You are on page 1of 18



(* west is Halqemylem for to teach)

Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:

Introduction ! Coast Salish People and Territory ! Richmonds History First Nations Protocol 3 4 5

6 6 6 7 10 12 13 14 15 16 16 16 17

Map of Traditional Coast Salish Territory Map of the Salish Sea Eleven Principles for Incorporating Aboriginal Culture ! Musqueam and Coast Salish Information Dance K-7 Drama K-7 ! Music K-7! Visual Arts K-7! Elders Programs Fieldtrip Ideas Additional Resources Bibliography

Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:

With the signing of our Aboriginal Education Enhancement Agreement (AEEA) on June 21, 2011, the Richmond School District committed to ensuring that all students, both Aboriginal and NonAboriginal, will learn about the culture and history of the Aboriginal peoples who once inhabited what is now Canada and in particular those who lived in the Pacific Northwest. We read in the Ministry of Educations preamble to the AEEA document that [f]undamental to the Aboriginal Education Enhancement Agreements, which are unique to each school district, is the requirement that school districts provide strong programs on the culture of local Aboriginal peoples on whose traditional territories the districts are located. (http:// welcome.htm) As educators, we are often called upon to teach about traditions that are not our own. Being a nonIndigenous teacher does not have to be a stumbling block to presenting Aboriginal culture. As with all subject areas, we can teach with a spirit of openness and acceptance of all peoples.

That said, educators may not know the different protocols for all the various Aboriginal groups represented in their classroom or community. Just as Europeans come from many different traditions and languages, so do Aboriginal peoples. Across Canada, there are a variety of languages, traditions, histories, stories and art forms for the numerous Indigenous groups. This Framework was developed to assist teachers in providing programs embedded with Aboriginal culture, connected to the Fine Arts curriculum. It is important for school district personnel and the students to know and understand the history of the Musqueam and other Coast Salish people and to comprehend their realities of today. The Coast Salish live among us and their culture is alive and contemporary. Some background information on these peoples and their history in Richmond is provided. The Musqueam Band also has played an important role in the development of SD #38s AEEA. What follows are eleven principles for incorporating Aboriginal culture which will help teachers in their Fine Arts curriculum planning. Teachers will also find resources, books, websites, videoclips etc. for each of the curriculum strands: Music, Drama, Dance and Visual Arts.

Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:


In Canada, the Coast Salish territory stretches along the Pacific Coast of BC and includes the area between Bute Island and the Columbia River as well as those areas on Vancouver Island not occupied by the Kwakwakawakw (Kawkiutl) and those of the Nootka First Nations which stretch from Johnstone Strait to Port Renfrew (formerly Port San Juan). The Coast Salish also occupied vast areas of western Washington State. This area thus includes the City of Richmond. The Coast Salish people are unique among the Pacific Northwest First Nations in that they exhibit much of the other northern coastal First Nations culture yet they have strong historic connections with the Interior First Nations groups. It is believed that the Coast Salish migrated to the coast from the Interior Plateau on the upper reaches of the Fraser and Thompson rivers. Similarities in the language, in the construction of their long houses, the less developed art forms than other Northwest Coast nations, and the style of their essential tools is evidence of this migration. (Ashwell & Hancock, 2006).

Here is a Welcome Pole situated on the Musqueam Reserve. The Coast Salish people did not carve totem poles as did the tribes of other Northwest Coast Nations such as the Haida. The large carved human figures represent ancestors or spirit helpers. These poles can serve as doorways or inside house supports and are placed in front of houses to honour deceased chiefs or they can stand alone.

The Coast Salish people speak the Halkomelem language of which there are three distinct dialect groups: the people in the Fraser Valley speak Halqemylem; the people on the Island speak Hulquminum; and the people in the Fraser River Delta (Tsawwassen, Musqueam, Tsleil-Waututh), speak Hunquminum. Today, the Coast Salish population is relatively small compared to other Nations along the Coast, however at one time they were the largest group of First Nations people north of California. The smallpox epidemic in 1781/82 which devastated large numbers of people along the coast and in the Interior is estimated to have killed as much as 75% of their population. (Ham p. 5). It is estimated that around 100 people still speak the Halkomelem language, most of them elders. However, groups are working to keep their language alive.
Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:

Prior to 1781, families who today live at Musqueam, Tsawwasseen and Langley held rights to the rich resources available to them in Richmond. Families from Cowichan, Nanaimo and Saanich on Vancouver Island also had rights obtained through marriage ties. Research indicates there were Coast Salish settlements in Richmond, and that the area was extensively and primarily used for harvesting. Harvesting activities took place throughout the year, with each season bringing fresh sources. In the spring, deer and beaver hunting were of prime importance for the Coast Salish families. In the Fraser River were found eulachon, sturgeon, herring, shellfish, and other intertidal resources. Seals and sea lions that chased the eulachons were also trapped in abundance. In the late spring and summer, women would gather thimbleberries, horsetails, silverweed, clover and other edible plants. In the summer, the woman would also go berry picking in the bog areas and pick the crab apples which were in ample supply along Crabapple Ridge (the stretch of land from Terra Nova to Garry Point). The summer months brought the most important food source to the people the salmon. The late runs of chum and coho salmon continued to supply the Coast Salish into the late fall when once again deer and beaver would be hunted. Finally, after months of catching, harvesting and preserving their food, the Coast Salish would return to their permanent homes elsewhere and begin their winter ceremonial celebrations. Although no archeological sites have been retained in Richmond, it is known that both permanent and temporary buildings were erected.The more permanent dwellings were used for longer periods of times such as during the summer months for the salmon fishing, and for several years. These structures were made of cedar planks and were shed-type houses attached in rows and which were occupied by extended families (all able bodied family members were expected to help out during the salmon runs). A house frame would be built and the planks, which were valued possessions, would be brought over from their permanent residences. Single houses and shelters were also erected. Habitations erected for more temporary fishing camps consisted of a pole framed lean-to shed, covered with a mat. The Musqueam also maintained smoke houses at their fishing sites and evidence of other hearths or cooking areas have been discovered. As well, here in Richmond, sites related to ceremonial or spiritual activities have been located. At the Britannia Heritage Shipyards Site, a First Peoples House has been preserved. This building was used used as a dormitory for First Nations peoples, as they made up the majority of the work force in the shing and canning industries. They would return to their traditional lands following their seasonal round (http://
Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:


At formal meetings, it is proper protocol to acknowledge the territory on which the event is taking place. In Richmond, it is Coast Salish territory. (Some organizations prefer to acknowledge the unceded traditional Musqueam territory). At the beginning of the event, the emcee or chairperson could say Today, we would like to acknowledge that we are meeting on traditional Coast Salish territory and if time permits, invite an Elder to do an Opening prayer or Welcome. If Elders are asked to lead an official welcome, it is appropriate to provide transportation, have someone accompany them throughout the event and drive them home afterwards. Acknowledging the traditional territory and when possible inviting an Elder helps to establish and maintain strong relationships with the local First Nation.



This map which shows Georgia Strait, Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca which are together known as the Salish Sea, in recognition of the Coast Salish peoples who have lived in this region for millenia.
Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:

1. Learn about the local First Nations as a cultural group
In order to begin to incorporate Aboriginal culture into the curriculum and to continue to build an inclusive education system, we need to promote awareness and understanding of Aboriginal culture. It is essential that all students learn about their own culture and together learn about Canadas Aboriginal cultures, languages and histories. When students see themselves reflected in the subject being studied, their self-esteem will be enhanced. By recognizing, appreciating and learning about students background and cultural identity, teachers are better equipped to respond to the needs of a diverse student population.

2. Study Traditional Art Forms

By learning about the local First Nations as a cultural group, teachers can focus on what the Aboriginal community values as artistic expression by studying the traditional art forms: carving, drum making, basket weaving, shapes, designs, colours and themes. By studying traditional Coast Salish artwork, students can then be inspired to create their own original piece of art. Art should be a part of everyones experience, not the prerogative of a talented few.

3. Capture the interests of the students

Aboriginal communities have music traditions which they continue today for cultural reasons. With all art forms, it is important to focus on what is interesting to the students so they find relevance in their learning. In music for example, many young people are interested in rap and hip hop music. This provides an opportunity to introduce First Nations artists who perform this kind of music in a traditional language. Students could translate the song into English or make up their own song using terminology linked to the land. By demystifying Aboriginal culture, students can appreciate the arts for arts sake.

Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:

4. Meet regularly with Elders and family members

Meet with Elders and family members both formally and informally to continue building community relationships as well as provide knowledge to preserve the culture. Ask the children if they would like to invite family members to the classroom. It is essential that all learners feel they are a meaningful part of, and take pride in an educational system in which their heritage and culture are reflected, celebrated and respected. By promoting culturally responsive programs that bring members of the community into the classroom as partners in their childrens education, one can see and feel the building of community.

5. Teach the Language of Art

Teaching students the language of art -for example in design: texture, form, line, colour, empowers students to be critical of the art they see and do. Without a language to talk about art, the conversations are judgmental rather than a conversation about the value of an object. Also, students should not be forced into doing Native Art but rather taught how to analyze works of art from structural, historical and cultural perspectives. If they are interested in further developing works of art in an Aboriginal style, this can be encouraged and supported. Students can be encouraged to explore their heritage, but the ultimate purpose of art is personal expression that is linked to personal interest.

6. Participate in Community Cultural Events

Teachers must also be culturally open. This requires an awareness and sensitivity to different cultures and acquiring knowledge (Castagno & Brayboy, 2008). Culturally relevant pedagogy can be defined as education that recognizes, respects, and uses students identities and backgrounds as meaningful sources for creating optimal learning environments (ibid). By recognizing, appreciating and learning about students background and cultural identity, teachers are better equipped to respond to the needs of a diverse student population. Numerous activities and celebrations in the community lend themselves to some great resources for teachers.

7. Display and showcase student work

A sense of belonging and feeling pride in their work and in their culture are two factors that have been recognized as prerequisites for success for Aboriginal students (Ministry of Education). By recognizing and highlighting students work around the school or showcasing a performance at an assembly, acknowledges and values the contributions of everyone in the school community. There is nothing more exciting for young students than to see their works of art displayed for all to see. Instilling a sense of confidence is integral to childrens learning.

Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:

8. Invite local artists to speak and perform

Students need to see and hear from successful Aboriginal artists and to be able to ask them questions, learn about the process of becoming an artist and marketing their work (Letham, 1996). Inviting local artists to speak to the children about their art (both traditional and contemporary) and perhaps be a part of an art project with the class or school would allow meaningful connections to be made. Students would benefit by having field trips to art studios, art galleries and art showings to see that a career in the arts is as valuable an educational outcome as a career in a non-arts profession (Davis, 2008).

9. Teach the oral traditions through stories and songs

Much of the research about culturally responsive pedagogy cites the importance of the oral tradition in First Nations cultures. This can be incorporated in the classroom through stories and songs. Developing a rapport with the Elder community, who are also the keepers of cultural wisdom, would bring the community together in a broader sense. The Elders could be invited to the school for assemblies or to the classroom to share their special talent. Having the children interview an Elder on what they used to do as a child would allow the students to learn about life in the past and cultural teachings.

10. Use experiential learning

Tell me and Ill forget; show me and I may remember; involve me and Ill understand This Chinese proverb rings true in education. The more children learn by doing, the more they will understand. In the arts, children might question the value of learning to make a basket out of cedar. When they see the results of making one, they understand the intricacies of their utilitarian uses. Some of them carry food, others water and still some for cooking or carrying fish. Carvings can be done using Plaster of Paris instead of wood. In all of the arts, there are many opportunities for experiential learning.

11. Integrate the arts with other subjects

Children feel emotionally secure when they find themselves and those they love, positively represented in curriculum materials. It is well-established, however, that art, when integrated with other subjects, can create innovative ways of thinking, understanding, and representing knowledge (Zwirn, 2005). Excellent examples of integrating mathematics and science are available for teachers through books and on the internet. Unique ways of integrating the arts with socials studies have been done by many teachers, especially in grades three and nine.

Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:



Song of the Salish Sea : A Natural History of Northwest Waters. [United States] :
Earthwise Media ;, c2006. This visually effective program explores the ecosystem of the Salish Sea (Straights of Georgia and Juan de Fuca, and Puget Sound). It highlights the complexity of the relationships between species and between living and non-living aspects of the system. Humorous graphics emphasize the impact of humans on this ecosystem, and point out how people can repair damage already done. The program is divided into seven segments for targeted viewing. The segments focus on particular habitats and could be used as 'in-class field trips' to these different areas.

From Time Immemorial : The First People of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Gabriola,
BC : Pacific Edge Publishing, 1999. This resource contains many activities and opportunities for research. The teacher's guide was written specifically to address all of the prescribed learning outcomes outlined for Grade 4 students in the Social Studies K to 7 IRP 1996. Includes information about the following peoples: Coast Salish, Wakashan, Haida, Nisga'a, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Gitxsin, Tahitan and Nuxalk to name a few.

Tracing Our Past : A Heritage Guide to Boundary Bay. Delta, B.C.: Nature Guides B.C.,
c2008. Murray, Anne, 1952 Feb. 16-. This guide covers Boundary Bay and its watershed, including Delta, Surrey, White Rock, Langley and Richmond in British Columbia, and Blaine, Point Roberts and the Drayton Harbor watershed in Washington State. Learn about local Coast Salish, multicultural explorers, settlers, fishers, farmers, developers, naturalists and conservationists, and the relationships all these people had to the changing land, river and ocean.

Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:


MUSQUEAM COMMUNITY PROFILE This book describes the current conditions of the Musqueam with an eye to the future of the Band. Developed by the Musqueam Community Committee, this resource gives the reader insight into the workings of this First Nation. option=com_content&view=article&id=3 &Itemid=8

Xmkm This reference guide created by the Musqueam people provides information about their culture: including history, language and traditions. A usage guide explains and interprets the architecture, colours and other features of their culture.
(Available through the Musqueam Band)



The Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games were held in the traditional and shared territories of the Lilwat, Musqueam, Squamish and Tsleil-Wauthuth. Information on each of the four Nations is provided.


First Nations Drum: News from Canadas Native Communities.Vancouver and Toronto ( Kahtou News: The Voice of B.C.s First Nations. Sechelt, BC: Kwatamus Publications. Ravens Eye. B.C: Aboriginal Multi-Media Society Red Directions. Vancouver: Redwire Native Youth Media Say Magazine, The spirit of Aboriginal youth, ( Secwepemc News. Kamloops: Secwepemc Cultural Education Society Windspeaker: Canadas National Aboriginal News Source. Edmonton: Aboriginal Multi-Media Society Native American art and culture Magazine:

News Magazine from BCTF: From the Richmond Public Library: First Nations organizations: BCTF Teacher resources:
Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:



People dance for many reasons and in all stages of life. Dance provides opportunities for students to gain an understanding of and a respect for diverse cultures. A balanced dance program should draw on our cultural and historical wealth.

History influences dance, and dance reflects history. Dance contributes not only to the development of self, but also to the development of society. When examined within the context of present-day events in the local and global community, dance becomes personally relevant for all students. (Ministry of Education, 2010)

Native Dance: Canadian Aboriginal Portal: Virtual Pow Wow: First Nations litterature: Government of Canada: Buffy Ste-Marie:

Talking Stick Festival: ChapterID=2&SubchapterID=5&PageID=4&portal=1 Stoqweylem Pow Wow at Burnaby Central Canadian Aboriginal Festival

Tsatsu Stalqayu Dance group: Francis James 778-840-5512 Video clip: Xwamstut Culture group: Coast Salish Drumming & singing: Contact person is Jessica Silvey: 604-885-6012 Coastal about/about.htm Phone 604-922-5277 Bob Baker [] Squamish Nation Dance group: Sayget Kuulumgot Dance group: 604-561-5039. Letse Sqwlewel Dance group: contact Millie Silver at 604-852-4159, or Alice Thompson at Leqa:mel First Nation at 604-826-7976. Maxine Prevost at Stolo Nation LEP program has a dance group.
Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:



People in all cultures create drama for a variety of reasons. Drama education provides opportunities for students to explore and interpret how drama is used to celebrate, comment on, and examine the values, issues, and events of societies past and present.

In the elementary years, students own experiences will serve as a starting point for descriptions, discussions, reflection, and analysis of drama from a range of contexts. When examined within the context of present-day events in the local and global community, drama becomes personally relevant for all students. (Ministry of Education 2010)

Spoken Poems: First Nations Students from Santa Fe Indian School Talking Stick Festival: ChapterID=2&SubchapterID=5&PageID=4&portal=1 Virtual Museum of Canada: index.php3 First Nations litterature: Storyteller in Residence program: Drama resources:

Story Drama. Creating stories through role playing, improvising, and reading aloud. 2nd Edition, David Booth. Markham, Ontario: Pembroke Publishers Ltd., 2005. The Arts Go To School. Classroom-based activities that focus on music, painting, drama, movement, media, and more. Edited by David Booth, Masayuki Hachiya. Markham, Ontario: Pembroke Publishers Ltd., 2004 First Nations Awareness: Putting it all Together. 2nd Edition. First Nations Education Division, Greater Victoria School District. 1992. First Nations Full Day Kindergarten, From Our Treasure Box. Sheilia Austin and Karin Clark. First Nations Education Division, Greater Victoria School District. 1993.

First Nations languages: First Nations films:

Henry Charles, Musqueam Storyteller: Henry Charles <> Richard Van Camp, storyteller:
Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:



Music is created and performed within a wide range of historical, cultural, and social contexts. Through the study of these contexts, students experience the richness and diversity of the human spirit as it is reflected in music. This helps create a sense of wonder about and belonging to the world around them, thereby developing a feeling of connectedness to other human beings.

Students enter the elementary years with an understanding of music in relation to their own contexts. Through exposure to music that represents the diversity within and among communities, students can broaden their understanding of critical appreciation for a range of music experiences and the role of music in society. (Ministry of Education 2010)


Traditional F.N. Music: Coast Salish Anthem: Native Drums, teacher resources: Buffy Sainte-Marie: A Newfoundlander singing the Huron Carol in MiKmaq. Contemporary First Nations Culture - Alive and Singing First Nations people are singing and making music in a variety of genres: hip hop, rap, folk, traditional, country etc. The links below will let you hear the range of material Aboriginal Canadians have to offer! CBC Radio 3 - Aboriginal Music: A range of contemporary musicians Manitoba Musics Aboriginal Music Program AMP was launched in 2004 to help First Nation, Mtis, and Inuit people develop sustainable careers in Manitobas music industry. Aboriginal Peoples Choice Music Awards Hear snippets from award winning albums APTN Music (Clips from FN musicians)

Christie Lee Charles - Musqueam Band: Rap music in the Halkomelem language: bc_musqueam_language_rapper_110402/20110402?hub=BritishColumbiaHome Smokey Valley Drum Group: Contact: Video Clip:
Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:




Images are created and perceived within personal, social, cultural, and historical contexts. The visual arts have been integral to cultures throughout history, serving as dynamic forms of expression that can reflect or challenge societal norms and values. The visual arts express and are influenced by: personal contexts such as age, gender, life experience, beliefs, and values; social and cultural contexts such as belief systems, economics,

race and ethnicity, environment, and technology; historical contexts such as time, place, and point of view. In the elementary years, students need a variety of opportunities to view examples of historical and contemporary artworks from diverse cultures. As students increase their understanding of the relationships between art and context, they develop their abilities to critically examine artworks and create personally meaningful images. (Ministry of Education, 2010)


Sto:lo Artistic Expressions Cross-curricular visual art resource Aboriginal art: Artist Website: Art:


Masks: Drummaking ; Basket weaving:

Shared Learnings, Integrating BC Aboriginal Content K-10 Resource package designed to provide teachers with guidance in integrating Aboriginal topics in all subject areas at an introductory level. BC First Peoples Learning Resources: Books for Use in K-7 Classrooms K-7 Resource guide The Learning Circle classroom guides: Designed to help meet Canadian educators growing need for elementary-level learning exercises on First Nations. (Also available in French).

Joan Ryan, Tsimshian Nation, Basket making: "Joan Ryan" <> Joe Becker, Musqueam carver: Susan Point, Musqueam artist: Joe Jack, Coast Salish artist:
Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:


B.C. Elders Communication Center Society Elders: Aboriginal Canada Portal LFPress: pf-17105271.html Vancouver Youth and Elder program: SD#22 Elder project Item in the news: http:// SD#79 Elder project

Museum of Anthropology: Richmond Nature Park: First Nations Use of Bog Plants pr=Native_Plants X:ytem Longhouse Interpretive Centre (Sto:lo culture and history) Mission, B.C. community/attractions/things-to-do/xaytem-longhouse/ Grouse Mountain Hiwus First Nations Cultural program: Cultural Attractions:

The Learning Circle The Learning Circle classroom guides are designed to help meet Canadian educators growing need for elementary-level learning exercises on First Nations. (See below for PDF links.)

French copies:

Shared Learnings, Integrating BC Aboriginal Content K-10. Aboriginal Education Enhancements Branch, B.C. Ministry of Education, 2006. This resource package is designed to provide teachers with guidance in integrating Aboriginal topics in all subject areas at an introductory level.
Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:


Ashwell, Reg. (2006). Coast Salish, Their Art and Culture. Surrey, B.C.: Hancock House Publishers Ltd. Benham, S. (2003). Being the other adapting to life in a culturally diverse classroom. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 13(21), 21-32. doi:10.1177/ 10570837030130010104 Brayboy, B. M. J. & Castagno, A. E., (2008). Culturally responsive schooling for Indigenous youth: a review of the literature. Review of Educational research, 78(4), 941-993. Doi: 10.3102/0034654308323036. Darts, D. (2006). Art education for a change: contemporary issues and the visual arts. Art Education, 6-9. Davis, J. H., (2008). Why our schools need the arts. New York, New York: Teachers College Press. Fowler, C. (1996). Strong arts, strong schools. New York, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. Graham, M., & Zwirn, S. G. (2005). Crossing borders: the arts engage academics and inspire children. Childhood Education 81(5), 1-6. Ham, Leonard. An Archaeological Heritage Resource Overview of Richmond, B.C. (Heritage Conservation Act Permits 1986-19 and 1987-1) 1987. Heinzeleman, B. & Patterson, J. Indian Studies: Basketry and Weaving. Diss. The University of British Columbia, 1973. (Print). Lee, T. (2007). Connecting academics, Indigenous Knowledge, and commitment to community: High school students perceptions of a community-based education. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 30(2), 196-216. http:/ Letham, C. Art education and the Stlatlimx people of Lillooet: conversations with the Lilloet and a proposal for curriculum in art education. Diss. The University of British Columbia, 1996. Print.

Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at:


Maina, F. Culturally relevant pedagogy: First Nations education in Canada. Centre for the Study of curriculum and instruction. University of British Columbia. 293-310. Purnell, P. G., Ali, P., Begum, N. & Carter, M. (2007). Windows, bridges and mirrors: Building culturally responsive early childhood classrooms through the integration of literacy and the arts. Retrieved February 17, 2012 from Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Preparing culturally responsive teachers: rethinking the curriculum. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1), 20-32. doi:10.1177/ 0022487102053001003.

Diane Jubinville, Teacher Consultant, SD#38 (Richmond) Follow us at: