate conditions. (1992) compared Bragg and the supernodulating mutant nts1007 with short-term (3 days) supply of 4 mM nitrate. Nodule respiratory activity of Bragg was reduced by nitrate to 27% of control.

Plant growth was less for hypernodulation mutant lines than for Williams with both NO3. Changes in nodule diameter of Williams (circle) and NOD1-3 (square) cultivated with 0 mM (open) or 5 mM (closed) NO3. and NOD3-7 and the parent Williams (Ohyama et al. NOD1-3.was compared among hypernodulation mutant lines.18 (Williams). 1993b). From Fujikake et al. Soybean seeds were inculated at planting and transplanted at day 7 to nutrient solution with 1 mM urea or 5 mM NO3-. Norikuni Ohtake. . COMPARISON OF THE ASSIMILATION OF 15N2 AND 15 NO3. With urea grown plants the total mg 15N fixed per plant for 24 h was 1.BETWEEN HYPERNODULATION MUTANT AND PARENT Assimilation of 15N2 and 15NO3. 1.from 3 to 48 hrs to evaluate N2 fixation and NO3.or urea nutrition.40 (NOD1-3).conditions. 2003a 3. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. separate plants were exposed to 15N2 or 15NO3.assimilation. Figure 54.60 Takuji Ohyama. NOD2-4. At 25 days after planting.

absorption activity and smaller roots in NOD lines. The root systems of intact plants were exposed to 15 N2 and the shoots from half of the plants were removed 1 h after the onset of 15 N2 exposure.80 (NOD3-7) (Figure 55). and different roles among components are suggested (Fuchsman et al. a larger part of 15N from 15NO3retained in the soluble fraction of all plant parts through 24 h (Figure 56). . 4. The concentration of Lba and Lbc were separated by Native PAGE (Nishiwaki and Ohyama 1995) or all the four components Lba. however. N2 fixation was markedly depressed by the decapitation treatment and the amount of 15N in soluble and insoluble N in the nodules was decreased. The partial tolerant of nodulation for nitrate may be due to less NO3. The major part of 15N from 15N2 fixation was incorporated into insoluble fraction after 24 h. absorbed less 15 NO3.Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 61 1. while the three mutant lines retained 30 to 40% of the nodule mass and 17 to 19% of the 15N2 fixation of respective urea grown controls. because Lba has higher affinity for O2 than has Lbc.07 (NOD2-4) and 0. The hypernodulation mutant lines. and Lbc3. The 5 mM NO3. and subsequent N metabolism and distribution within the plant was not different among lines. LEGHEMOGOLOBIN COMPONENTS IN HYPERNODULATION MUTANT AND PARENT Leghemoglobin (Lb) plays crucial role in N2 fixation of leguminous nodules by facilitating O2 supply to the bacteroids. 34% in leaves. Lbc2. The response to decapitation was very similar between NOD1-3 and Williams. 12% in roots. transport and assimilation were determined in NOD 1-3 and the parent Williams (Ohyama and Harper 1991). 1976). approximately 40% in nodules. ureide-N and soluble carbohydrate in the nodules also declined following shoot removal. Lbc2. Lba. These results confirmed that nodule development is less sensitive to external NO3. It is suggested that the rapid decline in N2 fixation following decapitation was primary due to the interruption of the carbohydrate supply from shoot.in mutant lines than in the Williams parent. 14% in stem. The effects of decapitation (shoot removal) treatment on 15N2 fixation. Lbc1. There are four major components of Lb in soybean nodules. Decapitated and intact plants were harvested at 2 h after decapitation. Lbc1.treatment resulted in a 95 to 97% decrease in nodule mass and 15N2 fixation by Williams. which had restricted root growth.than Williams. Distribution patterns of 15N among organs were very similar among lines after a 24 h 15N2 fixation period. Simultaneously the concentration of amino-N.

Total accumulation of 15N labeled nitrogen in each part of Willams and the hypernodulation mutant lines NOD1-3. NOD2-4 and NOD3-7.62 Takuji Ohyama. and Lbc3 were separately determined by capillary electrophoresis (Figure 57) (Sato et al. Figure 55. 1993 . Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Norikuni Ohtake. From Ohyama et al. 1997b).

Three mutants (NOD1-3. Accumulation of 80% ethanol soluble and insoluble 15N labeled nitrogen in each part of Willams and the hypernodulation mutant line NOD1-3. NOD2-4. 1996).Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 63 Figure 56. Plants were . 1993 The concentration and component ratios in hypernodulation mutant NOD1-3. and in En6500 from Enrei parent were compared in relation to their nodulation characteristics. From Ohyama et al. but NOD2-4 was non-allelic mutant to them (Vuong et al. NOD4 and En6500) were controlled by a single recessive allele rj7. and NOD3-7 from Williams parent.

Kuni Sueyoshi et al. we noticed that mutant line had thick cortical regions relative to the comparable parent nodules (Figure 10). When the nodule morphology was compared among hypernodulation mutant lines and parent lines. hydroponicully cultivated in N free solution. Lbc2 and Lbc3 were 36. 10 20 30 Migration time (minutes) 40 Figure 57. but it accounted for only 40-50% in NOD mutants. 22. In Enrei. Concentration and composition of Lb components in the same size nodules were analyzed by gel-electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis. relative compositions of Lba. In the hypernodulation mutant En6500. The relative volume of symbiotic regions was about 50-60% of total nodule volume.64 Takuji Ohyama. The concentration of Lbc forms in nodules were decreased by addition of nitrate to Enrei plants. respectively. the total Lb concentration was only 25% of that in the parent Enrei. Lbc2 and Lbc3 were 30. and very stable irrespective of nodule size. irrespective of nodule size. Lbc1. 2001 . 22 and 26%. irrespective of nodule size and growth stages. and the nodules were separated by size. but not to En6500. Norikuni Ohtake. EN 6500 had relatively equal amounts of each component in which the relative compositions of Lba. 18 and 17%. Analysis of leghemoglobin components by capillary electrophoresis From Sato et al. Lbc1. In all NOD mutants Lb concentration was about 70% of that in the parent Williams. 26.

The . The number of nodules of the hypernodulation mutant lines was about two to three times higher than that of the parent lines irrespective of sampling date. 2001 Sato et al. From Sato et al.Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 65 10 15 20 25 Days after sowing 30 35 Figure 58. a few days earlier than in Williams at 22 days after planting (Figure 59). The hydroponically grown NOD1-3 and Williams were periodically sampled. The Lbcs (Lbc1. (2001) investigated the changes in four leghemoglobin components in nodules of NOD1-3 and its parent in the early nodule developmental stage. and the relative proportion of Lba increased with nodule growth in both NOD 1-3 and Williams (Figure 60). NOD2-4. NOD3-7) and the parent Williams and mutant line En6500 and the parent Enrei were cultivated in a sandy dune field in Niigata. In addition the Lbs were initially detected at 19 days after planting. All the visible nodules were collected from the roots and then the four Lb components in the largest nodules were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Acetylene reduction activity was detected at 19 days after planting in NOD1-3 and at 22 days after planting in Williams (Figure 58). In NOD 1-3 nodule development was faster than those of Williams. 90 and 120 days after planting (Sato et al 1998). Changes in acetylene reduction activity per plant of Williams (closed circle) and NOD1-3 (open circle). Lbc2 and Lbc3) were the main component at the earliest nodule growth stage. and the nodules and root bleeding xylem sap were analyzed at 50. The hypernodulation soybean mutant lines (NOD1-3. 70.

2001 . Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Figure 59.66 Takuji Ohyama. but the component ratios were not different between mutants and the parents. concentration of Lb components was measured by capillary electrophoresis. The concentration of Lb components in the hypernodulation mutant lines tended to be lower than in the parents. Changes in leghemoglobin components in nodules of Williams (up) and NOD13 (down) From Sato et al. Norikuni Ohtake.

Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 67 Figure 60. allantoic acid. Changes in propotion of leghemoglobin components in nodules of Williams (up) and NOD1-3 (down). Warren and Adams (2000) also reported . and asparagine) in the xylem sap were also measured by capillary electrophoresis (Sato et al 1998). 2001 5. From Sato et al. allantoin. COMPARISON OF NODULATION AND XYLEM SAP COMPOSITION BETWEEN HYPERNODULATION AND PARENT CULTIVATED IN THE FIELD The concentrations of major nitrogen compounds (nitrate.

Ethylene is one of the important phytohormone regulating plant growth. 6. Terakado et al (2005) reported that systemic effect of brassinosteroid on nodule formation in soybean after the foliar application of brassinolide and . determination of major amino acids and sugars by capillary electrophoresis. and the nitrate concentration was lower in the mutant lines than their parents. 2006). defective long-distance auxin transport regulation was reported in the Medicago truncatula super numeric nodules mutant (Van Noorden et al. and silver thiosulfate (STS) is a potent inhibitor of ethylene action in plant (Veen 1983). The nodule dry weight was decreased by both ACC and STS treatments. Moreover. the nodulation of hypernodulation mutant was not specifically influenced by ACC treatments. it was concluded that the decrease in nodule dry weight by ACC was caused by inferior growth. NON-INVOLVEMENT OF ETHYLENE ON NITRATE INHIBITION OF SOYBEAN NODULATION It has been reported in alfalfa that the inhibition of nodulation by nitrate was reduced by medication of ethylene production inhibitor aminoethoxyvinilglycine (Ligero et al. the ratio in nodule dry weight in total plant dry weight were not significantly influenced by these treatments with or without NO3-. Therefore. Recently. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. but the asparagine concentration increased in the later stage.utilization.68 Takuji Ohyama. In soybean the depression of nodulation and N2 fixation by nitrate is not mediated through ethylene action. The hypernodulation mutant of soybean NOD1-3 and its parent Williams were cultivated in culture solution with or without NO3. however. Schmidt et al. The concentration of ureides and asparagine were relatively higher. Ethylene is produced through oxidative decomposition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carbosylic acid (ACC). While the exogenous ethylene inhibited nodulation on the primary and lateral roots of pea (Lee and LaRue 1992ab). similar trend is not observed in hypernodulation mutants of soybean.. However. 1991). Sato et al. The concentration of ureide and nitrate in xylem sap decreased with the plant age.. and ACC or STS were added in the solution. (1999c) investigated the effect of ethylene action on soybean nodulation using ACC and STS in relation to the inhibitory mechanism of nitrate using hypernodulation mutant NOD1-3 and the parent Williams. This suggests that autoregulation may not be involved in ethylene action or transduction pathways in soybean plants. Norikuni Ohtake. possibly due to higher dependence on N2 fixation than NO3. (1999) also reported the independence of ethylene signaling on the regulation of soybean nodulation.

The decrease in the nodule number was not caused by the reduction of the rhizobium number in the medium. The nodulation of Williams decreased dramatically by the addition of 100 μM salicylic acid. Plants display a mechanism of resistance to pathogenic microbes. Salicylic acid is considered to be one of the endogenous signals in the systemic resistance to pathogen infection (Malamy et al. NOD1-3 and NOD2-4 and their parent Williams. and it induces the synthesis of autoregulation signal(s) which in turn transported to roots and depress further development of the nodule meristem. although it was about 40 in control plant without salicylic acid. Loak and Grant 2007). Both the autoregulation of nodulation and the systemic acquired resistance to pathogenic microbes are mediated by some plant signals. the inhibitor of brasinosteroid formation. NOD1-3 and NOD2-4 and the parent Williams were treated or not treated with a 100 μM salicylic acid solution at 5 days before the inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110.Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 69 brassinazaole. and it induce gene expression of pathogen related proteins. On the other hand. The inhibitory effect of salicylic acid on the nodulation of NOD1-3 and NO2-4 was significantly less pronounced than that in . Seedlings of the hypernodulation mutant. using hypernodulation mutant lines. In addition. infection signal and autoregulation signals are not identified yet. Then salicylic acid is transported to other plant part as a pathogen infection signal. Sato et al (2002) investigated the effect of salicylic acid supply on nodulation of soybean to determine whether salicylic acid affect the autoregulation of nodulation. jasmonic acid also induces the gene expression of pathogen related proteins as a signal of wound and viral infection (Gundlach et al 1992). the infection signal molecule(s) is synthesized in the roots and transported to the shoot through xylem. 2004). 7. EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID SUPPLY ON NODULE FORMATION OF HYPERNODULATION MUTANT It is postulated that once the roots of soybean are infected with rhizobia. a hypersensitive reaction occurs in the infected portion of the plant where salicylic acid is synthesized. The nodule number with 100 μM salicylic acid was only 6. they reported that shoot applied polyamines suppress nodule formation in soybean (Terakado et al. 1990. If some pathogenic microbes infect a plant. 2006). Metraux et al. However. Suzuki et al reported that nodule number is controlled by the abscisic acid in Trifolium repense (white clover) and Lotus japonicus (Suzuki et al. 1990. Salicylic acid inhibited only early nodule formation and did not affect the growth of formed nodules.

the partial tolerance of nodule growth and acetylene reduction activity per plant to nitrate was not directly involved in photoassimilate supply. either by decreasing the infection dose of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USD110 for En6500. the 14C distribution to the . Because En6500 exhibit profound nodulation but smaller shoots than Enrei. During the early stages of nodule formation at 4. nodule development. On the other hand. These results indicate that salicylic acid may be involved in signal transmission in the autoregulation process. Initial nodule growth may be determined by photosynthetic product supply in relation to autoregulation of nodulation. Ito et al (2006a) investigated the allocation of photosynthetic products in soybean during the early stages of nodule formation. To compare the nodule characteristics between the similar size of shoot with normal nodulation number. Norikuni Ohtake. concentration and component ratio of leghemoglobin were similar. due to excess nodule number. nitrogen and carbon (photoassimilate). These results suggest that the specific characteristics of the nodules of hypernodulation mutant. or cutting the leaves of Enrei. Williams. 8. INVOLVEMENT OF PHOTOASSIMILATE SUPPLY IN NODULE FORMATION IN HYPERNODULATION MUTANT OF SOYBEAN Legume-rhizobia symbiosis depends on the exchanges of two major nutrients. Therefore efficient supply of photoassimilate is very important to nodule initiation. because shoot removal treatment quickly decreased the 15N2 fixation both in Williams and NOD1-3 after 2hrs (Ohyama and Harper 1991). is caused by the insufficient supply of photoassimilate to each nodule. A continuous supply of photoassimilate is very important to support N2 fixation. Whole shoots were exposed to 14CO2 for 120 min and the distribution of radioactivity in each organ was determined. Sato et al (1999) investigated the involvement of photosynthetic supply in changes of nodule characteristics of hypernodulation soybeans En6500 isolated from Japanese cultivar Enrei by sink-source manipulations.70 Takuji Ohyama. and 8 days after inoculation. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. A time-course study was conducted in relation to nodule initiation. it was found that acetylene reduction activity per nodule dry weight. they adjusted the sink and source size. such as low acetylene reduction activity per nodule dry weight. low leghemoglobin concentration and different component ratio of leghemoglobin and small infected region. as well as maintenance of nitrogen fixation and transport of fixed nitrogen compounds. 6.

Ito et al. It was concluded that increase in photoassimilate supply does not occur for nodule initiation in NOD1-3 until at 8 days after inoculation as same as the parent Williams. the accumulation of starch and sugar was similar in both inoculated and uninoculated plants. also reported the current photoassimilate allocation of hypernodulation mutant of soybean NOD1-3 in early stage of nodule formation (Ito et al. In addition 14C respired by underground parts was similar in both the inoculated and the control uninoculated roots. Total dry weight of each hypernodulation mutant lines were not significantly different form that of Williams in inoculated and uninoculated conditions. Whole shoots were exposed to to 14CO2 for 120 min and the distribution of radioactivity in each organ was determined. In visualized images of radioactivity by imaging plate. The 14C distribution in the roots of 8 days after inoculation did not increase when compared with uninoculated control plants. 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY GROWTH OF HYPERNODULATION MUTANTS Characteristics of the initial growth of hypernodulation soybean lines. These results indicate that current photosynthate allocation to the inoculated root did not increase markedly during the early stages of nodule formation. and NOD3-7 were compared with the parent Williams (Ito et al. At 8 days after inoculation. 2006c) at 7 or 8 days after with or without inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. These results indicated that photoassimilate allocation for nodular initiation does not increase markedly during the early stages of nodule formation. After the emergence of nodules. This is faster than the parent Williams. To investigate carbon status of plants at 8 days after inoculation. In inoculated conditions. In addition. while small nodules had already strong sink activity than the roots in 8 days after inoculation. nodules were observed as strong signal spots in underground organ.Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 71 inoculated roots did not increase when compared with uninoculated control roots. the starch and sugar concentration in the plants were similar between inoculated and uninoculated roots of NOD1-3. NOD13. 2006b). The rate of photoassimilate supply itself may not be a trigger to develop the arrested nodule meristems to functional nodules. nodule number at 8 days after inoculation . NOD2-4. the consumption of current photoassimilate by the respiration of under-ground parts increased at day 12 after inoculation to support nodule growth before starting nitrogen fixation. photoassimilate allocation to the inoculated roots gradually increased.

the nodule number was decreased by the presence of nitrate in Williams. This phenotype was not affected by inoculation with bradyrhizobiua or nitrate supply. which play important roles in the autoregulation of nodulation. NOD2-4 (33). NOD3-7 (19) and Williams (17). When plants were grown with inoculation. 2002. 2002.72 Takuji Ohyama. Searle et al. 1997). Norikuni Ohtake. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. 2007). the leaf growth of NOD3-7 and NOD1-3 was different from the wild type. Searle et al. Seedling growth of NOD2-4 was very similar with that of Williams. In uninoculated conditions. The characteristics of the initial growth of hypernodulation soybean lines. It is interesting that HAR1/GmNARK are expressed in most tissues except the shoot apical meristem (Nishimura et al. These legume genes are homologous to Arabidopsis CLAVATA1 (CLV1). Recently. 2003). NOD1-3. and it was shown to encode a receptor-like kinase protein that contains a leucine-rich repeat (Krusell et al. the total dry weight of all mutant lines was not different from Williams. whereas CLV1 is expressed in shoot apical meristem (Clark et al. NOD3-7 may be the most tolerant to nitrate inhibition of nodulation among the NOD mutant lines. both in the absence and presence of nitrate. compared with the Williams parent (Ito et al. In contrast. 2000). When the plants were grown without inoculation. Nishimura et al. 2002. Stem length and dry weight of NOD3-7 were lower than those of other lines. These results indicate that the reduced accumulation of total dry matter of hypernodulation mutant lines may be secondary effect of excess nodule formation. 1997). was higher in the order of NOD1-3 (56 nodules per plant). which is involved in the control of cell proliferation in the shoot apical meristem (Clark et al. except nodule number. suggesting that . so shoot growth of NOD3-7 might be different from other lines. A microscopic study showed that NOD1-3 and NOD3-7 lines produced small-size leaves due to the smaller number of leaf cells. The results of Ito et al. 2003). NOD2-4. This suggests that NOD3-7 and NOD1-3 might decrease the ability for leaf expansion. the genes were identified from hypernodulation lotus (HAR1) and soybean (GmNARK). Suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation in split-root systems of alfalfa was observed (Catford et al. the root growth of NOD1-3 and NOD3-7 were faster than that of Williams. Shrihari et al. 2003). There is growing evidence that processes leading to nodule initiation and mycorrhizae are similarly regulated (Hirsch and Kapulnik 1998. suggest that the protein coded by GmNARK may play some roles on leaf growth as well as nodule growth by autoregulation. NOD1-3 and NOD2-4 but not in NOD3-7. but the leaf emergence rate was faster compared with Williams under all the conditions. 2008). The expanded leaf was smaller. and NOD3-7 were compared with the parent Williams with or without 5 mM nitrate in the solution (Ito et al.

PRACTICAL USE OF HYPERNODULATION SOYBEAN The hypernodulation mutant lines of soybean may have some advantages. 2007). or mixed-cropping with sorghum (Ofosu-Budu et al. However. but total accumulation of N was lower in NOD1-3 compared with Williams due to inferior growth. The Sakukei No. all hypernodulation mutants had greater N2 fixation potential than did Williams in early growth stages. Field assessment of supernodulating mutant of soybean showed that cropping is beneficial to subsequent cereal crops (Song et al. 4 is smaller than Enrei. 1995). Suganuma et al. however. by increasing planting density. Wu and Harper (1991) evaluated the N2 fixation potential and yield of hypernodulating soybean NOD1-3.Nitrogen Assimilation and Nitrate Tolerance… 73 autoregulation mechanism may be shared in the rhizobial and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. but recently Sakukei No. The hypernodulation mutant lines have not been used for practical cultivar. In the absence of N fertilizer. Recently. These results showed that supernodulation mutants. (2001) also compared the growth and N2 fixation activity of NOD1-3 and Williams in sandy dune field. NOD1-3 and NOD2-4 from Williams retained their ability to autoregulate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). differ in their ability to autoregulate AMF colonization (Meixner et al. 10. Meixner et al. 4 bred from En6500 has been used in agriculture. NOD2-4 and NOD3-7 compared with the parent Williams. such as higher N2 fixation or nitrate tolerant to nodulation. The relative dependence on N2 fixation evaluated by simple relative ureide method was higher in NOD1-3 (65%) than that of Williams (58%). (2007) reported that AMF precolonization to one part of split roots reduced secondary mycorrhization in wild type of soybean. the supernodulating mutants En6500 from Enrei. while supernodulation mutant nts1007 from Bragg fail to control secondary mycorrhization. 1995). the seed yields from the hypernodulation mutants were 10 to 30% less than that from Williams. . However. the yield can be over than Enrei.. despite a common nodulation phenotype.

.

Chapter 6

EFFECT OF NITROGEN NUTRITION ON SOYBEAN SEED STORAGE PROTEIN COMPOSITION
1. STORAGE PROTEIN IN SOYBEAN SEEDS
Soybean seed is one of the most important protein sources for human and live stocks. The storage proteins of soybean seeds mainly consists of glycinin and βconglycinin. β-conglycinin comprises of three subunits, designated as α’, α, and β subunits (Shuttuck-Eidens and Beachy 1985). Of the three subunits of βconglycinin the β-subunit genes are known for their unique expression. Gayler and Sykes (1985) reported that soybean seeds cultured under sulphate deficiency showed a 40% decrease in the level of glycinin and a 3-fold increase in the amount of β-conglycinin. On the other hand, soybean cotyledons cultured in vitro in the presence of methionine lacked the β-subunit, and the gene expression was down regulated at the level of mRNA accumulation (Creason et al. 1983, Holowach et al. 1984, 1986). The β-subunit of β-conglycinin is especially low in sulfur amino acids, containing only one cysteine and no methionine residue in its mature form (Coates et al. 1985). Therefore, it may be reasonable to accumulate β-subunit of β-conglycinin in S-deficit conditions, and decrease it under Ssuficient conditions.

76

Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi et al.

2. DISCOVERY OF N REGULATION ON β-SUBUNIT OF β-CONGLYCININ
We happened to discover the lack of β-subunit of β-conglycinin in several non-nodulated soybean lines, although an electrophoretic protein band due to this protein was clearly detected in the corresponding nodulated isolines (Figure 61) (Ohtake et al, 1994). In two dimensional electrophoresis, several β-subunit polypeptide spots were present in nodulated line (T202) but corresponding spots were not detected in non-nodulated T201 seeds.
KDa 200 97.4 A B C D E F G H I

46

30

21.5

Figure 61. SDS-PAGE pattern of seed storage protein of nodulating and non-nodulating isolines. A: Molecular marker, B: T202, C: T201, D: Fujimijiro, E: Totan No. 90, F: Norin No. 2, G: Totan No. 89, H: A62-1, I A62-2. Nodulating lines (B,D, F, H), Non-nodulating lines (C,E,G,I) From Ohtake et al. 1994

Nodulated (T202) and non-nodulated (T201) isolines of soybean were cultivated in a rotated paddy field in Niigata, Japan (Ohtake et al. 1996). The pods and seeds were harvested at 7-days intervals until maturity, and the subunit compositions of seed storage proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE (Figure 62). The β-subunit of β-conglycinin could scarcely be detected in the non-nodulating

Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition…

77

isoline, T201, at any period throughout seed development, although it was a major component in T202.
Month Day T202 August 18 25 September 15 22 October 10 α’ α β Acidic

1

8

29

6

Basic

T201

α’ α β Acidic

Basic

Figure 62. Changes in SDS-PAGE pattern of seed storage protein of nodulating (T202) and non-nodulating (T201) isolines. From Ohtake et al. 1997

The distribution patterns of K. The protein bodies of non-nodulated T201 were smaller than those of nodulated T202. September 8 September 15 T202 T201 T202 T201 α’. while it was pronounced in T202 (Figure 63). From Ohtake et al. Northern hybridization could not detect the β-subunit mRNA in immature T201 seeds. These results indicate that the suppression of the β-subunit in the non-nodulating isoline T201 is regulated at the level of mRNA accumulation. Norikuni Ohtake. Accumulation of mRNA in the seed of nodulating (T202) and non-nodulating (T201) isolines. The α’.and α-subunits mRNAs were actively expressed in both lines. and N were similar between T201 and T202 seeds by EPMA. although no significant difference was observed in either the free amino acid or ureide concentrations in seeds. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Average cell size of T201 was significantly smaller about 30% than that of T202. P. Protein bodies in cotyledon cells were observed by a microscope after a thin section was stained with coomassie brilliant blue solution (Figures 64. 1997a).78 Takuji Ohyama. while the total cell number in a seed was not significantly different between lines. This suggests that the nitrogen deficiency . Ca. α mR β mR Figure 63. S. Total N concentration was consistently lower in non-nodulating T201 than nodulating T202. 65). Mg. 1997 The distribution of mineral elements and cell morphology in nodulated and non-nodulated soybean seeds were observed (Ohtake et al.

Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition… 79 did not affect cell proliferation of seeds. Figure 64. 1997 Figure 65. From Ohtake et al. but it depressed the cell expansion and protein body accumulation. Microscopic observation of cotyledon cells of seed of non-nodulating T201. Microscopic observation of cotyledon cells of seed of nodulating T202. 1997 . From Ohtake et al.

From Ohtake et al. which were harvested from soybean plant with various N conditions. Norikuni Ohtake. 1997 The results indicate that non-nodulated T201 has a normal. whereas high N availability decreases accumulation of β-conglycinin in soybean seeds.absorption.the proportion of β-conglycinin increased markedly. in T202 plants treated with 10 mM NO3.80 Takuji Ohyama. non-defective. irrespective of whether N was derived from N2 fixation or from NO3. Relationship between seed storage protein accumulation and total nitrogen concentration in seeds. seed dry weight and N concentration of the T201 were significantly lower than those in the T202 seeds. and that limited N availability decreases accumulation of βconglycinin. βsubunit genes. 1997b). Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Figure 66 shows the relationship between seed storage protein composition and the total N concentration of seeds. With a continuous 2 mM NO3. Nitrogen regulation of storage protein subunit levels of soybean seeds was evaluated using T201 and T202 with solution culture in the greenhouse (Ohtake et al. and the β-conglycinin proortion was lower in T201 than T202. Furthermore.supply. When 5 mM NO3was supplied. The concentration of glycinin was . 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 40 50 60 70 80 90 Seed nitrogen concentration (mg N g-1 DW) Figure 66. the subunit proportion of the seed storage protein was similar in nodulating and non-nodulating isolines.

medium.absorption. Ureide is transported from the root nodules via xylem and accumulated in the pod. Among the free amino acids in immature seeds. On the other hand. allantoin and allantoic acid. This was the fist discovery of N regulation of soybean storage protein accumulation. (2002) reported the effect of short-term application of nitrogen on the accumulation of β-subunit of β-conglycinin mRNA and protein in intact seeds and in vitro cotyledon culture system. Yamagata et al. Haga and Sodek (1987) also reported that glutamine was the most efficient source in terms of protein accumulation in the cultured soybean cotyledons. and they were transferred to Nsufficient condition (5 mM NO3-) conditions. sucrose is a principal C source for pods and seeds (Fellows et al. In the in vitro cotyledon culture system. (1984) reported that glutamine was the principal N to cotyledon. 1978). From these results. Non-nodulating isoline (T201) were cultivated with low N (0.labeling experiment that the assimilated 13C was rapidly transported to each organ compared with 15N from 15N2 fixation and 15NO3. asparagine concentration increased rapidly within 2 days. 1997. contributing 55% of the embryo nitrogen requirement. Nakasathien S. while asparagine was less efficient and allantoin was a poor source of nitrogen. (2001b) reported that the rapid N transport to pods and seeds in N-deficient soybean plants compared with N-sufficient plant. The β-subunit mRNA and the protein were detected in immature seeds within 2 days after transfer to 5 mM NO3. (1986) showed by 13CO2. Figure 67 shows the outline of the N flow in soybean seed (cotyledon). and negligible from ureides. Non-nodulated soybean plant (T201) was cultivated hydroponically under N-sufficient or Ndeficient conditions. while asparagine did not induce the accumulation of βsubunit mRNA for 7days. or its metabolites or related compounds. Concerning to C supply to the seeds. Ohtake et al. 15N2 and 15NO3. the accumulation of β-conglycinin especially the β-subunit was significantly influenced by N concentration. 13N or 15N labeled NO3. .Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition… 81 relatively constant irrespective of total N concentration of seeds. Yanagisawa et al. 2000). and 20% from asparagine. the application of glutamine induced the accumulation of β-subunit mRNA within 12 hr. and the accumulation of nitrate derived N was compared. This result was confirmed by following researches (Paek et al. and it was lost by severe N deficiency and it was stored with excess N concentrations. (1987) reported that 96% of C in matured soybean seed carbon derived from photosynthate after anthesis.was supplied from cut end of the stems. Ohtake et al.5 mM NO3-) conditions. it was concluded that the accumulation of β-subunit mRNA and the protein may be regulated by glutamine concentration. Rainbird et al.

Norikuni Ohtake. The cotyledon cells absorb amino acids and they synthesize storage proteins and accumulate them into protein bodies.82 Takuji Ohyama. A model of N flow in soybean seed. Asn vascular bundle seed Storage protein Storage protein protein body seed coate pod Figure 67. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Ureides. Asn Amino acids Amino acids Ureides. . Asparagine from roots via xylem or from leaves via phloem is also metabolized to amino acids then provided into the apoplast space between seed coat and cotyledon. Allantoin and allantoic acid are metabolized to amino acids and excreted into seed coat.

Basal dressing of ammonium sulfate (about 10-30kgN ha-1 of ammonium sulfate) is applied in Japan. Takahashi et al (2006) reported the effect of basal side-dressing of various types of coated urea fertilizer on shoot growth and yield of soybean. Gan et al (2003) reported that N top dressing of urea ( 50 kgN ha-1) at either V2 or R1 stage significantly increased N accumulation. but not consistent. Sole N2 fixation is generally insufficient to support vigorous growth of shoot and roots. The yield was significantly higher in all the coated urea basal . yield and total amount of N2 fixed. On the other hand. although the N top dressing at either R3 or R5 stage did not show this positive results in China. Therefore. NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN SOYBEAN CULTIVATION Soybean requires a large amount of N relative to other crops. which also results in the no-effect or sometimes in reduction of seed yield.Chapter 7 DEVELOPMENT OF NEW FERTILIZATION TECHNIQUE TO PROMOTE NITROGEN FIXATION AND SEED YIELD 1. About 80 % of total N was assimilated after initial flowering stage (R1). a heavy supply of N fertilizer often depresses nodule development and N2 fixation activity and induces nodule senescence. which results in the reduction of plant growth and seed yield. nitrogen fertilizer is not applied for soybean cultivation or only a small amount of N fertilizer is applied as a “starter N” to promote initial growth. Top dressing of N fertilizer sometimes gave positive effect on seed yield.

side-dressing compared with control. including calcium cyanamide as a major component. coated urea and lime nitrogen. DEEP PLACEMENT OF COATED UREA A polymer coated controlled release N fertilizer (commercial name LP in Japan or MEISTER outside Japan) has been invented by Fujita and coworkers (Fujita and Shoji 1999) Linear types of coated urea were first marketed in 1982. 2. Figure 68. . Norikuni Ohtake.84 Takuji Ohyama. We would like to introduce the outline of our study and review the characteristics of soybean N nutrition and N fertilization to promote high and stable soybean seed production. Coated urea fertilizer. ethylene vinyl acetate and talc mineral. This type of fertilizer has spherical shape about 3mm diameter with 50-60 μm coat thickness which consists of polyolefin (polyethylene). We analyzed the beneficial effects from both plant nutrition and soil analysis sides. particularly in the CUS120 which release urea sigmoidally from 60 to 120 days after planting. An example is shown in Figure 68. We have developed a new fertilization technique for soybean cultivation to supplement N during seed filling stage without concomitant depression of N2 fixation by deep placement (20 cm depth from soil surface) of slow release N fertilizers. Kuni Sueyoshi et al.

IBDU (Isobutylidene diurea). and the fertilizer efficiency (recovery rate of N in plants from fertilizer) is high. 1992.Development of New Fertilization Technique… 85 Different from chemically synthesized slow release N fertilizer such as CDU (Crotonylidene diurea). and the release pattern can be predicted as a function of temperature and time period after application. 1993b. Fertilizer injecter for deep placement. physical and biological conditions. 1994) developed a new fertilization technique for soybean to supplement N during the seed filling stage without concomitant depression of symbiotic N2 fixation by deep placement of coated . (1991a. Figure 69. the N release rate from coated urea is temperature dependent and not affected by other chemical. From Takahashi et al. Also the use of coated urea saves the labor of farmers by eliminating top dressing to supply N during later stage. 1993 Takahashi et al. the use of coated urea can reduce the environmental problems by decreasing nitrate accumulation and leaching in the soil. Since the release of N from the fertilizer meets the plant N demand.

CL. They applied 100 kg N ha-1 coated urea by deep placement (20 cm depth from soil surface) using fertilizer injector devised by Shioya (Figure 69). 6. CU-100 linearly releases urea and 80 % of which is released in 100 days in water at 25 oC (Figure 70). 1994). Figure 70. total carbon content. 2004 Fertilizer experiments were carried out from years 1989 to 1991 in the field. 28. a 100 day type coated urea. 1.02 g kg-1. They used CU-100. urea slow release N fertilizer. N release patterns of linear type and sigmoidal type ofcoated urea . total N content. Japan. the commercial name “LP100” produced by Chisso Co. Average chemical properties of the soil were as follows: texture. From Ohyama et al. pH(H2O).8 (cmol(+) kg-1). Kuni Sueyoshi et al. amount of mineralized N determined by the incubation of air dry soil under upland conditions for 4 weeks at 30 oC.86 Takuji Ohyama. The soil is a Fine-Textured Gray Lowland soil.6. . CEC. 10. Norikuni Ohtake.9 g kg-1. 47 mg kg-1 (Takahashi et al. which had been converted from a paddy rice field in the previous year.

planting density. The promotion of leaf growth and retardation of leaf senescence were observed during the maturing stage. The seed yield was from 10 (1991) to 23 % (1990) higher in deep placement than the control treatments. Enrei) were sown by single stem training (75cm x 15cm. 1995 As shown in Figure 71 the seed yield was significantly higher in the plants with the deep placement of CU-100 than control in each year. 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Seed yield (t/ha) Control Deep Placement 1989 1990 Year 1991 Figure 71. In 1990. basal deep placement (20cm depth from soil surface) of CU-100 below sowing planting line (100 kgN ha-1). Deep placement of 100 day type coated urea. Top dressing of 70 day type coated urea. cv. no additional fertilizer.9 plants m-2). the seed yield was very high about 6 t ha-1 in deep placement due to the favorable climatic conditions compared with .Development of New Fertilization Technique… 87 Conventional basal dressing of ammonium sulfate (16 kgN ha-1). Seed yield of soybean plants cultivated in rotated paddy field with or without (control) deep placement of coated urea (LP-100) for three years. fused magnesium phosphate (60 kgP2O5 ha-1) and potassium chloride (80 kgK2O ha-1) fertilizers were mixed in plow layer (0-13 cm depth) of all experimental plots. From Takahashi et al. Three fertilizer treatments were conducted as follows. top dressing of CU-70 (100 kgN ha-1) just before the flowering stage with intertillage and earthing up. The seeds of soybean (Glycine max [L.] merr. Control. 8.

The absorption efficiency of fertilizer N determined by 15N labeled fertilizers was calculated from recovery of 15N in the shoots at R7 stage (Figure 72). Norikuni Ohtake. R3. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 Stage 3 AS CU 100 CU 70 Figure 72.1994. (1991a. Recovery rate (%) of fertilizer N from basal deep placement of CU100. Planting. R7 From Takahashi et al.88 Takuji Ohyama. 1995 In the experiments conducted by Takahashi et al. 100 kgN ha-1) just before flowering stage with intertillage and earthing up. . Stage 3. years 1989 and 1991. the absorption efficiency at R7 from the deep placement of CU-100 was 62 %.Stage 1. Stage 2. due to depression of N2 fixation activity during reproductive stage from the analysis. Although CU-70 is also control released N fertilizer.1992. which was much higher than the top dressing of CU-70 (33 %) and basal application of ammonium sulfate (9 %). Fertilizer efficiency was about 30 % and much lower than deep placement of CU-100. In 1990. 1995) included the top dressing of linear type coated urea (CU-70. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. top dressing of CU70 and basal dressing of ammonium sulfate. the top dressing of CU-70 did not consistently increase seed yields.

4 gN m-2 from fertilizer and it was much higher than that (0. Estimation of daily N2 fixation activity and N absorption rate of soybean plants estimated by simple relative ureide method. The fertilizer efficiency of deep placement of CU100 was very high about 64 %. Consequently. Deep placement of coated urea. This indicates that the deep placement of CU100 did not depress N2 fixation activity with efficient supplement of N from the lower part of the roots. Compared with control plants. days after sowing. The plants with deep placement of CU100 absorbed about 6. control treatment. Cont. In addition N absorption rate was always higher in deep placement than that of control plant at any stages. Period (DAS) 0-34 34-44 (R1) 44-60 (R3) 60-74 (R5) 74-116(R7) N accumulation (mg m-2 day-1) Cont DP 55 70 110 251 352 361 478 591 423 485 N Fixation (mg m-2 day-1) Cont DP 36 41 83 172 310 274 414 436 279 276 N Absorption (mg m-2 day-1) Cont DP 19 29 27 79 42 87 64 154 143 210 DAS. Table 1. Board and Tan (1995) reported that source strength influenced pod umber from R1 to 10 to 12 days after R5 stage. (Recalculated from the data in Takahashi et al. quantitative estimation of the seasonal changes in N2 fixation activity and N absorption rate has been published (Takahashi et al 1992).15 gN m-2) in the control plants.Development of New Fertilization Technique… 89 3. although that from basal application of ammonium sulfate was less than 10 %. 1993a. the plants with deep placement of CU100 show higher N accumulation rate at any stages.2 g m-2 and not lower than that in control plants (24.5 g m-2). (1992)) Table 2 shows the comparison of the total amount of fixed N and absorbed N from fertilizer N and soil N at R7 stage. DP. It was remarkable to note that the amount of fixed N in deep placement of CU100 was about 25. N ORIGIN OF PLANTS BY DEEP PLACEMENT OF COATED UREA By periodical sampling of soybean plants and xylem sap. the plant growth and seed yield were much exceeded mainly by increasing pod number in comparison to control cultivation without deep placement. FNCA 2006). Table 1 shows the estimation of daily N2 fixation activity and N absorption rate of soybean plant in 1990 by simple relative ureide method (Takahashi et al. Pod per . It is remarkable that the deep placement of coated urea did not depress N2 fixation activity.

3. In the upper layer. the concentration of urea and nitrate was very low (less than 10 mgN kg–1 soil) both in control and deep placement of CU100 treatments. Norikuni Ohtake. 1995). the concentration of oil. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. starch.37 7.34 Fixed N (g m -2) 24. and the leaf senescence was retarded at R7 stage (Takahashi et al. Na and Fe) in both seeds were almost the same between treatments.74 Recalculated from the data in Takahashi et al. the accumulation of ammonium (up to 150 mgN kg-1) and nitrate (up to 50 mgN kg-1) was observed in August in the lower layer of deep placement of CU100. The seed quality related to the chemical composition of soybean cultivated with deep placement of coated urea was compared with control seeds (Ohyama et al.90 Takuji Ohyama. 1991b). (1993b) analyzed the concentration of urea. Leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content were always higher in CU100 deep placement than those in control. However.21 Fertilizer N (g m -2) 0. Table 2. ammonium and nitrate in the upper 0-10cm and lower 15-25cm layers of control and deep placement of CU100 treatments. FATE OF N FROM COATED UREA IN SOIL Takahashi et al. plant growth was promoted from early vegetative stage till late maturing stage.52 25.39 Soil N (g m -2) 8. 1994b). (1992) It was observed that the CU100 deep placement increased root growth and water and nutrient absorption activity revealed by rubidium uptake tracer experiment (Takahashi et al. The N concentration in the seeds was almost the same as in the case of control seeds. and minerals (P. Although the urea released from coated urea was rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia.04 39. Ca.5 cm long) and / or abortion of initiated pods. Mg. Owing to the promotion of root growth and absorption activity in the deep place with supplementing N fertilizer without depression of N2 fixation. Comparison of the amount of fixed N. In addition. NH4+-N could not be easily nitrified in .15 6. reproductive node were regulated by pod initiation (pods at least 0. K. absorbed fertilizer N and soil N and total accumulated N between control and deep placement of coated urea at R7 stage (116DAS). 1994) It was suggested that leaf senescence and N redistribution during seed filling may limit soybean yield by restricting the seed filling period (Hayati et al. Treatment Control Deep placement Total N (g m -2) 33.

the nodulation and N2 fixation in the surface layer were not depressed. Continuous supply of N from nodules and roots with increased photoassimilate supply promotes seed yield without decreasing the quality. e. The leaf area and chlorophyll content was higher in the leaves of deep placement than those in control ones. The abundant supply of N from lower part of roots promotes leaf growth and extends the photosynthetic activity until maturing stage.Development of New Fertilization Technique… 91 the deep soil layers of the converted rice field owing to the low activity of nitrification and restricted O2 supply. Abundant supply of photoassimilate to nodules supports the nodule growth and N2 fixation activity for an extended period during maturing stage. d. b. Also both ammonium and nitrate concentrations in the surface layer did not change by deep placement of CU-100 treatment. 4. THE MECHANISM OF PROMOTION OF DEEP PLACEMENT OF COATED UREA FOR SOYBEAN GROWTH AND SEED YIELD The mechanism of promotion of deep placement of coated urea for soybean growth and seed yield is summarized in Figure 73. The abundant supply of N in the lower layer promotes the root growth. . As a result. and water and nutrients absorption activity and fertilized N is efficiently absorbed from the lower roots. c. and rather promoted through the improvement of the plant growth and photosynthetic activity. a. Deep placement of coated urea slowly releases urea inside and the urea is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonium and the ammonium does not easily leach out from the fertilization sites.

Kuni Sueyoshi et al. which is again degraded into NH3 and CO2. Lime nitrogen contains about 60% of calcium cyanamide (CaCN2) with calcium oxide and carbon. Norikuni Ohtake. A first cropping field after reclamation with the dressing of mountain soil without indigenous bradyrhizobia (Tewari et al. (2002. N accumulation and N2 fixation activity of soybean plants were compared. 2003. Tewari et al. The effects of the application of different fertilizers.92 Takuji Ohyama. 5. coated urea and lime nitrogen on the growth. All the experiment was carried out in 2001 in three different sites in Niigata Prefecture. 2002). Effect of deep placement of coated urea. Inhibition Coated urea Urea NH4+ NO3- Coated urea Urea NH4+ Figure 73. After application to soil. Dicyandiamide contained in lime . a rotated paddy field in Niigata Agricultural Research Institute (Tewari et al. and the N content is about 20-23%. urea. 2004a). DEEP PLACEMENT OF LIME NITROGEN WITH DIFFERENT INOCULATION METHODS Recently. It corresponds chemically and physiologically to a basic fertilizer and it neutralizes the soil acidity. CaCN2.) in comparison with coated urea. 2003). 2004a) investigated the effects of deep placement of lime nitrogen (calcium cyanamide. The fertilizer experiments were combined with new inoculation method of bradyrhizobia using a paper pot inoculation method. the calcium cyanamide is converted to urea. and a sandy dune field of Faculty of Agriculture in Niigata University (Tewari et al.

potassium and calcium fertilizers in basal application (16 kgN ha-1. paper pot was filled with vermiculite and a seed was planted in each pot. 100 kgN ha-1. Nitrogen (ammonium). Thereafter. CU-100 . 1997). Also this fertilizer exerts some hormonal effects on plants and is used for controlling soil diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Thereafter.5 cm. IPP (Inoculated paper pot). since it is a potent nitrification inhibitor. although radial expansion of the soybean root system through the paper was restricted in some fields. The use of paper pots leads to uniform germination and seedling growth. Deep placement of 100-day type coated urea. Control. and followed by inoculation of one ml of suspension of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 about 108 cells ml-1. Urea. phosphorus. Deep placement of urea 100 kgN ha-1. Inoculation of legume seed is most conventional way of introducing effective rhizobia to soil. 60 kgP2O5 ha-1. CaCN2. which often result in severe damage to soybean cultivation. respectively) were incorporated into the plow layer at about 0-10 cm depths for all the experimental plots. injury and delay in germination.Development of New Fertilization Technique… 93 nitrogen or formed during the degradation of calcium cyanamide retards the oxidation of NH4+ to NO3-. the previously weighed fertilizers urea. can be avoided. 1000 kg Ca(OH)2 ha-1. 2004). In these experiments holes at a depth of about 20 cm were dug with a scoop at the transplanting sites. Paper pots (height 13. The pots are open at the bottom to allow root expansion below the pot. diameter 3 cm) are made of a biodegradable paper designed to break down in the field. DT (Direct transplantation of inoculated seedlings without paper pot) and NIPP (Noninoculated paper pot) seedlings were transplanted in separate plots. deep placement was performed at a 20 cm depth under the planting spot with different treatments as follows. and transplantation protects the seeds from feeding by pigeons. Senoo et al (2002) reported that soil aggregate-based inoculant is more effective for soybean and red kidney bean growth and nodule occupancy. 100 kgN ha-1. CU100. As shown in Figure 74. Therefore the ammonium produced by CaCN2 decomposition persists for longer period of time and the nitrate concentration remains low in the soil. without additional fertilizers. Therefore. efficient infection of inoculated bradyrhizobia can also be expected by paper pot inoculation with vermiculite. In each of these fertilizer treatments. Since the bradyrhizobium population increases about 100 times in vermiculite for a few weeks (Minagawa et al. Deep placement of lime nitrogen. 80 kgK2O ha-1. but full potential of incoluation is not always achieved (Deaker et al. It is expected that the inhibition of nodulation and of the N2 fixation activity may be alleviated by low level of nitrate accumulation in the soil.

Kuni Sueyoshi et al. Paper pot inoculation method. IPP (inoculated paper pot) tended to show the highest seed yield than DT and NIPP treatments. the inoculation by IPP or DT promoted seed yield more than twice as much in the control treatment. the most conspicuous effect was observed by inoculation and deep placement (Figure 75). Then the seedlings were transplanted above the fertilizer application sites.94 Takuji Ohyama. Concerning to the inoculation method. Among the inoculation methods. In the reclaimed field. the IPP and DT seedlings . Table 3 summarized the seed yield of three different sites in 2001. The seed yield was higher in rotated paddy field where mineralized N from soil organic matter is relatively abundant compared with reclaimed field and sandy dune field where soil fertility is very low. Paper pot preparation with vermiculite Sowing a seed in each paper pot Inoculation of rhizobia Soybean seedling for transplanting Figure 74. Norikuni Ohtake. Especially in newly reclaimed field with dressing of mountain soil without indigenous rhizobia. and CaCN2 were applied in the respective holes just under the seedling placement.

00 a 3.05 a 6. The promotive effect on seed yield (dry weight) of the deep placement can be analyzed based on the yield components in paddy field (Tewari et al.88 b 0.97 a 2.04 a 4. (From Tewari et al.40 a 2.94 b 1.53 a 2. especially the difference was statistically significant in the CU-100 and CaCN2 treatments to control plants.58 a 2.67 b 2. 2004a).Development of New Fertilization Technique… 95 showed a higher seed yield than the NIPP seedlings.46 a 4. compared with the Urea IPP (4.31 b 2.04 t ha-2).12 a 4. 2002. non-inoculated paper pot. The higher yield by deep placement of CU-100 and CaCN2 was mainly due to the significant increase in the total pod and seed numbers.19 a 3. The promotive effects of slow release fertilizers on soybean seed yield resulted in the yield about 49-85 % higher than that of the control yield.50 a 3.91 b 4. where deep placement of lime nitrogen was almost the same or better seed yields.49 a 4. The number of pods per m2 with the slow release fertilizers CU-100 and CaCN2 was significantly higher than that in the Control and Urea treatments. 2004) As a consequence of the promotion of N acquisition and plant growth. IPP.67 t ha-2) and Control IPP (3.78 b 1.90 b 2.83 b 4. The seed weight and N content were .32 a DT IPP NIPP. direct transplanting of inoculated seedlings.36 a 2.73 a 6.01 c 1.62 a 5.31 t ha-2) treatments (Figure 76).67 a 3. Table 3.56 a 2. The similar effect was observed in reclaimed field and sandy dune field.12 t ha-2) and CU-100 IPP (6. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different by 5% level in the same inoculation method in the same field.29 a 3. (Tewari et al 2003). significantly higher seed yields in the rotated paddy field were obtained with the deep placement of CaCN2 IPP (6. Seed yield of soybean with fertilizers and inoculation treatments at different fields in 2001 Inoculation Methods NIPP Fertilization Deep Placement Control Urea CU-100 CaCN2 Control Urea CU-100 CaCN2 Control Urea CU-100 CaCN2 Seed yield (t ha-1) in Experimental fields Rotated paddy Reclaimed Sandy dune field field field 2.72 b 4.14 b 1.86 a 2.60 a 3. inoculated paper pot.35 a 3.22 ab 3. DT.71 a 5.41 a 3. 2003.

the %Ndfa was found to be as low as 47 and 43 % in the IPP and NIPP methods. the DT plants showed a higher %Ndfa than the IPP and NIPP plants. the N content increased with the application of slow release fertilizers. This may be due that urea is a readily available N fertilizer and CU-100 and CaCN2 are slow release N fertilizers. . Deep placement of N fertilizer Urea Coated urea Control Lime nitrogen IPP DT NIPP Figure 75. DT: Direct transplanting with seed inculation. the %Ndfa ranged between 60-79 % in all the inoculation methods. and 54 % in the IPP. When the inoculation methods were compared. respectively. At the R1 stage. in the plants with deep placement of CU-100 and CaCN2. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. The %Ndfa estimated by the simple relative ureide method in the Control accounted for 50. it was highest in the Urea with DT treatment but later at the R7 stage. CaCN2 and CU-100. IPP: Inoculation paper pot transplantation. stems. On the contrary. The total N content of the shoot organs including leaves. In the deep placement of Urea. Norikuni Ohtake. NIPP: Non-inoculated paper pot transplantation. both at the R1 and at R7 stages. also found to be highest with the CaCN2 treatment followed by the CU-100 treatment. and seeds was also found to be highest with CaCN2 among the fertilizer treatments and with the IPP among the inoculation methods. coated urea or lime nitrogen and paper pot inoculation method in Yamakita. 2002 The N content of the shoot vegetative organs was significantly higher in the deep placement of N fertilizers compared with the control. DT and NIPP methods.96 Takuji Ohyama. suggesting that N2 fixation activity was inhibited by this treatment. pods. 54. From Tewari et al. Effect of deep placement of urea. respectively. suggesting that deep placement of these slow release fertilizers promoted the N2 fixation activity.

Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different by 5% level. lime nitrogen. suggesting that the inoculation of efficient strains such as Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 might have improved soybean seed production. 2003 Table 4. 2004a).Development of New Fertilization Technique… Control Urea 97 CU-100 Lime nitrogen Figure 76.48 a Total N (g/plant-1) 3. ammonium sulfate.24 b 2.05 b 1. U.62 b 4.78 c 1.09 c 0.32 b 2. 2007) A significant increase in seed yield was observed in the IPP and DT methods compared with the NIPP method (Tewari et al.43 a AS.07 b 1.28 ab 5.61 a Ndfs (g/plant-1) 0. urea. coated urea. Effect of deep placement of urea.34 a Ndff (g/plant-1) 0. LN.82 b 3.12 b 3. Estimation of the amount of N originating from various N sources based on the 15N dilution method. The promotive effect . CU. coated urea or lime nitrogen and paper pot with inoculation paper pot transplantation in Nagaoka. 2002. 2003. (From Tewari et al. From Tewari et al. Line Enrei Deep Plancement AS U CU LN Ndfa (g/plant-1) 2.41 a 0.23 b 0.

1 x 105 cells in Nakazawa. and 98 times in vermiculite. 538 times in Nakazawa soil (volcanic ash soil).98 Takuji Ohyama. Soybean cultivation was absent for a long time in Sonoki and Ikarashi fields. The effectiveness of paper pot inoculation in the field with high rhizobial density may be due to the difficulty for indigenous bradyrhizobia to infect the upper parts of the roots. Soybean cultivion had been frequently repeated in Nagakura and Nakazawa fields by rotation between paddy rice and soybean. rhizobial population in rhizobox increased 1218 times in Nagakura soil (alluvial soil). of inoculation may be due to the low density of the bradyrhizobial population in the field as in the reclaimed field. ANALYSIS OF THE PROMOTIVE EFFECT OF DEEP PLACEMENT OF SLOW RELEASE N FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND SEED YIELD OF SOYBEAN BY 15N ANALYSIS The effect of deep placement of ammonium sulfate (AS). Minagawa et al. At 25 days after inoculation. In addition. As a result the infection rate of USDA 110 might increase and ultimately N2 fixation became higher. urea (U). 6. Norikuni Ohtake. 1.8 x 105 cells in Nagakura. At the Nagakura site where the bradyrhizobia population appeared to be relatively abundant. Deep placement of 15N labeled fertilizers (100kgN ha-1) was applied in converted paddy field in the same field as above . the inoculation of uptake hydrogenase-positive (hup+) strain USDA110 promoted soybean growth compared with the uptake hydrogenase-negative (hup-) strains. Therefore. The proliferation and mobility of inoculated gus-strain was examined in a rhizobox containing various soil types (Table 5). coated urea (CU) and lime nitrogen (LN) on the N origin was investigated by 15N dilution method (Tewari et al. the inoculation practice may contribute to enhancing the soybean seed yield in the fields where a high indigenous bradyrhizobium population had been established. 173 times in Ikarashi soil (sandy dune soil). 8 cells in Ikarashi. (1997) used the gus marked Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain for estimation of inoculated strain number in soil. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. the incidence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum hup+ was dominant in the Nagakura field compared with other sites in Japan (Minamisawa et al 1999). 2005). The indigenous rhizobium population per one g soil estimated by MPN (most probable number) method was 5.7 x 104 cells in Sonoki. the inoculation of USDA110 was associated with a promotive effect. by increasing the populations of efficient strain USDA110 during seedling nursery. 3. Based on the fingerprint analysis of repeated sequences of genes. 513 times in Sonoki soil (alluvial soil).

Development of New Fertilization Technique…

99

(Nagaoka). Soybean plants cv. Enrei and the non-nodulated isogenic line En1282 were planted. Whole plants were sampled at maturing stage, and 15N abundance and N concentration in each part were analyzed. The evaluation of Ndfa, Ndfs and Ndff was conducted by 15N dilution method using En1282 as a reference plant as shown in Table 4. In all the treatment, non-nodulated line exhibited only 36-40% of total dry weight and 16-30% of total N accumulation compared with the nodulated line Enrei, due to N deficiency associated with the lack of nitrogen fixation. The value of the seed weight per plant of Enrei was highest in LN (73g) followed by CU (63g), U (47g), AS (37g) and control without deep placement (26g). The value of Ndfa per plant estimated by 15N dilution method was higher in LN (3.6g) and CU (2.8g) than in U (2.3g) and AS (2.3g) treatments. The recovery rate of fertilizer N was higher in LN (43%) and CU (36%) than U (21%) and AS (21%) treatments. These results confirmed that deep placement of both LN and CU is effective to improve soybean growth and seed yield by promoting nitrogen fixation by root nodules. Table 5. Characters of soils used for rhizobial proliferation and infection.
Location Soil type pH (H2O ) 6.52 6.50 6.64 6.75 6.78 CEC (meq 100 g1 ) 27.36 34.86 21.64 4.60 64.73 Total N (%) 0.08 0.23 0.13 0.03 0.00 Available N (mg 100 g-1) 3.49 6.34 12.85 2.04 0.56 Available P (mg 100 g-1) 20.03 32.67 57.10 7.28 2.10

Nagakura Nakazawa Sonoki Ikarashi Vermiculite

loam light clay clay loam loamy sand -

(From Minagawa et al. 1997)

To investigate the utilization of N from LN compared with CU, soybean plants were periodically sampled with deep placement of 15N labeled LN and CU (Tewari et al 2007). Figure 77 shows the absorption pattern of labeled N from LN and CU. The N absorption was initially lower with LN than CU at the R3 and R5 stages, but the absorption was from LN exceeded CU at R7 stage. The recovery rate was 70% in LN and 61% in CU. The daily N2 fixation activity and N absorption rate was calculated by a simple relative ureide method (Figure 78). Average daily N assimilation rate in which N from N2 fixation plus N from N absorption was relatively low until 61 DAS (R1 stage). Daily N2 fixation activity from planting to R1 was higher in CU than Cont and LN treatments, although N absorption was high in LN during the

100

Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi et al.

same period. From 61 to 102 DAS (from R1 to R5 stage), both the nitrogen absorption rate and N2 fixation activity were shown to be high in LN and CU treatments, in comparison to Cont treatment. In all the treatments, the higher N2 fixation activity was found during R3 and R5 stages with LN (630 mg m-2 d-1), CU (616 mg m-2 d-1), and Cont (464 mg m-2 d-1) treatments. The N2 fixation activity declined during the maturation stage (102-130 DAS) (R5-R7) in all the treatments. The distribution patterns of labeled N from LN and CU were similar among organs (Figure 79).

Figure 77. Changes in N recovery from coated urea and lime nitrogen with deep placement in the rotated paddy field in Nagaoka. From Tewari et al. 2003

The seed yield per plant was 37 g (Cont), 67 g (CU), and 71 g (LN), which are equivalent to 3.2 t, 5.8 t and 6.2 t per hectare respectively. The results of the naked eye examination of the seed quality are presented in Figure 80. The percentage of good seeds were 58% (Cont), 62% (CU), and 65% (LN), and thus the effect of deep placement of LN and CU on improving visual quality could be confirmed from this result. It can also be seen that there was a reduction in bad seeds, especially side wrinkle, whose percentage was slightly reduced by LN (17%) and CU (19%) treatment, compared to Cont (26%).

Development of New Fertilization Technique…

101

Figure 78. Changes in N2 fixation activity and N absorption rate with deep placement of coated urea and lime nitrogen in the rotated paddy field in Nagaoka. From Tewari et al. 2007

Figure 79. Distribution of labeled N at R7 stage from deep placement of coated urea and lime nitrogen in the rotated paddy field in Nagaoka..

Figure 80. Therefore. PROMOTIVE EFFECTS OF DEEP PLACEMENT OF LIME NITROGEN ON SEED YIELD. 2007 7. From Tewari et al. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. The number of total nodes includes the nodes of the main stem and branches is also important to increase pod number. The node number of the main stem is determined during the early vegetative growth period. The yield increase by deep placement of CU-100 and CaCN2 was mainly due to the increase in the pod number per plant. It has been suggested that optimum vegetative growth and sufficient nutrient supply is necessary to obtain an appropriate pod setting number. The efficient supply of N after flowering and non-depressing or promotive effect on N2 fixation activity may account for the high seed yields of the soybean plants with deep placement of CaCN2 and CU-100. Seed quality with deep placement of coated urea and lime nitrogen in the rotated paddy field in Nagaoka.102 Takuji Ohyama. The deep placement of CU-100 as well as CaCN2 contributed to the increase of the total node number in the . the increase of the seed yield could be achieved through the increase of the number of branches and pods per node by management practices. Norikuni Ohtake.

nitrate . Based on the results obtained here. The number of pods increased by deep placement at the early reproductive stage. It can be considered that a large number of active nodules are distributed in the surface layers of soil due to the adequate supply of N2 and O2 by diffusion through soil from air. Thereafter. The continuous supply of a low level of ammonium or nitrate may be beneficial to keep leaves active over a long period of time. deep placement of controlled release fertilizers (100 kgN ha-1 of 100 day type coated urea or lime nitrogen) into 20 cm depth from soil surface with basal dressing of ammonium sulfate (16 kgN ha-1) in the plow layer enabled to increase the soybean seed yield by about 10-85 % over the conventional cultivation. which may account for the fact that the N content in seeds with CaCN2 as well as CU-100 was also higher than that in the control and urea treatments. this condition may prevent flower and pod shedding due to nutrient competition or stress during the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive growth. Ohyama and Kawawi 1983) Moreover. Consequently. The present results suggested that the deep placement of CaCN2 as well as CU-100 alleviated the depression of nodulation and N2 fixation.Development of New Fertilization Technique… 103 branches and the pod number per node. because the absorbed N tended to be primarily translocated to the leaves and then re-exported to the other growing parts (Ohyama 1983. Deep placement of lime nitrogen is hydrolyzed to urea. The ammonium does not easily leach out from the fertilization sites at 20 cm depth. the non-depressing effect of deep placement of CU-100 and CaCN2 on N2 fixation may be due to the fact that the inhibitory effect of NO3. the abundant photoassimilate and continuous higher N supply could fill the pods during the seed growth period. Dicyandiamide contained in lime nitrogen or formed in the soil from lime nitrogen depresses nitrification to prevent ammonium oxidation to nitrate. a. the deep placement of slow release N fertilizers on promotive effect of N2 fixation may have enabled to maintain the supply of N to the shoot. which is directly in contact with NO3-. leading to the increase of seed yield. As a result. which may account for the good yield obtained with both the CaCN2 and CU-100 treatments. Since the N released from deep placement of CU-100 and CaCN2 may be absorbed in the deep layers. The mechanism of promotion of deep placement of lime nitrogen for soybean growth and seed yield is summarized in Figure 81. Generally. N fertilization is known to depress nodulation and the N2 fixation activity.(major form of absorbed N) is restricted to the root system. then to ammonium and carbondioxiside. As a result. the inhibitory effect on N2 fixation of the nodules in the upper layers may be attenuated.

and water and nutrients absorption activity and fertilized N is efficiently absorbed from the lower roots. Norikuni Ohtake. c. Continuous supply of N from nodules and roots with increased photoassimilate supply promotes seed yield without decreasing the quality. Fate N from deep placement of lime nitrogen in soil. NO3Dicyan diamide Inhibition Lime N Urea NH4+ Figure 81. leaching and dinitrification is reduced and the ammonium can be sustained in the deep place for a long term. Abundant supply of photoassimilate to nodules supports the nodule growth and N2 fixation activity for an extended period during maturing stage. Kuni Sueyoshi et al. d. The leaf area and chlorophyll content was higher in the leaves of deep placement than those in control ones. . e. b.104 Takuji Ohyama. The abundant supply of N in the lower layer promotes the lower root growth. The abundant supply of N from lower part of roots promotes leaf growth and extends the photosynthetic activity until maturing stage.

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22 ash. 82. 121 agriculture. 24. 61. 29. 81. vii. 21. 118. 28. 16. 35. 35.INDEX alluvial. 25. 92 ammonium. 25. 35. 98 alternative. vii. vii. 21. 83. 37. vii. 89. vii. 28. 67. 36. 78. 61. 118. 63 assimilation. 42. 68. 97. 44. 108. 87. 40 adaptation. 67. 21. 88. 13. 91. 15. 115 27. 14. 21. 114. 44. Abundance. 120 acidity. 115. 25. 72. 120 amino acid. 82. 113. 30. 111. 51. 16. 68. 67. 30. 34. 42. 73 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. 114. 39 aerobic. 78. 60. 90. 75. 73. 32 89. 3. 17. 81. 32. 68 114. 19. 16. 19. 16. 80. 90. 117 allele. 98 alfalfa. 24. 106 asparagines. 21. 28. 14. 21. 18. 19. 47. 24 absorption. 114. 35. 61. 91. 111. 43. 117 Adams. 15. 73 abortion. 42 amino acids. 24. 35. 113. 44. 81. 16. 23. 21. 18. 30 animals. 88. 116. 24. 17. 90 amide. 24. 84 27. 21 AMF. 120 access. 21 anion. 88. 96. 120 anaerobic. 24. 27. 19. amino. 68 93. 15 anions. 18. 106. 69. 14. active transport. 26. 89. 2. 105. 1 alanine. 65. 81. 113. 42. 114 A . 113. 24. 103. ammonia. 82. 16. 82 assessment. 103 Argentina. 120. 104. 75. 68. 112. 16. 110. 39 ADP. 101. 117 22. 27. 86. 94. 82. 46. age. 36. vii. 75. 29. 70 120 acid. 105. 15. vii. 17. acetylene. 36. 19. 17. 9. 34. 36 algae. 23. 13. 23. 24. 111. 18. 111 39. 33. 111. 81. 37. 24. vii. 21. 16. 120 119. 44. 1 ADH. 14 aspartate. 85. 42. 42. acetate. 68. alleles. 40 application. 26. 78. 21. 73 air. 99. 31. 35. 22 allantoic. 8. 93. 68. 81. 26. 99. 38. ACC. 23. 28. 68. 114. 92. 81. 90. vii. 98.

10. 31 circulation. 116 cation. 29. 89. 39. 19. 42. 105. 99 B Co. 41. 7. 110. 24. 14. breeding. 33. 84 communication. 41 competition. 73. 92. 33. 10. 91. 1 49. 78. 40. 21. 72. 106 BAS. 103. 66. biomass. 1. 35. 44. 71. 15. 92 bacteria. 106. 73. 108 correlation. viii. 68. 65 compounds. 115 capillary. 36. iv. 6. 117 108. 114. 108 117. 7. 110. 48. 104 chloroplast. 86. 29 classified. 31. 84. 104. 42. 52. 118 biosynthesis. 65. 8 cotyledon. 1. 115 51. 7. 25. 15 autoregulate. 90. 98. 26. 103 biodegradable. 93. 92. vii. 32 China. 112 cultivation. 70. 115 conductance. 67. brassinolide. 31. 24. 34. 49. 116 112. 106. 72. 84. 9. 81 CEC. 79. 69. 90. 105. 47. 86. 112 115. 80 Index chlorophyll. 86 CO2. 86 cyanide. 111 cyanobacterium. 47. 69. 61. 81. 41. 117 compositions. 105. 90. 47 108. 64. 86. 63. 94. 78. 55. 7. 115. 16. 59. 118 cell division. 35. 23. 80. 117. 95. 70. 112. 14 cortical. 87. 109 ATP. 10. 10. 66. 23. capacity. 113 Bradyrhizobium. 96. 64 cDNA.124 associations. 119 88. 111. 11. 25. 19. 84. 118 biological nitrogen fixation. 93 components. 108. 119 chemical properties. biological. 83. viii. 72. 56. 117 cell. 117 colonization. 32. 83. 19. 80. 76. 120 chloride. 115 controlled. 26. 99. 1. 80. 117 concentration. 105 108. 84. 64. 12. 35. 81. carbohydrate. 39. 50. 42. 64. 70. 62. 52 commercial. 10 Congress. 93. 9. 107. 115 cyanamide. 97. 1. 78. 32. 66. 93. 47 clay. calcium. crops. 81. chemical. 28. 91. 112 chemical composition. 30. 71 control. 93. 30. 55 binding. 107. 36. 109 90. 23. bradyrhizobial. 99. 61 118 carbon. 24. 112. 64. 42. 98 67. cell culture. 61. 70. 87 . 45. 68. 83. 69. 93. 99 CRC. 39. 71. 7 culture. 26. 37. 90. 116. 36. 2. 42. 116 composition. 109. 118 29. 85. 9. 105. 112 bleeding. 98. 14 chromatography. 84. 116 C consumption. 95. Brazil. 110. 24. 71. 55. 67. 63. 34. 46. 65. 86 beneficial effect. 85. 81. 42. 92. 68. 89. 84. 71. 8 cortex. 10. 25 catabolism. 103. 73 availability. computer. 90. 103.

72 F farmers. 68. 27. 2. 93 distribution. 87. 2 donor. 27. 18. 17. 21 demand. 76. 20. 36. 88. 98. 72. 86. 44. 16. 42. 114 diurnal. 93 fertility. 64. 19. 24. 61. 118. 83. 26. 24. 61. 106. vii. 120 electrostatic. 31 division. 109. 41 feeding. 16 endogenous. 30. 9. 119 fertilizers. 39. 89. 21. 10. 103. 18. 59. 2. 81 . 96. 83. 39 epidermal cells. 41 diffusion. 45. 26. 116. 75. 95. 92. 116 expert. vii. 73. 93. 42 dehydrogenase. 70. 115. 113 cytosolic. 99. 70. 85. 76 diseases. 58. 105. 48. 99 deficit. 15. iv embryo. 115. 46. 68. 57. 81. 18. 84. 107. 94. 6. 84. 87. 24. 84. 118. 48. 24. 88. 86.Index cysteine. 13. 42 enzyme. 99. 80. 15 epidermal. 118 expressed sequence tag. 104. 96. 20. 111. 109. 52. 41. 84. 106. 16. 111 energy. 35. 93. 92. 68. 85. 89. 24. 39 epidermis. 85 feedback. 68. 71. 42. 9. 78. 60. 53. 103. 61. 113. 85 environmental conditions. 98. 59. 52. 116 Discovery. 47 environmental factors. 110. 103 deprivation. 94 fertilization. 19. 114. 2. 26. 115. 24. 43. 91. 41. 40. 6. 34 fixation. 68. 120 degree. 15. 88. 120 degradation pathway. 27. 118. 32 electron. 19 fine tuning. 90. 103. 117. 21. 61. 85. 39 electronic. 13. 93. 8 extraction. 71. 2. 113. 57. 3. 14. 36. 8 deficiency. 84. 81. 52 dry. 9. 65. 13. 17. viii. 47. 115 fertilizer. 75 degradation. 62. 42. 69. 117 emission. 119. 116 evidence. 90. 110 density. 73. 91. 14. 110. 101. 40 exogenous. 93. 63 ethylene. 43. 47. 36 down-regulation. 108. 93 defense. 67. 75 cytoplasm. 95. 110 dominance. 119 filtration. 30. 68. 112. 90. 78. 84. 120. 80. 9. 105 feedback inhibition. 39. 59. 85. 41. 73. 71. 102. 13. iv exposure. 106. viii. 85. 4. 96. 111 eye. viii. 32 environment. 72 evolution. 108. 111 environmental. 92. 117. 103. 32 energy supply. 42. 28. 105 cytosol. 88. 10 ethanol. 12. 7 DNA. 98 depressed. 91 depression. iv electrophoresis. 10. 14. 15. 39. 121 E electrochemical. 79. 16. 112. 57. 13. viii. 100 125 D decomposition. 100. 15. 66. 16. 99 dry matter. 70. 87. 112. 1. 44. 14 embryogenesis.

69. 81. 8. 69. 7. 18 inhibitory. 82 fructose. 15. 57. 27. 68 India. 1. 112. 103. 26. 111 I id. 48. 87. 30 homogenized. 119. 105. 68. vii. 25. 60. 95. 107. 102. 114 host. 116. 93 glass. 112 glycine. 52. 47 glucose. 73. 92. 50. 83. 69. 49. 64. 13. 103. 71 imaging. 56. 70. 75. 68. 22. 109. 28. 75. 59. 27. 16 glutamine. 43. 22. 93. 53. iv. 27. 93. 110 gene expression. 56 grasses. 96. 15. 98. 93. 24. 49. 42. 95. 113. 69. 92. 81. 42. 98 incubation. 64 gene. 80 growth. 109 Horticulture. 120 hypersensitive. 98. 75. 111. 16 homolog. 111 inhibitors. 107. 18. 55. 98. 93. 13. 55 genetic defect. 47. 55. 30. 16. 16 hypernodulation. 8. 72. 21. 17. 16. 108. 117 genistein. 60. vii. 115 injury. 47. 94. 55. 106. 8 hormones. 109. 21. vii. 26 glutamate. 108 genotypes. 70. 78 hydrolyzed. 98. 72. 26 fungi. 98. 117 inhibition. 8. 71. 93. 65. vii. 65. 68. 19 gas. 90. 70. 117 genotype. 2. 52. 112 genetic. 93 high temperature. 8. 118. 17 gel. 41. 120 inhibitor. 116. 121 growth rate. 13. 72. 69 hypothesis. 30. 98. 79. 72. 2. 7. 90. 52. 47. 19. 24. 104. 11. vii. 81. 43. 114. 110. 41. 71. 8. 93 inoculation. 117 germination. 30. 1 greenhouse. 91. 41. 1 indigenous. vii infection. 63. 55 genetics. 70. 91 images. 9. 73. 120 gas phase. 116 genome sequencing. 24. 23 hyperbolic. 72. 109. 57. 80. 41 G GABA. 68. 111 indirect effect. 70. 41. 86 independence. 71. 75. viii. 112. 103 hydroponics. 69. 44. 97. 72. 103. 92. 68. 8 genomics. 106. 71. 93. 62. 21. 55. 120. 118 glutamic acid. 119 .126 flow. 111. 71. 109 incidence. 94. 91. 58. 116. 7. 120 initiation. 47. 99. 106. 107. 120 inhibitory effect. 69. 73. 89. 69. 48 gus. 69. 7. 36. 58. 89. 107 human. 14. 17. 6. 116 Index H height. 115. 75 hybridization. vii. 41. 90. 71 in vitro. 69. 110 genes. 14. 99. vii. 41. 24 grafting. 59. 7 genome. 42. 117. 52. 52.

17. 78 mineralized. 93. 7 isoforms. 70. 9 movement. 69. vii. 27. 65. 111 microscope. 81. 104 Leaf area index (LAI). 30 morphology. 2 intensity. 109. 47. 72. 88 long period. 60. 23. 116 kinase. 14 microbes. 18. 78. 85. 108. 29. 24. 90 mitochondria. 114. 106. 107. 98 moisture. 8. 70 management. 120 methionine. 87 magnetic. 108. vii. 81. 103 leaching. 94 minerals. 26. 109 Mg2+. 57. 108. 106. 59. 111 metabolites. 86. 120 metabolite. 85 lateral roots. 116. 69. 56. 73. 24. 68 late-stage. 68. 12. 66. 62. 23. 105. 105. 107 isoflavonoid. 8. 41. 116 interactions. 29 insects. 30. 1. 25. 22 Israel. 120 . 6. 14 mobility. 93. 71. 86. 42. 120 medication.Index inorganic. 86. 8. 116 kinetics. 120 long-term. 18. 109. 23. 68. 23. 106 metabolic. 109. 68 medium composition. 24 metabolism. vii. 113 leach. 44. 55. 103 long-distance. 112. 117 mutants. 111. 116 kinetic parameters. 106. 20. 120 legumes. 61. 116 Japanese. 78. 108 metabolic pathways. 111. 73. 84. 109 magnesium. 69. 120 linear. 38. 112. 63. 110. 28 leakage. 106. 30 L labeling. 72 limitation. 115. 106. 116. 109. 75. 64. 11. 109 K kidney. 110. 13. 43. 22. 24. 116. 112 mechanical. 18. 83. 100 measurement. 63. 102 management practices. 7 isoflavonoids. 120 J Japan. 42 interaction. 10. 98. iv Medicago truncatula. 107 legume. 70. 1. 109 mutant. 7. 112 meristem. 69. 90 leaf blades. 68. 28. 8. 42 mole. 112 mosaic. 102 maturation. 106. 72. 110. 91. 116 leucine. 72. 75. 7. 41. 115. 58. 50 mRNA. 81 labor. iv maintenance. 109. 105. 117. 72. 13. 14 isoleucine. 112 Lotus japonicus. 76. 39. 110 127 M Madison. 68. 2. 22.

23. 47. 8. 24. 109. 47. 34. 59. 110. 7. 2. 28. 118. 110. 64. 68 pathogenic. 42. 15. 116. 116. 96. 2. 100. 111 nutrients. 3. 9. 6. 104. viii. 53. 103. 61. 80 nutrient. 14. 61. 19. 90. 99 phenol. 12. 91. 13. 16 organ. 25. 107. 114. 93. 16. 61. 71. 114. 102. 25. 29. 72. 94 oxidation. 115. 113. 64. 60. 89. 69 pathogens. 120 normal. 2. 52. 7. 44. 109. 120 phosphate. 81. 15. 117. 106. 104. 46. 4. 99. 37. 80. 83. 66. 111 photoperiod. 24. 111. 106. 23. 87 phosphorus. 39. 27. 58. 121 nodule growth. 116. 107. 70. 45. 72 polyethylene. 16. 111. 31. 112 organic. 71. 1. 66. 41. 43. viii. 94. 39. 72. 115. 84 . 2. 9. 13. 93. 63. 47. 59. 35. 120 permeability. 27. 68. 42. 91. 102 nodulation. 50. 110. 43. 30. 111 phenotype. 120. 9. 55. 120 nodes. 105. 29. 41. 24. 42. 94 organic matter. vii. 70. 18. 82. 91. 121 nodules. vii. vii. 69. 92 oxygen. 110 plants. 2. 27. 103. viii. 68. 105. 42 photosynthesis. 115 network. 28. 24. 113. 72. 109 nitrogen. 108. 71. 25. 8. 116. 106 Pisum sativum. 65. 55. 114. 109. 70. 7. 68 oxide. 117. 70 nitrogen fixation. 39. vii. 115 physiological. 73. 63. 114. 109. 116. 107. 36. 95. 71. 112. 104. 7 optical. 70. 48. 81. 70. 42. 52. 96. 97. 72. 95. 32. 119. 109. 46. 53. 108. 18. 18. 24. 29. 16. 53. 99. 110. 91. 53. 109. 15. 98. 105. 116. 90. 103 Nitrite. 113. viii. 112. 120 nylon. 43. 81. 27. 24. 43. 10 New York. 87. 117 nitrogen fixing. 103. 55. 81. 115. 26. 119. 120 nitrogen compounds. 115. 119 plastid. 2. 111. viii. 68. 59. 52. 51. 36 natural. 93. 61. 47. 40. 30. 90. 50. 6. 24. 72. 85. 70. 108. 109. 27. 101. 62. 19 O oil. 28. 67. 58. 110. 31. 16. 58. 17. 121 nitrification. 106. 93. 81. 84. 117. 24. 10. 13. 52. 36. 93. 6. 42. 34. 22. 9. 36. 67. 15. 97. 13. 107. 16. 106 nitrate. 111. 71. 105. 116 P paper. 104 nutrition. 98 oligosaccharide. 34. 68. 91. 67. 70. 40. 110. 73. 17. 57. 7. 25. 102. 13. 91. 8 pathways. 22. 60. vii. 24. 73 phloem. 93. 92. 92. 93. 46. 105. 108. 117. 10. 44. 112. 14 nitrogen gas. vii. 49. 45. 26. 117. 103. 29. 106. 108. 118. 80. 118. 51. 23. 48. 26. 109. 78. 28. 106. 25. 92. 23. 7. 15. 110. 107. 85. 68. 103 oxidative. 44. 42. 34. 93. 70. 99. 23. 106. 67. 7. 44. 49. 112. 107. 10 pH. 84. 26. 64. 40.128 Index N NAD. 30 play. 35 NC. 2. 115. vii. 25 photosynthetic. 41. 86. 65. 43. 27. 14. 113. 70. 44. 98 parents. iii. 104. 21. 60. 36 NADH. 48. 39. 48. 72. 7. 69. 102. 24. iv Nielsen. 42. 57. 96. 53. 70. 95. 106. 2.

116 respiration. 107. 63 services. 10. 100 shoot. 40. 115. 114. 91. 76. 80. 56. 71. 80.Index polymer. 69. 112. 93 potato. 7. 78. 72. 8. 55. 5. 32. 70. 6. 29. 81 population. 90. 94. 81. 41. 113 re-export. 46. 93. 6. 27. 84. Q 106. 83. 106 search. 76 poor. 99. 90. 111 . 47. 25. 69. 95 seeds. 119 quantitative estimation. 120 seed. 47. 84 regulation. 105. 2. 72. 116 preparation. 89 sand. 98 rice field. 87. 27. 91. 116 protein synthesis. 30. 75. 10. 89. 27. 75. 90 96. 41. 59. 84. 22 recessive allele. 120 signals. 99 science. vii. 106. 87 rhizobia. 59 retardation. 69. 60. 76. 108. 103. 5. 98. 120 R Self. 32. 75. 84 property. 2. 6. 9. 12 SDS. 79. 77. 109. 17 purification. 8. 110. 30 root hair. 118 proliferation. 7 rubidium. 88. 118 S sampling. 83. 77 SE. 115. 108 radioisotope. 59. 120 sclerenchyma. 84 polyolefin. 96. 86. 112. 27 proteins. 52. 81. 94. 85. 94. 76. 7. 93. 34. 112 positron. redistribution. 120 recovery. 95. 29. 114 129 resources. 9. 9. 1. 98. 70. 112 productivity. shortage. 70. 50 sequencing. 9. 7 sharing. 90. 118. 68. 83. 81. 103. 85. 57. 65. 91 room temperature. 103 sigmoid. 75. 112. 6. 69 relationship. 102. 69. 39. 80. viii. 1. 113. 98. 83. 114 probe. 28. iv reclamation. 106. 113. 91. 36. 93. 1. 32. 61. iv. 81. 7. 43. 88. 78. 90. 99 promote. 84 recognition. 98. 2. 92. 65. 82. 115. 92 shape. 87. 69. 79. 100. 83. 41. 82. 76. 116 range. 68. 5. 31. 100. signaling. 96. viii. 47. 68 research. 82. 31. 117 rhythm. 89 seedlings. 114 respiratory. 40. 94. 2. 97. 97. 27. viii. 108. 87. 87. 93. 113. 109. 103. 80. 68. 107 serine. 104. iv protein. 78. 6. 21. 93. 111 sites. 110. 114 rice. 81. 2 100. 72. 116 112. 2. 108 pulse. 8. 73. 24. 76. 99. 86. 103 resistance. 84 polypeptide. 77. 108. 39 production. 55. 93. 117 short-term. 118 reduction. 80 silver. 50 potassium. 43. 40. 110 senescence. 10.

99 sorbitol. 88. 36. 114. 3. 117 symbiotic. 12. 40. 47. 24. 109. 85. 27. 25. 35 storage. 84. 111. 108. 115. 6. 75 summer. 120. 81. 15 tracers. 98. 27. 44. 111. 68. 2. 6. 119. 87. 72. 68. 30. 108 sucrose. 49. 35. 78. vii. 85. 85. 118. 90 stele. 111. 108. 102. 109 time. 10. 64. 113. 110 tolerance. 89. 2. 120 Thomson. 108. 10. 70. 76. 23. 2. 64. 36. 116. 7. 92. 112. vii. 98. 84. 75. 112 synthesis. 84 soils. 116. 77. 117. 90. 7. viii. 52 transduction. 12. 42. 71. 51. 52. 108. 110 uniform. 104. 1 trend. 108. 52. viii. 103 sulfur. 29. 61. viii. 98. 43. 72. 28. 32. 39. 120 trees. 39 turnover. 106 soil. 17. 113. 118 supply. 85. 29. 80. 27. 80. 83. 115. 19 soybean. 24. 70. 42. 17. 99. 92. vii. 23. 104. 95. 100. 6. 98. 114. 69. 109 transfer. 31. 89. 59. 18. 37. 97. 22. 111. 5. 111. 70. 47. 32. 121 soybean nodules. 103. 115. 89 stress. 1. 93. 39. 19. 42. 73. 82. 75. 90. 20. 28. 114. 97 transport. 107 transmission. 31. 52. 103 T talc. 39 training. 113. 7 stages. 28. 13. vii. 61. 50. 120 sulfate. 80. 65. 8. 47. 69. 115. 103. 105. 68 tungsten. 85. 107. 33. 116. 108. 120 soybeans. 59. 25. 26. 42. 71 sugars. 44. 13. 93. 93 . 106. 5. 91. 119 soil analysis. 1. 7. 46. 112. 21. 16. 103. 27. 86. 24 tobacco. 81. 70. 120 specificity. 23. 33. 8. 111 Tokyo. 115 strain. 35 transplantation. 113. 73. 113. 110. 78. 110. 28. 70. 52. 30. 30. 68. 18. 15. 71. 87 traits. 83. 78 surface layer. 26. 41. 103. 105. 38. 97. 55. 42. 98 strength. 89. 16. 42. 118. 27. 44. 7. 68. 110. 23. 9. 82. 109. 115 species. 50. 103. 91. 1. 7. 105. 96. 81. 109. 16 U UK. 112 transition. 108 toxic. 80. 21. 2. 109. 73. 55. 34. 81. 17. 113. 26. 106. 91. 75. 2. 75 sulphate. 23. 70. 106. 70 transpiration. 61. 42. 110. 15. 69. 102. 42. 99. 13. 114 soybean seed. 107. 71. 112. 114. 117. 24. 107 sugar. 28. 49. 10. 98. 26. 116. 45. 87. 98 strains. 33. 111. 103 TIP. 106 temperature. 89. 1. 28. 72. 25. 15. 50. 58. 9. 87. 51. 97. 93. 64. 71. 37. 109. 50. 24. 37. 111. 120 suppression. 95. 39. 37. 70. viii. 103 translocation. 97. 107. 114 systems. 106. 108. 120 starch. 48. 61. 94. 106. 113. 52. 53. 96. 81. 11. 81. 84. 93. 61. 22. 116 tissue.130 Index symbiosis. 48. 21. 115 transcript. 84 technology. 55. 76. 83. 82. 70. 52. 6. 40. 19. 85 thiosulphate. 45. 32. 35.

W 92. 111 viral infection. 97. 119. 89. 7. 90. 118. 28. 109. 83. 55. 42. 69. 115. 105. 65 visual. 93. 69. 99. 24 West Africa. 97. 115. 103. 57. 111 visible. 100. 67. 10. 91. 115 Y yield. 89. 86. 112. viii. 11. 107. 102. 111 vascular. 90. 39. 1. 117. 35. 73. 2. 106. 119 water. 116 UV. 108. 48 131 V values. 100 X X-ray. 91. 29 withdrawal. 38. 111. 104. 103. 118. 84. 96. 104 uric acid. 91. 12. 101. 69. 60. 10 vermiculite. 117. 102. 5. 7. 87.Index urea. 93. 98 wild type. 44. 72. 90. 98. 24. 65. viii. 37. 7. 89. 3 variation. 10 vascular bundle. 85. vii. 86. 25. 106 USDA. 120 . 95. 114. 87. 100. 73. 83. 98. 94. 81. 47 variable. 32. 28. 98 viral. 39 xylem. 88.

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