You are on page 1of 67

1

Design Methodology 431

Introduction
M. N. Islam Department of Mechanical Engineering Curtin University of Technology Western Australia
Email: M.N.Islam@curtin.edu.au

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

Overview

General Design Strategies


Concurrent Engineering Design for Manufacture Design for Environment

Some Definitions Stages of Engineering Design Guided Iteration Methodology Codes and Standards Tolerance Considerations
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

The Four Cs of Design

Creativity

Requires creation of something that has not existed before or not existed in the designers mind before Requires decisions on many variable and parameters Requires making choices between many possible solutions at all levels, from basic concepts to smallest detail of shape Requires balancing multiple and sometimes conflicting requirements.

Complexity

Choice

Compromise

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

Historical Development
Day by day design emphasis is changing. In early days: In the 1960s: In the 1970s: In the 1980s: Design for function Design for productivity Design for economy Design for quality Design for manufacture Design for assembly Design for time-to-market Design for environment
S1/ 2012 M N I slam

In the 1990s: In the 2000s:

Design M ethodology 431

Product Realisation Process [1]

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

Influence of Design Activity on Total Costs [2]


Relative cost at time of manufacture (%) Overheads Design Labor Materials
Source: Ford Motor Co.

Influence on overall cost (%) 5 70 5 20

30 5 15 50

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

Product Cost Commitment during Phases of the Design Process [3]

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

Cost of Not Getting Things Right

Engineering changes are a major problem in manufacturing. Most important, is not the total number of changes but the charter and scope of the changes. In the early phases of a design project, changes are handled relatively easily because the changes are required only on paper and generally only labour costs are involved. However, changes in later stages of the project are more difficult and costly to handle for various reasons. Time delays and the large number of personnel involved increases direct cost.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

Cost of Engineering Changes [4]

Time of Design Change During design: During design testing: During process planning: During test production: During final production:

Cost ($) 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000

Ten-to-one Rule for Product Development

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

10

Cost of Engineering Changes


An example of the cost of engineering changes from automotive industry [5]: A rule of thumb at Ford is that a problem identified three tiers prior to production start-up will prevent 50 other problems from occurring. Another rule of thumb [5]: The average engineering change order affects 1.7 parts and costs a minimum of $10,000.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

11

Time to Market

Time to market is the time that elapses between the first concept or idea for a new product to its launch on the market. It includes all the design and manufacturing stages. The need for shorter time to market is the result of a products lifecycle gradually becoming shorter and product diversification increasing. The biggest challenge facing todays manufacturing companies is to reduce time to market, while maintaining better quality and higher productivity at the lowest cost possible.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

Reduction in Profit caused by Different Problems [2]

12

Product six months late to market Product cost 9% too high Cost of product development 50% over target
Source: McKinsey and Co.

33% 22% 3.5%

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

13

Concurrent Engineering

Concurrent Engineering (CE) has been widely proclaimed as an engineering and management philosophy for reducing time to market and improving product value. In simple terms Concurrent Engineering (CE) is performing many stages of product and production development process at the same time (concurrently).

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

14

Concurrent Engineering

The idea is to consider all the life cycle issues of a product during its design stage so that the potential problems associated with the down stream activities can be avoided. CE calls for the formation of a cross-functional product development team which includes people from a wide range of departments, such as: product planning, design, manufacture, assembly, quality assurance, marketing, sales, finance, etc.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

Sequential Product Development vs. Concurrent Product Development [4]

15

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

16

SPD vs CPD [6]

Sequential Product Development

Concurrent Product Development

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

17

CE Pays Big Dividends [7]

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

18

SPD vs CPD [8]

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

19

Work-hours in Design [2]


Stage Conventional Engineering 10,000 20,000 30,000 60,000 Concurrent Engineering 20,000 7,000 3,000 30,000

Concept Design Redesign Total

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

20

SPD vs CPD [6]

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

21

Design for Manufacture (DFM)

In simple term DFM means designing a product in such a way that it can be produced (manufactured) easily. DFM is the practice of designing products with manufacturing in mind, so they can

Be designed in the least time with the least development cost. Make the quickest and smoothest transition into production. Be assembled and tested with the minimum cost in the minimum amount of time. Have the desired levels of quality and reliability. Satisfy customers needs and compete well in the marketplace.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

22

DFM Strategies

Design of a minimum number of parts. Develop a modular design. Use standard parts. Design parts for multi use. Design parts for ease of fabrication. Avoid separate fasteners. Minimise assembly direction; design for top-down assembly. Eliminate or simplify adjustments. Avoid flexible components.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

23

Design for Environment [9]

Raw Materials Design for resource conservation Design for low impact materials Use Design for energy efficiency Design for water conservation Design for minimal consumption Design for low-impact use Design for durability
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

24

Design for Environment [9]

Manufacturing Design for cleaner production End of Life Design for re-use Design for re-manufacturing Design for disassembly Design for recycling Design for safe disposal

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

25

Product Sustainability Index (PSI)[10]


1. Products Environmental Impact Life-cycle factor (including product's useful life span) Environmental effect (including toxicity, emission, etc.) Ecological balance and efficiency Regional and global impact (e.g., CO2 emission, ozone depletion., etc.) 2. Products Social Safety Operational safety Health responsibility Ethical responsibility Social impact (quality of life, peace of mind, etc.)
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

26

Product Sustainability Index (PSI)[10]


3. Products Functionality Service life/durability Modularity Ease of use Maintainability/ serviceability (including unitized manufacturing and assembly effects) Upgradability Ergonomics Reliability Functional effectiveness

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

27

Product Sustainability Index (PSI)[10]


4. Products Resource Utilization and Economy Energy efficiency/ power consumption Use of renewable source of energy Material utilization Purchase/ market value Installation and training cost Operational cost (labour cost, capital cost, etc.)

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

28

Product Sustainability Index (PSI)[10]


5. Products Manufacturability Manufacturing methods Assembly Packaging Transport Storage 6. Products Recyclability/ remanufacturability Disassembly Recyclability Disposability Remanufacturing/ reusability
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

Proposed Product Labels for a Sustainable Product[10]

29

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

30

Some Definitions
Parts A part is a designed object that has no assembly operations in its manufacture. Joining operations (like welding and gluing) are considered assembly operations for the purposes of this definition.

Parts may be made by a sequence of manufacturing processes (e.g., casting followed by milling), but parts are not assembled.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

31

Some Definitions

Two type: Standard Special purpose A standard part has a generic function and manufactured routinely without reference to its use in any particular product. Examples of standard parts are screws, bolts, gears, springs, bearings, and washers. Special purpose parts are designed and manufactured for special purpose in a specific product or product line rather than for a generic purpose in several different products.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

32

Some Definitions

Tooling for standard parts is usually on hand and readily available. Often standard parts themselves are carried in stock by manufacturers, distributors, or vendors. Standard parts are most often selected by designers from catalogs. Where possible always select standard parts.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

33

Some Definitions
Assemblies and Sub-Assemblies An assembly is a collection of two or more parts.

A sub-assembly is an assembly that is included within another assembly or sub-assembly. A standard module or standard assembly is an assembly or sub-assembly which has a generic function and is manufactured routinely for general use or for inclusion of other assemblies or sub-assemblies.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

34

Some Definitions
Examples of standard modules are electric motors, pumps, gear boxes, v-belt drive systems, batteries, light bulbs. Standard modules, like standard parts are generally selected from catalogs. Components The term component is a generic term that includes special purpose parts, standard parts, and standard assemblies and modules. In other words, only special purpose assemblies and subassemblies are not considered to be component.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

35

Some Definitions
Product A product is a functional designed object that is made to be sold and/or used as a unit.

Products that are marketed through retailing to the general public are called consumer products. Many manufactured products are designed for and sold to other business for use in their business; this is sometimes called trade market.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

36

Engineering Design
Scientists study the world as it is, engineers create the world that never has been. Theodore von Karman Engineering design consists of four roughly sequential but also overlapping stages:

Conceptual design Configuration of parts Parametric design, and Detailed design


Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

37

Conceptual Design

Conceptual design is the design stage during which the physical principles based on which the design object will work are established, and initial physical representation of the product is created. Several variations of the engineering conceptual design problem are encountered in the course of engineering design. The variations are slight and depend on whether the object being designed is
1. 2. 3.

a new product (usually an assembly) a sub-assembly within a product, or a part within a product or subassembly.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

38

Configuration Design of Parts

During the conceptual design of products and their subassemblies, a number of components (that is, standard modules, standard parts, and special purpose parts) are created as concepts. In case of standard modules and standard parts, configuration design involves identifying and selecting their type or class. For example, if a standard module is a pump, then configuration design involves deciding whether it is to be centrifugal pump, a reciprocating pump, a gear pump, or some other type.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

39

Parametric Design

The goal of parametric design is to find out the values for the design variables established at the configuration design stage that will produce the best possible design considering both function and manufacturing. In the spirit of least commitment design, parametric design need not and should not specify information to any degree of precision not actually required by the Specifications.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

40

Detailed Design

At the detailed design stage all details essential for describing the product fully and accurately are completed. This information should be sufficient for the manufacturing of the product to proceed. A detailed design includes manufacturing drawings with all parts dimensioned, tolerance, and specified.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

41

Guided Iteration Methodology


Guided iteration is a problem-solving method widely used in engineering design. The guided iteration methodology involves the following basic steps:

formulating the problem, generating alternative solutions, evaluating alternatives, and if none is acceptable, redesigning, guided by the results of the evaluation.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

42

Guided Iteration Methodology [1]


Input Information Formulate Problem

Generate Alternatives

Analyses Functionality DFM

Evaluate Alternatives Not Acceptable Guided Redesign

Cost Reliability Robustness Other

Acceptable

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

43

Formulating the Problem

Identifying the type of the problem that must be solved to advance the design. Obtaining the initial information that describes and poses the problem. Refining, completing and checking that information. Representing the problem into a standard structure for solution by known methods and available tools.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

44

Generating Alternating Solutions


The use of experience The use of creative idea generation methods The use physical principles and quantitative reasoning The ability to find information.

Note: Generating viable alternatives also requires that engineering designers have a basic quantitative understanding of manufacturing processes.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

45

Evaluating the Alternatives

Evaluation of alternatives is supported heavily by engineering analysis procedures for prediction of performance, by methods for cost estimation, and by design for manufacture (DFM) analysis. Evaluation also includes deciding whether a design is acceptable

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

46

Guided Redesign

When proposed solutions are not acceptable, redesign makes use of is guided by physical principles, knowledge of manufacturability issues, and the results of previous evaluations to improve the existing design. When a redesign fails, the evaluation results also help to guide a search for a new alternative. In most engineering design problems, the majority of designers time and energy is spent in guided redesign.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

47

Codes and Standards

A standard is a set of specifications for parts, materials, or processes intended to achieve uniformity, efficiency, and a specified quality. A code is a set of specifications for the analysis, design, manufacture, and construction of something. The purpose of a code is to achieve a specified degree of safety, efficiency, and performance or quality.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

48

Codes and Standards

There are certain types of design problems, especially when public health or safety are involved, whose solution methods are dictated by legal or professional society Codes or Standards. For example, there are legal Codes that dictate the procedures by which the materials and dimensions of pressure vessels and certain structural members must be selected.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

49

Codes and Standards

If legal Codes or Standards apply, their procedures must be used. In such cases, the guided iteration process applies only to the point in the process at which the Code procedure is employed. After that point, the design process is dictated by the Code.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

50

Codes and Standards

The organisations of interest for mechanical engineers are:


International Standards Organisation (ISO) Standards Australia (SA) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) British Standards Institute (BSI) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Deutsches Institut fr Normung (DIN) (German Standards) Russian Stands (GOST)
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

51

Tolerance Considerations

A tolerance is a designer-specified allowed variation in a dimensions or other geometric characteristic of a part. Proper tolerances are crucial to the proper functioning of products. But also, a common cause of excessive manufacturing cost is the specification by designers of too many tolerances and/or tighter than necessary tolerances.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

52

Definition

Tolerance: An undesirable, but permissible, deviation from a desired dimension in recognition that no part can be made exactly to a specified dimension, except by chance, and the such exactness is neither necessary nor economical. The drawing should define a part without specifying construction and inspection methods. Thus, only the diameter of a hole is given without indicating whether it is to be drilled, reamed, punched, or made by any other operation. However, in those instances where manufacturing, processing, quality assurance, or environmental information is essential to the definition of requirements, it shall be specified on the drawing or in a document referenced on the drawing. [AS1100.101-1992]
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

53

Cost Tolerance Relationship[6]

The smaller the tolerance, the higher the manufacturing cost.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

Relationship between Process Capability and Tolerance [6]

54

Process capability (also known as natural tolerance) is the smallest tolerance that can be maintained economically by a particular process. Tolerance should be selected larger than the process capability.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

Relationship between Process Capability and Tolerance [6]


Process Capability Index (Cp) = Selected Tolerance/ Process Capability For an existing process Cp = 1.33 For a new process Cp = 1.50 Note: 3 limits allow 0.27% defects whereas 6 limits allow 3.4 dpm.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

55

Functional Dimensioning and Tolerancing

56

Functional Dimensioning refers to the specification of dimensions and tolerances of the component parts according to their functional requirements.

A Typical Example
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

57

Tolerance Considerations
The following guidelines should be followed for tolerance design at configuration stage:

Designers should consider tolerances with not only the function in mind, but also with knowledge of the process capabilities of the proposed manufacturing process. Designers should minimize the need for and use of tolerances; not every dimensions requires a special tolerance. A dimension reacquiring a special tolerance is called functional dimension.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

58

Tolerance Considerations

The fewer tolerances that are specified, the easier the part will be to manufacture. Where tolerances are required, designers should attempt to avoid the need for tolerances that are tighter than standard for the proposed process. If non-standard tolerances cannot be avoided, then the number of them should be minimized. Avoid redundant dimensions and consider stack-up effects in evaluating tolerances.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

59

Example of Redundant Dimensions

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

60

Example of Redundant Dimensions

According to the information given, the manufacturing department could make the part to the dimensions shown in Figure b and not to be outside tolerances for dimensions AB and AC. However, dimension BC (75 -24.75 = 50.25) is automatically outside tolerance. Solution is to specify only two out of three dimensions (eg AC and AB) on the drawing.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

Functional Dimensioning and Tolerancing

61

Example: Gear Pump Assembly.


Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

Functional Dimensioning and Tolerancing

62

Clearance = Depth of Recess + Thickness of Gasket Width of the Gear


Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

Functional Dimensioning and Tolerancing


We can write this equation in algebraic form, such as (Z z) =(L81 l81) + (L61 l61) - (L11 l11) where (Z z) = gap between the width of gear and body, (L11 11) = width of the gear, (L61 l61) = thickness of gasket and (L81 l81) = depth of recess. This equation is known as loop equation.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

63

Functional Dimensioning and Tolerancing

64

The designer selects the target value (clearance) based on past experience, handbook data, or through experimental work. The vales of functional dimensions are then determined through a process called tolerance allocation. Mathematically, there are an infinite number of combinations of individual tolerance values which satisfy each functional equation, however some solutions are better than others.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

Functional Dimensioning and Tolerancing

65

There are a number of strategies which can be applied for this task. The objective of a tolerance allocation strategy is to find the best possible combination of individual functional tolerances. The chosen values have to satisfy the of relationship expressed in the loop equation Furthermore, the chosen values should also satisfy the overall objective of any manufacturing task i.e. to supply a product that maximises customer satisfaction at a minimum cost.
Design M ethodology 431 S1/ 2012 M N I slam

66

References:
1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Dixon, R. D., and Poli, C., Engineering Design and Design for Manufacture: A Structured Approach, Field Stone Publ., Massachusetts, 1995. Hartley, J.R., Concurrent Engineering: Shortening Lead Times, Raising Quality, and Lowering Costs, Productivity Press Inc., 1992. Dieter, G. E., Engineering Design: A Materials and Processing Approach, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Singapore, 2000. Tools and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook, Vol 6, Design for Manufacturing, SME, Dearborn, Michigan, 1992. Sweder, T., Driving for Quality, Assembly, 38(8), September 1995, pp. 28-33. Farmer L. E., Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Function and Economic Manufacture, Blueprint Publications, Sydney, 1999.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam

67

References:
7. 8. 9.

10. 11.

Concurrent Engineering Design: Integrating the Best Practices for Process Improvement, SME, Dearborn, Michigan, 1993. Salmon, T.A., What Every Engineer Should Know About Concurrent Engineering, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1995. Design for Environment, Department of the Environment and Water Resources, Australian Government, http://www.environment.gov.au/ (accessed on 15/2/2007) Kutz, M. (Ed.), Mechanical Engineers Handbook: Manufacturing and Management, 3rd Ed, John Wiley & Sons, 2006. Ullman, D.G., The Mechanical Design Process, 3rd Ed, McGraw Hill Comp. Inc., New York, 2003.

Design M ethodology 431

S1/ 2012

M N I slam