Pg. 696: 3b) The interchangeable parts made the assembly line possible.

The assembly line was first used in the United States to produce small weapons and clocks. By 1850, it had moved to Europe. It was than used to manufacture sewing machines,typewriters,bicycles and automobiles. This was called the second industrial Revolution. What enabled the manufacturers to produce interchangeable parts was the development of precision tools. Pg. 707: 2a) The lack of jobs and lack of land drove people from the countryside to the city. They were able to find jobs in factories,services,and professions in the city. In the nineteenth century,more and more people came to live in the cities. Cities grew faster,also,because living conditions improved so much that more people could survive longer. The size of the cities also expanded,mostly in industrialized countries. Pg. 707: 2b) The urban poor in the cities encountered problems of poor living conditions,wages,and consumer costs. After 1870 these things improved. The urban poor consisted of unskilled laborers and domestic servants. One out of every seven,in the Great Britain, that were employed were domestic servants. Most of the domestic servants were women. Pg. 707; 2c) The Second Industrial Revolution opened the door to new jobs for women. There was a high demand for white collar jobs and a shortage of male workers. Big businesses needed clerks,typists,secretaries,file clerks and sale clerks. There was also a demand for teachers in elementary education that was legally required. These jobs were not necessarily exciting and did not require very much skill,but it allowed for women to escape the "dirty" work or the lower class. Pg. 707: 2d) Marriage was a matter of economic necessity for most women during the nineteenth century. The lack of meaningful work and the lower wages paid to women for their work made it difficult for single women to earn a living. Therefore,most women chose to marry. Men provided the family income while the women focused mainly on household work and child care. Pg. 707: 2e) Many European states provided mass education in the nineteenth century. thy did this for industrialization. During the first Industrial Revolution,factories were able to use unskilled workers but as the first Revolution moved to the second factories needed skilled,educated workers. Mass education gave industrialists the trained workers they needed. Pg. 726: RF 2) Three factors enabled Europe to dominate the world by 1914. Europe was the main trade center for goods, they had a successful economy, and military power. Europeans received beef and wool from Argentina and Australia, coffee from brazil, iron ore from Algeria, and sugar from Java. A lot of European capital was invested to develop railways, mines, electrical power plants, and banks. These are the reasons why Europe dominated the world economy by the beginning of the twentieth century. Pg. 726: RF 3) The Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Both of these German men were disgusted by the horrible conditions in factories. They blamed industrial capitalism for these terrible conditions. They wrote about a new social order eventually called communism. Marx said that one groups of people owned the means of production and therefore controlled the government. Eventually, Marx's ideas were picked up by working class leaders, and they formed socialist parties.

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