DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY

NAVAL SHIP RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER
BETHESDA, MD. 20034
DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF BOW THRUSTERS
by
John L. Beveridge
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED
September 1971
Report 3611
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
A.BSTRACT .• 0 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION .
INTRODUCTION ...............................................•.......
BACKGROUND .
OPERATIONAL DUTY .
PERFORMANCE FACTORS .
STATIC MERIT COEFFICIENT .
FORCE, MOMENT, AND VELOC ITY .
TURNING RATE .
PRESENT KNOWLEDGE AND DESIGN CRITERIA .
GENERAL ARRANGEMENT .
DUCT INTERNAL SHAPE .
DUCT OPENINGS .
IMPELLER SELECTION .....................•........................
FLOW INTERACTION AT AHEAD SPEED .
FREE RUNNING .
THRUSTER SELECTION SUMMARY .
REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
LIST OF FIGURES
1
1
1
2
4
5
5
10
12
12
13
15
16
17
21
23
23
38
39
Page
Figure 1 - Idealized Flow for Ducted and Open-Type Thrusters 27
Figure 2 - Typical Body Force and Body Moment Coefficient
versus U IU. for a Bow Thruster 28
. 00 J
Figure 3 - Band of Rotation Rates versus Displacement with
MPD at Zero Ship Speed (according to
Reference 6) • . • • • • . . • • . . • • • • . • . • • . . . • • . . • • . • . • . • • • • • • • • • 29
Figure 4 - Pivot Point and Rotation Rate Constant for a
Single Side Force Acting on a Ship (according
to Reference 6) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • . • • • • • • • . • • • • • . • • • • 30
ii
Page
35
34
34
33
32
32
:n
Exit Area Ratio
5 - Model Bow Thruster Installation .....•....•.....•••....•
6 - Idealized Variation of S, C and T /T with
P
7 Criteria for Establishing Duct Lip Radius .
8 - Relationship for Estimating the Resistance of
Well-Faired Duct Openings ...................•..........
Figure 9 - Comparison of Merit Coefficient C as a Function of
Thruster Pitch Ratio for Fixed and Trainable
Maneuvering Propulsion Devices as Determined by
Experiment .
Figure 10 - K
Q
versus ~ Obtained at Discrete Pitch Ratios for
Adjustable Pitch Propellers (Noncavitating), V = 0
Figure 11 - ~ and K
Q
versus Pitch Ratio for DSRV Bow Thruster
with NSRDC Adjustable-Pitch Propeller 4160 ........•....
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure 12 - Ducted Thruster Cavitation Criteria Curves ~ and
K
Q
versus a' (from Reference 9) .................•...... 36
Figure 13 - Generalized Outflow Characteristics 37
Table 1 - Static Merit Coefficients for Circular Ducted
Thrusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
iii
A
AI
A.
J
B
C
D
g
H
K
F
K
Q
K
T
L
~
M
0
m
n
P
P
0
P
s
P
v
Q
q.
J
R
SHP
T
T
D
T
P
U.
J
Uoo '
V
NOTATION
Cross-sectional area of duct (nondiffusing)
Swept area of impeller
Cross-sectional area of thruster outflow
Maximum beam
Static merit coefficient
Duct diameter
Acceleration due to gravity
Ship draft or a net head, feet of water
Total side-force coefficient T/PAU.
2
J
Impeller torque coefficient Q/pn
2
D
S
Total side-force coefficient T/pn
2
D
4
Ship length or a characteristic length in general
Duct length
Rotation rate constant, Figure 4
Fraction of length of thruster duct from bow, Figure 4
Impeller frequency of revolution, rps
Impeller pitch or a net pressure, P - P
o v
Hydrostatic pressure (atmospheric + subm. to axis)
Power in consistent units
Vapor pressure of water
Impeller torque
2
Jet dynamic pressure p/2 U.
J
Drag added by duct
Impeller shaft horsepower
Total thrust (side force) of impeller and surface forces
Duct surface force (thrust)
Impeller rotor thrust
Thrust momentum mean outflow velocity
Undisturbed fluid velocity or ship speed
iv
s
p
cr'
w
o
Duct volume flow rate
Characteristic distance from duct axis to midships or c.g.
Impeller hub diameter as fraction of D
Displacement, tons
Pressure coefficient ~ P / q .
J
Difference between the pressure on the hull with thruster out-
flow and no outflow
Bendemann static thruster factor
Mass density of water
Cavitation index (P - P ) /2
1
pD
2
n
2
a v
Flow coefficient ~ / B 2 U
00
Turning rate, degrees per second
v
ABSTRACT
This report concerns the hydrodynamic forces and moments
produced by a bow thruster. Several broad problem areas are
discussed and the extent of present-day knowledge indicated.
These include general duct arrangement, duct shape, and
impeller design.
A step-by-step design procedure is outlined that permits
the selection of a practical bow thruster. This procedure is
described for a minimum number of operational requirements;
e.g., single bow thruster, a specified turning rate when the
ship is dead in the water, and a duty cycle that requires
thruster operation at ahead speed for control capability in
canals, harbors and other restricted waterways.
ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION
The work was authorized by the Naval Ship Systems Command and was
funded under Subproject SF35.421.006, Task 1713.
INTRODUCTION
At the present time conventional circular transverse bow thrusters
dominate the field of maneuvering propulsion devices (MPD) with respect to
units installed. The literature on bow thrusters is replete with experi-
mental and analytical data concerned with performance information and design
criteria. Since many of these data can be generalized it is believed timely
to review and tie together this information in one report. The performance
of some bow thrusters could probably have been improved if certain informa-
tion and knowledge had been available during their design. This is espe-
cially true with regard to duct size and the importance of the free-stream
velocity in relation to the thruster outflow velocity in determining the
total body force. Many types of thrusters have been installed and proposed
for consideration and development. Included are: single and multiple units
installed near the ships bow and/or stern, axial flow propellers, cycloidal
propellers, ejector, ram, fixed pitch, controllable pitch and contrarotating.
In order to keep the present report of reasonable length, emphasis
is placed on the hydrodynamically applied forces and moments due to a single
bow thruster duct with a single fixed-pitch propeller (impeller). The
combined action of multiple thruster units or coupling with rudder action
is not considered. Such factors as wind, water current, ship motions,
1
etc. that require a knowledge of ship particulars and ship response are
not within the scope of the present report. However, ship rotation rates
that have been used satisfactorily in the past for bow thruster installa-
tions will be introduced. The report presents and discusses: performance
factors or parameters which describe or aid in the evaluation of thruster
performance, the extent of present knowledge and design criteria as related
to configuration arrangement, duct geometry, propeller design, added
resistance at ahead ship speed, and interaction of thruster jet flow with
the mainstream. Particular details encompassed in this report are recom-
mendations or criteria for the following design quantities: duct immersion,
duct diameter, duct length, duct lip radius or shape, propeller hub-pod and
fairwater effects, propeller blade shape and propeller pitch-diameter ratio.
A step-by-step design procedure which permits the selection of a
practical bow thruster is outlined. This procedure is described for a
minimum number of operational requirements; e.g., single bow thruster, a
specified turning rate when the ship is dead in the water, and a duty cycle
that requires thruster operation at ahead speed for control capability in
canals, harbors, and other restricted waterways.
BACKGROUND
To assist in directing the designer to the more extensive areas of
thruster work that have been published, the following background comments
are made. It is suggested that the references cited be consulted for
additional detail.
The work of Taniguchi
1
is very comprehensive and systematic. He
conducted captive model tests as well as free-running model maneuvering
tests. For static tests a standard test block which permitted variations
in geometry of the duct configuration was utilized. Among the quantities
investigated by systematic series tests were: for the propeller - blade
outline, blade section, blade numbers, expanded area ratio, hub ratio, and
pitch-diameter ratio; for the duct - duct wall inclination, grids, guide
vanes, duct inner-wall shape, duct length, bottom immersion, duct opening
lReferences are listed on page 38.
2
lip radius, and duct opening fairing for three ship types (investigation
of added resistance).
Chislett
2
has made measurements of body force and body turning moment
on a captive tanker model. Special attention was given to explaining the
effect of the ratio of model speed to thruster jet velocity. Implications
to 'design and operation are rationalized based on the experimental results
obtained at the ahead speed condition.
Taylor
3
has examined the effects of shroud (duct) lip radius, duct
length, and duct diffusion on the performance of an air screw at the static
condition.
Ridl ey4 has presented some full-scale bow thruster data and the
results of some American Shipbuilding Company series work with thruster
entrance configuration. The possible beneficial effect of a truncated
conic fairing with regard to added resistance was discussed.
Stuntz
5
has studied added resistance for several alternate fairings
for tunnel openings and indicated how the flow patterns may be critically
affected by the fairing detail. That combined fences and bars placed
across the tunnel entrance (in the flow line) can effectively reduce
resistance augmentation in some cases was demonstrated.
Hawkins
6
has made an extensive study of several types of MPD for the
U. S. Maritime Administration. His work encompasses a spectrum of problems
involved in the choice of an MPD and its design and performance. Maneuver-
ing requirements, external forces, applied forces, and economic considera-
tions are all discussed.
English
7
has shown that the ideal static merit coefficient is
increased by the use of some jet diffusion. However, he points out that
in practice the diffusion process is inefficient in a viscous flow for the
typical short, wide-angled diffuser and consequently, little improvement
in performance could be expected. An analytical study of duct inlet shape
(constant velocity, elliptical, separation) was made. Practical considera-
tions indicate that the duct-hull roundings required for good efficiency
are not usually compatible with low added resistance.
Van Manen
8
has reported the results of comparative maneuvering tests
for two tanker models. One model with a conventional propeller and rudder
arrangement and one model with a Hogner afterbody, accelerating ducted
propeller, and bow and stern thrusters (no rudder).
3
Pehrsson
9
has reported tQe results of a systematic series of tests
in a water tunnel with a controllable pitch propeller. Bow thruster per-
formance was related to the cavitation index crt •
The Naval Ship Research and Development Center (NSRDC) has investi-
gated by means of systematic experiments the effect of duct lip radius (at
static and ahead operation), and propeller pitch ratio on bow thruster
efficiency. A theoretical and experimental study of the interaction between
an ambient flow and thruster inflow and outflow has also been made.
IO
Schwanecke
I1
has reported a short chronology and summary of work on
lateral thrusters.
OPERATIONAL DUTY
Two distinct maneuvering and control capabilities may be required
of a bow thruster. On the one hand the critical maneuvering and control
function may be when the ship is dead in the water or at extremely low
headway. This type of duty cycle is exemplified by a variety of tenders
~ O r observation ships that must maintain station in the presence of wind,
current, etc., or must execute changes in heading. Vessels which operate
mainly in harbors and with frequent docking and undocking, such as ferries,
also have this type of duty cycle. On the other hand the critical func-
tion for control may be for operation at a sustained ahead speed for long
periods of time in restricted waterways such as coastal waters, canals
and rivers. For this latter type of duty the design of a bow thruster
must consider the interaction between the mainstream and the thruster jet
flow which can compromise the design and performance of the bow thruster
compared to that for an essentially static condition.
An obvious operational duty is that the thruster produce a body
force and body moment to turn the ship to starboard or port. This duty
cycle leads to a thruster design which incorporates symmetrical blade
sections for the propeller and identically shaped duct entrance and exit
openings. How this affects the thruster design will be discussed later.
Needless to say there are other operational duties and requirements
(particularly for very specialized vessels including submersibles) that
call for the use of multiple ducted thrusters or some other type of MPD.
However, as stated previously these are not within the scope of this report.
4
PERFORMANCE FACTORS
STATIC MERIT COEFFICIENT
The useful work output given by the usual definition of propeller
efficiency becomes zero at zero propeller advance. Since thrust is still
produced, a measure of static (at rest) efficiency is needed to evaluate
or compare thruster performance for this condition. Several forms of the
"so-called" merit coefficient, figure of meri t, static thrust efficiency,
etc. have been widely used in both marine and aeronautical applications.
In the latter case they have been used to characterize the performance of
helicopter rotors and VTOL aircraft.
Most widely used are the static-merit coefficient
c =
0.00182 T
3
/
2
K
T
3
/
2
=-.,....,....,.--
r=z- 3/2 K
SHP Yp .TI¥- TI Q
4
and the Bendemann static thrust factor
T K
T
i',; =- - - : - ~ - - , . . . , . . = - - - - . . . . , . . . . . . . - - •
P 2/3 0
2
/
3
(p TI/2)1/3 - K 2/3
s Q
1
TI(2)1/3
where T is the total lateral thrust taken equal to the body reactive force,
SHP is the shaft horsepower,
P is shaft power in consistent units,
5
0 is duct diameter,
p is mass density,
~
T
is the usual propeller thrust coefficient, =
pn
2
0
4
= 2
i',; = 1.0 for unshrouded
max
no duct diffusion C
max
K = Q is the usual propeller torque coefficient, and
Q pn
2
0
S
n is the propeller frequency of revolution.
These expressions are derived from momentum theory and can be shown to attain
ideal (nonviscous) maximum values of C =1:2 and
max
propellers. For ducted propellers and with
5
and s = ~ The following relation* exists between C and s:
max
or
It is noted that with comparisons involving either C or s the higher
the coefficient the more effective is the bow thruster; that is, more thrust
per horsepower is developed. For equal total thrust comparisons,
and for equal power comparisons
which leads to
for equal force
and
for equal power.
*In the discussion (p. 370) accompanying Reference 5, an error of I:Z
appears in the maximum possible values given for C and its relation to S.
6
f
For the static case, Platt
12
has shown a relation between the thrust
of a ducted and unducted propeller at equal power by the use of simple,
nonviscous momentum theory. The same relation is derived here in a slightly
different manner. The flow conditions are depicted schematically in Fig-
ure 1 where it is noted that ambient static pressure is assumed at the duct
exit. The 'assumption seems reasonable from the standpoint that, in a real
flow with considerable duct diffusion, the flow will separate before the
exit and with little or no diffusion the approaching streamlines are
essentially parallel, resulting in a jet-contraction coefficient of unity.
Since the system is assumed to be conservative (no friction), all the power
absorbed by the impeller is converted into kinetic energy in the final jet.
Therefore, for the unducted case:
and for the ducted case,
where P is fluid power,
m is mass flow per second,
P
is mass density,
U, is final slipstream velocity of the unducted propeller,
Joo
U, is jet velocity of outflow from duct,
J
AI
is impeller disk area, and
A. is area of duct outflow.
J
At the same power
(1)
7
2
From the change in momentum T = P A. U. total thrust of ducted propeller,
J J
1 2
and T
u
= 2" P AI U
joo
unducted propeller thrust with the ratio
From Equation (1)
or
(2)
1
2/3
which when substituted in Equation (2) gives
(
~ ) 2/3 = (2A
j
) 1/3
2A
j
AI
(2a)
for equal power.
English has shown (Equation 6 of Reference 7) that, ideally, the
Bendemann static thrust factor ~ is numerically equal to
( ~ : j ) 1/3
Thus from (2a)
_--=.T__ = ~ = (A2AIj) 1/3
TUNDUCTED
8
(2b)
It follows from a previous definition that
C = 2/A/A
I
(2c)
Equations (2b) and (2c) are important and useful relations. For example,
they.indicate limiting ideal values* for s or C.and show that for higher
static thrust efficiency some duct diffusion is required. More will be
said about this later.
Another important ducted propeller parameter is the ratio of impeller
thrust to the total thrust T IT as a function of exit area ratio. The
p
impeller thrust is determined by the pressure jump (P
2
- PI) which occurs
across the disk area AI; i.e.,
Writing the Bernoulli equation just behind and ahead of the impeller
(Figure 1), we obtain
or
whereupon
1 2
T
p
=2" P U
j
AI
*For a finite-bladed propeller the ratio of ducted propeller thrust to
unducted propeller thrust at equal power has been found to be greater experi-
mentally than is given by simple momentum theory.3 This is probably because
the bound circulation r goes to zero at the blade tip for the unducted pro-
peller whereas the load is constant across the disk for the momentum model
used.
9
and
T
-.£
T
2
1/2 P U. AI
_ J
- 2
P A. U.
J J
(3)
Thus, for a straight-through circular duct (no diffusion), the total thrust
is equally divided between the rotor and the duct. Further, it can be
shown for this case that the duct surface force arises at the duct inlet
and bears a resemblance to the suction force at the leading edge from thin
airfoil -theory.
Idealized curves of S, C, and T IT as a function of A./A
I
are
P J
given in Figure 6. Because of its widespread use in this country and the
usual problem of designing for a prescribed lateral force with minimum
absorbed power, C will be used for performance evaluation in this report.
Table 1 presents the static merit coefficient C for several bow thruster
installations (no diffusion) reported in the literature.
FORCE, MOMENT, AND VELOCITY
In general, body total force and moment have been nondimensionalized
in terms of impeller frequency of rotation or an average jet velocity U..
J
The K
T
and K
Q
coefficients just defined in connection with the static
merit coefficient are an example of the former case. It is also appro-
priate to use a nondimensional form of body coefficient which is inde-
pendent of impeller characteristics. The jet velocity is convenient for
this purpose as follows:
Body force coefficient
T
K
F
=---2-
P A U.
J
Body moment coefficient N' = - - - - ~ N ~ 2 - - - ­
P A U
j
x
T
where Nis the body turning moment,
x
T
is a characteristic lever arm (usually distance from duct axis to
midships or e.g.),
10
TABLE 1
Static Merit Coefficients for Circular Ducted Thrusters
(No Diffusion, Model Data)
Bow Thruster
. Installation
Shrouded airscrew
in a plane wall
DSRV
DSRV
Markham
Series
Series
Seri es
LST
LST
Reference
3
5
1
9
Merit
CoefficientC
1. 50
0.87
1.46
0.63
1. 15
1.18
0.55 to 0.78
0.82
0.65
Comment*
Best configuration,
x
h
=0.24
Stock design
Final design, x
h
=0.27;
Optimum PID for given 0
4 x 10
3
lb side force
Ae/A
o
= 0.3; x
h
=0.4;
Highest merit coefficient
among all variations
Ae/A
o
=0.52; x
h
=0.3;
Highest merit coefficient
among all variations
Propeller 317-8 for
0' =3.0 and PID =0.4
to 0.9
800-hp unit; Blunt-ended
hub-pod assembly (no
fairwater)
500-hp unit; Blunt-ended
hub-pod assembly (no
fairwater)
*C
max
= 2.0 for a nondiffusing idealized thruster.
11
A is tke duct cross-sectional area, and
u. = ;f/PA is the momentum mean jet velocity based on static thrust.
J
Velocity U. can also be calculated from a pitot survey made radially across
J
tlie duct. A value near unity is obtained for K
F
and N' at zero ahead speed,
thus providing a fractional (percent) scale for the influence of ahead
speed. A commonly used velocity ratio is U /U .. This form of the parameter
00 J
is preferred to the inverse ratio which becomes infinite at zero ship speed.
Figure 2 is a typical plot of these coefficients.
WRNING RATE
A design thrust for a bow thruster can be obtained if the ship
response to the side force is specified. The turning rate w (degrees/sec)
o
when the ship is dead in the water is one performance criterion. The steady
rotation of a ship not underway is basically a drag problem. By repre-
senting the ship as a flat plate with underwater dimensions of Land H,
Hawkins
6
calculated w for comparison with observed (measured) values of w
o 0
for a number of ships. The agreement in results was very close in most
cases. Figure 3 presents Hawkins curves of measured turning rates as a
function of displacement. The band given by these curves represents turning
rates which have been considered satisfactory in past bow thruster installa-
tions. Figure 4 is a graph of the rotation rate constant M and nondimen-
o
sional pivot point p as a function of nondimensional side force location.
These are the Hawkins curves calculated for a single thruster acting on a
fIat plate.
PRESENT KNOWLEDGE AND DESIGN CRITERIA
Because of the complexity of the design problem of a bow thruster
(which can exhibit strong interactions with the hull) some developmental
experimentation may be necessary to approach or obtain an optimum configura-
tion for a specific hull. However, certain basic flow phenomena, relation-
ships, and performance characteristics are common to most bow thrusters,
and, therefore, can be used in the design process to describe or determine
their behavior. Thus, a great deal of the available experimental data can
be exploited in a general manner as a guide in the design of bow thrusters.
To this end such pertinent data and information are recounted.
12
GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
Location of the duct tunnel is hydrodynamically important but
limited by practical considerations. Safety requirements dictate that it
must be located behind the collision bulkhead. Space and other structural
requirements must be satisfied. Strictly for the purpose of applying the
thruster lateral force to obtain maximum body-turning moment, the duct
should be located fairly far forward (probably not forward of station O.lOL).
Hull curvature in the vicinity of the tunnel opening can significantly
affect performance, particularly as related to added resistance (discussed
later) at ahead ship speed and the fairing shape for the openings.
The need for an adequate duct length relative to the duct diameter
further restricts the choice for duct location. Experiments by Taniguchi
1
show a rather broad flat optimum based on C between a length equal to lD
and 2D. A length equal to at least 2D is probably better because of the
more rapid decrease in C that would be expected for very short ducts (i.e.
~ < D). Inasmuch as the duct diameter must usually be selected as a com-
promise only a tentative (initial) choice can be made. According to
Taniguchi, bottom immersion should not be less than one duct diameter
measured from duct axis to keel. Similarly, it seems reasonable that a
minimum submergence of one diameter from the load waterline to the duct-
axis should be maintained since wave action and ship motions would adversely
affect bow thruster performance or added resistance. This might be a
critical problem when the ship is running in ballast condition. In this
regard, a possible problem for consideration is air drawing from the free
surface by the ducted thruster unit. To the author's knowledge no detailed
study of this problem leading to design criteria for propellers in relatively
long tunnels at zero advance has been made. However, some bow thruster
experiments for a LST at various drafts have been conducted at NSRDC. The
results showed that with tunnel submergence (measured to axis) as low as
0.7lD, no free-surface effect on side force or power was observed.
Shiba
13
has presented the results of an extensive study of air draw-
ing of conventional unducted marine propellers. Of academic interest is the
necessay.y condition postulated by Shiba as follows:
(P - P') b > 2S
a
13
where P is atmospheric pressure,
a
P' is the absolute pressure (including P ) at a point on the body
a
surface,
b is the width of the dead-water region, and
S is the surface tension between water and air.
It is perceived that the extent of the dead-water region due to laminar
separation near the leading edge and the pressure decrement in that region
are involved in the occurrence of air drawing. In the inequality, it is
obvious that the atmospheric pressure drops out and that P' depends only
on depth of submergence and a pressure coefficient of the body. Consider-
ing only the duct (but with impeller operating), a well-rounded duct inlet
would not be likely to have a high suction peak or an extensive dead-water
region. The experimental results presented by Shiba are for propellers at
submergences <0.610.
An extrapolation of the Shiba data (for PIO = 1.0)* to zero J indi-
cated that a submergence of at least ~ 0.760 would be needed to avoid
air sucking sufficient to affect propeller performance. Since the duct
carries a substantial part of the total load of a bow thruster, it might
be expected that less submergence is required to avoid detrimental air
sucking in that case. That this is a reasonable assumption is substantiated
by the previously mentioned LST tests.
Duct diameter is obviously a major factor in the installation cost
and operating efficiency of a bow thruster. Large diameters may be more
economical in horsepower but represent a heavier unit and a greater capital
investment. For surface ship installations where cavitation might be a
problem, it has been found that a a' < 3.5 should not be used. This fact
must be kept in mind for the final choice of diameter. Although no precise
recommendation can be made here, a smaller diameter (higher rpm) thruster
propeller may result in a less costly and more efficient prime mover.
To be discussed later is the problem of choosing a bow thruster diam-
eter with regard to development of hull surface interaction forces when the
ship duty cycle prescribes operation of the thruster.with the ship underway.
*A near optimum value for ducted thrusters as will be seen later.
14
Another option which properly belongs in the realm of general arrange-
ment is the choice of a fixed pitch or controllable pitch propeller. Exten-
sive information and data are not available to permit a judicious evaluation
of the relative merits of controllable versus fixed pitch propellers. Con-
trollable pitch propellers permit thrust reversal where machinery rotation
cannot be reversed. These propellers could lead to rather large hubs which
decrease the overall performance (discussed later).
DUCT INTERNAL SHAPE
The constant area (nondiffusing) circular duct is apparently the
favored form of tunnel for bow thrusters of the axial flow impeller type.
English? has concluded that a bow thruster duct without diffusion is the
most appropriate choice in practice. As shown previously the Bendemann
factor
z:; =
K
T
K 2/3
Q
I
_ - - - = . - - : - ~ =
'Tf(2) 1/3
(
A. )1
/
3
2_
J
AI
is numerically equal to a function of the ratio of the outflow jet area A.
J
to the impeller swept area AI' It can be seen from the above relation that
for higher static thrust efficiency some diffusion is required. However,
the typical bow thruster installation would lead to a rather inefficient
short wide-angle diffuser. Additionally, English points out that the
larger hull opening of the diffuser is undesirable from the standpoint of
resistance, and that the relatively larger reduction in pressure on the
suction side of the impeller would increase the danger of cavitation
compared to a constant area duct.
Duct inner-wall shape was investigated by Taniguchi.
1
He used a
series of three shapes that included (1) a standard parallel wall, (2) a
concave wall (contracted entrance) to keep a constant flow area in the
presence of the hub-pod assembly, and (3) a convex wall (expanded entrance)
to evaluate static pressure recovery in the impeller outflow. Among these
variations the standard constant area duct gave the highest static merit
coefficient.
15
DUCT OPENINGS
Probably the most studied feature of bow thrusters has been the
shaping of the duct openings. It is well known that for a jet flow the
duct inlet should not have a sharp edge because infinite velocities are
obtained in a frictionless flow and separation occurs at the edge in a
viscous flow. A significant part of the total thrust produced by a ducted
thruster is derived from the surface forces generated on the curved inlet
and surrounding hull surface. With these factors in mind, it appears that
some type of fairing radius or shape should be used. In contrast, the duct
exit should have a sharp edge to assure stable outflow separation with
minimum loss. Herein lies the great compromise because of the thrust (flow)
reversal requirement of bow thrusters. A suitable fairing shape somewhere
between a nice constant velocity inlet and a sharp edge outlet is desired.
An almost uniform experimental result (see Figure 7) has been reported for
the static mode of operation; for example,
Best rIO /D
lp
not less than ~ 0.08
~ 0.10
~ 0.12
Reference
3 (for inlet only)
I
*
Tests at ahead speed with variable duct-lip radii conducted at NSRDC*
showed little compromise choice between the best lip radius for the static
and ahead modes of operation based on thruster performance. Stuntz
S
has
recommended that a step be provided at the junction of the duct wall and
the tangency line of the lip radii. The function of the step is to assure
outflow separation with rounded duct openings. Since a step is undesirable
on the entrance side there is probably a step size where the advantage at
the outflow prevails over the disadvantage on the inflow. A step equal to
1/10 the maximum lip radius has been suggested,S and experimental results
with this size step showed about a 3-percent increase in thrust producible
per unit torque for a range of RPM.
*NSRDC Report not in the public domain.
16
If tQe duct openings are not fitted with doors, the effect of the
duct openings on added resistance at ahead speed presents another consid-
eration. Duct diameter and hull-duct opening fairing for high thruster
efficiency are not completely compatible with low resistance. A method
which is almost universally accepted as an effective solution to this extra
drag problem is to form a conic fairing to remove the hard shoulder-like
projection of the duct opening at the downstream edge. However, English
7
considers this procedure rather idealized in the sense that it is effective
only for the case of pure forward motion. English has suggested that vanes
placed vertically across the duct opening could be helpful in destroying
the fore and aft momentum of the flow. Taniguchi
1
found a steady decrease
in the merit coefficient C for horizontally placed grids (vanes) with
increasing number of vanes. From no grids to five grids showed a IO-point
drop in C. In Reference I the conclusion was reached that the added drag
of duct openings is small for fine ships and considerable for full ships.
Several ship types were tested (cable layer, liner, and super tanker) with
variations in duct location on the hull and fairing shapes (including
conical).
After testing and analyzing the resistance data of several bow
thruster configurations, Stuntz
5
suggested the use in design of an average
drag coefficient Co = R
OUCT
/I/2 P A V
2
= 0.07 for carefully faired duct
openings where p is the mass density of water,
A is the duct cross-sectional area,
V is the ship speed, and
R is drag added by the duct.
A dimensional relationship is provided in Figure 8 for convenience in esti-
mating the resistance of duct openings with Co =0.07.
IMPELLER SELECTION
The importance of a hydrodynamically clean design for the internal
arrangement of the supporting strut or struts and the impeller hub-pod-
fairwater configuration cannot be overemphasized. It is desirable to
keep the hub ratio x
h
of the impeller (rotor) as small as possible and the
entire configuration well streamlined. The following example shows what
can be accomplished by proper attention to design detail. Some preliminary
17
static tests were made at NSRDC with a bow thruster unit which consisted of
the lower half of a commercial outboard motor right-angle drive. A large
hub ratio x
h
= 0.42 was required with a very blunt (fineness ratio
L/O ~ 2.0) hub-pad-fairwater configuration. Final static tests were made
with the well designed right-angle drive shown in Figure 5. This arrange-
ment had a modest hub ratio x
h
= 0.27 and an overall -fineness ratio
L/O ~ 8, At the same impeller pitch ratio of 0.8, the static merit coeffi-
cient C was increased from an originally measured value of 0.87 to a value
of 1.32 with the final design.
Several types of viscous and nonviscous losses1
4
are associated
with the blockage of a duct by the insertion of the necessary impeller
driving arrangement. stream rotation - The impeller torque developed in a
frictionless flow leads to an induced tangential velocity. The average
stream rotation and losses are dependent on the torque distribution and the
hub size. Diffusion - A pod, impeller hub, and fairwater arrangement of
finite length installed in a straight-through duct can be likened to the
effect on efficiency of a typical wall diffusing section. Thus, losses
are associated with diffuser efficiency as a function of the theoretical
total-head rise in the rotor. Separation - Any condition, including too
blunt a pod assembly, which leads to flow separation, may produce additional
large losses.
Like open-water propeller systematic series, more can be learned
concerning ducted propeller (bow thruster) performance by conducting
experiments with a model or models, incorporating systematic variations in
certain geometric parameters to determine the hydrodynamic characteristics
of ducted propeller systems. This type of experimentation has been per-
formed by several investigators,1,9,15,15 and their test results provide
the basis for most of the comments that follow. First, consider pitch
ratio P/O. Experiments on shrouded propellers reported by Taniguchi,l
Van Manen
15
,15 and the author are in substantial agreement and confirm an
optimum P/D near unity based on C for zero advance coefficient (static
condition). A significant fact is that the merit coefficient attains a
maximum value at P/D ~ 1.0 regardless of the tunnel type. That is to say,
in each case the surface forces are dissimilar particularly for the
Van Manen ducted propellers in an axial cylinder. The Van Manen Ka 4-55
18
data have been conveniently replotted for zero propeller advance coefficient
to a base of pitch ratio in Figure 11-5 of Reference 6. Van Manen
16
has
recommended the use of a constant face pitch (no radial variation) since
his test results showed no "drawbacks with respect to efficiency and cavi-
tation." Static efficiencies derived from all the aforementioned tests
are summarized in Figure 9 together with other MPO types. In Figure 9, it
is particularly noteworthy to see the penalty for operating a nondiffusing
ducted thruster at a nonoptimum pitch ratio. Figures 10 and 11 show bow
thruster coefficients K
T
and K
Q
obtained from experiments with adjustable
pitch propellers,
Propeller blade outline and blade section shape have been studied
for ducted propellers.
1
The consensus is that a blade outline with wide
tips (Kaplan type) is desirable to better avoid cavitation.
I
? Elliptical
or some other symmetrical airfoil blade sections should be used to accom-
modate thrusting to port or starboard. With regard to blade number, the
limited data available show an advantage of several points for the merit
coefficient C of four blades over three blades.
1
Pehrsson
9
has provided some cavitation data (see Figure 12) which
can be used for guidance in the design of bow thrusters. His tests were
conducted in the Kristinehamn cavitation tunnel. A duct with simulated
ship plating was installed in the cavitation tunnel. A zero advance
condition was maintained by bucking the bow thruster-induced flow by
rotating the cavitation tunnel impeller pump in a reversed thrust direc-
tion. Cavitation observation and thruster force and duct force measure-
ments (with 3-bladed and 4-bladedimpellers having A /A = 0.43 to 0.50)
e 0
indicated that the cavitation index
cr' =
p - p
o v
should be >3.5 to avoid cavitation. Where doubt exists as to whether a
"cavitation-free" design has been provided, a lifting-line design calcula-
tion should be performed.
For the static condition, the total delivered bow thruster force T
consists of the impeller thrust T
p
and the surface force TO on the hull
19
inlet side. Earlier in this report it was shown that ideally with no duct
diffusion, the total thrust is divided equally between the impeller and
hull inlet. In a real flow with various losses the division of thrust is
not equal. The location of a duct opening on a hull would result in a
reduction in surface forces when compared to the case of a plane wall due
to hull curvature and end effects. Values of T IT ~ . 0.87 to 0.52 have been
p
found in the literature. The lower value was measured for the case of a
ducted airscrew in a plane wall.
A few words are needed in regard to performance estimates in connec-
tion with bow thruster design. In Table 1, an average value C=0.94 is
obtained if the highest value of 1.50 (airscrew) and the lowest value of
0.55 (P/O = 0.4) are excluded. It seems likely that a C = 1.0 could easily
be achieved in a well-designed thruster unit. Therefore, a conservative
value of unity for the static merit coefficient C is recommended for per-
formance estimates. An optimum PIO = 1.0 appears to be indicated by the
available data. The total lateral thrust coefficients that have been
reported in the literature for the best configurations are as follows:
PIO K
T
Reference
1.0 0.51
*
1.0 0.40 1
1.0 0.45 9 (K
T
is extrapolated
from PIO = 0.9 to
Plo = 1.0)
From these data an average value K
T
= 0.45 is suggested. How the average
values for C and K
T
are used in the thruster selection procedure is illus-
trated in the section "Thruster Selection Summary."
In conclusion it is emphasized that thruster impeller performance is
negligibly affected by ahead speed as demonstrated by both comparative
impeller thrust and torque measurements. Thus, impeller selection or design
can be considered solely in terms of static performance.
*NSROC Report not in the public domain.
20
FLOW INTERACTION AT AHEAD SPEED
It is well known that the interaction between bow thruster jet flow
and the mainstream, at ahead speed, results in a loss of both body force
and body moment, particularly, in a certain critical range of the velocity
ratio U /U. ':::::0.2 to 0.8.
2
,10 In a theoretical and experimental study of
, 00 J
this flow mechanism,10 the author found only a small interaction due to
duct inflow and confirmed the widely accepted hypothesis concerning the
persistence of the duct outflow to large distances downstream accompanied
by a major interaction effect.
A bow thruster is usually designed to produce a specified force at
some ahead ship speed and on this basis the performance at ahead speed of
different size bow thrusters should be compared at a jet velocity that
varies inversely with duct diameter. One such comparison
10
showed that a
smaller diameter duct produced less interaction (suction force) than a
larger diameter duct at a higher ahead speed. Perhaps more important was
the effectiveness of extending the duct beyond the hull (conceived as a
retractable pipe extension) in the reduction of hull suction effect.
A phenomenological expression was derived in Reference 10 that
collapsed all the hull pressure-defect data due to thruster outflow. A
numerical evaluation of the necessary constants resulted in the following
equation:
10
2
(6C')¢ = (-9.052 D/L + 0.091) sin [(-6830 D/L + 244.5)¢] (4)*
p
In Equation (4), the choice of hull length L to nondimensionalize duct
diameter was made because (1) for a given thruster size, ship turning rate
depends on hull length and (2) there is generally good agreement of flat-
plate theory in this regard. Figure 13 compares the experimental results
to those calculated according to Equation (4). The sine function form of
Equation (4) was suggested by the shape of the curves of Figure 13. For
no-duct outflow (6C')¢ is zero; at some higher value of ¢, the coefficient
p
(6C')¢ again becomes zero, corresponding to a relatively low value of
p
*Equation (2) of Reference 10.
21
velocity ratio Uoo/U
j
w ~ e r e t ~ e thruster jet issues approximately perpendi-
cular to the mainstream (static case). Within this interval, an equation
of the form
(!lCI)cjl = a sin (x + B)
P
was assumed with x = ncjl, a = f (D/L) amplitude, n = g (D/L) period, and
B = 0 phase. It is noted that the calculated curves should be faired with
zero slope at the high-flow rate end.
Equation (4) is independent of scale, that is, the pressure !lC
I
and
p
flow coefficient cjl were obtained from tests that were conducted at Reynolds
numbers safely greater than the critical value for turbulent flow. Equa-
tion (4) may be used to estimate bow-thruster outflow interaction for a
prototype based on comparative pressure defect. Flow coefficients are
used that correspond either to prescribed values or to a desired range of
velocity ratio U /U. and duct size. An elementary hull force, hull moment,
00 J
and center of action of the force can also be derived by using the calcu-
lated pressure coefficient !lC
I
. The incremental surface force per unit
p
width is
!IF
~ = (L1 P dS) dx
10 dS
where 9. is in the circumferential direction and S is a length along the
body profile. The nondimensional surface force, moment, and center of
action are, respectively,
b
= F / L9.q. = f (!lC I) dx
s J x=a P
b
= M / L
2
9.q. = f (!lC I) x dx and
s J x=a P
x = X/L = C
M
/C
p
s s
22
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Equations (6) and (7) give an index of the surface force and moment
and do not consider jet diffusion over the hull surface. In many cases,
this would not seriously impair the usefulness of the data. In the case
of the comparison between the two ducts discussed earlier, the smaller
duct had less pressure defect and this, coupled with the wider jet outflow
of the larger duct, left no doubt that the smaller diameter duct would
produce a lower interaction force.
Equation (4) can be used to estimate until more experimental data
become available. The usual word of caution concerning the use of
empirical data applies in this case: the accuracy for extrapolation pur-
poses is unknown; therefore, the use of Equation (4) should be limited to
interpolation or reasonable extrapolation.
FREE RUNNING
The results of captive model tests have formed the basis for comments
and design criteria which have been presented so far. Very few experiments
with models have been reported. However, Taniguchi
l
has
presented the results of extensive maneuvering tests. Of special interest
to the designer is the Taniguchi inference (from recorded path loci of ship
models) that in turning a ship smaller drift angles were observed by the
use of bow thrusters than by the use of a rudder. Thus, speed reduction
may be less in turning with a bow thruster. Norrbyl8 has mentioned a few
model tests which showed that the body turning moment from a bow thruster
is increased at a drift angle, as in a turn, in comparison to the no drift
angle case.
THRUSTER SELECTION SUMMARY
As an example consider a hypothetical ship with characteristic
dimensions

=
3 x 10
3
tons
L
=
275 ft
B
=
54 ft
H
=
17 ft
23
Assume a duct centerline length of 12 ft is available at station 0.15L
and a duty cycle that requires an effective turning moment at 3 knots of
not less than approximately 80 percent of the static value.
Step 1. Initially, let the duct diameter D = 1/2 ~ = 6.0 ft and the
bottom immersion I = D. These are recommended values as discussed pre-
vious1y. Consider a D = 8.0 ft and aD. = 4.0 ft. The situation is
max mln
as shown below:
s
17'W. L.
STA. X!L '" 0.15
D in ft I in ft S in ft 9,/0
8 8 9 1.S
6 6 11 2.0
4 4 13 3.0
where it is seen that the submergence for 0 = 8.0 ft is still adequate.
Step 2. Pick an average turning rate for 6 = 3 x 10
3
from Figure 3 (say
w = 0.68 degrees/sec). The required thrust is
a
W2
L
3
H
o
T = --..:::_- = 17,380. lb
M 2
o
with M = 97 from Figure 4.
o
Step 3. With the specified static thrust, calculate the momentum mean jet
veloci ty
u. = iT7rA = 105.45/D and
J
24
the velocity ratio Uoo/U
j
at a speed of 3 knots (5.063 ft/sec) for each
duct diameter
D in ft U. in ft/sec U /U.
J
00 J
8 13.18 0.38
6 17.58 0.29
4 26.36 0.19
Step 4. Determine a tentative impeller rpm and 0' for the most likely
diameter. In this case D = 4.0 ft based on the non-critical value
I
U IU. = 0.19 (see Figure 2). Impeller rate of revolution is determined
00 J
from an inversion of the impeller thrust coefficient K
T
. The average
value K
T
= 0.45 which was recommended for an optimum impeller pitch ratio
of 1.0 can be used. Thus
1 ~ ( l7.38xl0
3
)1
/
2
n = V P D 4 ~ = 1.9905(4)4 0.45 = 8.760 rps,
or 522.4 RPM, and
P 2978.
0' = ---- = --_...:::.::;...:.,,::-:....--- = 2.47
l/2PD2n2 0.9952 x 16 x 75.8
where 34.00 atmos.
13.00 submergence to q
47.00
-0.50 vapor pressure
46.50 Net head of water H, and
P = pgH = 2978 Ib/ft
2
Now, 0' = 2.47 is too low. 0' should be >3.5.
Step 5. Repeat all calculations, for the specified thrust, using a new
duct diameter; say D = 5.0 ft. The results are as follows:
25
I
=
5.0 ft
S
=
12.0 ft
L/D
=
2.4
V.
=
21.09
J
V /V.
=
0.24
00 J
H
=
45.5 ft of water
n
=
5.572 rps (334.3 RPM)
0'
=
3.77
P/D = 1.0
It can be seen from the tabulation that all values are now acceptable, and
D = 5.0 ft may be considered as the finaZ choice. In some cases it may be
necessary to use a nonoptimum P/D in order to obtain 0' > 3.5 with a conse-
quent loss in efficiency.
Although a noncritical value of the velocity ratio U /U. is asso-
00 J
ciated with the 5-ft duct diameter, a further check on duct outflow
interaction at ahead ship speed may be obtained from Equation (4). Compu-
tations show that the argument 3.366 is not within the interval 0 to ~
(see Figure 13) for the specified relative duct size D/L = 0.0182. There-
fore, no hull pressure defect (interaction) would be expected. However,
the accuracy of the solution for ~ C ' is questionable when the function
p
( ~ C ' ) ¢ is near zero and some interaction* would be evident at the given
p
velocity ratio V /V. = 0.24, as shown by the moment curve for the typical
00 J
surface ship in Figure 2b.
Step 6. Finally, estimate the power required from an inversion of the
merit coefficient with C = 1.0 as recommended.
SHP 667
In closing the following remarks are made: It is important to
realize when considering ahead speed operation, duct diameter need not be
restrictive if controlled deflection of jet outflow is employed.
2
'lO The
*Remember that a small change in pressure acting over a large area can
produce an important force.
26
expected performance of the impeller is based on the desirable character-
istics discussed previously; namely, Kaplan-type blade with symmetrical
sections, expanded blade-area ratio of about 0.5, hub ratio ~ ~ 0.3 and
three or four blades. It is emphasized that the design information and
thruster selection method presented is a composite guide that should be
reviewed as new data become available.
CONSTANT AREA
Po Po
Po
Po
...
---
AI
U
I
U
j
U"" =0
U.
ACTUATOR
_J
PI P2
...
DIFFUSION
DUClED
U =0
oc
....
..
OPEN (UNDUClED)
Figure 1 - Idealized Flow for Ducted and Open-Type Thrusters
27

""'\ \
1\
\
f'..
\
..... MOMENT
--
---
-
\
1\
\

"
i'.... FORCE
--
n-r
1.2
1.0
0.8
,
z
06 0.6
u.

0.4
0.2
o 0.2 004 0.6
U""
0.8 1.0 1.2
1.2
1.0
0.8
,
Z
06 0.6
u.
:..::
0.4
0.2
U
j
Figure 2a - Submersible

./
V
V
/
V
1\\ V
\'
V

\ /
\. V
,/
o 0.4 0.8
U
""
L2 1.6
U
j
Figure 2b - Surface Ship
(According to Reference 2.)
Figure 2 - Typical Body Force and Body Moment Coefficient
versus V IV. for a Bow Thruster
00 J
28
0.8
o 4 8 12 16 20 24
DISPLACEMENT - TONS x 10-
3
Figure 3 - Band of Rotation Rates versus Displacement with MPD at
Zero Ship Speed (according to Reference 6)
29
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
Q.
1.5
II
:I:
....
e>
z
1.4
UJ
...J
., .
0
J.3
z
UJ
~
0
0::
1.2
u...
....
Z
0
1.1
0-
....
0
>
0-
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.5 o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
CENTER OF TRANSVERSE FORCE FROM END.;. LENGTH =m
'"
I
~
"
,
I
"
~ M O
I
\
1/
1\ J
,
/ 1\
\ /
~
Vp
\
/
IX
/
\
i\
V
\
~
./
/
'"
~
~
'"
-
I""'""'
~
20
40
o
-0.1
140
120
100
0
~
....
z
«
....
V)
z
0
80 u
UJ
....
«
0::
z
Q
....
«
60
....
0
0::
Figure 4 Pivot Point and Rotation Rate Constant for a Single Side
Force Acting on a Ship (according to Reference 6)
30
V
l
.
.
.
.
.
A
-
-
,
P
R
O
P
E
L
L
E
R
\
I
j
A
.
-
J
F
i
g
u
r
e
5
-
M
o
d
e
l
B
o
w
T
h
r
u
s
t
e
r
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n
S
E
C
T
I
O
N
A
-
A
1.4
1.2
1.0
t::
,.0.
Cl
Z
<t
"-" 0.8
0.6
0.4
... 10-

\
./.,
,.-'1'
..,./
1\/
././
."
/
"
v'\
...""
/
,.,'"
,., .... ""'" C
"",'"
><
""",""'"
.... ""'"
...........
./

v/
;
""-

---
i'---
r-
2.8
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.2
0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.6
Figure 6 - Idealized Variation of S, C and T IT with Exit
Area Ratio p
1.6
1.4
Z
w
U
u:
LL
W
8 1.2
I-
"
w
:::;:
<.l

Iii 1.0
0.8
SOURCE SCALE
-- NSRDC RIGHT HAND'
--- NSRDC RIGHT HAND'
-.- REF.3 LEFT HAND
-- REF.1 LEFT HAND
-
I I
'NOTE: COEFFICIENT C CANNOT
--'
-'-
f-._- --
BE USED FOR COMPARI-

SON INVOLVING AHEAD
+I WITH 10%STEP
SPEED
./
./--
-----

v-o
/
/
--
- ---++----
- V___
.... --
,-
--- ----
____ .f WITH 10%STEP
--
",.-
- V = 2.61 KNOTS
10-"-
R
N
= 1.485 X 10
7
....
/
/
/
V
1.0
0.9
0.6
0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.10
'LIPID
Figure 7 - Criteria for Establishing Duct Lip Radius
0.02 o
32
X 103
Xla'
I
V
II
I
J
/
'I
V J J
V
I V
VV
V
J
J J il ,J
I I
,
I iI I '/
II If
J 1/
/1/ 1/
iJ
"
I ,;V fl
If
J
(0'
J

...
II "
)
rS
V
V
1/
1I

...
/I
j
I
J J J
I

I
I

/

/
lib'
V-
II

/

/
VP
II
J
/
II)
o
Z
::l

!
I-
U
::l
o
a:
100
10
1,0
o IN FEET
10
Figure 8 - Relationship for Estimating the Resistance
of Well-Faired Duct Openings
33
1.2 1.1 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.9
THRUSTER PITCH RATIO (P/D)o.7
0.6 0.5

KORTNOZZLE
1/
K
a
4·70 (NOZZLE 19a)
I
(R
I
EF. 161,
----
j"ooo'
--
BOW THRUSTER, DSRV
lY'

/
V
Xh = 0.4' }
V
/ BOW THRUSTER -Ae/A
O
= 0.45 (REF.l)-
(KAPLAN TYPE)
V
----
10"""
- 7

./
I--- [7
P
f--
I--. ./
TROOST 84-55
V
r--

UNDUCTED
-

0
0
0
-
"Ka A 6"
0
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.60
0.5
0.4
0.90
1.30
1.70
1.50
1.40
Figure 9 - Comparison of Merit Coefficient C as a Function of Thruster
Pitch Ratio for Fixed and Trainable Maneuvering Propulsion
Devices as Determined by Experiment
0.06
0.05
0.04
o
""
0.03
0.02
0.01
REF.9!
J
/ /
l<:v
/
/
/
,//
/
V
V

17
0.0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70
Figure 10 - K
Q
versus K
T
Obtained at Discrete Pitch Ratios for
Adjustable Pitch Propellers (Noncavitating), V = 0
34
0.4 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
THRUSTER PlfCH RATIO (P/O)O.7
0.5
~
/.
V
V
/
./
!/
V
K
r
/
~ /
V
~
AOK
q
/
/
V
./
/
~
,/
V /
./
~ ~
,,/
/ V
~
,
-
,
0.50
0.10
0.60
0.20
0.70
c
z
<
~ 0.30
'¥.a 0.40
o
....
Figure 11 - Ky and K
Q
versus Pitch Ratio for DSRV Bow Thruster
with NSRDC Adjustable-Pitch Propeller 4160
35
P/O - 0.9
/
V
//
P/O =0.7
~
/
P/O =0.5
/'
/
P/O =0.4
,.
0.50
0.40
0.30
..
:.:
0.20
0.10
o
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
(1'
5.0 6.0 7.0
0.050
0.040
0.020
0.010
Figure 12a - Thrust Coefficient
P/O =0.9
/" -
-
V
/
/
P/O = 0.7
/
/
/
P/O - 0.5
'"
",
P/O =0.4
-
1.0 2.0 3.0 .4.0
(J'
5.0 6.0 7.0
Figure 12b - Torque Coefficient
Figure 12 - Ducted Thruster Cavitation Criteria Curves K
T
and K
Q
versus cr' (from Reference 9)
36
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REFERENCES
1. Taniguchi, K. et al., "Investigations into the Fundamental
Characteristics and"Operating Performances of Side Thruster," Mitsubishi
Technical Bulletin 35 (May 1966).
2. Chislett, M. S. and Bjorheden, 0., "Innuence of Ship Speed on
the Effectiveness of a Lateral-Thrust Unit," Hydro-og Aerodynamisk
Laboratorium, Lyngby, Denmark, Report Hy-8 (Apr 1966).
3. Taylor, Robert T., "Experimental Investigation of the Effects
of Some Design Variables on the Static Thrust Characteristics of a Small-
Scale Shrouded Propeller Submerged in a Wing," Langley Aeronautical
Laboratory TN 4126 (Jan 1958).
4. Ridley, Donald E., "Effect of Tunnel Entrance Configuration on
Thruster Performance," SNAME Paper, San Diego Section (Sep 1967).
5. Stuntz, Jr., G. R. and Taylor, R. J., "Some Aspects of Bow-
Thruster Design," Transactions Society of Naval Architects and Marine
Engineers, Vol. 72 (1964).
6. Hawkins, Seth et aI., "The Use of Maneuvering Propulsion
Devices on Merchant Ships," Robert Taggart, Inc. Report RT-8518, Contract
MA-3293 (Jan 1965).
7. English, J. W., "Further Considerations in the Design of
Lateral Thrust Units," International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 13, No. 137
(Jan 1966).
8. Van Manen, J. D. et al., "Research on the Maneuverability and
Propulsion of Very Large Tankers," Sixth Naval Hydrodynamics Symposium,
Washington, D. C. (Sep-Oct 1966).
9. Pehrsson, Lennart, "Model Tests with Bow-Jet (Bow-Steering)
Screw Propellers," First Symposium on Ship Maneuverability and David Taylor
Model Basin Report 1461 (Oct 1960).
10. Beveridge, John L., "Bow-Thruster Jet Flow," J. of Ship Research,
Vol. IS, No.3 (Sep 1971).
11. Schwanecke, H., "Design of Lateral Thrusters (State of Art) ,"
Twelfth International Towing Tank Conference Propeller Committee Report,
Appendix VI (1969).
38
12. Platt, Robert J. J Jr., "Static Tests of a Shrouded and an
Unshrouded Propeller," NACA RM L7H25 (Feb 1948).
13. Shiba, H., "Air-Drawing of Marine Propellers," Transportation
Technical Research Institute (JAPAN), Report 9 (Aug 1953).
14. Wallis, R. A., "Axial Flow Fans," New York and London, Academic
. Press (1961).
15. Van Manen, J. D., "Effect of Radial Load Distribution on the
Performance of Shrouded Propellers," International Shipbuilding Progress,
Vol. 9, No. 93 (May 1962).
16. Van Manen, J. D. and Oosterveld, M. w.e., "Analysis of Ducted-
Propeller Design," Transactions SNAME, Vol. 74 (1966).
17. Van Manen, J. D. and Superina, A., "The Design of Screw
Propellers in Nozzles," International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 6,
No. 55 (Mar 1959).
18. Norrby, Ralph, "The Effectiveness of a Bow Thruster at Low
and Medium Ship Speeds," International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 14,
No. 156 (Aug 1967).
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Duport, J. and Renard J., "Panel Discussion 5 - Ducted Propellers,"
Seventh Hydrodynamics Symposium, Rome, Italy (Aug 1968).
Goodman, Theodore R and Chen, C. C., "Potential Flow Solution of
Propeller Driven Jets Used for Submarine Depth Control," Oceanics, Inc.
Report 64-l8b (Sep 1965).
Jordinson, R., "Flow in a Jet Directed Normal to the W i n d ~ " Aero-
nautical Research Council, R &M3074 (Oct 1956).
Keffer, J. F. and Baines, W. D., "The Round Turbulent Jet in a
Crosswind," J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 15, Part 4 (Apr 1963).
Schaub, U. W. and Cockshutt, E. P., "Analytical and Experimental
Studies of Normal Inlets, with Special Reference to Fan-in-Wing VTOL Power-
plants," Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the International Council
of the Aeronautical Sciences, Palais de l'Unesco, Paris (Aug 1964).
"First Hydraulically Driven LIPS Transverse Propeller," Shipbuilding
and Shipping Record (1 Aug 1963).
39
40
UNCLASSIFIED
curHy aSSl lea ion
DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA - R&D
classUkation of title, body olnbstrort Bnd indcxinl1 annotation mu.... t be entered wl1<!O tile overall report 1s classified)
1. ORIGINATING ACTIVITY (Corporate author) 2.... REPORT SECURITY CLA;SSIFICATION
Naval Ship Research and Development Center UNCLASSIFIED
Bethesda, Md. 20034 2b. GROUP
3. REPORT TITLE
DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF BOW THRUSTERS
4. DESCRIPTIVE NOTES (Type of report and inclusive dates)
Final Report
5· AU THORIS) (Fir.st name, middle initial, last name)
John L. Beveridge
6. REPORT DA.TE 18. TOTAL NO. OF PAGES
rb. OF REFS
September 1971
45
Ba. CONTRACT OR GRANT NO. 9a. OR'GINATOR"S REPORT NUMBERCS)
SF35.421.006
b. PROJECTNO. 3611
Task 1713 c. gb. O!HER REPORT NO(SJ (Any other numbers that may be 8ssigned
thrs report)
d.
to. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED
".
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. SPONSORtNG MILITARy ACTlV1TY
Naval Ship Systems Command
Washington, D. C. 20360
13. ABSTRACT
This report concerns the hydrodynamic forces and moments produced
by a bow thruster. Several broad problem areas are discussed and the
extent of present-day knowledge indicated. These include general duct
arrangement, duct shape, and impeller design.
A step-by-step design procedure is outlined that permits the
selection of a practical bow thruster. This procedure is described for
a minimum number of operational requirements; e.g. , single bow thruster,
a specified turning rate when the ship is dead in the water, and a duty
cycle that requires thruster operation at ahead speed for control capa-
bility in canals, harbors and other restricted waterways.
SIN 0101.807·6801
(PAGE 1)
UNCLASSIFIED
Security Classification
UNCLASSIFIED
Security Classification
14. L'NK A LINK a LINK C
K EV WORDS
ROI.E WT ROLE WT ROI.E WT
Bow Thrusters
Transverse Thrusters
Maneuvering Devices, Auxiliary
DD" N O o R ~ lIS1473 (BACK)
(PAG£:' 2)
UNCLASSIFIED
Security Classification

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
A.BSTRACT .•
0 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

1
1 1

ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OPERATIONAL DUTY PERFORMANCE FACTORS STATIC MERIT COEFFICIENT FORCE, MOMENT, AND VELOC ITY TURNING RATE PRESENT KNOWLEDGE AND DESIGN CRITERIA GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DUCT INTERNAL SHAPE DUCT OPENINGS

. . . . . . . . . . .

...............................................•.......

2

4
5 5

10 12 12

13 15
16
17

IMPELLER SELECTION .....................•........................ FLOW INTERACTION AT AHEAD SPEED . FREE RUNNING THRUSTER SELECTION SUMMARY REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF FIGURES . .

21 23 23
38
39

Page Figure 1 - Idealized Flow for Ducted and Open-Type Thrusters Figure 2 - Typical Body Force and Body Moment Coefficient versus U IU. for a Bow Thruster J
. 00

27
28

Figure 3 - Band of Rotation Rates versus Displacement with MPD at Zero Ship Speed (according to Reference 6) • . • • • • . . • • . . • • • • . • . • • . . . • • . . • • . • . • . • • • • • • • • • Figure 4 - Pivot Point and Rotation Rate Constant for a Single Side Force Acting on a Ship (according to Reference 6) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • . • • • • • • • . • • • • • . • • • •

29

30

ii

Page Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 5 - Model Bow Thruster Installation Exit Area Ratio 7 .....•....•.....•••....•
P

:n
32

6 - Idealized Variation of S, C and T /T with Criteria for Establishing Duct Lip Radius .
32 33

8 - Relationship for Estimating the Resistance of Well-Faired Duct Openings ...................•.......... 9 - Comparison of Merit Coefficient C as a Function of Thruster Pitch Ratio for Fixed and Trainable Maneuvering Propulsion Devices as Determined by
Experiment .
~

34

Figure 10 - K versus

Q

Obtained at Discrete Pitch Ratios for
=

Adjustable Pitch Propellers (Noncavitating), V Figure 11 ~

0

34

and K versus Pitch Ratio for DSRV Bow Thruster

Q

with NSRDC Adjustable-Pitch Propeller 4160 Figure 12 - Ducted Thruster Cavitation Criteria Curves

........•....
~

35

and
36
37

K versus a' (from Reference 9) .................•...... Q Figure 13 - Generalized Outflow Characteristics

Table 1 - Static Merit Coefficients for Circular Ducted
Thrusters .................................. .............. 11

iii

NOTATION A AI A.
J

Cross-sectional area of duct (nondiffusing) Swept area of impeller Cross-sectional area of thruster outflow Maximum beam Static merit coefficient Duct diameter Acceleration due to gravity Ship draft or a net head, feet of water 2 Total side-force coefficient T/PAU. Impeller torque coefficient Q/pn D
J 2 S

B
C D g H

K F K
Q

K T
L
~

Total side-force coefficient T/pn D

2 4

Ship length or a characteristic length in general Duct length
0

M m n P P

Rotation rate constant, Figure 4 Fraction of length of thruster duct from bow, Figure 4 Impeller frequency of revolution, rps Impeller pitch or a net pressure, P
o

- P

v

0

Hydrostatic pressure (atmospheric + subm. to axis) Power in consistent units Vapor pressure of water Impeller torque Jet dynamic pressure p/2 U.
J

P s P v Q q. R SHP T T D T P U.
J

2

J

Drag added by duct Impeller shaft horsepower Total thrust (side force) of impeller and surface forces Duct surface force (thrust) Impeller rotor thrust Thrust momentum mean outflow velocity Undisturbed fluid velocity or ship speed iv

U ' V oo

degrees per second cr' w o v . J Difference between the pressure on the hull with thruster outflow and no outflow s p Bendemann static thruster factor Mass density of water 1 2 2 Cavitation index (P a .Duct volume flow rate Characteristic distance from duct axis to midships or c.Pv ) /2 pD n Flow coefficient ~/B2U00 Turning rate.g. tons Pressure coefficient ~P/q. Impeller hub diameter as fraction of D Displacement.

.

In order to keep the present report of reasonable length. water current. The combined action of multiple thruster units or coupling with rudder action Such factors as wind. A step-by-step design procedure is outlined that permits the selection of a practical bow thruster. and a duty cycle that requires thruster operation at ahead speed for control capability in canals. a specified turning rate when the ship is dead in the water. installed near the ships bow and/or stern.. controllable pitch and contrarotating.ABSTRACT This report concerns the hydrodynamic forces and moments produced by a bow thruster. cycloidal propellers. INTRODUCTION At the present time conventional circular transverse bow thrusters dominate the field of maneuvering propulsion devices (MPD) with respect to units installed. This procedure is described for a minimum number of operational requirements.g. ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION The work was authorized by the Naval Ship Systems Command and was funded under Subproject SF35. These include general duct arrangement. of some bow thrusters could probably have been improved if certain informacially true with regard to duct size and the importance of the free-stream velocity in relation to the thruster outflow velocity in determining the total body force. tion and knowledge had been available during their design. and impeller design. is not considered. fixed pitch.421.006. Several broad problem areas are discussed and the extent of present-day knowledge indicated. criteria. duct shape. e. ship motions. harbors and other restricted waterways. ram. emphasis is placed on the hydrodynamically applied forces and moments due to a single bow thruster duct with a single fixed-pitch propeller (impeller). Many types of thrusters have been installed and proposed Included are: single and multiple units for consideration and development. 1 . ejector. Task 1713. single bow thruster. axial flow propellers. The literature on bow thrusters is replete with experimental and analytical data concerned with performance information and design Since many of these data can be generalized it is believed timely The performance This is espeto review and tie together this information in one report.

and other restricted waterways. the extent of present knowledge and design criteria as related to configuration arrangement. guide vanes.duct wall inclination. 2 . added resistance at ahead ship speed. A step-by-step design procedure which permits the selection of a practical bow thruster is outlined. harbors. and interaction of thruster jet flow with the mainstream.blade outline. Particular details encompassed in this report are recomduct immersion. investigated by systematic series tests were: for the propeller . e. tions will be introduced. propeller design. hub ratio. ship rotation rates performance that have been used satisfactorily in the past for bow thruster installaThe report presents and discusses: factors or parameters which describe or aid in the evaluation of thruster performance. BACKGROUND To assist in directing the designer to the more extensive areas of thruster work that have been published. However. duct length. and pitch-diameter ratio. and a duty cycle that requires thruster operation at ahead speed for control capability in canals. single bow thruster. propeller blade shape and propeller pitch-diameter ratio. duct inner-wall shape.. that require a knowledge of ship particulars and ship response are not within the scope of the present report. bottom immersion. The work of Taniguchi 1 is very comprehensive and systematic. duct lip radius or shape. This procedure is described for a minimum number of operational requirements. expanded area ratio. tests. for the duct . propeller hub-pod and fairwater effects. grids. duct opening lReferences are listed on page 38.g.etc. conducted captive model tests as well as free-running model maneuvering For static tests a standard test block which permitted variations Among the quantities in geometry of the duct configuration was utilized. It is suggested that the references cited be consulted for He additional detail. blade numbers. duct length. blade section. a specified turning rate when the ship is dead in the water. mendations or criteria for the following design quantities: duct diameter. duct geometry. the following background comments are made.

Chislett 2 has made measurements of body force and body turning moment on a captive tanker model. tions are all discussed. duct length. and duct opening fairing for three ship types (investigation of added resistance). 3 to 'design and operation are rationalized based on the experimental results ing requirements. obtained at the ahead speed condition. elliptical. Hawkins 6 has made an extensive study of several types of MPD for the U. Taylor 3 has examined the effects of shroud (duct) lip radius. he points out that in practice the diffusion process is inefficient in a viscous flow for the typical short. One model with a conventional propeller and rudder arrangement and one model with a Hogner afterbody. external forces. little improvement in performance could be expected. wide-angled diffuser and consequently. Van Manen 8 has reported the results of comparative maneuvering tests for two tanker models.lip radius. applied forces. accelerating ducted propeller. That combined fences and bars placed across the tunnel entrance (in the flow line) can effectively reduce resistance augmentation in some cases was demonstrated. Maritime Administration. and bow and stern thrusters (no rudder). English 7 has shown that the ideal static merit coefficient is increased by the use of some jet diffusion. S. An analytical study of duct inlet shape Practical considera(constant velocity. and duct diffusion on the performance of an air screw at the static condition. Ridl ey 4 has presented some full-scale bow thruster data and the results of some American Shipbuilding Company series work with thruster entrance configuration. separation) was made. Special attention was given to explaining the Implications effect of the ratio of model speed to thruster jet velocity. His work encompasses a spectrum of problems Maneuverinvolved in the choice of an MPD and its design and performance. The possible beneficial effect of a truncated conic fairing with regard to added resistance was discussed. and economic considera- tions indicate that the duct-hull roundings required for good efficiency . Stuntz 5 has studied added resistance for several alternate fairings for tunnel openings and indicated how the flow patterns may be critically affected by the fairing detail. are not usually compatible with low added resistance. However.

A theoretical and experimental study of the interaction between an ambient flow and thruster inflow and outflow has also been made. An obvious operational duty is that the thruster produce a body force and body moment to turn the ship to starboard or port. ~Or Bow thruster per- On the one hand the critical maneuvering and control function may be when the ship is dead in the water or at extremely low This type of duty cycle is exemplified by a variety of tenders Vessels which operate observation ships that must maintain station in the presence of wind. also have this type of duty cycle. How this affects the thruster design will be discussed later. Needless to say there are other operational duties and requirements (particularly for very specialized vessels including submersibles) that call for the use of multiple ducted thrusters or some other type of MPD. formance was related to the cavitation index crt • The Naval Ship Research and Development Center (NSRDC) has investigated by means of systematic experiments the effect of duct lip radius (at static and ahead operation). as stated previously these are not within the scope of this report. IO Schwanecke I1 has reported a short chronology and summary of work on lateral thrusters. On the other hand the critical function for control may be for operation at a sustained ahead speed for long periods of time in restricted waterways such as coastal waters. etc. canals and rivers. such as ferries. headway. mainly in harbors and with frequent docking and undocking. For this latter type of duty the design of a bow thruster must consider the interaction between the mainstream and the thruster jet flow which can compromise the design and performance of the bow thruster compared to that for an essentially static condition. This duty cycle leads to a thruster design which incorporates symmetrical blade sections for the propeller and identically shaped duct entrance and exit openings. 4 . or must execute changes in heading. However. current. OPERATIONAL DUTY Two distinct maneuvering and control capabilities may be required of a bow thruster. and propeller pitch ratio on bow thruster efficiency..Pehrsson 9 has reported tQe results of a systematic series of tests in a water tunnel with a controllable pitch propeller.

-3/2 K TI Q c= Yp .. p is mass density.... SHP is the shaft horsepower.. a measure of static (at rest) efficiency is needed to evaluate "so-called" merit coefficient..=----..TI¥4 r=z- and the Bendemann static thrust factor i'.. 0 is duct diameter. In the latter case they have been used to characterize the performance of helicopter rotors and VTOL aircraft.....T • ..max = 1... = ~ K T pn 20 4 pn 20 S is the usual propeller thrust coefficient... P 2/3 0 2/ 3 (p TI/2)1/3 s K . figure of meri t... These expressions are derived from momentum theory and can be shown to attain ideal (nonviscous) maximum values of C propellers. is the usual propeller torque coefficient.. static thrust efficiency..00182 T3/ 2 SHP 3 2 K / T =-..... have been widely used in both marine and aeronautical applications. or compare thruster performance for this condition. and Q = Q n is the propeller frequency of revolution.0 for unshrouded = For ducted propellers and with no duct diffusion C max 5 2 .. Since thrust is still Several forms of the produced... max = 1:2 and i'.. = T ---:-~--..K 2/3 1 Q TI(2)1/3 where T is the total lateral thrust taken equal to the body reactive force.. P5 is shaft power in consistent units.. etc. Most widely used are the static-merit coefficient 0.PERFORMANCE FACTORS STATIC MERIT COEFFICIENT The useful work output given by the usual definition of propeller efficiency becomes zero at zero propeller advance.

that is. an error of I:Z appears in the maximum possible values given for C and its relation to S. 370) accompanying Reference 5. 6 . s the higher the coefficient the more effective is the bow thruster. *In the discussion (p. and for equal power comparisons which leads to for equal force and for equal power.and smax = ~ The following relation* exists between C and s: or It is noted that with comparisons involving either C or per horsepower is developed. more thrust For equal total thrust comparisons.

AI is impeller disk area. U. and A. m is mass flow per second. U. where P is fluid power. P is mass density. nonviscous momentum theory. resulting in a jet-contraction coefficient of unity. the flow will separate before the exit and with little or no diffusion the approaching streamlines are essentially parallel. J At the same power (1) 7 . all the power absorbed by the impeller is converted into kinetic energy in the final jet.For the static case. is jet velocity of outflow from duct. Platt 12 has shown a relation between the thrust of a ducted and unducted propeller at equal power by the use of simple. exit. Joo J is final slipstream velocity of the unducted propeller. is area of duct outflow. f The same relation is derived here in a slightly different manner. in a real flow with considerable duct diffusion. Since the system is assumed to be conservative (no friction). The flow conditions are depicted schematically in Fig- ure 1 where it is noted that ambient static pressure is assumed at the duct The 'assumption seems reasonable from the standpoint that. for the unducted case: and for the ducted case. Therefore.

Bendemann static thrust factor ~) 2A j 2/3 = (2A j ) 1/3 AI (2a) English has shown (Equation 6 of Reference 7) that. J 2 J total thrust of ducted propeller. ideally. 1 2" P AI Ujoo2 unducted propeller thrust with the ratio 1 (2) From Equation (1) or 2/3 which when substituted in Equation (2) gives ( for equal power. U. the ~ is numerically equal to (~:j) 1/3 Thus from (2a) _--=.T_ _ = TUNDUCTED ~= (A2AIj) 1/3 (2b) 8 .From the change in momentum T and T u = = P A.

Writing the Bernoulli equation just behind and ahead of the impeller (Figure 1). i..3 This is probably because the bound circulation r goes to zero at the blade tip for the unducted propeller whereas the load is constant across the disk for the momentum model used. More will be Equations (2b) and (2c) are important and useful relations. p The impeller thrust is determined by the pressure jump (P 2 . they. 9 .PI) which occurs across the disk area AI.and show that for higher Another important ducted propeller parameter is the ratio of impeller thrust to the total thrust T IT as a function of exit area ratio. or C . we obtain or whereupon Tp = 2" 1 P Uj 2 AI *For a finite-bladed propeller the ratio of ducted propeller thrust to unducted propeller thrust at equal power has been found to be greater experimentally than is given by simple momentum theory. static thrust efficiency some duct diffusion is required.e.It follows from a previous definition that C = 2/A/A I s (2c) For example.indicate limiting ideal values* for said about this later.

J J 2 AI 2 (3) P A. and T IT as a function of A. U. MOMENT. it can be shown for this case that the duct surface force arises at the duct inlet and bears a resemblance to the suction force at the leading edge from thin airfoil -theory. It is also appropriate to use a nondimensional form of body coefficient which is independent of impeller characteristics.. The K and K coefficients just defined in connection with the static T Q merit coefficient are an example of the former case. Idealized curves of S. Further. FORCE. body total force and moment have been nondimensionalized in terms of impeller frequency of rotation or an average jet velocity U. J Thus.and T -. are I Because of its widespread use in this country and the P J usual problem of designing for a prescribed lateral force with minimum absorbed power. Table 1 presents the static merit coefficient C for several bow thruster installations (no diffusion) reported in the literature. for a straight-through circular duct (no diffusion).).g. C. the total thrust is equally divided between the rotor and the duct./A given in Figure 6. C will be used for performance evaluation in this report. this purpose as follows: Body force coefficient K =---2F J The jet velocity is convenient for T P A U.£ T _ - 1/2 P U. xT is a characteristic lever arm (usually distance from duct axis to midships or e. J Body moment coefficient N' = ----~N~2---­ P A U j x T where Nis the body turning moment. 10 . AND VELOCITY In general.

27. Highest merit coefficient among all variations 0' Markham Series 5 0.0 for a nondiffusing idealized thruster.3. xh = 0. xh = 0. = 0. Highest merit coefficient among all variations Ae/A o = 0.65 *Cmax = 2. 15 1 Series 1. 11 .4 to 0.9 LST 0. Blunt-ended hub-pod assembly (no fairwater) 500-hp unit.52.18 Seri es 9 0.0 and PID = 0.87 1.46 xh Comment* Best configuration.4.78 Propeller 317-8 for = 3. Model Data) Bow Thruster .24 Stock design Final design.3.55 to 0. xh = 0. Optimum PID for given 0 4 x 10 3 lb side force Ae/A o = 0.TABLE 1 Static Merit Coefficients for Circular Ducted Thrusters (No Diffusion.82 800-hp unit. 50 0.63 1. Blunt-ended hub-pod assembly (no fairwater) LST 0. Installation Shrouded airscrew in a plane wall DSRV DSRV Reference 3 Merit CoefficientC 1.

relationships. F thus providing a fractional (percent) scale for the influence of ahead speed. rates which have been considered satisfactory in past bow thruster installaFigure 4 is a graph of the rotation rate constant M and nondimeno sional pivot point p as a function of nondimensional side force location. J Velocity U. Thus. can be used in the design process to describe or determine their behavior. WRNING RATE A design thrust for a bow thruster can be obtained if the ship response to the side force is specified. 12 . Hawkins 6 calculated w for comparison with observed (measured) values of w o 0 for a number of ships. and performance characteristics are common to most bow thrusters. and. 00 J This form of the parameter is preferred to the inverse ratio which becomes infinite at zero ship speed. certain basic flow phenomena. senting the ship as a flat plate with underwater dimensions of Land H. cases. These are the Hawkins curves calculated for a single thruster acting on a fIat plate. rotation of a ship not underway is basically a drag problem. A commonly used velocity ratio is U /U . can also be calculated from a pitot survey made radially across J tlie duct. To this end such pertinent data and information are recounted.f/PA is the momentum mean jet velocity based on static thrust. Figure 2 is a typical plot of these coefficients. and u. PRESENT KNOWLEDGE AND DESIGN CRITERIA Because of the complexity of the design problem of a bow thruster (which can exhibit strong interactions with the hull) some developmental experimentation may be necessary to approach or obtain an optimum configuration for a specific hull. a great deal of the available experimental data can be exploited in a general manner as a guide in the design of bow thrusters. = . tions. The agreement in results was very close in most The band given by these curves represents turning Figure 3 presents Hawkins curves of measured turning rates as a function of displacement.A is tke duct cross-sectional area. However. A value near unity is obtained for K and N' at zero ahead speed. therefore. The turning rate w o (degrees/sec) The steady By repre- when the ship is dead in the water is one performance criterion..

Taniguchi. particularly as related to added resistance (discussed later) at ahead ship speed and the fairing shape for the openings. Strictly for the purpose of applying the thruster lateral force to obtain maximum body-turning moment. This might be a In this critical problem when the ship is running in ballast condition. The need for an adequate duct length relative to the duct diameter further restricts the choice for duct location. and 2D.7lD. measured from duct axis to keel.e. ~ Experiments by Taniguchi 1 show a rather broad flat optimum based on C between a length equal to lD A length equal to at least 2D is probably better because of the Inasmuch as the duct diameter must usually be selected as a comAccording to more rapid decrease in C that would be expected for very short ducts (i. surface by the ducted thruster unit. some bow thruster The study of this problem leading to design criteria for propellers in relatively long tunnels at zero advance has been made.P') b > 2S 13 .y condition postulated by Shiba as follows: (P a .GENERAL ARRANGEMENT Location of the duct tunnel is hydrodynamically important but limited by practical considerations. no free-surface effect on side force or power was observed. experiments for a LST at various drafts have been conducted at NSRDC. requirements must be satisfied. the duct should be located fairly far forward (probably not forward of station O. Safety requirements dictate that it Space and other structural must be located behind the collision bulkhead. it seems reasonable that a minimum submergence of one diameter from the load waterline to the ductaxis should be maintained since wave action and ship motions would adversely affect bow thruster performance or added resistance. a possible problem for consideration is air drawing from the free To the author's knowledge no detailed However. regard. Shiba 13 has presented the results of an extensive study of air drawing of conventional unducted marine propellers. Of academic interest is the results showed that with tunnel submergence (measured to axis) as low as necessay. < D). Hull curvature in the vicinity of the tunnel opening can significantly affect performance. promise only a tentative (initial) choice can be made. 0.lOL). bottom immersion should not be less than one duct diameter Similarly.

it has been found that a a' < 3.5 should not be used. carries a substantial part of the total load of a bow thruster. 0. ing only the duct (but with impeller operating). 14 .760 would be needed to avoid Since the duct air sucking sufficient to affect propeller performance. it might be expected that less submergence is required to avoid detrimental air sucking in that case. must be kept in mind for the final choice of diameter. P' is the absolute pressure (including P ) at a point on the body a surface. That this is a reasonable assumption is substantiated by the previously mentioned LST tests. Large diameters may be more economical in horsepower but represent a heavier unit and a greater capital For surface ship installations where cavitation might be a This fact Although no precise problem. In the inequality. and is the surface tension between water and air. It is perceived that the extent of the dead-water region due to laminar separation near the leading edge and the pressure decrement in that region are involved in the occurrence of air drawing.0)* to zero J indicated that a submergence of at least ~ submergences <0.where P a is atmospheric pressure. Duct diameter is obviously a major factor in the installation cost and operating efficiency of a bow thruster. *A near optimum value for ducted thrusters as will be seen later.with the ship underway. recommendation can be made here. it is Considerobvious that the atmospheric pressure drops out and that P' depends only on depth of submergence and a pressure coefficient of the body. To be discussed later is the problem of choosing a bow thruster diameter with regard to development of hull surface interaction forces when the ship duty cycle prescribes operation of the thruster. The experimental results presented by Shiba are for propellers at An extrapolation of the Shiba data (for PIO = 1. b S is the width of the dead-water region.610. investment. a well-rounded duct inlet would not be likely to have a high suction peak or an extensive dead-water region. a smaller diameter (higher rpm) thruster propeller may result in a less costly and more efficient prime mover.

= K 2/3 Q _---=. However. J 2_ )1 /3 J AI is numerically equal to a function of the ratio of the outflow jet area A. the typical bow thruster installation would lead to a rather inefficient short wide-angle diffuser.Another option which properly belongs in the realm of general arrangement is the choice of a fixed pitch or controllable pitch propeller. coefficient. Duct inner-wall shape was investigated by Taniguchi. English? has concluded that a bow thruster duct without diffusion is the most appropriate choice in practice. and (3) a convex wall (expanded entrance) to evaluate static pressure recovery in the impeller outflow. and that the relatively larger reduction in pressure on the suction side of the impeller would increase the danger of cavitation compared to a constant area duct. DUCT INTERNAL SHAPE The constant area (nondiffusing) circular duct is apparently the favored form of tunnel for bow thrusters of the axial flow impeller type. ExtenConsive information and data are not available to permit a judicious evaluation trollable pitch propellers permit thrust reversal where machinery rotation These propellers could lead to rather large hubs which decrease the overall performance (discussed later). factor K T As shown previously the Bendemann z:.--:-~ I = 'Tf(2) 1/3 ( A. Among these variations the standard constant area duct gave the highest static merit 15 . (2) a concave wall (contracted entrance) to keep a constant flow area in the presence of the hub-pod assembly. to the impeller swept area AI' It can be seen from the above relation that for higher static thrust efficiency some diffusion is required. 1 He used a series of three shapes that included (1) a standard parallel wall. cannot be reversed. of the relative merits of controllable versus fixed pitch propellers. Additionally. English points out that the larger hull opening of the diffuser is undesirable from the standpoint of resistance.

the duct thruster is derived from the surface forces generated on the curved inlet and surrounding hull surface. some type of fairing radius or shape should be used. An between a nice constant velocity inlet and a sharp edge outlet is desired. exit should have a sharp edge to assure stable outflow separation with Herein lies the great compromise because of the thrust (flow) A suitable fairing shape somewhere reversal requirement of bow thrusters. it appears that In contrast. 16 . It is well known that for a jet flow the duct inlet should not have a sharp edge because infinite velocities are obtained in a frictionless flow and separation occurs at the edge in a viscous flow. minimum loss. Best rIO /D lp not less than ~ ~ ~ Reference 0. 1/10 the maximum lip radius has been suggested.DUCT OPENINGS Probably the most studied feature of bow thrusters has been the shaping of the duct openings. A significant part of the total thrust produced by a ducted With these factors in mind. Stuntz S has recommended that a step be provided at the junction of the duct wall and the tangency line of the lip radii. almost uniform experimental result (see Figure 7) has been reported for the static mode of operation. *NSRDC Report not in the public domain. for example.S and experimental results with this size step showed about a 3-percent increase in thrust producible per unit torque for a range of RPM. The function of the step is to assure Since a step is undesirable A step equal to outflow separation with rounded duct openings.12 3 (for inlet only) I * Tests at ahead speed with variable duct-lip radii conducted at NSRDC* showed little compromise choice between the best lip radius for the static and ahead modes of operation based on thruster performance. on the entrance side there is probably a step size where the advantage at the outflow prevails over the disadvantage on the inflow.10 0.08 0.

the fore and aft momentum of the flow. The following example shows what can be accomplished by proper attention to design detail. and R is drag added by the duct.07. After testing and analyzing the resistance data of several bow thruster configurations. increasing number of vanes. Some preliminary . and super tanker) with variations in duct location on the hull and fairing shapes (including conical). Duct diameter and hull-duct opening fairing for high thruster A method efficiency are not completely compatible with low resistance. drop in C.If tQe duct openings are not fitted with doors. A dimensional relationship is provided in Figure 8 for convenience in estimating the resistance of duct openings with Co IMPELLER SELECTION The importance of a hydrodynamically clean design for the internal arrangement of the supporting strut or struts and the impeller hub-podfairwater configuration cannot be overemphasized. Stuntz 5 suggested the use in design of an average 2 drag coefficient Co = ROUCT /I/2 P A V = 0. Several ship types were tested (cable layer. However. 17 = 0. V is the ship speed. which is almost universally accepted as an effective solution to this extra drag problem is to form a conic fairing to remove the hard shoulder-like projection of the duct opening at the downstream edge. English 7 considers this procedure rather idealized in the sense that it is effective English has suggested that vanes placed vertically across the duct opening could be helpful in destroying Taniguchi 1 found a steady decrease in the merit coefficient C for horizontally placed grids (vanes) with From no grids to five grids showed a IO-point In Reference I the conclusion was reached that the added drag of duct openings is small for fine ships and considerable for full ships. the effect of the duct openings on added resistance at ahead speed presents another consideration. It is desirable to keep the hub ratio xh of the impeller (rotor) as small as possible and the entire configuration well streamlined. liner. A is the duct cross-sectional area. only for the case of pure forward motion.07 for carefully faired duct openings where p is the mass density of water.

27 and an overall -fineness ratio h L/O ~ 8.0 regardless of the tunnel type. First. stream rotation . in each case the surface forces are dissimilar particularly for the Van Manen ducted propellers in an axial cylinder. This arrange- ment had a modest hub ratio x = 0. A significant fact is that the merit coefficient attains a ~ are associated with diffuser efficiency as a function of the theoretical Separation . incorporating systematic variations in certain geometric parameters to determine the hydrodynamic characteristics of ducted propeller systems.32 with the final design. consider pitch ratio P/O. This type of experimentation has been performed by several investigators.1. total-head rise in the rotor. Like open-water propeller systematic series.15 and their test results provide the basis for most of the comments that follow.87 to a value of 1. hub size. The Van Manen Ka 4-55 18 . large losses. hub ratio x L/O ~ A large = 0. Final static tests were made with the well designed right-angle drive shown in Figure 5.8.15. Several types of viscous and nonviscous losses1 4 are associated with the blockage of a duct by the insertion of the necessary impeller driving arrangement. which leads to flow separation. stream rotation and losses are dependent on the torque distribution and the Diffusion .A pod. the static merit coefficient C was increased from an originally measured value of 0. Experiments on shrouded propellers reported by Taniguchi. including too blunt a pod assembly. That is to say. may produce additional maximum value at P/D 1.static tests were made at NSRDC with a bow thruster unit which consisted of the lower half of a commercial outboard motor right-angle drive. and fairwater arrangement of Thus. impeller hub. more can be learned concerning ducted propeller (bow thruster) performance by conducting experiments with a model or models.15 and the author are in substantial agreement and confirm an optimum P/D near unity based on C for zero advance coefficient (static condition).0) hub-pad-fairwater configuration.l Van Manen 15 . At the same impeller pitch ratio of 0. losses finite length installed in a straight-through duct can be likened to the effect on efficiency of a typical wall diffusing section.Any condition.9.The impeller torque developed in a The average frictionless flow leads to an induced tangential velocity.42 was required with a very blunt (fineness ratio h 2.

data have been conveniently replotted for zero propeller advance coefficient to a base of pitch ratio in Figure 11-5 of Reference 6. Van Manen 16 has recommended the use of a constant face pitch (no radial variation) since his test results showed no "drawbacks with respect to efficiency and cavitation.50) cr' = o . Cavitation observation and thruster force and duct force measuree 0 ments (with 3-bladed and 4-bladedimpellers having A /A indicated that the cavitation index p = 0. ship plating was installed in the cavitation tunnel. the total delivered bow thruster force T consists of the impeller thrust T and the surface force TO on the hull p 19 . Pehrsson 9 has provided some cavitation data (see Figure 12) which can be used for guidance in the design of bow thrusters. it are summarized in Figure 9 together with other MPO types. ducted thruster at a nonoptimum pitch ratio. the 1 limited data available show an advantage of several points for the merit coefficient C of four blades over three blades. His tests were A duct with simulated A zero advance condition was maintained by bucking the bow thruster-induced flow by rotating the cavitation tunnel impeller pump in a reversed thrust direction. is particularly noteworthy to see the penalty for operating a nondiffusing Figures 10 and 11 show bow thruster coefficients K and K obtained from experiments with adjustable T Q pitch propellers. tion should be performed.43 to 0. I modate thrusting to port or starboard. Where doubt exists as to whether a "cavitation-free" design has been provided.p v should be >3. Elliptical or some other symmetrical airfoil blade sections should be used to accomWith regard to blade number. Propeller blade outline and blade section shape have been studied for ducted propellers. a lifting-line design calculaFor the static condition. 1 The consensus is that a blade outline with wide ? tips (Kaplan type) is desirable to better avoid cavitation." Static efficiencies derived from all the aforementioned tests In Figure 9.5 to avoid cavitation. conducted in the Kristinehamn cavitation tunnel.

0) 1. a conservative value of unity for the static merit coefficient C is recommended for performance estimates.45 Reference * 1 9 (KT is extrapolated from PIO = 0. ducted airscrew in a plane wall. Earlier in this report it was shown that ideally with no duct In a real flow with various losses the division of thrust is The location of a duct opening on a hull would result in a Values of T diffusion. Therefore. A few words are needed in regard to performance estimates in connection with bow thruster design.0 From these data an average value K T = 0." In conclusion it is emphasized that thruster impeller performance is negligibly affected by ahead speed as demonstrated by both comparative impeller thrust and torque measurements.52 have been The lower value was measured for the case of a C = 0.0 appears to be indicated by the available data.87 to 0. found in the literature.51 0. In Table 1.0 K T 0. The total lateral thrust coefficients that have been reported in the literature for the best configurations are as follows: PIO 1.50 (airscrew) and the lowest value of 0. the total thrust is divided equally between the impeller and reduction in surface forces when compared to the case of a plane wall due to hull curvature and end effects.40 0.55 (P/O = 0. An optimum PIO = 1. an average value p IT ~. Thus. not equal. How the average values for C and K are used in the thruster selection procedure is illusT trated in the section "Thruster Selection Summary.9 to Plo = 1.45 is suggested.0 could easily be achieved in a well-designed thruster unit. impeller selection or design can be considered solely in terms of static performance.94 is obtained if the highest value of 1. It seems likely that a C = 1. 20 .0 1.inlet side. *NSROC Report not in the public domain.4) are excluded. 0. hull inlet.

equation: 10 2 A numerical evaluation of the necessary constants resulted in the following (6C')¢ p = (-9.10 . ship turning rate depends on hull length and (2) there is generally good agreement of flatplate theory in this regard.091) sin [(-6830 D/L + 244. Equation (4) was suggested by the shape of the curves of Figure 13. in a certain critical range of the velocity ratio U /U. One such comparison 10 showed that a smaller diameter duct produced less interaction (suction force) than a larger diameter duct at a higher ahead speed. A phenomenological expression was derived in Reference 10 that collapsed all the hull pressure-defect data due to thruster outflow. the coefficient (6C')¢ again becomes zero. ':::::0. particularly. 2 . A bow thruster is usually designed to produce a specified force at some ahead ship speed and on this basis the performance at ahead speed of different size bow thrusters should be compared at a jet velocity that varies inversely with duct diameter. Figure 13 compares the experimental results The sine function form of For to those calculated according to Equation (4).8. at ahead speed. Perhaps more important was the effectiveness of extending the duct beyond the hull (conceived as a retractable pipe extension) in the reduction of hull suction effect. 21 .FLOW INTERACTION AT AHEAD SPEED It is well known that the interaction between bow thruster jet flow and the mainstream.10 the author found only a small interaction due to duct inflow and confirmed the widely accepted hypothesis concerning the persistence of the duct outflow to large distances downstream accompanied by a major interaction effect.5)¢] (4)* In Equation (4). at some higher value of ¢. p no-duct outflow (6C')¢ is zero.052 D/L + 0.2 to 0. corresponding to a relatively low value of p *Equation (2) of Reference 10. the choice of hull length L to nondimensionalize duct diameter was made because (1) for a given thruster size. results in a loss of both body force and body moment. 00 J In a theoretical and experimental study of this flow mechanism.

00 Equa- tion (4) may be used to estimate bow-thruster outflow interaction for a Flow coefficients are used that correspond either to prescribed values or to a desired range of J An elementary hull force. that is. and duct size. is in the circumferential direction and S is a length along the body profile. velocity ratio U /U. Equation (4) is independent of scale. of the form (!lCI)cjl P was assumed with x B = 0 phase. and It is noted that the calculated curves should be faired with zero slope at the high-flow rate end. respectively. The nondimensional surface force. and center of action of the force can also be derived by using the calculated pressure coefficient !lC I . hull moment. =a sin (x + B) = ncjl. an equation cular to the mainstream (static case).q. a =f (D/L) amplitude. and center of action are. = F / s L9. the pressure !lC I and p flow coefficient cjl were obtained from tests that were conducted at Reynolds numbers safely greater than the critical value for turbulent flow. J = fx=a (!lC I) x dx and P (7) x = X/L = CM /C p s s (8) 22 . = J b fx=a (!lCPI) b dx (6) =M /L s 2 9. n =g (D/L) period.velocity ratio Uoo/U j w~ere t~e thruster jet issues approximately perpendiWithin this interval. prototype based on comparative pressure defect.q. The incremental surface force per unit p width is ~ 10 !IF = (L1 P dS) dx dS (5) where 9. moment.

as in a turn. of the comparison between the two ducts discussed earlier. with free~running Very few experiments models have been reported. FREE RUNNING The results of captive model tests have formed the basis for comments and design criteria which have been presented so far. In the case this would not seriously impair the usefulness of the data. In many cases. empirical data applies in this case: ~p until more experimental data The usual word of caution concerning the use of the accuracy for extrapolation pur- poses is unknown. the use of Equation (4) should be limited to interpolation or reasonable extrapolation. THRUSTER SELECTION SUMMARY As an example consider a hypothetical ship with characteristic dimensions = 3 x 10 3 L = 275 ft B = 54 ft H = 17 ft ~ tons 23 . coupled with the wider jet outflow of the larger duct. Of special interest to the designer is the Taniguchi inference (from recorded path loci of ship models) that in turning a ship smaller drift angles were observed by the use of bow thrusters than by the use of a rudder. However. Taniguchi l has presented the results of extensive maneuvering tests. may be less in turning with a bow thruster. left no doubt that the smaller diameter duct would produce a lower interaction force. speed reduction Norrby l8 has mentioned a few model tests which showed that the body turning moment from a bow thruster is increased at a drift angle. Thus. the smaller duct had less pressure defect and this. therefore. in comparison to the no drift angle case. Equation (4) can be used to estimate become available.Equations (6) and (7) give an index of the surface force and moment and do not consider jet diffusion over the hull surface.

Assume a duct centerline length of 12 ft is available at station 0. mln as shown below: 17'W. These are recommended values as discussed preThe situation is Consider a D max = 8.15L and a duty cycle that requires an effective turning moment at 3 knots of not less than approximately 80 percent of the static value. Initially. s STA. Step 2. The required thrust is W 2L3H M 2 o T = --.0 4 4 13 where it is seen that the submergence for 0 = 8.= 17. Pick an average turning rate for 6 = 3 x 10 3 from Figure 3 (say wa = 0. calculate the momentum mean jet veloci ty u. = J iT7rA = 105.68 degrees/sec).S 11 2./0 1. let the duct diameter D = 1/2 ~ = 6.15 D in ft 8 6 I in ft 8 6 S in ft 9 9.0 ft.. Step 3. X!L '" 0.:::_.0 3. = 4.45/D 24 and . L.380. lb o with M o = 97 from Figure 4. With the specified static thrust.0 ft is still adequate. vious1y. Step 1.0 ft and the bottom immersion I = D.0 ft and aD.

9952 x 16 x 75.9905(4)4 0.. U IU.45 / )1 2 = 8. Step 5. say D 5.29 0.00 -0.0 ft based on the non-critical value I = 0.19 4 Step 4. 00 J 13.36 0.the velocity ratio Uoo/U duct diameter j at a speed of 3 knots (5.19 (see Figure 2). 0' atmos. 00 J Determine a tentative impeller rpm and 0' for the most likely In this case D = 4.:::.18 17.::.0 ft.4 RPM. Repeat all calculations.50 P Now. for the specified thrust.47 where 34.00 13.. The average T value K = 0.58 26.5... Impeller rate of revolution is determined from an inversion of the impeller thrust coefficient K .38 0....:. diameter.. or 522..063 ft/sec) for each D in ft 8 6 U.= - 0' l/2PD2n2 0. Thus n = VPD4~ 1~( = 3 l7.::-:. The results are as follows: 25 .--. submergence to q vapor pressure = Net head of water H. and 2978.= --_. using a new = duct diameter.8 2.00 47..P .50 46.47 should be >3. = . 0' = 2.45 which was recommended for an optimum impeller pitch ratio T of 1..0 can be used. in ft/sec J U /U.38xl0 1.760 rps. and pgH = 2978 Ib/ft 2 is too low.

366 is not within the interval 0 to (see Figure 13) for the specified relative duct size D/L = 0. p is questionable when the function p is near zero and some interaction* would be evident at the given 00 velocity ratio V /V. 2 'lO *Remember that a small change in pressure acting over a large area can produce an important force. and D = 5.3 RPM) It can be seen from the tabulation that all values are now acceptable. tations show that the argument 3.5 with a consequent loss in efficiency.4 V. In some cases it may be necessary to use a nonoptimum P/D in order to obtain 0' > 3. 26 . a further check on duct outflow interaction at ahead ship speed may be obtained from Equation (4).572 rps 0' = 3.24.= 5. = 0. fore.0 ft may be considered as the finaZ choice. as shown by the moment curve for the typical surface ship in Figure 2b. SHP 667 In closing the following remarks are made: It is important to The realize when considering ahead speed operation. estimate the power required from an inversion of the merit coefficient with C = 1.09 J V /V.0 ft S = 12. Although a noncritical value of the velocity ratio U /U.24 J H = 45. the accuracy of the solution for (~C')¢ ~C' Compu~ There- However.77 P/D = 1. duct diameter need not be restrictive if controlled deflection of jet outflow is employed. is asso00 J ciated with the 5-ft duct diameter.0 ft L/D = 2. J = 0.0 I 00 water (334.0182. = 21.5 ft of n = 5. Finally. no hull pressure defect (interaction) would be expected.0 as recommended. Step 6.

DIFFUSION DUClED Uoc =0 . .. namely... AI UI ACTUATOR . hub ratio ~ ~ 0.. Po Po Po U"" =0 --CONSTANT AREA Po _J U.5. Kaplan-type blade with symmetrical sections.expected performance of the impeller is based on the desirable characteristics discussed previously... Uj PI P2 .3 and three or four blades.. It is emphasized that the design information and thruster selection method presented is a composite guide that should be reviewed as new data become available.Idealized Flow for Ducted and Open-Type Thrusters 27 . OPEN (UNDUClED) Figure 1 .. expanded blade-area ratio of about 0.

1\ z ~ 06 u.6 \ .1.6 "" Uj Figure 2b . for a Bow Thruster 00 J 28 ..6 U"" -1.:: u.0 1. \ ~ f'. n-r FORCE 0.2 MOMEN~ .~ ""'\ \ 0.8 0. Z 06 :.8 1\ .2 o 0.8 / V V 1\\ .2 o 0....2 1.6 \' V \ \.--- 0.4 \ ~ 0.) Figure 2 ./ 1. 0. V FORC~ 0....4 / V .8 U L2 1.2 004 Uj Figure 2a ... ~ MOMENT \ .0 ~ V 0.0 -.. 0.-.Typical Body Force and Body Moment Coefficient versus V IV.4 0..Submersible 1.2 "i'../ 0.Surface Ship (According to Reference 2.

8 o 4 8 12 16 20 24 DISPLACEMENT .TONS x 10-3 Figure 3 .0.Band of Rotation Rates versus Displacement with MPD at Zero Ship Speed (according to Reference 6) 29 .

.1 0.1 1..0 140 '" "..6 Q...9 I ~MO 120 "\ 1\.7 1. 0 0:: . « UJ z ~ / Vp / 1. ~ I 1. LENGTH = m Figure 4 Pivot Point and Rotation Rate Constant for a Single Side Force Acting on a Ship (according to Reference 6) 30 .. 0 > 0- 0- 40 ~ / V \ i\ \ 0.9 0..3 '"'" 0..5 0..2 II :I: ... 100 . z u 0:: 0 ~ V) « ...5 0.8 1.. e> UJ z ..... ~ 1. Q 60 \ / IX .5 1.7 ~ 0..../ / o -0.J .2..6 CENTER OF TRANSVERSE FORCE FROM END..8 20 I""'""' - ~ ~ ..4 J. z 0 80 \ . 0 UJ z « .. 1\ I 1/ J 1.4 0. Z 0 0 0:: u.. .0 .2 0..3 1...1 o 0...

..-J Figure 5 . PROPELLER \ I j SECTION A-A A.. Vl ..Model Bow Thruster Installation .A--.

10- \ 1.. ..1 I SCALE RIGHT HAND' RIGHT HAND' LEFT HAND LEFT HAND I 1..6 .0.4 Figure 6 .20 Figure 7 ./.'" """..--"..04 0.6 V = 2.' -f-.0 u: 8 I- " w :::. . .0 ..8 t:: <t 1\/ / ..0 V ___ 10-"- / / / .8 0.4 ~ ""- --- 1..: <.9 .. Cl Z v'\ v/ .----- ~ 0...../ / .4 0.---++---____ .8 1.61 KNOTS RN = 1..Criteria for Establishing Duct Lip Radius 32 .l ~ Iii 1./.3 REF...12 0.2 i'---r1.2 + I WITH 10% STEP 'NOTE: COEFFICIENT C CANNOT BE USED FOR COMPARISON INVOLVING AHEAD SPEED 1.4 ~. ""'" ~ 1.18 0..4 ~./ ..02 0..10 'LIPID 0.14 0. ~ >< "".6 0..1./ "-" 0.""'" .485 X 107 0. .8 V o 0.06 0.08 0.... "" C " 2.""""""-::IRSCREW --' ---- ..f WITH 10% STEP 0.- ..2 1.4 2. / / -..6 0...- ---- .'"./ 1..." ..16 0.. C and T IT with Exit Area Ratio p SOURCE ----.0 .. ""'" .6 0./ -.-'1' 2.Idealized Variation of S.._v-o -- w U LL W ....6 - ~ Z 1..2 1...-NSRDC NSRDC REF.

Relationship for Estimating the Resistance of Well-Faired Duct Openings 33 .Xla' I V II I J / J J 'I X 103 J I V V V. If (0' " II 1/ 100 ) 1/ ~ /I JI{~ J rS V J j J ~ . ~' 1I V I J I I / lib' /e..0 / II ~ J ~ VP II h~ ~ ~ V- / o IN FEET 10 Figure 8 ... J il VI V I VJ .V fl .~ I~ I~ I / / 10 1.:..:.:.J I I iI II J~/ J II) '/ If o Z ! ~ ::l o a: U ::l I- '1~ e.~ " I ..~ /1/ 1/ iJ I::e.

8 CIRCULA~ CYLI~DER (~EF.9! 0.0 0.30 0.l)~ / 7 0.60 1.1.[7 f-.60 0.90 0.7 0.45 (KAPLAN TYPE) 10""" .40 0.70 1.01 V V 0.70 Figure 10 .50 1.4' } BOW THRUSTER -Ae/A O= 0. - ~ ---- V 0.K versus K Obtained at Discrete Pitch Ratios for T Q Adjustable Pitch Propellers (Noncavitating)./ TROOST 84-55 UNDUCTED - 0.05 0.~ .04 / . 6" 0.80 0.50 0.7 Figure 9 . DSRV lY' V / ~ ---- -(REF.06 REF.6 1.5 0 0./ I--. V = 0 34 .0 1.5 r-.9 1.I--.02 0.4 - " K a 4-551~ A 0.03 / / / / l<:v J 0.60 0.10 "" o 0.40 1.~ Xh = 0.1 0.Comparison of Merit Coefficient C as a Function of Thruster Pitch Ratio for Fixed and Trainable Maneuvering Propulsion Devices as Determined by Experiment 0.70 V P V .20 0.2 THRUSTER PITCH RATIO (P/D)o. 1/ j"ooo' BOW THRUSTER.30 ~INABLE I I KORTNOZZLE Ka 4·70 (NOZZLE 19a) (R EF./// ~ 17 0. 16 1.

7 Figure 11 - Ky and K versus Pitch Ratio for DSRV Bow Thruster with NSRDC Adjustable-Pitch Propeller 4160 Q 35 .7 . V ~ . ~ 0.60 0./ 0.a 0.4 0. V ~ V / 0./ !/ V V/ /.6 0./ / V / Kr / ~ ~/ AOK q .1 1. 0.30 .8 0.10 /.5 0.70 0...20 ~ ~ ../ ~ V / ./ 0..9 1.0 1.40 z < c o .0.50 '¥.2 THRUSTER PlfCH RATIO (P/O)O.

7 P/O = 0.0 7.040 / / / V /" -- P/O = 0.020 / / P/O .0 4.0 3.0 6. 0.0 .0 (J' 5.7 0..0 (1' 5.010 '" - P/O =0. = 0.4 o o 1.0 7.40 P/O .050 =0.0 3.9 0.9 :.0 Figure 12a .0 Figure 12b .10 .4 1..: .0.30 / V P/O 0.0 2.0.0 2.Ducted Thruster Cavitation Criteria Curves K and K T Q versus cr' (from Reference 9) 36 .0.0 6.Thrust Coefficient P/O 0. 0.5 ".4.5 P/O /' 0.50 0.20 // ~ / / = 0.Torque Coefficient Figure 12 .

./ l.0 t . t. / / # . ~ ./ t- ::! z .-.. .'. ""' c.. u .- // / .04 ~ .s""..- -0.. ".X10 0.08 " ' . 0.0116_ f..03 0..- u.0232 '~ ~ t'0.02 FLOW COEFFIC IENT¢ 0. [4J AND BROKEN "... V/ ~ -0.04 Figure 13 . 0.. 0.". ..04 0 ~ -2 I ~OLl D EXPERIMENTAL MEAN VALUE .. ".. f-_ .0 ~ 0. . u...N -.Generalized Outflow Characteristics . 12 0.....0173 1. ~0. e..(/ / u -0. ~~ I-..] U o l.CALCULATED FROM EQ.U ~ .....J.01 --- I~ / 1/ v". . .....-" ~ .___ .".

. "Effect of Tunnel Entrance Configuration on Stuntz. Report RT-8518. J. John L. and Bjorheden. D. 72 (1964). "Research on the Maneuverability and Propulsion of Very Large Tankers. M." Robert Taggart. Robert T. S." Twelfth International Towing Tank Conference Propeller Committee Report. 3.." Langley Aeronautical Laboratory TN 4126 (Jan 1958). 10. C.3 (Sep 1971). Vol." Hydro-og Aerodynamisk Laboratorium.. Taylor. et al." J. Denmark. Schwanecke." Sixth Naval Hydrodynamics Symposium. Donald E. Seth et aI." International Shipbuilding Progress. Lennart. Report Hy-8 (Apr 1966).. Beveridge. R. 6.REFERENCES 1. "Investigations into the Fundamental Characteristics and"Operating Performances of Side Thruster." First Symposium on Ship Maneuverability and David Taylor Model Basin Report 1461 (Oct 1960). Pehrsson. Van Manen. and Taylor. 13. Chislett.." Transactions Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. Vol. English... 4. 137 (Jan 1966). Ridley.. 5. 0.. W. 7. (Sep-Oct 1966). Hawkins. "Further Considerations in the Design of Lateral Thrust Units. 9. "Bow-Thruster Jet Flow. Jr. San Diego Section (Sep 1967). "Some Aspects of BowThruster Performance. "Model Tests with Bow-Jet (Bow-Steering) Screw Propellers. No. "Innuence of Ship Speed on the Effectiveness of a Lateral-Thrust Unit. Thruster Design. G. IS. of Ship Research. Contract MA-3293 (Jan 1965). Inc.. "The Use of Maneuvering Propulsion Devices on Merchant Ships. H. R. "Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Some Design Variables on the Static Thrust Characteristics of a SmallScale Shrouded Propeller Submerged in a Wing. 2." SNAME Paper." Mitsubishi Technical Bulletin 35 (May 1966). Taniguchi. 8. et al. J. Washington.. Lyngby. 11. 38 . D. "Design of Lateral Thrusters (State of Art) . K. No. J. Appendix VI (1969). Vol.

W." NACA RM L7H25 (Feb 1948)." Shipbuilding and Shipping Record (1 Aug 1963)." Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences. D. D. Academic Van Manen. "The Effectiveness of a Bow Thruster at Low and Medium Ship Speeds. F. Italy (Aug 1968). 9. Goodman." International Shipbuilding Progress.. 13. Jordinson. J Jr." International Shipbuilding Progress. 156 (Aug 1967). Ralph. D.. and Renard J. Inc. 55 (Mar 1959). J.. 93 (May 1962). W. 74 (1966). C. "Static Tests of a Shrouded and an Unshrouded Propeller. R. No.. and Baines.. Vol. w. Platt. 17. Wallis. 39 ." J." Transportation Technical Research Institute (JAPAN). No. Van Manen." Oceanics. J. Rome. Press (1961). Norrby. BIBLIOGRAPHY Duport. with Special Reference to Fan-in-Wing VTOL Powerplants. 14. J. R. No. Van Manen. Performance of Shrouded Propellers. J. Vol. C.e. and Superina. Report 9 (Aug 1953). Keffer. "Flow in a Jet Directed Normal to the nautical Research Council. 18. "Air-Drawing of Marine Propellers. Theodore R and Chen. "Analytical and Experimental Studies of Normal Inlets. and Cockshutt.. Paris (Aug 1964). "The Round Turbulent Jet in a Crosswind. Vol. R Wind~" Aero- &M 3074 (Oct 1956). "Axial Flow Fans. Vol.. 15.. "The Design of Screw Propellers in Nozzles. A. U. "Effect of Radial Load Distribution on the ." Seventh Hydrodynamics Symposium. 16. 6. Palais de l'Unesco. M. 15.. Shiba." Transactions SNAME." New York and London.. Vol. "Analysis of Ducted- Propeller Design." International Shipbuilding Progress. P. Report 64-l8b (Sep 1965).12. "Potential Flow Solution of Propeller Driven Jets Used for Submarine Depth Control. Fluid Mech.Ducted Propellers. E.. "First Hydraulically Driven LIPS Transverse Propeller. Schaub. A. H. and Oosterveld. D. 14. J. Robert J. "Panel Discussion 5 . Part 4 (Apr 1963)..

40 .

006 b. CONTRACT OR GRANT NO.. D. REPORT DA. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED 12. a specified turning rate when the ship is dead in the water. REPORT SECURITY CLA. Md.UNCLASSIFIED curHy aSSl lea ion DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA (St.421. OR'GINATOR"S REPORT NUMBERCS) SF35.TE 18. 20034 3. t be entered wl1<!O tile overall report 1s classified) Naval Ship Research and Development Center Bethesda.~C'urity 1.. e. 20360 13. OF PAGES September 1971 Ba. single bow thruster. Beveridge 6.. last name) John L. Task 1713 (Any other numbers that may be 8ssigned d. c. ORIGINATING ACTIVITY (Corporate author) R&D 2. O!HER REPORT NO(SJ thrs report) rb. 45 3611 gb. ~O~ OF REFS 9a. body olnbstrort Bnd indcxinl1 annotation mu . duct shape.807·6801 . GROUP DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF BOW THRUSTERS 4. These include general duct arrangement. DESCRIPTIVE NOTES (Type of report and inclusive dates) Final Report 5· AU THOR IS) (Fir. Several broad problem areas are discussed and the extent of present-day knowledge indicated. (PAGE 1) UNCLASSIFIED Security Classification SIN 0101. REPORT TITLE UNCLASSIFIED 2b.SSIFICATION classUkation of title.. C. middle initial.. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Naval Ship Systems Command Washington. harbors and other restricted waterways. TOTAL NO. A step-by-step design procedure is outlined that permits the selection of a practical bow thruster.g. PROJECTNO. . This procedure is described for a minimum number of operational requirements.st name. to. SPONSORtNG MILITARy ACTlV1TY ". ABSTRACT This report concerns the hydrodynamic forces and moments produced by a bow thruster. and a duty cycle that requires thruster operation at ahead speed for control capability in canals. and impeller design..

K EV WORDS L'NK A ROI.E LINK a WT LINK C ROI.E WT ROLE WT Bow Thrusters Transverse Thrusters Maneuvering Devices. Auxiliary DD "NOoR~ 1473 lIS (BACK) UNCLASSIFIED Security Classification (PAG£:' 2) .UNCLASSIFIED Security Classification 14.

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