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Comparison between the main Public Service Broadcasting Channel, BBC1 and the Commercial Channel, Channel 5
By Tim Bourne
Submitted for the degree of MA (Mass Communications) 1999 at the University of Leicester
The author compares increasingly similar practices and techniques regarding the branding and promotion strategies used by both the newest UK terrestrial commercial television broadcaster and the main public service broadcast channel in the U.K. within the context of peak time viewing. The study particularly focuses on the increasingly commercial manner that the public service broadcaster is forced to operate in, due to the commodification of broadcasting, the influence on viewing flow, the contents of programme junctions and the professional practices and UK regulation within interstitial1 material. The dissertation ends with a reflection and some ideas for further research.
Word count (excluding Bibliography and appendices) = 13,612 (approx.)
Interstitial = term used for material used between programmes
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I would like to extend my thanks to all those within the academic and media industries who assisted me in this project, my Mother for providing me with sustenance and accommodation when I have visited Leicester and Debbie for her patience and support at home.
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...2 Channel 5 .......................................................................3 Sport............................................1.............................................................................3 Martin Lambie-Naim ....2......................................................................1 Survey results .................................................................... 46 4.......1.....62 Page 4 of 119 .................................................................................................................................2 Further perspectives to apply in researching Channel branding................................ 50 5.......................................................................................................................................................Analysis of key imagery within BBC 1 and Channel 5 on air promotional devices................................................................................................................................................................................................. 43 4................... 25 2...................................................................................5 Music...................... 31 2............................................61 6...........60 6........... 38 2............... 39 2.... 46 4.....60 6.................................................................................................... 31 2.................................................................................................................................................The increasingly segmented Television Broadcasting terrain of the UK.................................................3................................................................................................2...............................................................................................................2..... 55 5......... 47 Chapter 5 -Professional practices within the programming of interstitial material..2 Special Days .....................................................................................3 The impact of Branding within Television Broadcasting ....2............................................ 60 6........................................................1 The Concept of Flow..............................2........................ 27 2............................ 37 2......................2....................................................9 1..........................................................2 Brian West ................2 Professional Practice .....1 Inheritance Effects...........1 Image versus identity .................................................. 38 2............. ...............................................................2.................................... 9 1........................................1................. ................. .. 40 3................................................1 Sponsorship ..........................................................2 Acknowledgements.........................................1 Stuart Clary-BBC Presentation Operator........2 Semiotic Analysis .........1 Content...... 35 2...... 58 Chapters -Conclusion.............TV Branding Contents Dissertation Abstract ............................................................................................................. 40 Chapter 4 -Branding and Flow ..................................... 43 4.............................61 6................................................................................................................................ 14 1.......62 6................................................................. 19 Chapter 2 -Content Analysis of BBC 1 and Channel 5 during peak viewing hours ...........61 6............................................................6 Chapter 1 ............2 The landscape.................................................................................................................. 50 5..................................................................................................................... 16 1...................................3 Political Economy................4 Radio &VWWV.........................1 BBC...........................................................................1.............. 44 4.............................................................................................................................2 US Administrative research .....................................................................Head of On-Air Promotions Wizja TV.......................................2............................................................. 39 Chapter 3 ......................3 Introduction............................................................................................................1 The challenge for UK Public service Broadcasting......................................................................................1 Focus groups.2...............2 News and Weather................3 UK Advertising rules........1 Reflection on the analysis performed ................................................4 Fragmentation of the Television Audience................................................................1 Graphics...................
................................................................................................................................................. 107 And an Image from Channel 5 News promo . 63 Bibliography........................................................... 67 Internet Resources ................................................................................................................................................................................. 108 Appendix 3....................................................................TV Branding 6.................Elisabeth Murdoch's Speech -Edinburgh August 1998.... 65 Press & Trade ..................Images from BBC ONE...................................................................... 68 Appendix 2 .....................................................................................................................................................3 Impact of Branding on Public Service Broadcasting and the Future.. 109 Page 5 of 119 ....................................................................... 67 Appendix 1 -2 Week Content Analysis ...........
connected to the growth of 'life-style' niche marketing rather than blanket advertising" and "The growth of television advertising which promotes itself so that television increasingly promotes its own forthcoming programmes... 38 years earlier the chairman of Anglia television on securing the commercial franchise for the east of England saw in a London jewellers a four foot high silver hunting trophy of a knight on horseback.2 million to implement the change over 3 years. on hi Page 6 of 119 . we are what we wear. brands are a key part of how individuals define themselves and their relationships with one another . what we eat. Chris Barker in Global Television identifies changes in advertising strategies including :"a more definite targeting of specific social groups for particular adverts.TV Branding Introduction Sir Michael Perry a former Chairman of the multinational company Unilever is quoted in Brand Watching as saying "In the modern world..' Just as supermarkets are stacked with similar products differentiated by marketing and branding strategies so an increasingly commodified broadcasting market is using the same techniques to capture and hold viewers." When the BBC launched its new corporate image in October 1997 reports put the cost at £5. schedules etc. More and more we are simply consumers. what we drive" With the growth in numbers of TV channels we can surely add to that list 'and what we watch.
junctions and title sequences. Chapter 2 will focus on the two week content analysis.TV Branding return to Norwich the knight was filmed and became the station ident2 for the next thirty years. Chapter 3 will offer a more detailed analysis of some of the imagery used in program breaks. usually located at the top Left hand side of the screen showing the channel logo. Channel 5 is being sold like a car or a running shoe. (and referring to its permanently displayed logo) Not surprisingly it will be the first of our terrestrial channels to wear its own label on the outside.3 In the increasingly branded world which Channel 5 was launched into. From Dissertation by Stuart Clary Submitted for BA at Falmouth College of Arts in January 1998 4 Bug a burnt in ident. Product recognition is the winning move in the new consumer system. Brand Identity is the new Holy Grail of marketing. Page 7 of 119 .. Chapter 5 brings some insights from the frontline regarding practices for 2 3 Ident= identification of channel often by a short duration clip or superimposed image." Television is developing into another branded product it has moved from being a celebration of consumption to another consumable. and the shelves are looking increasingly crowded with this range of products.. In Chapter 11 will examine the field of branding and look at the increasingly segmented multi channel TV market which public service broadcasting operates in the UK. it was the first amongst the terrestrial TV broadcasters and still remains unique in its continuous use of a bug4 this is how Bryan Appleyard described it in an article in The Sunday Times at the time of the channel launch. Chapter 4 looks at the how branding stands within the concept of Television as a Flow' proffered by Raymond Williams and looks at the regulations facing commercial television.
Appendices will show details of the schedules analysed as well as imagery used and reproduce Elisabeth Murdoch's speech at the Edinburgh TV Festival (August 1998) Page 8 of 119 . The final Chapter will highlight problem areas of the study and draw conclusions and suggest further areas of concern.TV Branding promotional material for BBC1 and commercial channels.
As media have become established there has been a move to the narrowing of segmentation. British 5 TNC= Trans National Corporation Page 9 of 119 .unlimited channels and flexible schedules.the trend seems to be coming from USA and spreading via the influence of the 1980's marketisation and pressure from TNCs55 to penetrate expanding markets in the developing world. driven by the forces of market globalization. first with the press where major newsagents now carry many hundreds of specialist magazines then to radio which has moved in the UK from 3 national radio stations in the mid 1960's to a host of specialist and localised channels . > New Media .TV Branding Chapter 1 . more diverse customer driven model 2.limited channels and fixed schedules. Model 2 is much less likely to lay such importance on flow as it addresses 'active1 viewers and utilises a diverse strategy to win and hold audiences. 1. We are moving away from the hegemony of model 1 to the freer.The increasingly segmented Television Broadcasting terrain of the UK.1 The challenge for UK Public service Broadcasting There are a variety of views on the future of the mass television audience running from those who think the new media will decimate the concept of a mass audience to those who predict that viewers will continue to follow similar (non-interactive and network dominated) viewing habits for as long as the next 30 years. Broadly speaking we can conceptualise two media models : > Old Media .
terrestrial and cable is further widening the supply and the penetration of new television channels. Media and Sport (DCMS) details the panel and its remit: "The panel will be chaired by Gavyn Davies and comprises Lord Newton ofBraintree. high level look at ways in which funding to support public service output can be extended from other sources.TV Branding television has over the last 10 years seen a rapid growth in the number of multi channel homes. The press release issued 12th Jan 1999 by Department for Culture. The review will start from the position that the licence fee is sustainable at least until the review of the BBC's Charter due in the run up to 2006. take a strategic. the UK government has recently established a panel to carry out what is a periodic66 funding review to investigate the BBC's financing. Helen Black. David Lipsey and Heather Rabbatts. and how to secure an appropriate balance between the BBC's public and commercial services. the launch of digital services. The review will also examine the mechanisms under which the fair-trading commitment as to commercial services is delivered. Rabbi Julia Neuberger. Public service television in the UK is routinely required to justify its levy on the viewing public (the licence fee). The panel will report to Chris Smith by the end of July 1999. 6 The last fundamental investigation into BBC funding hail been the Peacock committee in 1985 Page 10 of 119 . who will then consult publicly on its findings. New channels seek to carve a niche and existing channels are required to strengthen their position in the increasingly competitive market. Ruth Evans. satellite. and consider the current structure of the concessionary licence scheme and whether a suitable alternative structure could be available. Sir Alan Budd. It will. Lord Gordon of Strathblane. within the existing framework.
The review panel will report no later than the end of July to the Secretary of State. thus public service television and commercial television in the UK appear to behave in an increasingly Page 11 of 119 .TV Branding Announcing the composition of the review panel. while at the same time ensuring that it retains the ability to operate effectively in a competitive marketplace.take a forward look at other possible mechanisms for funding the BBC in the longer term. consider how to secure an appropriate balance between the BBC's public and commercial services. The precise terms of the review panel were stated as follows "The review panel will: i. who will then consult on the panel's findings. and review the mechanisms under which the fair-trading commitment as to commercial services is delivered. iii. and . consider the current structure of the concessionary licence scheme and whether a suitable alternative structure could be available. against an expectation that the licence fee will remain the principal source of funding for public services for the Charter period: ." Part of the justification used by Public service broadcasters and their supporters for the current licence arrangement lies with the securing of mass audiences.consider ways in which funding to support public service output can be extended from other sources. particularly in the light of technological development ii. Chris Smith said: "This is an important review which aims to ensure the BBC's continuing ability to meet its public service obligations effectively.
Universality of appeal . Geographic universality . Broadcasting should be structured so as to encourage competition in good programming rather than competition in numbers 8. The public guidelines for broadcasting should be designed to liberate rather than restrict the programme makers.broadcast programmes should cater for all tastes and interests 3. The new commercially orientated market that public service broadcasters are forced to compete in puts the eight principles of public service broadcasting at increasing risk. The risks for these principles lie with the initial launch of new service being nonuniversal (For example News 24 the BBC's 24 hour news television service was initially Page 12 of 119 . 2. should receive special provision 7. and in particular from those of the government of the day 5. Minorities.broadcast programmes should be available to the whole population.TV Branding similar way vis-a-vis programming and presentation with the intention of maximising their programme audiences. the principles proffered by Barnett and Docherty are 1. especially disadvantaged minorities . Broadcasters should recognize their special relationship to the sense of national identity and community 6. Universality of payment -at least one main broadcasting organisation should be paid for equally by all users of television 4. Broadcasting should be distanced from all vested interests.
ethnic background or the differences between the regions and nations of the United Kingdom.in sharp contrast to the last thirty years. Further BBC/Flextech joint ventures will be available by subscription. the urban/rural divide. Distinctions can be made based on differences in age. Most significantly the digital age will herald a period of divergence in the level of access to media technologies .TV Branding available only on cable). Devolution will bring challenges Page 13 of 119 . income. during which the great majority of households have had at least one television and one radio and received all broadcast services by the same means of transmission. It may make increasing economic sense for some broadcasters to target particular social groups. educational opportunity. more sophisticated type of mass audience. religion. Even if programmes are less often seen by mass audiences all viewing at the same time. on a time-shift channel or on-demand. the ability to catch up with a popular programme." And fiirther it sees the twin challenges of devolution and a changing society "Society itself is changing” The individuals and communities of the UK bring very varied backgrounds to their experience of broadcasting. •will simply create a new. The BBC has identified some of the key challenges facing it in the The BBC Beyond 2000' strategy it states : "Trusted names will dominate” Broadcast programmes are likely to remain an important part of our shared culture.
As stated earlier the UK government has ordered a study of the licence fee system. Page 14 of 119 .2 The landscape. The BBC will need to demonstrate that it is not so intimidated by the plethora of regulators and quasi-regulators that it no longer is able to "liberate1 programme makers.TV Branding The coming years will see major changes in the way that the UK is governed. The BBC must be able to respond flexibly and imaginatively in a way that acknowledges and serves the diversity of nations within the UK. table 1 details some of the landmark changes within that development. the widening of choice has not been universal as generally there has been a cost in subscription or new equipment to enjoy the extra choice. the factor column indicates the increase in free to air and subscription services. It must continue to prove that it is able to provide programmes that the market place alone will not." The BBC must face the challenge of an increasingly segmented audience and changes in the regional government which will impact on the nature of how it addresses its audiences. These changes will not occur in neat patterns. choice has been widened by VCR penetration. The marginal change though no longer has the dramatic impact that the launch of commercial television had in 1955. 1. devolution in Scotland and National Assemblies in Wales and Northern Ireland will test the role and balance of BBC services. as devolution affects people's expectations and sense of identity. The UK Television market continues to develop.
more recently average viewing hours have remained static or recorded a small decline. The hours of broadcasting of existing channels have also seen expansion to virtual saturation from what was initially a service for evenings only.BBC 2 50% Removal of restrictions on broadcasting hours Channel 4 launches 33% SKY TV & BSB Launch >100% VCR Penetration reaches more than 60% of UK homes 3 homes out of 5 have 2 or more TVs Channel 5 launches 25% Start of Digital Satellite and Terrestrial services >100% Planned launch for Digital cable services From 1961 to 1986 average viewing hours doubled from 13. it is worth noting that expansion for commercial broadcasters has meant increased revenues while for the BBC it has meant merely increased costs. multi channel homes owners watch more TV.5 hours per week to 26 hours per week. the expansion with the allocation of breakfast franchises to the present status where many television broadcasters operate 24 hours a day (including BBC 1 and channel 5). Page 15 of 119 . Studies have shown that in the short term.TV Branding Table 1 Historic Developments within UK television (data taken from ' An Introductory History of British Broadcasting') Year Expansion Factor 1936 1946 1955 1964 1972 1982 1989 1990 1990 1997 1998 1999 First regular TV Broadcasting Service BBC Resumption of BBC TV service Commercial TV starts in UK 100% Second BBC TV service .
context is as critical as content in our new world. Nickelodeon and even QVC ." (From Broadcasting Enters the Marketplace) Since their first appearance in 1960 remote controls have become increasingly prevalent for control of domestic television and associated peripherals (e. As I have said. during which viewers watch an average of 5 per cent to 10 per cent more .TV Branding "In the weeks following the installation of the dish there seems to be a honeymoon period. one or two hours extra. VCRs satellite receivers and video disc players) this along with the wider selection of channels has had a significant impact on viewer behaviour.g. But you can not dismiss the success of companies like FHM.that is.companies which make distinct promises to their viewers and then fulfil them. This small increase reflects partly the large number of hours spent watching television -there are limits to the amount of time people have available for watching television." Murdoch though tempered her enthusiasm for branding by highlighting the importance of content 7 The dominant Satellite TV broadcaster in the UK market 8 The speech is reproduced in full as Appendix Page 16 of 119 .3 The impact of Branding within Television Broadcasting Channel branding has been identified as a key element of the broadcasters armory in the multi channel world. Elisabeth Murdoch the General Manager of BSkyB7 Television chose to highlight it when she addressed delegates at the Edinburgh Television Festival in 199888 "It is still prevalent in the British TV industry to mock brand experts. so too the brand. In a world of boundless choice brands are our beacons. 1. As with the EPG. dismissing their views as California-babble.
Whether Channel 5 can sustain a competitive advantage remains to be seen.they are taking on ideas which we would associate with Channel 5 for e. Take for example Channel 4 and ITV just now . more open to minority groups (the creative device of 5 colours .g. No smart animatic with self important orchestrations will save your channel if you haven't got the shows that fit the attitude and bring the viewers in. These values are only supported with the creative devices they use. however they do not support these values in their programming . standing up with the news etc.Probably slanting towards male in programming.gay 1 mean gay in terms of the symbol for homosexuality. Perception is young. colours.TV Branding " Now how bored are you with hearing about the importance of brand? How much money have you given to the likes of Martin Lambie Nairn to revolutionise your ailing image with some 'reeelly' expensive 10 second spots? Well none of that is any use at all if you can't build and own the content to fit your brand. In terms of female/male orientation . the importance of delivering on your brand promises will become more crucial than ever before. And as viewer ship fragments.very aggressively Page 17 of 119 . " Michelle Lacey a professional Brand Marketing Co-ordinator (25) working for a fund management company in Scotland offered the following insights into the Channel 5 and BBC1 brands "Channel 5 have a very strong corporate brand with very strong values. Creative devices are easily copied as with services marketing.especially with d grade American rubbish. innovative. Channel 5 have even used traditional marketing media to combat this .
BBC1 andBBC2 have their own creative devices to differentiate themselves. repeated again on ITVat 6.. All of these examples are entertainment and the 9 Kirsty Young = The main newsreader on Channel 5 T4 = is branded with an on screen bug as the teenage segment of Channel 4 11 Promax= International association of promotion and marketing professionals in the electronic media -members in over 43 countries and active UK division 10 12 BDA= Group representing art directors. BBC has a corporate brand and creative device ..30' With regard to BBC1. Channel 5 have not implemented this as yet. however that is probably because they are too 'young'. especially for networks." Those working in channel promotion have also seen the importance of their work increasingly appreciated. BBC1 have also begun to use the logo to promote sub brands .i. especially with reference to T410 and how they have used it as a sub brand and had no intention of removing it. children's television and BBC radio. the network shares have been dwindling. There was an interesting discussion recently on one channel about the use of the bug. etc. animators and graphic artists in electronic media design industry headquarters in California USA Page 18 of 119 . BBC2 very quirky presentations and BBC 1 more conservative with the world them having been taken through all campaigns for decades. i. CD-ROM's. web sites. It goes something like (Visual: Kirsty Young99) 'News at 6pm.e.TV Branding as well.the blocks. Obviously.e. Ron Scalera the Senior Vice President of Advertising/Promotion at CBS was quoted at the ProMax11& BDA12 June conference Chicago 1997 "The biggest problem with television promotion is the competition. being eroded by a lot of things. cable.
4 Fragmentation of the Television Audience Unlike the early days of broadcasting the power does not rest solely with the broadcaster. UK viewers have a greatly expanded selection of viewing alternatives. You have to stay distinctive enough to stand out and have the product to back it up. they are able to view. Our job is to get people into the tent and the more choices that the viewer has. Just as there is practically nothing between the two leading Cola drinks (CocaCola and Pepsi) and the many "also rans" apart from image and marketing strategies so increasingly the same criteria are used to differentiate between television channels. How do you convince enough people that what you're promoting is worth watching? Time is so valuable and limited. someone who wants to be entertained has to make a choice. 1. The viewer can choose programme material delivered by cable or satellite or play games using the display capabilities of their television. In the USA where multi channel TV has been a reality for far longer than we have faced it in the UK the diminution of network viewing is clear. opposed to the three or four that it used to be. they can watch pre-recorded material that is time-shifted. It gets harder when the viewer has a hundred choices. that sooner or later.TV Branding biggest challenge is how to stand out from the crowd and get noticed. The commodification of broadcasting along with the vastly widened array of possible leisure pursuits mean that the consumer/viewer must be regarded with respect and it is necessary for broadcasters to respond to its audience's desires in order to retain audiences. Page 19 of 119 . the tougher our job becomes. either rental or purchased." (From Promax internet site). in many households on second and third receivers.
In 1998. 13 FCC= The USA Government body responsible for broadcast regulation the Federal Communications Commission. this resulting in part from the technological changes that have overcome the constraints that limited the number of television channels that could be made available alongside a diminution of the role played by regulators. The US television has operated within a commercial system since technical standards were agreed by the FCC13 in 1941 and now competitive pressures in the UK TV market are building. the rest of the audience has moved to cable or satellite TV. That was almost everyone who watched TV. new entrants (particularly in cable and satellite) tend to look for niche audiences rather than compete directly across all the strands of programming types offered by the networks. (From Big Changes on the Small Screen The Guardian Weekly) Much work on scheduling and the maximization of audiences has been conducted on behalf of US broadcasters. Because TV viewing has stayed roughly stable. Page 20 of 119 .m. UPN. Throw in the newer broadcast networks (Fox. reports Nielsen Media Research.). about 57 percent of TV homes watched ABC.TV Branding In 1979. the revenue generated means that the economics allow programming designed to reach mass audiences continues to be produced and shown on the networks. This situation gives advantage to incumbent players in the market over new entrants. the three oldest networks captured only about 25 percent of TV households in prime time. CBS or NBC in prime time (from 8 to 11 p. Advertising supports the majority of mass audience programming of free-to-air television in the USA and while the networks are able to effectively reach mass audiences. WB and PAX) and the figure rises to 32percent. There is less regulation operating in the UK market than in previous years and requirements (both regulatory and financial) make it easier for new entries into the market.
households in 1979 to over 41 percent of US households in 1985 (Television Digest 1985). "Cable penetration has increased from 19 percent of U.S.Table 2 below gives an indication of how fragmentation is impacting within the UK television market (only stations registering above . from 91 percent in 1977 to 72 per cent in 1985 The report estimates further falls leading to a 54 percent share in the year 2000.05% show) Page 21 of 119 . and as cable penetration has risen so network viewing has fallen The audience share of the networks has been dropping as well.TV Branding The picture in the USA gives an indication of the likely changes in UK audience for the main channels these figures from Kragman and Rust (The impact of Cable penetration on Network viewing ).
3 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.6 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.TV Branding Table 2.3 0.2 3.1 0. Estimated Audience Share Figures for Selected Television Channels Received in the British Islands in the 12 Months Ended 31 December 1998 (ITC) Channel Channel Anglia Asianet BBC1 BBC2 BBC News 24 Border The Box Bravo Carlton Cartoon Network Central Challenge TV Channel 4 Channel 5 Channel Television CNN Discovery Discovery Home and Leisure Disney Channel Eurosport Fox Kids Network GMTV Grampian Granada Plus Granada Television The History Channel HTV Live TV Living LWT MTV Meridian National Geographic Nickelodeon Network 2 The Paramount Channel QVC RTE1 Audience % share 1.6 0.3 0.1 1.1 0.5 11.2 9.1 Page 22 of 119 .3 2.2 0.5 0.3 3.1 0.5 0.2 0.9 4.3 0.1 0.1 29.6 0.1 2.1 0.3 0.2 0.9 4.1 0.
1 1.4 0.7 0.2 The UK market operates though.0 0. The drop Page 23 of 119 .8 0.2 0.5 0.1 1.7 0.6 0.TV Branding S4C Wales The Sci-Fi Channel Scottish Sky Moviemax Sky Premier Sky Cinema Sky News Sky One Sky Sports 1 Sky Sports 2 Sky Sports 3 TNT Trouble TyneTees UK Gold UK Horizons Ulster VH-1 Westcountry Yorkshire Zee TV Europe 0. in a different manner to that in the USA in that at present there is a mass audience public service broadcaster operating across two national television channels (BBC 1 and BBC 2) and that commercial Television (particularly terrestrial) is still regulated for content. The situation in the UK indicates what though are worrying trends for the main mass audience BBC channel as highlighted in an article published in the Financial Times January 13th 1999 "BBC1 gained less than a 30 per cent annual share of the television audience last year for the first time.3 0.8 3.5 0.6 0.3 0. The BBC remains committed to being part of the new multi channel world with BBC CHOICE and NEWS 24 already launched and other services to follow as well as commercial ventures with other broadcasters (Flextech in the UK and in the USA.2 0. Discovery).4 1.0 0.2 2. according to figures due to be published shortly.2 0.
cable and satellite. ITV's viewing fell from 32. it must therefore compete with BBC 1 and the established commercial channel.3 per cent.5 per cent from 30.TV Branding below 30 per cent is a blow for BBC 1.9 per cent to 31. It is also important to the BBC's aim of providing a universal service. the corporation's flagship channel. Most of the loss was due to a stronger showing by Channel 5." Further on in the same article "The performance of BBC 1 is watched keenly by advertisers because it is the strongest competitor to channels that are allowed to carry advertising. Its share rose from 2. Page 24 of 119 ." The BBC defended the share of audience of BBC 1 saying that it was competing against 19 new channels and that it was "concerned with quality and not simply the needs of advertisers" Channel 5 relies on advertising for its revenue and it is therefore necessary for it to compete for mass audiences to so that it can pay for the programmes that will deliver the required large audiences. the owner of the Financial Times.7 per cent over the same period.8 per cent the previous year. 5. which is partly owned by Pearson. ITV. Consolidated figures for 1998 show that the BBC1 share of television viewing fell to 29. which has defended itself better than ITV over the past few years against growing competition from Channel 4.3 per cent in its launch year of 1997 to 4.
Page 25 of 119 . An analysis of material transmitted by BBC1 and Channel 5 was made over 14 days of peaktime viewing . Content analysis was chosen as a starting point.TV Branding Chapter 2 -Content Analysis of BBC 1 and Channel 5 during peak viewing hours.the programming was recorded on 28 VHS tapes (one per channel for each day monitored) and timings were made of interstitial material to further investigate the methods used for 'self promotion' of the two channels. and Berelson "Content analysis is a research technique for the objective. there is much to support the use of content analysis As Krippendorf /1980) remarked regarding content analysis "it is a research technique for making replicable and valid references from data to their context" (from Mass Media Research). The content analysis's use is often in highlighting the validity of prejudices and perceptions. and thus leading us either to ask why (if the content analysis does or does not support the impression) we have that impression or what leads to the content being of the nature we find. systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication" (1952) It was therefore considered to be appropriate for checking the overt links that the broadcaster is establishing between the channel content and the channels identity.
. one that comprises a scene from the next program in a series. Programs Entertainment: The most common method of promoting entertainment programs is with a film or tape clip. the plot. most regularly combine audio and video... Slogan Use of the slogan can be an effective way of promoting the stations image. Electronic Media Management details some of the promotional techniques used by US broadcasters. Movies: Use of clips is a common device to promote movies. or the comments of critics are among the items that may be promoted With these elements in mind the analysis of BBC 1 and Channel 5 television was undertaken across two weeks of peak time. one straight week and one staggered week Page 26 of 119 . In practice of course.. Use of a specific promo.TV Branding It was decided to look for devices commonly used to define the brand and hold viewers.. which emphasizes the series rather than any single program. awards won by the movie. whether used alone or in combination -with other program promos. Stars. "Among the most common methods used by Television stations to promote their image or programs are the following Identification announcements Stations may identify themselves aurally or visually at the required hourly intervals. Stations usually look for the strengths of individual movies for the promotional emphasis. is more effective than a generic promo.
'Family viewing time'. it is clear from this and the results in appendix 1 that very similar techniques and practices are used to punctuate the flow of programmes between the main UK public service broadcasting channel and the newest of the commercial terrestrial channels. Page 27 of 119 . Wednesday from week 3 and so on. but not today. Television and Modern Life "Children may have gone to bed after tea 40 years ago. although the commercial channel carried far more advertising in the period surveyed.1 Survey results Charts 1 to 4 show graphical representations of time allocated to programming from the two week survey (Wednesday and 15th Jan week 1 Saturday 20th February week 2) for both Channel 5 and BBC1.) to reduce the effects of one-off events and to check the consistency of promotional behaviour by the two channels surveyed.TV Branding over the peak viewing time of 7 PM to 10 PM. 2. by common agreement between the broadcasters runs until 9:00 in the evening after which we enter a new time-zone: 'adult time'which means adult themes (sex and bad language). Thus the situational properties of broadcasting always attend to time and place." The second week was staggered across 7 successive weeks of sampling (Tuesday from week 2. The hours cover what is broadly accepted as peak viewing time and runs into what is commonly known as the 'watershed' in the UK as Scannell notes in Radio.
TV Branding Programming Promos News Updates & weather Commercials Chart 1 Channel 5 Wednesday 15th January 1999 Programming Promos News Updates & weather Commercials Chart 2 Channel 5 Saturday 20th February 1999 Programming Promos Weather & Local News Chart 3 BBC1 Wednesday 15th January 1999 Page 28 of 119 .
Page 29 of 119 . including programme listings magazines.TV Branding Programming Promos Lottery Update Chart 4 BBC1 Saturday 20th February 1999 Viewers are offered the chance to watch complete programmes and then change channels (without interruption to the programmes viewed) at various times throughout the day. These junctions between programmes (and within programmes at what has been termed 'natural breaks' within the commercial channels) are used to promote forthcoming programmes on the channel as well as other products (both other media products disseminated by other of the public service channels in the case of the BBC and commercial products for the commercial channel). Viewers are made aware of alternate viewing by a variety of means. newspapers and teletext. Table 3 shows that for the example day Wednesday 13th January 1999 there are often shared times across all 5 terrestrial channels (and many of the satellite and cable channels also offer coincidental programme alternatives).
this element of programme/station linking seemed had a far stronger integration within BBC 1. the BBC did promote daytime television (twice) and material that was to be transmitted at an indeterminate time (as with its News promotion) but promotions were clearly scheduled with the time slot being currently viewed in mind. Wales and NI). Channel 5 is transmitted as a national channel BBC 1 is also a (UK) national channel but has regional and national opt outs (Scotland.TV Branding Table 3 Programme Junctions UK terrestrial Television Wednesday Jan 13 1999 As we look more closely at the promotional material we can see broad similarities across the promotional style relating to particular programme genres. Both Channels gave the majority of their promotional activity to programming that evening or programmes transmitted in similar time slots on other evenings. The BBC requires independent producers to insert BBC logos into the opening and closing sequences. the region sampled was Page 30 of 119 . that is it appeared a decision had been made that promotions aimed at the current viewing time would be more effective.
2 Channel 5 A central part of Channel 5's schedule at the time of the survey was a film every night of the week (excepting the transmission of live football) at 9:00 PM every night and during the 14 days total surveyed a film was transmitted every night at 9:00 PM. Appendix 1 Page 31 of 119 . no such materials were seen on the commercial Channel 5. BBC 1 gave some indication of its public service commitments through its promotion of 'Red Nose Day' ( A biennial comedy event raising funds via donations for African and UK charities) and 'Fighting Fat.1 BBC Typically the BBC promotions run for an average of between 20 and 30 seconds as do the majority of those on Channel 5. The BBC 1 schedule across the two weeks studied clearly shows some distinctions in its flow and use of promotional devices from that of Channel 5 the first week of the survey was clearly part of a BBC public awareness campaign regarding healthy eating (175 seconds of promotional material related to 'Fighting Fat. BBC 1 unlike Channel 5 often ran promotions that did not fix times these were generally for programmes with a high profile that were receiving publicity across other media (press and radio for example in the case of'The Scarlet Pimpernel). this may reflect the budgets involved in the programming and the targeted audience.1. Fighting Fit1 a public health initiative.TV Branding 'London and the South East'.1. Fighting Fit' was shown during the first week studied) The Red nose day was given 340 seconds during the survey period. 2. Both BBC1 and Channel 5 promoted particular genres and particular time slots to a different extent. 2.
The film promotions on Channel 5 all used a clapperboard for promotion of films aimed at adults and families and for those aimed at children a remote control was used at the same point (the beginning of the promotion). Raymond Williams in his 1973 study categorised the programmes into 12 types.TV Branding pages 83 (BBC1) and 106 (Channel 5) list and categorise the programmes screened and promoted across the two channels (excluding film) the smaller selection within the Channel 5 list is noticeable. sometimes over all seven days" The number of occurrences of promotions of 9:00 films was 73 for a promotion with moving pictures and a voice over the two weeks surveyed with as many as nine within the three hour time slot sampled. the development of genres and the hours viewed mean that different categories were used here (a total of 17 here) In its submission in support of the application for the licence for Channel 5. these announcers are not seen by the viewers on either channel.2 Our arrangement of the programme schedule will be different from those of the other four terrestrial channels we will provide a modular 'stripped and stranded' service to viewers: one in which particular types of programmes will be shown at the same time each weekday. Channel 5 promised. Both BBC 1 and Channel 5 used what are termed 'continuity announcers' to introduce programmes and make announcements regarding forthcoming programmes in the absence of pre produced promotional material. "A 1. Channel 5's continuity announcers during the period of the survey were only male (see table 4) The BBC 1 announcers were also predominantly male but on 4 out of the 14 occasions there was a female announcer (29% female against Page 32 of 119 .
Page 33 of 119 . Channel 5's on air promotions made greater use of contemporary music than those of the BBC1 channel.this appears to be part of the aspirational audience being sought.TV Branding 71% male). Channel 5 had amongst the idents a sequence showing a lift going up with the '5' selected as a floor number .
station Page 34 of 119 . e.spots. must be identified in vision and/or sound. it states that breaks "Must be readily recognisable as such and kept quite separate from other parts of the programme service " ".TV Branding Day -week 1 Channel Continuity Announcer Sex Tuesday BBC1 Female 12/1/99 Channel 5 Male Wednesday BBC1 Male 13/1/99 Channel 5 Male Thursday BBC1 Male 14/1/99 Channel 5 Male Friday BBC1 Male 15/1/99 Channel 5 Male Saturday BBC1 Male 16/1/99 Channel 5 Male Sunday BBC1 Male 17/1/99 Channel 5 Male Monday BBC1 Female 18/1/99 Channel 5 Male Week 2 Tuesday BBC1 Male 19/1/99 Channel 5 Male Wednesday BBC1 Male 27/1/99 Channel 5 Male Thursday BBC1 Female 4/2/99 Channel 5 Male Friday BBC1 Female 12/2/99 Channel 5 Male Saturday BBC1 Male 20/2/99 Channel 5 Male Sunday BBC1 Male 28/2/99 Channel 5 Male Monday BBC1 Male 8/3/99 Channel 5 Male Table 4 Continuity Announcers during sample period The main commercial TV channels within the UK (which includes Channel 5) are required to have a clear demarcation between the programmes and the commercials..g.
traditionally -the news has sought gravitas. Channel 5 gave indications regarding the content of films that were broadcast after the 9:00 PM watershed the only indication on BBC1 regarding programme content (in terms of a warning) was 'The Lakes'. (From Media Semiotics. all general UK terrestrial general entertainment channels carry regular news broadcasts. Jonathan Bignell writes of the significance of the placing of news bulletins within the TV schedule. he hypothesises that a popular evening news bulletin can encourage viewers to stay with that channel (conversely news may make viewers change to a channel not showing news at that time).2 News and Weather Another area identified as relating to the channel identity is the news.TV Branding idents going in and out of breaks" (from ITC Rules on the Amount and Scheduling of Advertising) The ITC does not regulate the BBC and although the BBC promotes commercial products related to BBC programme material no such ident is transmitted. the BBC's Nine O'clock news on BBC 1 uses a title sequence Page 35 of 119 . a somewhat controversial drama production. 2. An Introduction) Channel 5's news programme and its place within the schedule is certainly different from that of the other networks. the BBC has its own news department and commercial television relies on ITN for news bulletins. "Each news programme's title sequence establishes the mythic status of news as significant and authoritative. while simultaneously giving each channel's news programmes a recognisable 'brand image' which differentiates it from its competitors.
) The BBC's bulletin that fell within the sampled viewing slot was the nightly Nine O'clock news. for example. these do not follow the formula used on BBC 1 (i. Channel 5's main evening news bulletin was at the time of the study shown at 7:00 PM weekdays and was preceded in the commercial break leading to it by a trail from the news presenter announcing the main story of the bulletin (duration of the trail 10 seconds). " (8th March) to the minimalist "News now though with Rob" (13th January) Page 36 of 119 .. the revolving globe (global coverage of news).e. programme. and the studio (large technological and professional). cue Kirsty. the coat of arms (tradition and dignity). The bulletin on Channel 5 is also normally preceded by a continuity announcement. signifies the authority of BBC News through the connotations of. (ibid. station newsreader) but are varied for example the possibly ironic "Give us thirty minutes and we'll tell you everything you need to know about the world this Monday.. it was preceded (unlike other items within the schedule) by a clock ticking down to 9:00 and the announcement "..TV Branding . the Nine O'clock News here on BBC one with Michael Buerk" (or similar depending on the newsreader) The News bulletin then commences with the newsreader (briefly ) to camera followed by the three main stories (with visuals) before the title sequence.
2. Page 37 of 119 . the BBC 1 weekday news during the period 07:00 .TV Branding Announcements that "this is the news" are not always made (12th February) or a more common form is at the end of a trail for other programmes (with a 5 logo) "We bring you the news now though" (4th February) Channel 5's news appears more integrated within the schedule and news updates appear during the periods sampled.10:00 PM was normally at 9:00. with its own set of conventions. Channel 5 during the survey period had programme sponsorship for its weather forecast. Channel 5 during the survey period had a 30 minute news broadcast as well as News updates. no News updates are scheduled during the BBC 1 normal schedule. The colours used within the graphics on 5 news also reflect the primary colours used throughout the 5 brand. The iconography and modes of address within the bulletin are noticeably less formal and more direct without the mediation of the traditional news desk. she states that "it may be possible to argue that the television graphics which appear between programmes. 2.1 Graphics Michele Anne-Dauppe identifies the importance of graphics within the flow of television. ITC rules limit the position of programmes sponsorship and it is not permitted in News programmes although it is allowed for Weather. Both BBC 1 and Channel 5 ran promotions for its News programmes within the survey period. Programme sponsorship has been permitted from 1988. injunctions constitute a separate genre.
These very brief intense graphics perform an important role in promoting the channels and their output" she goes on to comment on their significance as part of the flow "competition between channels means that capturing and keeping its audience is crucial." Graphics used by both the broadcasters were broadly similar but the use of menus and lists of'5' items within Channel 5's news bulletins was far brasher and more audacious than those on BBC1.
2.2.2 Special Days
The BBC 1 promoted Saturday as an exception in that it was the only day that offered a distinct menu of the fare that would be available, (a caption with the peak evening schedule was featured in Saturday promos and a menu sample is reproduced within Appendix 2). Channel 5 and BBC 1 both made an exception in using Valentine's Day as a special day. Channel 5 ran promotions that tied the two programmes to be transmitted on Thursday 4th March (football and football documentary together). The BBC 1 Saturday promotions were run 10 times during the period surveyed.
Channel 5's schedule at the time of the research was committed to a film each evening at 9:00 PM unless live football was to be transmitted, the BBC 1 schedule is often altered to allow sporting events to disturb the flow. In terms of sporting promotions the BBC aired only two specific sporting promotions a 10 second still for Radio 5 Live and a 30 second item for the forthcoming Rugby tournament. Channel 5 screened a dual promotion (40
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second duration) of football and a documentary related to non-UK players playing soccer in the UK four times during the study.
2.2.4 Radio & WWW
As well as promotions for BBC2 programming (on 31 occasions, an average of 2.5 per evening slot, although none were screened on either Saturday sampled.) BBC1 cross promoted radio on 4 occasions and also promoted its own websites 6 times, Channel 5 was not in a position to promote other broadcasting ventures and at the time surveyed had no active website (this was though remedied on April 17th when Channel 5 re-launched its website).
Music was used within the promotional devices on both channels BBC1 has a theme which is used on its 'balloon segments' and also used music on promotional material, Channel 5 used more contemporary and upbeat music which was obviously chosen to reflect the material and was targeted to produce a more youthful identity.
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Chapter 3 - Analysis of key imagery within BBC 1 and Channel 5 on air promotional devices.
3.1 Image versus identity
"The symbol reflects the company's identity and helps to mold its image in a positive way." (From Corporate Identity Design). Studies within television often marginalise the significance of visual imagery in favour of the spoken word, part of this oversight can be attributed to the time and resource consuming nature of a study of visuals within the 'flow' of television for this reason a sample of the most heavily used Idents within the sample researched is looked at in depth. This is by its nature non exhaustive but hopefully worthwhile. Table 5 shows the number of instances of Idents (and the Channel 5 film Clapperboard) across the 2 weeks surveyed
Day Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Date 12/1/99 13/1/99 14/1/99 15/1/99 16/1/99 17/1/99 18/1/99
19/1/99 27/1/99 4/2/99 12/2/99 20/2/99 28/2/99 8/3/99 BBC1
8 6 7 7 4 6 6 7 5 6 6 6 6
Channel 5 5 logo 5
6 6 7 4 5 4 5 6 6 6 4 4 6
Channel 5 Clapperboard 3 3 2 1
3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 7
Table 5 Instances of Identification on BBC 1 and Channel 5 (7:00 - 10:00 PM)
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a simple chord under it. The balloon is a representation of the globe (formerly an electronically generated globe was used for the BBC 1 ident). On BBC1 regular (at all programme junctions apart from the 9:00 News) use was made of the balloon over various parts of the British Isles.TV Branding The results of the content analysis indicated that regular use of channel idents was made by both broadcasters surveyed. the caption is centred in the bottom 1/5 of screen is faded up in 0. this has some tinkling music in the background.e. One of the main ones viewed during the survey showed a golden '5' in a circle rotating within a square (also rotating) surrounded by blue. not all the same each evening) many settings are rural. On Channel 5 the most common images within the idents were of a 5. The BBC balloon has a variety of settings (see appendix 2 for some examples) and is seen for anything up to 17 seconds the balloon is often seen descending to Earth and the sky is invariably blue. a 'BBC ONE1 in white characters is faded up on 'Balloons' of more than 3 seconds duration. As well as idents Channel 5 starts its film promotions with a 1/2 second film clapperboard this identifies '5 Movie' and was a Page 41 of 119 . The balloon is large with a small basket suspended from it and is coloured Red and orange with land masses in orange and clouds in white. Channel 5 also uses a variety of Idents. Channel 5 also regularly used a film Clapperboard in promotions for films that it was to screen. The Idents use a mixture of moving and stationary camera shots and the pace is unhurried. The Ident has music . Various geographic settings are used for the balloon (i.75 second . The BBC1 clock used immediately before the main news each evening uses a similar theme and colouring to the balloon. the idents are usually a single shot but some with 2 and 3 shots were observed during the sample.
This promotion draws the viewer into a world where we are favoured guests. BBC1 used a symbolism that has been attached to it since 1964 and has a far greater degree of control over the material that is transmitted. the sound of it is heard. As was concluded in Chapter two the strategies of the two channels studied in promoting a brand are different in many aspects. Over the period surveyed this image was shown 40 times along with other promotions that denoted the importance of film on this channel. This shot has a person (face not shown) bringing down the clapperboard. the fact that one is a long standing public service channel and the other a (relatively) new channel with limited resources and far fewer opportunities for cross promotion means that different techniques are utilised.TV Branding central part of the promotional strategy of Channel 5 during the period sampled. Page 42 of 119 . The background shows a large yellow structure and the setting shows night. this appears to have some echo added to it then the trailer 'proper' starts. The content analysis showed the importance that Channel 5 placed (at the time the study was conducted) into the scheduling of feature films and because of this it was decided that a deeper analysis of the way that cinematic imagery was used in the promotion of film within the channel branding context should be looked at. with a shared knowledge and interest in cinema. because of this it was decided that as well as a study of the symbolism used within its programme junctions a comparison of the time allotted to its promotional tools should be made.
of planned flow.. by the operation of a switch.g. Raymond Williams described The experience as having "surrealist effects" when he experienced watching television in the USA. A meeting occurred at a particular date and place. is then perhaps the defining characteristic of broadcasting. Technology and Cultural Form) The view of Williams that although along with Theatre and Cinema 'Television is a temporal medium." As Corner notes in Critical ideas in Television Studies. or events resembling them. A book or pamphlet was taken and read as a specific item. In all communication systems before broadcasting the essential items were discrete. simultaneously as a technology and as a cultural form. contextualized by social action (e. Williams ideas of flow are Page 43 of 119 . are available inside the home.. It is that the real programme that is offered is a 'sequence or set of alternative sequences of these and other similar events. but like radio its performances do not occur as sharply discrete events. going to the theatre or cinema) but are located within the system of a channel schedule. The difference in broadcasting is not only that these events. A play was performed in particular theatre at a set hour. This phenomenon . he later set a more detailed analysis of the phenomena In all developed broadcasting systems the characteristic organisation and therefore the characteristic experience is one of sequence or flow.TV Branding Chapter 4 -Branding and Flow 4. The schedule organises a series of programmes all of which are on television on a given night. Unlike them. which are then available in a single dimension and in a single operation" (From Television.1 The Concept of Flow Flow is central to the experience of watching television in a commercial environment (whether the channel is commercial or public service).
4. 28 issue 2) wrote about the texts being secondary and "billboards to be driven past". Flow is all about competition and Williams notes the inherent 'undeclared timing' which is part of the flow of commercial television (and public service television in a commercial market).TV Branding problematical and they have come under critical fire for failing to deliver in many respects. It is though a significant element within the sample used here in its connection with Channel 5 as the News connects directly with the Channel 5 'brand'. Roland Rust and Naras Eechambadi note in their Scheduling Network Television Programs: A Heuristic Flow Approach to Maximizing Audience Share (Journal of advertising Volume 18 number 2 1989) that: Page 44 of 119 . as the breaks in programming and flow are by their nature times of discontinuity and change. Williams critique appears as part of his desire for authorship. and it can be argued that he places an over emphasis on News texts within the flow. Control remains more difficult in commercial television which carries spot advertising to control the flow. In fact Williams's concept of flow within UK television programming is a modification of the 'flow' that he observed in the USA and he describes this as a "mix and flow" which still has vestiges of the 'balance' which public service television specifically sought before the arrival of commercial TV in the UK.2 US Administrative research US studies have shown an interest in the flow of television for some time. Corner brings Williams and his followers to task over the concept of flow as being necessarily a bad thing which is highlighted as it is designed to stop people switching off (or to switching over to another channel). Lawrence Grossberg (screen vol.
(Table 6 below indicates the results). The column that indicates viewer initiated changes includes the initial turning on of the receiver and changes during programmes and at junctions.93 viewer initiated to channel initiated changes show that control lies very much with the broadcasters.TV Branding "Studies by Gensch and Shaman (1980) have shown that aggregate network ratings (the sum of the ratings of the three networks) may be predicted with great precision. The experiment was carried out using a VCR to record the TV output as household switched between channels. they remark on the factors influencing the selection of programming citing Darmon on programme type and viewing type. These two elements are mutually related to one another and part of the mix of Channel Branding. and do not include changes in scene within a drama. Page 45 of 119 . They go on to imply a two step model. the first step being a choice to view and the second what to view. thus the brand will create a perception of the type of audience watching and an association with the programme material. announcements etc. news stories within a bulletin or similar. The average ratio of 1:13. Klaus Bruhn Jensen in the Social Semiotics of Mass Communication showed the results of an interesting experiment carried out in the USA to investigate the viewer/ channel interaction around flow. Column 3 (channel initiated content changes) indicate commercials.
Break identification is a requirement of the ITC (that is the separation of the commercials by "station idents going in and out of the break" ) a Page 46 of 119 . 4. viewers watching same time slot.repeat viewing.or network effect. > Repeat viewing . These factors are likely to be more heavily exploited in a world of increased viewer choice where polarization is also a factor.2. > Channel Loyalty .11nheritance Effects US administrative research has indicated that there are three factors regarding audience viewing patterns > Inheritance -viewers watching a following programme are over represented.TV Branding Table 6 A Power Index of Television 4.3 UK Advertising rules The rules governing advertising on terrestrial television at the time of the analysis of the programme sample go someway to creating a discrete break between programme material and advertisements.
The maximum average should not exceed 9 minutes The ITC rules deem material "publicity by the licensees themselves except information to viewers about or in connection with programmes" The ITC rules permit commercials breaks of up to 3 and a half minutes. activities. as there are cost implications 4. and gives the following example "Thus a three and a half minute break could consist of three and a half minutes of advertising or three minutes of advertising and 30 seconds of promotion. products or other direct or indirect commercial interest" the guidelines go on to say Page 47 of 119 ." Such rules indicate that commercial broadcasters must make considered commercial judgements on the placement of promotional material. during the period sampled breaks of such duration were regularly recorded on channel 5.1 Sponsorship During the sample period two strands within Channel 5's output fell into the category of sponsored programmes as defined by the ITC "A programme is deemed to be sponsored if any or part of its costs of production or transmission is met by an advertiser with a view to promoting its own or another's name. a note in the ITC code makes clear that the length of these breaks includes promotional material.TV Branding responsibility is placed on the broadcaster in terms of appropriateness of particular advertisements. trade mark.3. image.
the ITC guidelines state: "8. the Coca-Cola cup Final).4 and 5 A sponsor's name must not be used in a programme title except when the title is that of a sponsored event covered by the programme (e." The ITC guidelines specify the length of sponsorship promotion "Front Credits A front credit must not exceed 15 seconds where one sponsor is involved .TV Branding "One of the main principles governing the regulation of programme sponsorship is maintaining the distinction between advertising and sponsor credits.g. " Page 48 of 119 . Advertising of Pepsi featuring popular music acts and the Pepsi sponsorship of a national commercial radio chart radio should be an area of concern for regulators.. The following is an example from The Pepsi Chart Show." The sponsored programmes viewed adhered to these guidelines. in order to ensure that credits are not used as a means of extending allowable advertising minutage. Bumper and end credits Each bumper or end credit must not be more than 10 seconds in length .11 Channels 3. which starts with the sponsorship clip and voice over saying "The Pepsi chart sponsored by Pepsi the number one chart choice" The Pepsi Chart show had A 15 second introduction followed by the programme There was 4 seconds Pepsi ident to the break And a further 4 seconds Pepsi ident out of the break The programme finished with alO second Pepsi ident at the end..
although sponsorship of News is not permitted weather is sponsorable . eg by programme end credits or a commercial break. cultural. sports. Such sponsored reports must be separated from the news programme in some clearly apparent way. traffic. travel or weather) presented outside the context of a general news programme may be sponsored.from the ITC guidelines "However.TV Branding The other programme that received sponsorship in the viewing sampled was the weather. some specialist news reports (for example. The sponsor during the sample period changed from information provider Scoot to Autoglass Page 49 of 119 .
Stuart gave me the following responses when I questioned him about BBC presentation. all promos and programmes that are made in widescreen (i. Page 50 of 119 . control or kick anything too technical for the rest of us! I am a Presentation Operator. The job isn't as involved as it once was. and announcer.e. How would you describe your role within the BBC ? I am part of the team responsible for broadcasting BBC ONE and BBC TWO (analogue). basically I make sure that we have the right tapes. make sure that they start and if they stop or breakdown: restart them.TV Branding Chapter 5 -Professional practices within the programming of interstitial material Research into the modes of operation within broadcasting surrounding the use of interstitial materials was carried out by questioning figures within the industry and research into a seminal figure in Channel Branding . and engineer and a presentation operator The ND is the main person. rehearses and checks the various sources. making sure that the output is technically ok and is there to fix.1 Stuart Clary-BBC Presentation Operator Stuart Clary has worked for Pearson Television (who are responsible for transmission of Channel 5) and currently works for BBC television in their London White City studio complex. At any one time there are 4 people on each channel: a network director. (s)he oversees the automation. line them up. cues.Martin Lambie-Nairn 5. The engineer is mainly supervisory. I put them into the machines. and subtitles.
What is the BBC goal in terms of peak viewing time presentation ? To distinguish its self and keep viewer interest. when the items in the junctions are produced then it is very important. This (new) area will eventually take over completely. Presentation is part of BBC Broadcast (one of the Directorates at the BBC) which deals with every thing from commissioning to broadcasting (but NOT the actual distribution and transmission which is now private) BBC Production produces the programmes and BBC Resources Ltd. BBC1 (sorry. The ND will decide on the in and out Page 51 of 119 . So really it is up to us! Is the presentation driven from a planning/ traffic department . 'BBC ONE' rather than 'BBC 1'or even 'ONE' Is branding and the 'look' of BBC1 seen as being of significance within the BBC ? (particularly in the light of many more multi channel homes) Its obviously very important. Do other departments have input (in terms of scheduling and 'look' for example)? No. apart from obvious things such as 'News' wanting extra time. i.TV Branding most new primetime shows) come from another transmission area set up for digital. Everything must conform to the rules laid down by the people who developed the branding. owns the equipment and buildings.e.do the network controllers have a creative input? Everything is scheduled by planning/scheduling. ONE) being such a major channel.. Is branding something which is taken into account when planning the programme junctions ? Probably not much when planning.
a server being a more modern computer disc based technology . a Flexicart is used to cache onto the server Are there guidelines which are worked to? (like always promote BBC2 alternative sat 7:00 PM for example) There are. Flexicart1414 or Server ? Here. for example I might notice something that is wrong or inappropriate in the schedule. server. it doesn't put the tapes in (but it could). Therefore it needs to be flexible with regard to changes and of course there always needs to be some human contact with any 'Automatic system' because they can fail What is the automation. The ND can add pull and change promotions because of lack of time. Major decisions especially those that concern dropping programmes are made by the editor(The ND). Is the presentation heavily automated? The automation system drives virtually everything. (S)he would also choose what programme to play if another failed and we needed a filler. technical faults or other reasons.TV Branding points of the programme. what the transitions will be and what symbols and animations will be used. I think there is a 'Style Book' that provides a set of rules about how the branding is used I know that there is one rule 14 Flexicart and server technologies for transmission of video material. All four of us have some input.the Flexicart playing conventional tapes under computer control. The ND is really at the core of things. Some satellite stations I have worked at are totally automated (many of Sky's are) a foreign Discovery that I was involved in at Pearson was totally automatic except for switching the dog on and off! A network station however is reactive (to news events) and has many live events within the schedule. they are the final gatekeeper before it arrives on the screen. but it is always the ND who is duty editor who makes the decision. Page 52 of 119 . but I wouldn't know offhand what they are.
These are decided by BBC Worldwide. due to them being designed for videoing are hit on time. 1300. they are 'fixed events' in the automation. 1800. but I don't know. an under/over time appears at the top of the schedule. I think all new programmes (those since 1997) have it (although it might not include those made by independents) and of course when a BBC programme gets played on another channel. what about other programmes ? 0600. To keep on time the ND's will put extra fixed events into the schedule so that they get an idea of how much over/under they are. 2100 on BBC1 (news) are always hit on time. who produce/license all the books videos etc. Page 53 of 119 . whether owned by the BBC or not the logo is there. On BBC2 there is normally nothing although the Learning Zone programmes. There is of course the 'Other magazines are available'.TV Branding -whereby the animations must only appear in-between 2 promos for programmes on the same channel (if that makes sense!) What is important in time keeping -I have noticed that the 9 o'clock news is at 9:00. they will often write the voice-over I have noticed that many BBC1 programmes have BBC during their opening sequence is this something which is required of new programming or is only used where appropriate? As far as I know it is just another branding rule introduced with the new logo in 1997 apparently there are rules as to its size duration and timing. Do guidelines exist for placing of promotion for BBC published materials? Again there must be.
English 10. In the last week however at least 1 balloon has been introduced especially for sport. it certainly has something to do making it less London-centric and monolithic. Wales 2.e. The ND chooses them but: 'The directors do have their favourites but they are under strict instructions to show them all not just their 'favourite 5' and not the 'cliche'them . The studios and resources are used by many programmes from many channels.i. don't always have the docklands ones going into Eastenders or the Ruined Abbey going into Songs of Praise. plus they must use editorial caution and not do things like use the one which has the fishing boat disappearing behind the balloon into a documentary about a missing trawler where lives were lost. or with some other code ? They are numbered e.TV Branding Is there an issue surrounding bought in and commissioned programmes (is it important to be even handed for all programming)? I'm 99% sure that there isn't. after all the BBC has to buy in a certain number. depending on where it was filmed. purely because they have to be called something What factors determine the selection of the particular balloon segments (are they programme related ?) This was answered by Graham 15a while back as well. Are the balloon sequences just stored as a number. it's a long time since the old lTV/BBC rivalry! Do you know how was the balloon arrived at ? Don't know offhand. 15 Graham Wright a senior colleague of Stuart's working in presentation Page 54 of 119 .g.
i. but they are heard by the relevant directors and editors before they are finalised. are based on the 3 note sting you hear on a lot of them.2 Brian West . There are several general ones on hand here that can be played in emergencies.Head of On-Air Promotions Wizja TV Brian West is Head of On-Air promotions for Wizja TV (a 22 TV channel service aimed at Polish audience broadcast transmitted from the UK). it is all original though. if there is time to fill or a replacement is needed. 5. According to a colleague of mine (Graham): 'There are 4 main music themes which although all sound quite different.' What input (creative) do continuity announcers have? They write the scripts for the announcements.TV Branding How was the music chosen? No idea. But you could only really tell that if you listened to them all the way through. How are promo's scheduled and or clocked for number of plays? (When you come in to work does someone say "you need to play promo for unfinished business 3 times today" or similar?) They are all scheduled in advance by promotions/planning this is possibly several weeks/days in advance.e. Brian has found the requirements for a commercial channel different from those at the BBC as promotional material is used more intensively in non-peak hours and remarked that it is currently difficult to sell commercial airtime out of the peak viewing slots at Wizja. before this Brian produced numerous promos for BBC2 and has written and directed promos for BBC1. Page 55 of 119 .
the series has four main characters. Brian was able to give the following example of the increasingly targeted promotions which he first noticed at the BBC. "3rd Rock from the Sun is a case in point (a successful US produced comedy which because of its highly visual humour has proved popular in Poland)." Promotions are used across channels often in a modified version of the targeting approach detailed above. Romantic elements of feature films may be used to promote a Page 56 of 119 . a quirky academic (middle aged) an attractive female. Brian offered me the following insights into On-air promotions: "After the initial launch of Wizja TV a fairly "scatter gun" approach to promotion was used. an adolescent male and an 'off-the-wall' male character -promotions have been made specifically featuring characters .The Polish audience is now being researched for Wizja via viewers diaries and automatic logging of viewing this is leading to a more scientific strategy for the use of promotional material.TV Branding Wizja has transmission facilities in Maidstone in the UK and operates a number of original services as well as some Polish language translated versions of international services (For example the US originated Home Box Office). where all programme material was promoted. the promotions featuring the teenage boy have been targeted at young females and positioned in the schedules to reach this audience.and then programmed to reach a suitable audience -for example those promotions featuring attractive female promotions have been targeted at male viewers. this has been successively refined with use of market derived data.
Example. Brian made the following interesting point regarding the use of music within promotions. Brian explained that schedules are compiled by schedulers several days ahead of transmission. (That certainly illustrates to me. they have used recorded continuity announcements to sound live and are planning to introduce live C A to their flagship channel shortly. Possibly the MOST important. Sky Sport 1 and 2. Page 57 of 119 . " The use of commercial chart music is a very powerful tool in on-air promotions. the schedules are then transmitted from Flexicart playout machines. When I used this same track for a non-broadcast sales tape at Wizja TV the record company charged me £8000. the promotion is then screened within programme bouquets1616 which are aimed at female viewers. how valuable music is perceived to be to on-air promotions) " 16 Bouquets are a subset of channels within a multi channel platform for example a sports bouquets may include Eurosport. Similarly a sports promotion would be featured on a bouquet designed for male viewers. the normal approach for this is for agencies to pitch ideas to the broadcasters brief and one of the agencies will be chosen on the strength of their submission. The corporate idents for Wizja TV were originally commissioned from one of the OS's principal practitioners in the field Pittard Sullivan there will soon be a 'revamp'.TV Branding film channel. Wizja does not currently use live continuity announcers. "Fame by association" I like to call it. If you use "Let Me Entertain You" (by Robbie Williams) in a promo for BBC1 (as I did) it adds an entirely new level of production value to the promoted programme.
TV Branding I also asked Brian why (as I had found in my viewing) promotional material was generally 20 seconds. we also need to fill short time "left over" with "bumpers" or "stings" as short as 01. "Quality" and "General entertainment" the BBC globe (see Figure 1) was also strongly identified with BBC 1. he gained experience in commercial television and then went on to found a successful company specialising in TV channel brand identities. "20. at this time he worked with Pam Masters. After leaving Art School as a 19 year old he started work as a graphic design assistant at the BBC in 1965. 60 durations are simply convenient durations for schedulers. he gave me the following answer. Page 58 of 119 . or 03 seconds. 30. (Purely mathematical in terms of filling breaks of certain durations. he again worked with Masters at the BBC on the redesign in 1989. However. A research into audience perception of BBC 1 at the time had given a generally favourable feedback key amongst the connections cited were "Britishness". Lambie-Nairn's company was responsible for the computer graphic idents used by Channel 4 at its launch in 1985.3 Martin Lambie-Nairn One of the important figures in the growth of branding in the world of television broadcasting in the UK is undoubtedly Martin Lambie-Nairn. In his book 'Brand Identity for Television1 Lambie-Nairn writes of the importance of the Promax conference in Leeds of 1990 as being the time that the importance of channel branding began to surface.02." 5.
" Page 59 of 119 .Early BBC 1' Ident' showing use of globe Martin Lambie-Nairn goes on to comment on how he saw the nature of television was changing "the message was very clear. It was apparent that the BBC would need to develop new skills to confront the market realities which were then facing British television. A lack of media planning meant that junction time was not utilized to it's maximum potential. The commercial value of the air time devoted to presentation and promotion on BBC1 and BBC 2 together was potentially enormous" He goes on to say "BBC 1 had two and a half hours of junction time per week and BBC 2 had one and a half but it had not been identified properly as a resource.TV Branding Figure 1 .
Is it representative? . it is easy to get material and the data can be quantified. A further study in a year’s time or consultation of recordings made previously would facilitate an evaluation of trends in interstitial programming. 4.It is hoped that the two week study provides concrete examples of the importance of promotion and channel branding within the flow of evening peak time television programming.The measurable units here where discrete materials of both video and audio.1 Content Content analysis should be scientific and reproducible. the problems though surrounding it are the questions: 1. one of its main advantages is that it is relatively inexpensive.TV Branding Chapter 6 -Conclusion 6.1. 2. 3. much of the promotional material was audio only (voice over idents) and has thus been neglected. A further advantage of the Page 60 of 119 .There must remain a question of where programming ends and promotion begins.Rather than a single conclusion. I would feel inclined to see this study as a starting point for further investigation of promotion and flow. What is a measurable unit? . News updates and Lottery updates form a quasiprogramme definition. in the analysis conducted Weather. Have we arrived at a good working definition (is it promotional material?) .1 Reflection on the analysis performed 6. Is the conclusion correct? .
technical and commercial departments would add to the picture and give a greater understanding of the forces and mechanisms at work. "(From Managing Brand Equity). University Challenge (made by Granada and now screened on BBC2 Page 61 of 119 . 6.1. Another is to believe that customers are bored with the current advertising.TV Branding type of analysis conducted here is that the source material can be returned to and reinterpreted. links between the programmes aired and the promotions screened could thus be further investigated.g.1 Focus groups The BBC has been using a representation of the globe since 1964 and bearing in mind that: "A common mistake is to underestimate the task of creating a new set of associations. Further light could be thrown on the branding phenomenon from an audience perspective by the use of 'Focus Groups'. The use of focus groups to discuss further the effectiveness of imagery and channel positioning. Ethnographic and case studies on the creation of schedules and interaction of creative. Focus groups could also look at how programmes that have been on different channels are viewed e. thus demonstrating a continuity and development in both the channel and its brand image.2.2 Further perspectives to apply in researching Channel branding 6. 6. and even the positioning and that a change is needed to freshen it all up. Its continued use seems validated both by this and its familiarity to the viewers.2 Professional Practice The information supplied by practitioners in the field is of interest but requires more positioning and information. to establish links between channels and programmes would develop further the understanding the interaction of content and brand image.
6. the economics of the promotional budgets are relevant but necessarily complex.2 Semiotic Analysis Barthes said "the words at the bottom of pictorial ads . Focus groups could discuss what programmes would not be expected on certain channels (and why larger audiences are created by merely changing the channel a programme is screened on).3 Political Economy The costing of promotional material is an area worth further investigation.2. Page 62 of 119 . in the case of the BBC where although moves have been made towards an internal market costings may still be hidden and in the case of Channel 5 the matter might be sufficiently sensitive for financial information not to be available for external research purposes. the value of the promotional slots is potentially high (and estimates could be made of these using commercial airtime costs) but also the actual cost of the presentation department and contracts to specialist companies.2.what I call the 'anchorage' often provide crucial information about what the product does or is" (From Semiotics for beginners) the use of different images tied with graphic and auditory links would seem to be a method to carry analysis further. This is Your Life (first screened on BBC in the 1950's then on ITV for many years and now again on BBC1 Television) Men Behaving Badly (first screened on ITV subsequently a successful programme on BBC 1). The central question of whether the brand dictates the programme mix could also be addressed.TV Branding after many years on commercial TV). The difference between the use of still and moving image promotion could be studied in this context. 6.
The influence of both commercial and public interests and the governments stated desire for speedy implementation of digital TV further impacts the fields of influence in play.." It is noted by Boyd-Barrett (quoting Curran 1991) "Political economy has always been critical..TV Branding The guiding studies of media in the market place would frame much of the research. The political economy also impacts through the powerful advertising lobby that helped create C5 and the ownership issues that mean one of the major players in ITV is also a large shareholder of C5 (United News and Media PLC the media group that includes Anglia TV. as is stated in Mass Media and Society ". of the public as of the privately controlled media " So the political economy is more complex than just the purchase of capital goods and it is from the view of the increasing commodification of television programmes and audiences that our cue could be taken. if perhaps not quite as critical. 6. not all expenditure on communications goods involves expensive acquisition of equipment.3 Impact of Branding on Public Service Broadcasting and the Future I am somewhat pessimistic on the position of the BBC as we enter the 21st century. Cross Media promotion also impacts on the field of branding. in a market where there is a stupefying cornucopia of channels the differentiation between Page 63 of 119 . radio and print offer promotion to television and this cross media content (recent examples of which include BBC radio promotion of TV programmes and News International print promotion of BSKYB of which it is a part owner) were also ignored. Meridian TV and The Daily Express)..
branding alone will not be enough to impart the necessary differentiation and it is likely that the market will be able to offer a similar service across all channels to that which the BBC currently offers. Page 64 of 119 .TV Branding subscription. and as it ventures further into commercial waters it lays itself open to charges of unfair competition and looks increasingly like a possible way of providing politically expedient cash resources to an the exchequer. advertising supported and licence fee (and mixtures of all of these) provided services will be increasingly difficult to determine. Transmission has already been removed and the creation of BBC resources17 looks like a questionable decision.it seems (to me) that a small change in the way BBC promotes and operated could create a large amount of money on some prestige productions with little impact on editorial independence and the commercial broadcasters. Castle Communications in 1997 and BBC resources Ltd was incorporated in 1998 as a wholly owned subsidiary of the BBC. Having reviewed the context of the sponsored programmes on Channel 5 I would consider that a question mark must hang over the form of sponsorship witnessed on Channel 5 as it seems to merely extend the advertising minuteage against 17 BBC transmission was put out to the private company. The BBC is increasingly located between a rock and a hard place. Channel 5 has been successful with its scheduling and positioning if the ITC survey (Television -The Public's view) is to be believed 34% of Channel 5 viewers indicated that the most popular attribute of the new channel was the "good selection of films" and 50% appeared to vindicate the stranding and stripping scheduling by agreeing with the proposition that "you know what time things are on/know what to expect". The BBC will have renewed pressure to accept sponsorship .
.." Bibliography Aaker. London. O.Clarendon Press.(p 68-74) Page 65 of 119 .T.. O. D (1991) Managing Brand Equity . by my programmes shall I be know. & Newbold C ) -Arnold London. Oxford. C (1997) Global Television -Blackwell.Routledge.The Free Press New York Barker. Colbey P and Jansz L (1997) Semiotics For Beginners . An Introduction . John (1999) Critical ideas in Television Studies. Batsford London. Dauppe. J (1997) Media Semiotics.Icon Books Ltd Cambridge. M (1995) In ed. I will give the final word to Peter Bazalgette the Creative Director of GMG Endemol Entertainment (From the Media Guardian 15th March 1999).(1995) Approaches to Media.B. Crisel. Boyd-Barrett. (p 191) Bignell.TV Branding the ITC's desired effect.A Reader (edited by Boyd-Barrett. Manchester. Triggs. "But the bosses of traditional channels with mixed schedules should say the following to themselves 10 times every night: 'By my programmes shall I be known. Oxford.Manchester University Press. (p 116) Corner. A (1997) An Introductory History of British Broadcasting . T Communicating Design .
(p 2) Mills. Communications and Political Economy Golding. P and Murdock.TV Branding Jensen.Blackball. J and Gurevitch M (Eds) (1996) Mass Media and Society (In the chapter Culture. M and McCavitt. P. Page 66 of 119 . England. London.Arnold London.John Libbey.John Libbey Luton. (p 145) Curran. London. W (1995) Electronic Media Management . N (1988) Corporate Identity Design -Van Nostrund Reinhold . Naples. Television & Modern Life . R and Dominick J (1997) Mass Media Research . M) . Technology Cultural Form -Routledge London Wimmer.) Broadcasting Enters the Marketplace . Lury G (1998) Brand Watching .Focal Press.Phaidon Press.New York Pringle. Boston (p 215) Scannell. Luton WheenF(1985) Television Guild Publishing.The Prospects for Television in a Digital World .Wadsworth California. Williams R (1990) Television. London. K (1995) The Social Semiotics of Mass Communication -Sage London Lambie-Nairn M (1997) Brand Identity for Television With Knobs On . Svenning. J (editor) (1998) Changing Channels. Starr. P (1994) In Nod Miller and Rod Allen (Eds. Dublin Ireland.Blackwell Oxford (p 151) Steemers. P (1996) Radio. M (1998) Television Across The Years -The British Public's View University of Luton Press.
co.UltimateTV.bbc.uk/mhp/identzone/bbcl/balloons.TV Branding Press & Trade Aplleyard.uk/info/news/2000/ http://www.meldrum.co.html Page 67 of 119 .com/tvbiz/promax/97/rrdayl. B (30th March 1997) The Sunday Times London Media Guardian 15th March 1999 Big Changes on the Small Screen The Guardian Weekly (Volume 160 Issue 5 for week ending 31st January 1999) Press release (12th January 1999) Department of Media and Culture Financial Times January 13th 1999 ITC rules on the amount and scheduling of advertising Autumn 1998 (p 4) ITC code of programme Sponsorship Autumn 1998 The impact of Cable penetration on Network Viewing by Krugman and Rust TV listings (16th January 1999)The Guide' -Supplement to The Guardian London Internet Resources http://www.htnil http://www.
TV Branding Appendix 1 .2 Week Content Analysis Page 68 of 119 .
still Balloon 9:30 Paddington Green 30 10 6 5 185 10 120 45 10 8 12 Page 69 of 119 .Still Clock 9:00 News News Room South East Promo Great Railway Journeys BBC 2 Weather Promo BBC News.Digital Promo Parkinson Promo Film Patriot Games .TV Branding BBC 1 Tuesday January 12th 1999 Week 1 Time PM Programme Promo for Size Matters BBC 2 Promo for Fat Free Promo Eastenders Balloon 7:00 Holiday Promo Holby City Balloon 7:30 Eastenders Promo Sunburn Balloon Dur Secs 30 20 20 12 30 13 20 9 8:10 Holby City Promo Paddington Green Promo Morecambe & Wise BBC 2.
TV Branding BBC 1 Wednesday January 13 th 1999 Week 1
Promo for Size Matters 2 Thurs 7:30 Promo Saturday Generation Game, Noel's House Party & National Lottery Live Promo Dream House -Still Balloon 7:00 Wildlife on One Promo Radio 3 Lunchtime concert Promo Paddington Green Balloon Promo Watchdog Balloon 7:30 Dream House Commercial Good Homes Magazine Promo Parkinson Balloon Promo Battersea Dog's Home Promo Battle of the sexes BBC 2 - still Promo Film -Shine Balloon 8:00 Changing Rooms Promo Sunburn Promo Fat Free Balloon 8:30 Battersea Dog's Home Promo Vets in Practice Promo Jude Balloon 8:50 National Lottery Live Promo Unfinished Business Balloon Promo -Saturday, Casualty Sunburn, & Kiss me Kate Promo X-files still Promo Mersey Blues BBC 2 - still Clock 9:00 News Promo Clinton Trail News Room Southeast Weather Lottery update Promo Don't call us -still Promo Parkinson Promo The lakes Balloon
20 7 14 11 30 2.5 20 10 8 10 2 30 9 30 8 20 20 9 20 10 6 20 3
20 10 7 6 120 23 10 10 30 10
Page 70 of 119
TV Branding BBC 1 Thursday January 14th 1999 Week 1
Promo for Size Matters 2 T 7:30 Ma Promo Question Time Commercial TV Licence Balloon 7:00 Watchdog Promo Sunburn Balloon Promo Holby City Promo Vets in Practice Balloon 7:30 Eastenders Promo Travel Show BBC 2 -still Promo Scarlet Pimpernel Promo Saturday -Generation Game, Noel's House Party & National Lottery Promo Fat Free Balloon 8:00 Vets in Practice Promo Sunburn Commercial Radio Times Promo Unfinished Business Promo Extreme Machines BBC 2 -still Balloon 8:30 Fat Free Promo Fat Files BBC 2 still Promo Saturday, Casualty, Sunburn & Kiss me Kate Promo Shine Clock 9:00 News Promo for Question Time Newsroom South East Weather Promo for Fat Files still Promo for Parkinson Promo for The Lakes Balloon 9:30 Film -Shine
30 20 20 14 20 2 30 20 10 10 40
20 20 7 20 9 30 8 5 12
20 30 7 20 190 120 13 10 30 16
Page 71 of 119
BBC 1 Friday January 15* 1999 Week 1
Promo Around Westminster Promo Parkinson Balloon Promo Holby City Balloon 7:00 Celebrity Ready, Steady, Cook Promo Dad Promo Paddington Green Promo Vets in Practice Balloon 7:30 Top of the Pops Promo Saturday, Generation Game, Noel's House Party, National Lottery & Sunburn Promo Gardening from scratch BBC2 Balloon 8:00 Vets in practice Promo Unfinished Business Balloon Promo Holby City Balloon 8:30 Question of Sport Promo Radio Five Live Boxing coverage Promo Scarlet Pimpernel Saturday Promo Promo Parkinson Clock 9:00 News Newsroom Southeast Promo Panorama Weather Promo Radio 3 Promo Paddington Green Promo Bang, Bang BBC 2 still Balloon 9:30 Parkinson
30 10 2 30 15 20 30 10 6
20 20 7 14 30 2 30 7 10 40 20 10 5 190 30 120 20 30 8 5
Page 72 of 119
TV Branding BBC 1 Saturday January 16th 1999 Week 1 Time Programme Jim Davidson's Generation Game Promo Unfinished Business & Changing rooms Balloon 7:05 Noel's House Party Promo Saturday Casualty Sunburn Kiss Me Kate Promo Scarlet Pimpernel Balloon 7:50 National Lottery Live Promo Sunburn Balloon Promo The Lakes Balloon 8:10 Casualty Promo Holby City National Lottery Update Balloon 9:00 Sunburn Promo The Lakes Balloon Promo Unfinished Business Balloon 9:50 Kiss Me Kate Dur Secs 30 10 20 40 11 20 2 30 12 30 22 12 30 3 30 10 Page 73 of 119 .
TV Branding BBC 1 Sunday January 17th 1999 Week 1 Time Programme Antiques Roadshow BBC Antiques website .BBC ONLINE Promo Paddington Green Balloon 7:20 Holiday Guide Promo Australian Tennis Promo The Lakes Balloon 8:00 Born to be wild with Martin Clunes Promo Scarlet Pimpernel Promo History of Alternative Comedy BBC 2 Still Promo Unfinished Business Balloon 9:00 The Lakes Promo The lakes Promo Jude Promo Shooting the Past BBC 2 Balloon 9:40 Unfinished Business Dur Secs 17 30 10 30 30 10 20 6 30 14 30 10 40 10 Page 74 of 119 .
TV Branding BBC 1 Monday January 18th 1999 Week 1 Time Programme Promo Healthcheck Promo Jude Promo Digital Planet BBC 2 Balloon 7:00 This is Your Life Promo Sunburn Balloon Promo Paddington Green Promo Against the grain BBC 2 still Balloon 7:30 Watchdog Promo Healthcheck Website BBC ONLINE Promo Raising the roof BBC 2 still Promo Changing rooms/Battersea Dogs home Promo Dad Balloon 8:00 Eastenders Promo Holby City Balloon Promo Jude Balloon 8:30 Dad Promo Scarlet Pimpernel Commercial Radio Times Promo Paddington Green Clock 9:00 News Newsroom Southeast Promo Panorama Weather Promo The Lakes Balloon 9:30 Paddington Green Dur Secs 20 10 9 10 20 2 30 8 10 11 8 30 20 6 30 3 30 6 20 30 6 190 30 120 30 11 Page 75 of 119 .
still Newsroom Southeast Weather Promo BBC News (ONE and 24) Promo Crimewatch Promo Film Housesitter still Balloon 9:30 Paddington Green Dur Secs 30 20 5 6 6 30 20 2 30 8 20 7 30 20 11 30 20 7 5 12 190 120 30 30 12 9 Page 76 of 119 .TV Branding BBC 1 Tuesday January 19th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Promo Party. Party BBC 2 Promo Radio Three Promo Eastenders still Balloon 7:00 Holiday Promo Website beeb.com Promo Changing Rooms/Battersea Dogs Home Promo Scarlet Pimpernel Balloon Promo Hoi by City Balloon 7:30 Eastenders Promo Sunburn Balloon 8:00 Holby City Promo Holby City Promo Mad about Monet Balloon 8:50 8:50 to Paddington Green Promo Inside Story Promo Scarlet Pimpernel Promo Morecambe & Wise BBC 2 Still Clock 9:00 News Promo Great Railway Journeys BBC2 .
TV Branding BBC 1 Wednesday January 27th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Promo Forever Young BBC 2 Promo Vanessa Balloon 7:00 Wildlife on One Promo Vets in Practice Promo Mad about Monet Balloon 7:30 Dreamhouse Promo Harbour Lights Promo Saturday Generation Game Noel's House Party Balloon 8:00 Changing Rooms Promo BBC Radio One -Scarlet Pimpernel Promo Parkinson Balloon Promo Sunburn Balloon 8:30 Battersea Dog's Home Promo Vets in Practice Promo Saturday Casualty Sunburn Promo get Your Act Together Balloon 8:50 National Lottery Live Promo Scarlet Pimpernel Commercial Radio Times Promo The Lakes Promo Mersey Blues BBC 2 still Promo X Files still Clock 9:00 News Newsroom Southeast Promo Rugby BBC Weather Lottery Update Promo Playing The Field Promo Inside Story still Balloon 9:30 X-Files Dur Secs 30 30 11 20 30 8 10 20 8 10 20 2 20 11 20 20 20 8 20 11 30 5 6 5 190 30 120 22 20 10 10 Page 77 of 119 .
TV Branding BBC 1 Thursday February 4th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Promo Fares Please BBC 2 Promo Question Time Promo Eastenders -still Balloon 7:00 Watchdog Balloon Promo Red Nose Dairy Balloon 7:30 Eastenders Promo Saturday Get your Act Together Noel's House Party National Lottery Promo Harbour Lights Promo Animal Police Balloon 8:00 Vets in Practice Promo Casualty Promo Parkinson Promo Clarkson BBC 2 Still Balloon 8:30 Fat Free Promo Fighting Fat Promo Silent Witness Promo Meet the Ancestors BBC 2 still Clock Dur Secs 30 13 4 10 6 210 7 20 10 30 9 20 10 8 8 30 30 8 5 15 195 120 15 15 15 9:00 News Promo Question Time Newsroom Southeast Weather Promo Sunburn Promo Parkinson Balloon 9:30 Silent Witness Page 78 of 119 .
Noel's House Party & National Lottery Promo Love Town Balloon 8:30 Birds of a feather Promo Casualty Promo Parkinson Clock 9:00 News Newsroom Southeast Weather Promo BBC Weather online still Promo City Central Promo Jasper Carrott Back to the front Promo Film White Mischief Still Balloon 9:30 Parkinson Dur Secs 30 9 30 7 10 30 30 7 20 20 4 20 6 14 8 20 30 7 20 10 5 190 120 12 30 30 8 7 Page 79 of 119 .TV Branding BBC 1 Friday February 12th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Promo Around Westminster BBC 2 Promo Parkinson Promo A morning with Eastenders Promo Top of the Pops Balloon 7:00 Celebrity Ready. Steady Cook Promo Bitesize Promo Groundforce Balloon 7:30 Top of the Pops Promo Red Nose Promo Get Your Act together Balloon Promo Eastenders Promo Trust me I'm a Doctor BBC 2 Balloon 8:00 Ground Force Commercial BBC book Promo Saturday Get your act together.
Merton & Malcolm Balloon 8:55 Sunburn Balloon Promo Holiday on a shoestring Promo Love Town Balloon 9:50 Kiss Me Kate Dur Secs 20 30 3 30 10 20 30 8 10 22 30 10 30 30 8 Page 80 of 119 .TV Branding BBC 1 Saturday February 20th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Noel's House Party Promo Casualty Promo Comic relief Balloon Promo Love Town Balloon 7:40 National Lottery Live Promo National Lottery Promo Harbour Lights Promo Sunburn -Still Balloon 8:05 Casualty Lottery Update Promo Mrs.
TV Branding BBC 1 Sunday February 28th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Antiques Roadshow Promo BBC Antiques Website Promo Violent Planet Promo Mrs.Five Go Mad in the Kitchen Promo Comic relief s Big Adventure Promo Harbour Lights Balloon 7:30 Holiday: Fasten Your Seat Belt Promo City Central Promo Loyalists BBC 2 still Promo Mrs. Merton & Malcolm Balloon 7:25 Comic Relief . Merton & Malcolm Balloon 8:00 Comic Reliefs Great Big Excellent African Adventure! Promo Red Nose appeal Promo Holby City Balloon 8:50 News Promo Murder in Texas Weather Promo BBC Weather Online Promo Harbour Lights Balloon 9:00 Love Town Promo Friday -Groundforce & The Builders Promo Never Mind the Buzzcocks BBC 2 slide Promo Comic Relief Jukebox slide Promo Playing the field Balloon 9:30 The Lakes Dur Secs 6 20 20 10 10 20 10 30 13 20 9 30 20 10 17 60 8 20 11 30 5 10 20 11 Page 81 of 119 .
Merton & Malcolm Balloon 8:00 Eastenders Promo Nine O'clock News Promo Food & Drink BBC 2 still Balloon Promo Holby City Balloon 8:30 Mrs. Merton & Malcolm Promo Red Nose Day Promo Film True Lies Promo Births Weddings & Funerals BBC 2 still Promo Animal Police still Clock 9:00 News Newsroom Southeast Weather Promo Violent Planet Balloon Promo Panorama Balloon 9:30 Animal Police Dur Secs 20 30 8 8 20 10 20 30 8 20 8 3 20 10 30 20 8 5 190 120 30 3 27 10 BBC Programmes & Promos -Categories Programme Size Matters Fat Free Eastenders Holiday Holby City Sunburn Paddington Green Great Railway Journeys Parkinson The Generation Game Noel's House Party Dream House Wildlife on One Watchdog Batter sea Dog's Home Category Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Drama Travel Drama Drama Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Talkshow Game/Light entertainment Game/Light entertainment Docu/Factual Wildlife Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Page 82 of 119 .TV Branding BBC 1 Monday March 8th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme 7:00 Question of Sport Promo National Lottery Promo Newsroom South East Promo Rough Guide to the world BBC 2 still Balloon 7:30 Watchdog Health check Promo News Promo Disaster BBC 2 Promo Playing the field Promo Mrs.
Merton and Malcolm Holiday on a Shoestring Violent Planet Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Costume Drama Comedy Drama Comedy Sci-Fi Police Drama Drama Docu/Factual Current Affairs Travel Costume Drama Docu/Factual Current Affairs Food Comedy Music Gardening Current Affairs Docu/Factual Travel Sport Wildlife Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Art Docu/Factual Comedy Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Daytime Drama Light Entertainment Drama Docu/Factual Charity Docu/Factual Talkshow Drama Docu/Factual Education Gardening Education/Health Docu/Factual Police Drama Comedy Comedy Travel Docu/Factual Page 83 of 119 . bang Holiday Guide Australian Tennis Born to be Wild History of Alternative Comedy Shooting the Past Healthcheck Digital Planet Against the grain Raising the roof Party. Party Mad about Monet Inside Story Morecambe and Wise Crimewatch Forever Young Vanessa Harbour Lights Get your act together Playing the field Fares Please Red Nose day Animal Police Clarkson Silent Witness Meet the Ancestors Bitesize Groundforce Trust me. I'm a Doctor Love Town City Central Jasper Carrott Mrs. Cook Dad Top of the Pops Gardening from Scratch Panorama Bang.TV Branding Battle of the sexes Changing rooms Vets in practice Jude Unfinished Business Casualty Kiss Me Kate X-Files Mersey Blues The Lakes Don't Call Us Question Time The Travel Show The Scarlet Pimpernel Extreme Machines Around Westminster Ready. Steady.
Weddings and Funerals Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Docu/Factual Quiz/Light Entertainment Travel Docu/factual Food Drama Page 84 of 119 .TV Branding Loyalists Murder in Texas Builders Never Mind the Buzzcocks Rough guide to the World Disaster Food and Drink Births.
.TV Branding Channel 5 Tuesday January 12 th 1999 Week 1 Time Programme Comm break Promo Film BAT 21 Ident 7:00 News Comm break News pt. 3 90 10 30 10 8 215 215 Page 85 of 119 . 2 Weather Commercial Weather Weather Commercial Promo Perfect Babies Promo -Champions of the Wild Still Commercials Dur Secs 80 30 15 125 15 65 10 30 7 62 Film Promo (general) Ident 7:30 Wildlife-Champions of the Wild Comm break Promo Film BAT 21 Promo Perfect Babies (still) Commercials 105 15 185 30 7 60 Promo for Two1 Ident News Update Promo Wing & a Prayer Ident 8:00 Science -Perfect Babies Commercials 30 5 90 30 15 185 175 Science -Perfect Babies pt. 2 Commercials Promo for BAT 21 Booklet Promo Film Thurs Next Still Commercials 10 30 215 Promo Wing & Prayer News Update Promo Two'T Promo Film Weds Ident C for Caution 9:00 Film BAT 21 Commercials Film BAT 21 pt.. 2 Commercials Film BAT 21 pt.
? Ident News Update Promo Film Tues.TV Branding Channel 5 Wednesday January 13* 1999 Week 1 Time Programme Film Promo (general) News trail Commercials Dur Secs 105 10 60 Promo road Rage Ident 7:00 News Commercials News 30 15 125 Weather Commercial Weather Weather Commercial Film Promo Champions of the Wild Still Commercials 15 65 10 30 7 65 Promo Wing & a Prayer Ident 7:30 Champions of the Wild Commercials 30 15 185 Promo Perfect Babies Wing and a Prayer Commercials 30 7 90 Promo was it good.? Promo Pepsi Chart Ident News Update Promo for Family Confidential Ident 8:00 Drama . Ident C for Caution 9:00 Film-Hostile Force Commercials Film-Hostile Force pt..Wing and a Prayer pt. 2 Commercials Drama .Wing and a Prayer pt. 2 Commercials Film-Hostile Force pt.Wing and a Prayer Commercials 30 8 13 90 20 10 185 175 Drama .. 3 Promo for Hostile Force Promo for Perfect Babies Commercials 10 30 215 Promo was it good. 2 10 15 90 30 9 215 215 Page 86 of 119 .
2 Promo Holiday Park Fri 8 30 Ident 8:30 Family Confidential 125 30 10 Commercials Promo Film -A strange Affair Family Confidential pt.TV Branding Channel 5 Thursday January 14th 1999 Week 1 Time Programme Promo Holiday Park News trail Dur Secs 30 10 Commercials Promo road Rage Promo Two' Ident 7:00 News Commercials News pt. 2 Weather Commercial Weather Weather Commercial Film Promo (general) Champions of the Wild Still T 60 30 30 15 125 15 65 10 105 6 Commercials Promo Wing & a prayer Ident 7:30 Champions of the Wild 65 30 10 Commercials Promo Road Rages Promo Film Sins of Silence Promo Chart Show Still 155 30 30 7 Commercials Promo Perfect Babies Ident News Update Promo Family Confidential Ident 8:00 Pepsi Chart Show 65 30 15 90 21 8 Commercials Promo Film Sins of Silence Promo Family Confidential Still 185 10 Commercials Pepsi Chart Show pt.2 Promo Film General Film Promo Still Next 175 10 60 6 Commercials Promo Wing & a prayer Ident News Update Promo Holiday park 215 10 10 90 10 Page 87 of 119 .
3 Channel 5 Thursday January 14th 1999 Week 1 Page 88 of 119 . 2 Commercials Film A strange Affair pt.TV Branding Promo Sins of Silence Ident C for caution 9:00 Film A strange Affair Commercials 30 10 215 215 Film A strange Affair pt.
2 Promo perfect Babies Promo was it good for you ? Still 65 30 30 15 155 30 7 Commercials Promo for Film Crossworlds Ident News update Promo Holiday Park Ident 8:00 Was it good for you 90 10 15 90 30 10 Commercials Was it good for you pt. 2 Promo Road rage Promo Holiday Park still 185 30 Commercials Promo for Two' Ident 8:30 Holiday Park 125 30 10 Commercials Promo perfect Babies Holiday Park pt.TV Branding Channel 5 Friday January 15 th 1999 Week 1 Time Programme Promo Holiday Park Promo News Dur Secs 30 10 Commercials Trail for Movies general Ident 7:00 News Commercials News Part 2 Weather Commercial Weather Weather Commercial Promo Wing & a prayer Promo Champions of the wild 60 60 10 125 15 65 10 30 7 Commercials Promo was it good for you Promo Holiday Park Ident 7:30 Champions of the wild Commercials Champions of the wild pt. 2 Promo film still Shadow of Obsession 175 10 5 Commercials Promo wing and a prayer Ident News Update Promo Film sins of silence Ident C for caution 9:00 Film Shadow of Obsession 125 30 30 1° 6 Page 89 of 119 .
TV Branding Commercials Film Shadow of Obsession pt. 2 Commercials Film Shadow of Obsession pt. 3 Channel 5 Friday January 15th 1999 Week 1 215 215 Page 90 of 119 .
TV Branding Channel 5 Saturday January 16th 1999 Week 1 Time Programme Night Fever pt. 2 Commercials Promo Film Kiss of death Xena pt. 2 Commercials Night Fever pt. 3 Promo Film Crossworlds Promo slide Bloodknot Commercials Promo road rage Ident News update Promo film kiss of death Promo perfect babies Ident C for caution 9:00 Film Bloodknot Commercials Film Bloodknot pt. 2 Commercials Film Bloodknot pt. 3 Dur Secs 185 30 10 9 65 30 9 30 9 180 175 10 30 7 65 10 15 90 10 30 10 200 185 Page 91 of 119 . 3 Promo Film Project Alf Promo Was it good for you Promo Xena Still Commercials Promo Film Crossworlds ident 7:45 News & sport Promo for Two' Ident 8:05 Xena Commercials Xena pt.
2 Commercials Film Deadly Pursuits pt. 3 30 14 90 25 30 20 6 215 185 Page 92 of 119 . 2 Commercials 30 30 15 90 30 30 20 185 175 Prom Wing & a prayer African Safari pt. 3 Promo Test tube babies Promo for'2' Promo for Deadly pursuit -still Commercials 10 30 30 9 215 Promo Road rage Ident News Update Promo family confidential Promo Film Kiss of death Ident C for Caution 9:00 Film Deadly Pursuits Commercials Film Deadly Pursuits pt. 2 Commercials from Jesus to Christ pt. 3 Promo for News on Sunday Promo was it good for you Promo African Safari still Commercials Promo Perfect Babies Promo Wing & a prayer Ident News Update Promo Film Midnight Heat Promo Road Rage Ident 8:00 African Safari Commercials African Safari pt.TV Branding Channel 5 Sunday January 17th 1999 Week 1 Time Programme Commercials Dur Secs 30 10 90 30 15 185 185 20 30 7 90 Promo for Perfect Babies Promo for Film kiss of death 7:00 News Update Promo Film Crossworlds Ident 7:05 from Jesus to Christ Commercials from Jesus to Christ pt.
2 Promo Babies for sale Promo Weather front Commercials 30 30 7 185 30 6 125 Promo film Kiss of Death Ident News Update Promo Road rage Ident 8:00 Weather Front Commercials Weather Front pt. 2 Weather Commercial Weather Weather Commercial Commercials 7 9 15 125 15 65 10 60 Promo Road rage Promo Wing & a prayer Ident 7:30 Champions of the Wild Commercials Champions of the Wild pt. 2 Promo Family Confidential Promo Film Sins of Silence still Commercials 10 25 6 160 News Update Promo Film Crossworlds Promo Holiday park Ident G for Guidance 9:00 Film Sins Of Silence Commercials 90 10 30 10 9 215 Page 93 of 119 .TV Branding Channel 5 Monday January 18th 1999 Week 1 Time Programme Promo Two' News Trail Commercials Dur Sees 30 10 60 Promo Champions of the wild still Promo Film Kiss of Death Ident 7:00 News Commercials News pt. 2 Promo Film Sins of Silence Promo Road Rage Still Commercials Promo Sunday News Ident 8:30 Road Rage Commercials 30 15 90 30 10 185 10 6 120 20 9 175 Promo Film Kiss of death Road Rage pt.
2 Commercials 215 Film Sins Of Silence pt. 3 Channel 5 Monday January 18th 1999 Week 1 Page 94 of 119 .TV Branding Film Sins Of Silence pt.
2 Commercials Promo Wing & a prayer Perfect Babies pt.TV Branding Channel 5 Tuesday January 19th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Promo Holiday Park Promo Champions of the Wild News trail Commercials Promo Film Kiss of Death Promo Two' Ident 7:00 News Commercials News pt. 2 Promo Road rages Promo Perfect Babies still 7 65 30 30 10 185 30 7 Commercials Promo Film Kiss of death Ident News Update Promo was it good for you? Promo Holiday Park Ident 8:00 Perfect Babies Commercials Perfect Babies pt. 2 Weather Promo Weather Weather Promo Promo Perfect Babies Dur Secs 30 7 10 90 10 30 10 125 15 65 10 30 Promo Champions of the Wild Still Commercials Promo Wing & a prayer Promo Film Midnight Heat Ident 7:30 Champions of the wild Commercials Champions of the wild pt. 3 Promo Family Confidential Promo Film Kiss of death Still Commercials Promo Holiday Park Promo Film Buffy the vampire slayer Ident News Update Promo Two' Promo Film Crossworlds Ident C for Caution 9:00 Film Kiss of death 65 10 9 90 10 30 11 185 175 10 25 8 160 30 10 10 90 30 30 14 7 Page 95 of 119 .
3 Channel 5 Tuesday January 19th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Page 96 of 119 .TV Branding Commercials Film Kiss of death pt. 2 215 215 Commercials Film Kiss of death pt.
3 Promo Film Two mothers for Zachary Promo The Avenging Angel still Commercials 10 10 6 215 Promo general Ident News Update Promo was it good for you? Promo Family Affairs Ident C for Caution 9:00 Film Avenging Angel Commercials 50 10 90 10 30 20 7 215 215 Film Avenging Angel pt. 2 Commercials 30 20 30 10 185 175 Promo Film Two mothers for Zachary Wing & a prayer pt. 2 Promo Film Two mothers for Zachary Promo Wing & a prayer still Commercials 30 7 95 Promo Family Confidential Ident News Update Promo Family Affairs Ident 8:00 Wing & a prayer Commercials Wing & a prayer pt. 2 Weather Commercial Weather Weather Commercial Promo general Promo Wild Flight Commercials 30 13 125 15 65 10 50 6 60 Promo was it good for you ? Promo Film The avenging Angel Ident 7:30 Wild Flight Commercials 10 30 11 185 Wild Flight pt. 2 Commercials Page 97 of 119 .TV Branding Channel 5 Wednesday January 27 th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Promo Film The Vanishing News Trail Promo general Commercials Dur Secs 30 10 50 60 Promo Family Confidential Ident 7:00 News Commercials News pt.
3 Channel 5 Wednesday January 27th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Page 98 of 119 .TV Branding Film Avenging Angel pt.
2 Promo Wing & a Prayer Promo Pepsi Chart Show Commercials Promo Family Confidential Ident News Update Promo Family Affairs Ident 8:00 Pepsi Chart Show Commercials Pepsi Chart Show pt. 2 Promo Film Little Nikita Promo Film Fulfillment of Mary Gray Commercials Promo for Melinda Ident News Update 65 10 20 30 65 30 15 155 30 8 65 10 10 90 30 10 185 6 30 8 125 10 4 175 10 30 9 155 20 10 90 Page 99 of 119 . 2 Promo Jack Docherty still Promo Bring me the head of Light. Promo Family Confidential still Commercials Promo was it good for you? Ident 8:30 Family Confidential Commercials Promo Bring me the head of Light. 2 Weather Commercial (Autoglass) Dur Secs 30 10 9 60 30 30 15 65 15 Weather Weather Commercial (Autoglass) Promo Instant Gardens Promo Bring me the head of Light. Family Confidential pt.TV Branding Channel 5 Thursday February 4th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Promo Family Confidential Trail News Promo Wild Water -still Commercials Promo Wing & a Prayer Promo Film My Blue Heaven Ident 7:00 News Commercials News pt. Promo Wild Water -still Commercials Promo Film Highjacked: Flight 285 Ident 7:30 Wild Water Commercials Wild Water pt....
2 Commercials Film The Fulfillment of Mary Gray pt. 3 Channel 5 Thursday February 4th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) 30 10 15 10 215 215 Page 100 of 119 .TV Branding Promo Family Affairs Promo Film Hijack. flight 285 Ident G for Guidance 9:00 Film The Fulfillment of Mary Gray Commercials Film The Fulfillment of Mary Gray pt.
2 Promo Film Dillinger Promo Film Victim of Love still Commercials 10 30 10 125 Promo Family Confidential Promo Poltergeist Ident News Update Promo C16 10 7 7 90 30 Page 101 of 119 .TV Branding Channel 5 Friday February 12 th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Promo Movie Chart Show News Trail Commercials Dur Secs 10 10 60 Promo Valentines Day Ident 7:00 News Commercials News Part 2 Weather Commercial Weather Weather Promo Promo Instant Gardens Promo Valentine's Day Promo Animal Calypso Commercials 45 10 125 15 65 10 20 45 8 65 Promo C16 Promo Pig & the Ritz still Ident 7:30 Animal Calypso Commercials 30 7 10 155 Animal Calypso pt. 2 Promo Into the flames Promo Was it good for you? Still Commercials 30 8 45 90 30 11 185 30 7 125 Promo Valentine's Day Ident News Update Promo C16 Ident 8:00 Was it good for You ? Commercials Was it good for You ? Ft 2 Promo Animal ER Promo Pig at the Ritz still Commercials Promo Film Dillinger Ident 8:30 Pig at the Ritz Commercials 30 5 175 Promo Film Speechless Pig at the Ritz pt.
3 Channel 5 Friday February 12th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) 10 10 5 215 215 10 Page 102 of 119 . 2 Commercials Promo Valentine's Day Film Victim of Love pt.TV Branding Promo Wing & a prayer Ident C for Caution 9:00 Film Victim of Love Commercials Film Victim of Love pt.
3 Promo Film Too much trouble Promo C16 still Commercials 30 10 125 Promo Film Johnny Mnemonic 7:45 News & Sport Ident Promo Film Name of the Rose Promo Football & documentary Ident 30 30 30 40 20 215 8:05 C16 Commercials Promo Crime Report C16pt.TV Branding Channel 5 Saturday February 20th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Fifty Degrees of Fever Commercials Dur Secs 215 215 Fifty Degrees of Fever pt. 2 Commercials Fifty Degrees of Fever pt. 3 Channel 5 Saturday February 20th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) 30 8 90 10 40 15 6 215 215 Page 103 of 119 . 2 Commercials C16 pt. 2 Commercials Film Conundrum pt. 3 10 205 Promo Film Name of the Rose Promo Film Conundrum still Commercials 30 11 65 Promo Animal ER Ident News Update Promo Women Undone Promo Football & documentary Ident C for Caution 9:00 Film Conundrum Commercials Film Conundrum pt.
3 Channel 5 Sunday February 28th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) 10 Page 104 of 119 . 3 Promo Wing & a prayer Promo Film deceived by trust Promo Football & documentary Commercials 30 15 185 185 30 10 40 185 Promo Film Rambo III Ident News Update Promo Crime Report Promo Film Memphis Belle Ident C for Caution 9:00 Film Deceived by Trust Commercials Film Deceived by Trust pt. 2 Commercials 30 10 90 10 30 15 7 215 195 Promo Wing & a prayer Film Deceived by Trust pt. 2 Promo Film Rambo III Promo Wild Encounters still Promo Crime Report Commercials 155 30 8 30 110 Promo Film Memphis Belle Ident 8:00 Wild Encounter Commercials Wild Encounter pt. 2 Commercials Wild Encounter pt.TV Branding Channel 5 Sunday February 28th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Hercules Promo Film Three lives of Thomosina Promo News Trail Commercials Promo Football & documentary Ident Dur Secs 30 10 10 215 40 15 7:30 News & sport Commercials News Pt.
TV Branding Channel 5 Monday March 8th 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Time Programme Promo Film The rescue News Trail Commercials Dur Secs 30 10 62 Promo Crime Report Promo Running Man Ident 7:00 News Commercials News Pt. 2 Weather Commercial Weather Weather Commercial Promo Film The return of Hunter Promo Natural Passions still Commercials 30 30 15 125 15 65 10 30 7 125 Promo Film Murder By Death Promo Animal ER Ident 7:30 Natural Passions Commercials Natural Passions pt. 2 Promo Parking Rage Promo Film Mary Higgins Clarke's Remember Me still Commercials 10 15 6 185 Promo Film Running Man Ident News Update Promo Film Murder By Death Promo Film Return of Hunter 30 15 90 30 30 Page 105 of 119 . 2 Promo Film Return of Hunter Promo Animal ER still Commercials 30 15 90 30 15 185 30 7 125 Promo Film Murder by Death Ident 8:30 Animal ER Commercials 30 15 175 Promo Crime Report Animal ER pt. 2 Promo Film Running Man Promo Instant Gardens Commercials 30 30 15 185 30 7 63 Promo Crime Report Ident News Update Promo Animal ER Ident 8:00 Instant Gardens Commercials Instant Gardens pt.
TV Branding Ident G for Guidance 9:00 Film Mary Higgins Clarke's Remember Me Commercials Film Mary Higgins Clarke's Remember Me pt. 2 Commercials Film Mary Higgins Clarke's Remember Me pt. 3 Channel 5 Monday March 8* 1999 Week 2 (staggered week) Channel 5 Programmes & Promos -Categories 10 10 215 215 Programme Perfect Babies Champions of the Wild Two Wing and a Prayer Road Rage Was it Good for You? The Pepsi Chart Show Family Confidential Category Science Wildlife US Crime Drama Docu/Factual Travel Music Docu/Factual Holiday Park Night Fever Docu/Factual Light Entertainment Adventure Drama Religious Wildlife Wildlife Wildlife Gardening Comedy Talkshow Talkshow Film background Wildlife Crime Drama Docu/Factual Animal Crime Docu/Factual Wildlife Docu/Factual Xena From Jesus to Christ African Safari Wild Flight Wild Water Instant gardens Bring me the head of.. Jack Docherty Melinda Messenger Movie Chart Show Animal Calypso C16 Pig and the Ritz Animal ER Crime Report Women Undone Natural Passions Parking Rage Page 106 of 119 .
TV Branding Appendix 2 .Images from BBC ONE Page 107 of 119 .
TV Branding And an Image from Channel 5 News promo Page 108 of 119 .
TV Branding Appendix 3.Elisabeth Murdoch's Speech Edinburgh August 1998 Page 109 of 119 .
from Barry Diller in '94 raving about convergence through Bob Phillis committing the BBC to serving Britain's '100 tribes'! But this year is different. The predictions are over. In the decade that followed every single one of the establishment organisations that still survive have moved to embrace what's become the inevitable future of television. The industry's Mystic Megs can put away their crystal balls. The profound effects it would have across the world and the importance of allowing companies the freedom to invest in its birth and development. The revolution which so many people have talked about will soon touch the lives of the people who really matter. This television revolution will begin with the launch of SkyDigital on October 1st. This year's World View' Speech is going to be a major improvement on last year's. Here at Edinburgh many of my Worldview predecessors have warmed to the seductive promise of digital technology . At the time Britain's existing TV establishment greeted the emergence of Sky and my father's early predictions of a multi-channel environment with dismay and in many cases total contempt. the most exciting. not even a savage attack on the ITC. But then I thought I'd make the speech really different! So there are no alliterative assaults on TV management. Why? Because its going to be digital! There will be multiplexed versions to suit every viewpoint. and most timely development since the medium was created. no rabid broadsides to terrestrial companies. It talked about the potential of the new digital technology. That same year Sky Television . I thought about installing a V chip so you could edit out the offensive content. Just as we at Sky once placed all our bets on the fundamental belief that people would pay for television they valued. In just one month digital television will be beaming its way into peoples' homes. almost to the day. today we've committed ourselves to this massive investment of time. money. people and resources because we're truly convinced that the founding principles and core values underpinning digital television are not only accepted but expected by the British public.TV Branding INTRODUCTION So let me let you into a little secret.was launched.Britain's first multi-channel service . Nine years ago. I believe this to be the most exhilarating. Those of you with a good memory may remember that the person who gave the MacTaggart in 1989 was Rupert Murdoch. Six megabits of Worldview nirvana with crystal clear pictures and CD quality sound. And even a pay-perview version with 22 camera-angles and instant replay. If you will forgive the break with tradition I want to celebrate our industry not condemn it. the MacTaggart lecture provided a vision of the future of television. Page 110 of 119 .
The public's behaviour . But this new technology will not mean. Think about it. Our industry .it's going to invigorate every one of us here in this room. dynamic and powerful means of genuine communication at the centre of all of our lives. that television is dead. What we're all seeing are fundamental changes in almost every aspect of the world as we know it. Sure we got a new paint job with colour. Added a few more products to our line. Page 111 of 119 . I'm sure it comes as no surprise that I of all people would say that digital is going to "save us all". But what exactly is digital? How should we define it? Conventional wisdom is that it's an expensive cure for no known disease. Globally as an industry we've not been able to participate in these changes as responsively as other sectors. As a group of people we are all committed in one way or another to communicate. And it's happening now. However it's now critical that we as an industry are clear about the value of digital in all of our lives. I believe that not only is digital going to resuscitate and fortify the medium itself . What we each do need to be certain of is that our innate creative ability and creative ambition has not been dulled by the confines of our past and the institutions and methods it produced. Our industry's fundamental proposition has not actually changed much in more than fifty years. Yet even if we haven't been aware of it.what you and I do. On the contrary. what we feel passionate about doing -can now experience the greatest renaissance of its lifetime. Digital will give us all the opportunity to take television towards its rightful place: its place as the most exciting. Because digital could well be the saviour of television. This is our time. A theoretician's delight and a practitioner's nightmare. Challenging our best selves to 're-appear1.everything they do as consumers and as citizens points towards a deep desire for a level of service that we as an industry are now finally allowed to provide. predicated solely on the Government's obsession with releasing valuable spectrum.TV Branding Let's be clear about this. But the point I'd like to make to you today is far more profound than just a marketing spin on how wonderful SkyDigital is going to be. as some fear mongers would have us believe. We need to remember that we already have the skill set to participate in this most fantastic time. But for the most part we've worked within a broadcast paradigm that was invented and defined by a time in history that was completely unlike the one we live in today. we have been obstructed by our own technological inability to adapt our methods to the changing world around us. to connect and to touch people through what we do.
Where the average citizen here in the UK changes jobs seven times in a lifetime. The majority of people who read British Vogue live in the most unfashionable postcodes. A sudden surge of individual empowerment. And almost 30% of people in Britain live alone. Right now TV children stop behaving like kids '4 to 15' at about age 9. None of us seem to know our place! The dominant theme since the War has been the explosion of choice in all aspects of our lives. their job and their social status. In the late 1940's the world was a place where people strove for consensus after the trauma of War. Nobody but nobody behaves like your sales department really wants them to. Neither is it any good to split people up into neat little ABC's any more. Who are those good old 'housewives with kids' who sit at home watching Richard and Judy every day? Apparently they don't even have to be women they just have to 'behave' that way! Who exactly is that 'adult 16-34'? Someone who magically remains the same for 18 whole years . their neighbourhood. The world that gave birth to TV was one where people defined themselves by their age. There were rules and definitions and pretty well everyone obeyed them. moves house six times. One or two channels were enormously effective and culturally consistent with that world.effectively useless to the TV industry for the rest of their sorry lives.TV Branding PART 1 -THE CHANGING WORLD So let's just go back in time and think for a moment of how the world was when television was developing. Quite an achievement! The amount of choice they had as consumers was a fraction of what we take for granted today. And a realisation that for the first time we have the ability to make a vast variety of choices that will alter our lives forever. It's now completely inappropriate to think of ourselves along simplistic demographic lines. The social group who spends the most in fast food restaurants are ABs. Now let's fast forward through a few decades to a world where we no longer define ourselves by our age or by our geography.just managing to scrape past adolescence only to be caught in a statistical time warp which spits them out at mid-life crisis . In its appeal to the masses television was about a set of cultural values and assumptions that could be shared as widely as possible. Page 112 of 119 . In the 50's the average British citizen spent their entire life in the same community and stayed married to the same person for a lifetime. We just won't fit into those neatly defined boxes. The social group most likely to visit the pub are ABs. And the television they got was created in the image of its creators. And what about those 'kids 4-15'? I don't know if you've taken your kids to school lately but nature does do some terrible things to children somewhere along the line.
The magazine racks cover these interests and hundreds more in enormous depth and from every conceivable angle. Second. The restrictions of our medium have sadly made us restricted in our aspirations. it's made it grow. The specialist press becomes a 2nd 3rd and even 4th read. Up to now our position has been defensible only because choice has been limited by the realities of analogue. It actually brings people in and makes the cake bigger. for too many of us. From the high street to holidays from magazines to motor cars. PART 2 . This limited choice has bred a generational mind set of 'we know best1 . Because in a world of access our choices say a lot about our underlying values and our character. First we demand quality and value for money. There is no greater example of this than in the print media which has now been complimented by a vibrant magazine sector. we look to define ourselves by the choices we make. From now on there is NO excuse .the choice is ours. But what happens in a world of unlimited access of exploding choices and boundless opportunity? Two things. The typical supermarket has 50. television is the only industry where giving increased choice to the customer has been unobtainable and. They now have the ability to roam unhindered for hours through thousands of subjects of their own choosing. be anything. And every organisation competing for our time and our money knows that.000 a month. Page 113 of 119 . the chairman of Marks and Spencer. living in the real world. And the amazing thing is that it hasn't divided the market. But if you want to understand it from the consumer's point of view it's like the arrival of magazine shelves in WH Smith. It now has an average circulation of 750. undesirable. Four years ago FHM came from nowhere. Historically in Britain. As each new magazine appears it doesn't necessarily cannibalise.THE DIGITAL FUTURE So how do we fit into all this? We live it every day in our personal lives. Now we can live anywhere. And by the way it isn't just the upper middle classes who have the choices.000 different products for us to choose from. As we walk into our offices we have to adapt to an industry defined by its past and not by its future. know everything . Now there's no perfect analogy for Digital.'we will choose the line-up you want1. The newspapers are the established broadcasters each covering an enormous range of interests from their particular point of view. Are our airlines better or worse today than 15 years ago? What about our Retailers? Our Restaurants? Our Cars? It is a shame about the trains! When we are empowered with choice we simply seek the best that suits our particular tastes. It is not a case of either/or. The choice is there for everyone.TV Branding For the first time people across the world are being given almost unlimited access and information and raw data.other than laziness and a fear of change. But somehow when we go to work we suspend our beliefs as real people. These are not my words they are the words of Sir Richard Greenbury. In every single industry that has experienced an explosion of choice it has made them better. "The relentless pursuit of product development means that today we can offer our customers a more extensive choice than ever before".
Marks and Spencer . choice and really-good-value. We all know the figures. Most UK research groups agree that by the end of next year . than stay dry and settle down in front of the TV to watch Our Friends in the North. This means that the PC will clearly be a growing competitor for people's attention. Real value in transactions . We feel it provides a manageable choice". I'm sorry to be the bearer of bad news. PC's may compete with us but they're not going to become us. but there's been a divorce. Leisure Consultants who provide these figures actually say that 'sightseeing' is the most popular of alternative activities. Around the world viewers are turning more and more to alternative media and activities. We could infer from these figures that the average British person would prefer to visit The Angel of the North'. It's incredibly effective for communication and the sharing of knowledge. as the founder of America Online put it just last month at an investor's conference. Well. For years now the word 'convergence' has gone side by side with digital. while we've never experienced lower preference scores.already E-commerce is gearing up to give traditional retailers a run for their money. However. No not the first time I've had to talk about this subject in the last few months! It's increasingly clear that people's use of the TV and the PC are hugely differing experiences. But I bet you didn't know this: sightseeing has grown in popularity 60%.be good for British television? Why shouldn't the British viewer have the same level of service as they get from a company like Marks and Spencer? Quality. most likely in the pouring rain. If digital hadn't arrived I can only assume that the alarming rate of dissatisfaction with television would continue unchecked. Page 114 of 119 . they can't see what they can add to the convenience of entertainment. Did you know that 10 years ago sightseeing was as popular as TV viewing.UK internet penetration will be close to that of multi-channel TV today. Which makes some of the proposed offerings from members of our industry a little baffling.TV Branding Why shouldn't what's good for Britain's leading retailer . eating out and holidays are on the increase and by far preferred to watching TV. In all UK TV Households television viewing has declined over the past five years while reading. In the UK nearly half the internet users claim that their internet use is at the expense of watching TV. "A few channels are a good idea because they provide the viewer with a manageable choice"! "I'm sorry sir we only have white or black y-fronts. The internet is succeeding because it is adding real value to people's lives. What is interesting however is that digital television has destroyed the 'convergence theory'. searching for new ways to feel 'connected' to the world. A convenient way of explaining how TV's and PC's will get married and live happily ever after. No-one complains that Marks and Spencer has more products than you need on any particular day.in just 18 months time .
But most importantly digital will also do to television what unfettered choice has done to other markets. No couches. No Freud. So are we ready for the Big Bang in the TV Universe? Here's a little self-help. the digital multichannel household is going to be the norm. Digital is a technology that enables us to compete in a world that demands extensive choice and added value. The answer has to be to use the technology to provide context as well as content. Accepted that the average person would never be able to handle more than the electric typewriter and the calculator. Murdoch style. Which makes the PC and the Internet a very serious competitor.G1 will give context. Digital allows you to manage choice. sooner rather than later. this average person just might be able to maximise this awesome and life enhancing tool.TV Branding Like America Online I really find it hard to believe that people will switch from their webpage to Eastenders without leaving their desk! Even though each industry will learn and borrow from one another. Of course we still need simplicity in a world of boundless possibilities. You could say that 'Electronic Programme Guides' are to digital TV what Apple was to computing. However Apple decided that if they simplified that indecipherable and alienating DOS language. But not by limiting that choice as others have suggested. fulfilling different needs for their owners. So digital allows for more content and the digital 'E.P. I suppose the computer industry could have accepted the belief that the power of PC's was never going to be appreciated by the average consumer. So the $6. TV will continue to be the dominant medium for 'lean-back1 leisure rather than 'lean forward' interaction. Strictly a pay per view consultation. First and foremost if we haven't got the message yet. Page 115 of 119 . Digital will enable us to give added value to people's TV viewing by providing them with their own personal 'television navigation system' Transforming the TV experience just as Apple or Windows made computers viable. The fact is. What they did was to put the Personal into computing and they invented the PC. It guarantees that all programmes are treated equal in the eyes of the beholder at the touch of a button.4 billion dollar question is: how do we remain relevant in a market place that we haven't been able to adapt to? The answer lies in optimising a technology that will allow us to reinvent television for the first time since its inception. Given that British people spend the majority of their leisure time watching TV it should come as no surprise that we do have the most to lose. in the UK. we have to recognise that the era when any one of us was able to secure a majority audience is at an end. We are all competing with other media now more than ever. It will make us all be better. The EPG is the greatest leveller of all. The elements are already there but digital is going to force the issue. But the answer can not be to 'dumb down' or provide less. Yet both pieces of technology will happily sit together in the home of the future.
look around and remember again the reasons you decided to get into the media in the first place. The Superbowl and O. Page 116 of 119 . It's time to wake up. In any other sector the combination of choice and competition guarantees that the cream will rise to the top. Although I'd be the first to acknowledge that the current system has produced some fantastic television. Just look around you.in an attempt to appeal to the widest possible audience. take precedence over what we and our public know to be of value. The cause may be genetic or it may be analogue but the symptoms are the same . so long as we listen to who's really in charge . And the simple key to the survival of the middle-ground. In tomorrow's TV world. This is their definition of value. But with big events at one end and niches at the other what is going to happen to the middle? The answer is that choice and fragmentation may well kill off the middle unless we respond quickly and decisively to what's already happening.the public. the channels and programmes that are neither niche nor event. Because the most dangerous thing for all of us will be to play it safe. I'm sure we all understand why after attaining a certain level of success or institutional maturity we might be tempted to kick back with the cigar and port in the 'George' and bask in the glory of the opinion formers! But being seduced by complacency is to be ill prepared for what is to come. The middle ground that's so under threat does not have to die.blander rather than better . It happened in magazines and it's happening to us. Sure events such as The Bill and Monica Show. There is no alternative. whose 'Golden Age' has passed them by. We have to leap forward with confidence. Content will have to be innovative.niche audiences all wanting and needing different 'fare'. I truly believe that this is a major disease in our industry. is this: we have to change the way we do our business! We cannot let the patronising establishment attitude of the old school. The trouble is that most of us have worked for so long in a three or four channel environment that it may seem impossible to move out of our comfort zone. where multi-channel TV homes are every home.TV Branding All of us have to face up to the irreversible fragmentation into countless personal audiences . Today's viewer is not only tolerant of change but expects innovation and satisfaction in all their consumer choices. The mass audiences that we as broadcasters have all craved will soon become more and more difficult to conjure up. it cannot be denied that some broadcasters have reacted to competition and fragmentation by putting out 'the least objectionable programmes' . So if you're not prepared today to care deeply about what you're offering to your audience do not expect them to care for it either. Simpson will still galvanise communities across all demographic lines. blandness will be anathema. Now I know there's still the fear that with a multiplying number of television channels the size of the budget will be the defining factor of quality. You only have to look at film and music to know that this is a mistaken assumption.J.and the symptoms are deadly. ambitious and competitive.
Digital technology will foster new 'product research and development units' throughout our industry. Nickelodeon and even QVC . Many will fail. Evidence of our need for them is everywhere. the media brand. And in terms of being in touch with our public.not to compromise and to copy by following the path of least resistance and greatest fear! Right now the public is rejecting mass-produced commodity products. No smart animatic with self important orchestrations will save your channel if you haven't got the shows that fit the attitude -and bring the viewers in. Much of it might even be appalling. These people will create the formats and genres of the future. a crucial ally without which our efforts are in vain. Page 117 of 119 . a scheduler or a director was NOT the desire to be a bit player in a global distribution business. What drove us when we wanted to be a reporter. And as viewership fragments. My Chief Executive Mark Booth has dared me to walk this talk and put the theory into practice. creativity and context. dismissing their views as California-babble. As with the EPG. if our public stop valuing us they can pick up the phone and switch us off. magazines. Sky was founded on the principle that choice was good. It was to connect. But the public will decide. It's the 'drivel in the middle' that choice and fragmentation will finally kill off. The last thing we have to recognise in our new world so as to prepare ourselves for our imminent 'diving in' is that creative quality has another half. Digital will give us the opportunity to get more of our creativity on to the screen as producers and broadcasters. in music. however small. Seducing some of the brightest young talents in the country. Trust me. But you can not dismiss the success of companies like FHM. In every other industry the most successful are those whose brands are confident and emotional. In our passion for Sport we have managed to capture an attitude not a demographic. But I truly believe that despite the challenges we face. As I have said. We no longer have to go to MIT to find a MediaLab. anyone with a passion for what they do can find a route to an audience. in theatre. that vividly concentrates the mind. In a world of boundless choice brands are our beacons. television. context is as critical as content in our new world. the importance of delivering on your brand promises will become more crucial than ever before. we are ahead of the curve. not a handful of powerful controllers.companies which make distinct promises to their viewers and then fulfil them. It is still prevalent in the British TV industry to mock brand experts.TV Branding Surely it's instinctive in all of us here today to know that whether we're in radio. to touch and to thrill . But surely this is the wrong speech? A Sky executive talking about content. Surely Sky is only motivated by dominating distribution? I'm the first to admit that we too have some way to go. Now how bored are you with hearing about the importance of brand? How much money have you given to the likes of Martin Lambie Nairn to revolutionise your ailing image with some 'reeelly' expensive 10 second spots? Well none of that is any use at all if you can't build and own the content to fit your brand. in creative writing. so too the brand. print or new media what we are NOT in is a commodity business. Just as in art.
In the months and years to come. None of you will be destroyed by predatory pricing. to create new levels of engagement. But this will only happen if we realise that the balance of power has now shifted to them and away from us. they will turn their back on us in favour of an ever widening range of possibilities to spend their leisure time. Today's dramatic changes in our technology and the equally dramatic changes in consumer behaviour are going to bring that all too real reality and accountability into the lives of public service broadcasters as well. if you fail to meet their increased demands. Their commitment to explain their digital future to their stakeholders shows real vision. To their credit the BBC has lived up to the fundamentals of their public service commitment. Pay TV depended on a life or death basis on the quality of their relationship with their customers. which increasingly they are demanding. Their leisure time. quality and good value can not be reversed. It can't be un-invented. being given the opportunity to enhance the quality of our relationship with our viewers. just as the public's expectation of choice. It's your viewers who will destroy you. All our technology has allowed us to do so far is to be broadcasters . Our viewers are already beginning to feel that TV is now less and less relevant to their particular lives. Today we are being given the chance to have a genuine two-way communication. should be their quality time! Nobody 'owns' digital technology. As creative people we know that television is not inherently dull. we cannot allow the mistakes of our recent responses to increased competition to become perceived as problems inherent in the medium itself. nor by a foreign media baron. Their investment in the creation of digital channels for all platforms shows an understanding of the issues which has astounded and impressed both government and city analysts alike. In the past Pay TV companies and public service broadcasters were different beasts.allowing our citizens to fulfil themselves as individuals and as a community. Because if we don't. We are all participants in it.you must share my conviction that only by embracing digital technology and providing genuine context as well as ambitious content can we all continue to fulfil our remit. digital will shine an unforgiving light on the mediocre and the disingenuous. All of us will be judged Page 118 of 119 . No other country will have to adapt to the full impact of digital as quickly as we are about to. If you're in TV you're in digital. nor by competing media. whatever community they choose to be part of . All of us need to become obsessed with our public and to trust them with greater choice and greater opportunities.TV Branding CONCLUSION If you truly believe in the principles of public service broadcasting .for a very few of us to talk at our audience. The reason why we all got into this business was because of our fascination with and our ability and desire to communicate.
Let's not shy away from embracing it's potential. Let's not be afraid of what the digital age will bring. Page 119 of 119 . So as we move off the slip road of our past onto the multi-lane entertainment super highway of the future let's start to enjoy the exhilaration of our journey. This IS OUR time. Digital is the creative tool-box for the 21st century. Our new palette of paints and brushes to express our shared destiny more fully and more completely than ever before. Our 'golden age' of television has only just begun.TV Branding harshly by the public if we fail to deliver what they know to be their right: true quality time all of the time.
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