Thermal Power Plant Simulation and Control

Edited by

Damian Flynn

The Institution of Electrical Engineers

Published by: The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, United Kingdom © 2003: The Institution of Electrical Engineers This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention 2003 and the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any forms or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address: The Institution of Electrical Engineers, Michael Faraday House, Six Hills Way, Stevenage, Herts., SG1 2AY, United Kingdom While the authors and the publishers believe that the information and guidance given in this work are correct, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgment when making use of them. Neither the authors nor the publishers assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work, whether such error or omission is the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is disclaimed. The moral rights of the authors to be identified as authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Thermal power plant simulation and control. - (lEE power & energy series ; 43) 1. Electric power-plants - Management 2. Electric power systems - Control 3. Electric power systems - Computer simulation I. Flynn, D. II. Institution of Electrical Engineers 621.311210113

ISBN 0 85296 419 6

Typeset in India by Newgen Imaging Systems Printed in the UK by MPG Books Limited, Bodmin, Cornwall

List of contributors

A. Alessandri Institute for the Studies of Intelligent Systems for Automation National Research Council of Italy Genova, Italy A.E Armor Electric Power Research Institute Palo Alto, California, USA M.D. Brown Atkins Aviation and Defence Systems Bristol, England A. Cipriano Electrical Engineering Department Pontificia Universidad Cat61ica de Chile Santiago, Chile P. Coletta Institute for the Studies of Intelligent Systems for Automation National Research Council of Italy Genova, Italy M. Cregan School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, Northern Ireland G.Q. Fan Veritas Software Sydney, Australia

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List of contributors

D. Flynn

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, Northern Ireland
A. Fricker

Innogy plc Swindon, England
R. Garduno-Ramirez

Electrical Research Institute Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
G.W. Irwin

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, Northern Ireland K.Y. Lee Department of Electrical Engineering Pennsylvania State University Pennsylvania, USA A. Leva Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Sciences Politecnico di Milano Milan, Italy
K. Li

School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, Northern Ireland
C. Maffezzoni Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Sciences Politecnico di Milano Milan, Italy T. Moelbak

Elsam A/S Fredericia, Denmark

List of contributors J.H. Mortensen Tech-wise A/S Fredericia, Denmark G. Oluwande Innogy plc Swindon, England T. Parisini Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering University of Trieste Trieste, Italy G. Poncia United Technologies Research Center East Hartford, Connecticut, USA G. Prasad School of Computing and Intelligent Systems University of Ulster Londonderry, Northern Ireland N.W. Rees School of Electrical and Telecommunication Engineering The University of New South Wales Sydney, Australia J.A. Ritchie School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, Northern Ireland D. S~iez Electrical Engineering Department Universidad de Chile Santiago, Chile S. Thompson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast. Northern Ireland

xi

Preface

During the past decade power generation has undergone several extremely significant changes. These include deregulation of the electricity industry in many parts of the world, with a greater focus on economic and financial concerns instead of purely engineering issues. In conjunction with this, environmental matters are of increasing interest, leading to an assessment of existing greenhouse gas emissions and the exploitation of renewable energy sources. Additionally, combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) have emerged as an extremely economic and efficient means of electricity generation. Finally, many power plants have been retro-fitted with modern and sophisticated, plant-wide instrumentation and control equipment. These computerbased distribution control systems (DCSs) are intended to enhance regulation control performance and more importantly provide a means for implementing supervisory control/monitoring schemes. These various considerations have led to significant changes in the philosophy of how power stations are operated, while at the same time affording engineers the opportunity to introduce monitoring and plant-wide control schemes which were previously infeasible. However, a distinction has largely arisen between those working in the power and control oriented research communities, with centres of excellence in scattered locations, and engineers engaged in power plant design, operation, consultancy, etc. The objective of this book is to address this issue, through a number of case studies, which illustrate how various methodologies can be applied to various subsystems of power plant operation, or indeed introduced into the overall control hierarchy. The case studies presented focus on what can feasibly be achieved with an indication of the subsequent benefits of doing so, using results from live plant where possible. The level of the book makes it suitable for engineers working in the power generation industry who wish to gain an appreciation of the advances which have taken place in this field within the research community. It should also provide a very useful overview for new and experienced researchers working in this area. A number of the contributions to this book arise from work carried out at, or in collaboration with, universities and research institutions, while others benefit from the experience of practitioners in the industry. A natural consequence of this is that a mixture of viewpoints is offered, with a contrast between the use of academic and industrial

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Preface

terminology. The mathematical content of the book is sufficient to give an indication of the underlying technologies, and the deficiencies of more traditional techniques, with the reader directed to related work for further detail. The text is split into three main parts covering, respectively, power plant simulation, specific control applications and optimisation/monitoring of plant operations. Chapter I provides a brief introduction to power plant fundamentals, outlining different plant configurations, the control requirements of various loops, and the hardware and instrumentation on which these systems are based. An essential aspect of investigating and developing novel control and monitoring schemes is a detailed simulation of the system in question. Chapter 2 illustrates how a complex power plant model can be constructed using an object-oriented approach. The reader is introduced to the Modelica modelling language, and issues such as testing and validation are discussed. Part 2 (Control) comprises five contributions and forms a major part of the book. A number of diverse applications are considered, and differing control strategies are proposed and implemented. Chapter 3 investigates the highly complex problem of both modelling and controlling pulverised fuel coal mills. Linear quadratic and predictive control techniques are investigated, with a supervisory operator support system introduced. Chapter 4 tackles the problem of excitation control of a synchronous machine. Local model network and adaptive control-based approaches are examined in detail. Chapter 5 then examines steam temperature control of a once-through boiler for both the evaporator and superheaters. Linear quadratic Gaussian, fuzzy logic and predictive control schemes are applied, with the benefits of feedforward action using suitable instrumentation strongly highlighted. Chapter 6 examines the problem of controlling combined cycle plant. An objective function is defined based on operational costs, and alternative hierarchical control configurations are examined. Finally, in this section, Chapter 7 explores the development of a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) predictive controller sitting on top of the plant's conventional control systems to improve the overall plant's capabilities. Part 3 (Monitoring, optimisation and supervision) again comprises five contributions, and demonstrates how the ability of distributed control systems to gather plant-wide, real-time data can be constructively employed in a range of applications. Chapter 8 introduces a sophisticated plant-wide, neurofuzzy control scheme with feedback and feedforward actions to provide improved unit manoeuvrability and an improved distribution of control tasks. Chapter 9 then focuses on the task of modelling NOx emissions from a coal-fired power station. A grey-box modelling approach is proposed, taking advantage of a priori knowledge of NOx formation mechanisms. Chapter 10 introduces model-based approaches for fault detection of a high-pressure heater line. Again grey-box identification, coupled with non-linear state estimation techniques are considered, to aid fault diagnostics. Chapter 11 continues with an examination of how the data stores which distributed control systems now offer can be exploited for both fault identification and process monitoring activities. The part concludes in Chapter 12 with an overview of a number of performance support and monitoring applications that have been successfully applied to real plant, largely based around a real-time expert system.

Preface

xv

The final part of the book highlights some possibilities and issues for the future. Chapter 13 demonstrates how a physical model of a power plant can be integrated into a predictive control strategy to provide enhanced unit control by recognising the true system characteristics. Finally, Chapter 14 discusses some topics of concern including the impact of age and maintenance requirements on existing units in an increasingly competitive environment, and how technology is expanding the capabilities of modern power plant. The editor would like to take this opportunity to thank all the authors for their contributions, and for their assistance in bringing together the final text. The support and guidance from Roland Harwood and Wendy Hiles of the IEE has also been most welcome. The editor also wishes to acknowledge the significant role played in the creation of this work by Brian Hogg and Edwin Swidenbank in establishing the Control of Power Systems research group at The Queen's University of Belfast. Finally, the advice and encouragement offered by Brendan Fox and Nataga Marta6 from Queen's has been greatly appreciated. Damian Flynn April 2003

6 2. Leva and C Maffezzoni Introduction Model structuring by the object-oriented approach Basic component models Modelling of distributed control systems Application of dynamic decoupling to power plant models Testing and validation of developed models Concluding remarks and open problems References 17 17 18 27 50 52 53 56 57 .7 2.5 1. Cregan and D.4 2.3 2.5 2.2 1.Contents List of contributors Preface List of abbreviations ix xiii xvii 1 1.4 1.1 1.2 2.8 Modelling of power plants A. Flynn Power plant historical development Plant configuration and design Control and instrumentation External influences Plant technology developments References 1 2 5 9 13 13 Part 1: Modellingand simulation 2 2.6 Advances in power plant technology M.3 1.1 2.

1 4.3 6. Sdez and A.3 5.6 3. W. Mortensen Introduction Plant and control description Advanced evaporator control Advanced superheater control Conclusions References Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant D.3 3.1 5.6 6 131 131 133 137 147 159 159 161 161 162 168 171 176 177 177 6.5 3.8 Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills N. Cipriano Introduction A combined cycle thermal power plant Design of supervisory control strategies for a combined cycle thermal power plant Application to the thermal power plant simulator Discussion and conclusions Acknowledgements References 63 63 64 71 80 92 97 97 97 101 101 102 108 113 117 124 127 4 4. Brown. Flynn and G.4 3.4 6. D.W.4 5.6 4.Q. Moelbak and J.2 6.H.5 6.6 6. Rees and G. Irwin Introduction Local model networks Controller design Micromachine test facility Results Conclusions References Steam temperature control T.2 3.vi Contents Part 2: Control 3 3. Fan Introduction Modelling of coal mills Plant tests.3 4.5 4. results and fitting model parameters Mill control Intelligent control and operator advisory systems Conclusions Acknowledgements References Generator excitation control using local model networks M.1 3.7 5 5.4 4.7 . l 6.5 5.7 3.D.2 5.2 4.

4 10.4 7.5 10. Garduno-Ramirez and If.6 243 243 248 253 263 267 267 269 269 271 287 295 307 307 .5 7. Y Lee 8.5 9.10 References Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant S.2 9.6 7.2 10.3 7.2 Power unit requirements for wide-range operation 8.7 Wide-range load-following 8.8 Summary and conclusions 8.3 9.1 Introduction 8. Thompson and K. optimisation and supervision Extending plant load-following capabilities R.1 9.6 Design of neurofuzzy controllers 8.4 Feedforward/feedback control strategy 8.7 Multivariable power plant control G.1 7. Li Emissions from coal-fired power stations An overview of NOx formation mechanisms NOx emission models for a 500 MW power generation unit Conclusions Acknowledgements References Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line A. Parisini Introduction Description of power plant application Grey-box modelling and identification of a power plant A general approach to receding-horizon estimation for non-linear systems Conclusions References 205 205 207 209 213 221 224 228 238 239 239 9 9.5 Knowledge-based feedforward control 8.Contents vii 179 179 181 184 189 200 200 201 7 7. Poncia Introduction Classical control Of thermal power plants Multivariable control strategies An application: MBPC control of a 320 MW oil-fired plant Conclusions Acknowledgements References Part 3: 8 Monitoring.2 7. Alessandri.1 10.6 10 10. P Coletta and T.3 Conventional power unit control 8.9 Acknowledgements 8.4 9.3 10.

4 12.2 A review of physical model-based thermal power plant control approaches 13.2 14.5 11.2 11.3 Control problems of a thermal power plant 13.8 References 14 14.8 14.7 14.9 Management and integration of power plant operations A.8 Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation J.viii Contents 11 11.3 12. Prasad 365 365 366 368 375 381 389 391 391 13.1 12.6 Discussion and conclusions 13.1 Introduction 13.3 14.3 11.2 12.6 11.E Armor 395 395 396 401 405 407 410 413 414 415 417 Introduction Age and reliability of plants Improving asset management The impacts of cycling on power plant performance Improving maintenance approaches Power plant networks: redefining information flow Conclusions References Bibliography Index . Flynn 309 309 310 311 325 334 338 341 341 Introduction Outline of data mining applications Identification of process and sensor faults Process monitoring and optimisation Non-linear PLS modelling Discussion and conclusions Acknowledgements References 12 12.5 12.6 12. Ritchie and D.5 14.6 14.1 14.A.5 Simulation results 13.7 Acknowledgements 13.7 11.4 Applying a physical model-based predictive control strategy 13.4 11.7 Advanced plant management systems A.4 14.1 11. Fricker and G. Oluwande 345 345 346 350 351 354 360 361 Plant management in a deregulated electricity market Supervisory control System integration and HMI issues Performance monitoring Added value applications Conclusions References Part4: The future 13 Physical model-based coordinated power plant control G.

reciprocating piston steam engines. and would have been connected to a 30 kW generator. and was primarily used for district lighting. Today. can operate at supercritical conditions of 28. They typically operated at 0. In a search for reduced operating costs. Cregan and D. Since then the evolution of power plant design has been largely incremental.9 MPa (8.c. which typically achieved thermal efficiencies in the range 30--40 per cent.I Power plant historical development Fossil fuelled power plants have been supplying electricity for industrial use since the late 1880s. Flynn I. DTI. The popularity of urban electric tramways. The first central generating station was opened by Thomas Edison in September 1882 at Pearl Street. coincided with the widespread construction of generating equipment in the late 1880s and 1890s. advanced turbine and boiler designs. generators were coupled to coal-fired. New York City. Lighting alone. simple d. plant design has moved on from generating units based on the Rankine cycle. utilising new metal alloys. The past three decades . so new applications for electricity needed to be found. has resulted in increased deployment of CCGT units. 2000). however.Chapter 1 Advances in power plant technology M. could not provide an economical market for successful commercial generation. However different current plant may now appear. The removal of European Community restrictions on burning gas for power generation. generating 1300 MW of electricity (Smith. Now combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units utilising the latest heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plant can achieve efficiencies of 50-60 per cent. Since then the topography of the typical power plant has evolved into a highly complex system. and the adoption of electric traction on subway systems.6 bar) and 150 °C (300 °F).5 MPa (285 bar) and 600 °C (1112 °F). coupled with other factors. 1998. Electricity was delivered over relatively short distances. the underlying principles of generation and distribution had been mastered by the end of the nineteenth century. from a coal or coal gas supply. Lower Manhattan. driven mainly by new technology. At first. Initial power plant boiler designs generated steam in a simple water tube boiler.

Illustrated in Figure 1. New computer-based systems will increase plant automation.1 is the turbine hall of a modern power station.1 Premier Power turbine hall . combined with zero or very low environmental emissions (DOE. The next 20 years should see this technology develop further. while at the same time maximising unit efficiency and reducing harmful emissions. 1. electricity at 50/60 Hz. which then rotates a turbine that drives an alternator. improve unit control and permit more flexible plant operation. a fossil fuel is combusted to raise steam. At the heart Figure 1. Currently integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and advanced pressurised fluidised bed combustion (PFBC) are emerging technologies that are showing great potential for yielding high efficiency and low emissions. to provide three-phase a. The short-to-medium term targets that have been mapped out by Vision 21 (US Department of Energy) for new plant designs are 60 per cent thermal efficiency for coal/solid fuels and 75 per cent efficiency for natural gas units. New developments in plant design are continually being sought and investigated to improve unit performance. 1999). bringing with it pseudo-intelligent applications which truly harness the rapidly expanding computational power available.c.2 Plant configuration and design Although there are many variations in power plant configuration and design. at the most basic of levels.2 Thermal power plant simulation and control have witnessed the integration of microprocessor equipment into every aspect of generation and distribution.

The temperature of the superheated steam leaving the drum is constrained only by the metallurgical limits of the pipework.2. normally consisting of multiple stages. The steam cycle is conveniently analysed by beginning with the feedwater flow from the condenser. thereby improving unit efficiency. which operates by following the thermodynamic Rankine steam cycle. before and after the drum. If the flow becomes unbalanced. The condenser's hotwell maintains a large reservoir from which boiler feed pumps draw their supply. The economiser is the last stage of heating prior to entering the drum. One of the advantages of operating in the subcritical region is that the differential density of water and steam. Hence. The dual role of the drum is to supply feedwater to the walls of the furnace and to separate the resulting steam from incoming water. Figure 1.9 °C (705. After the initial high-pressure stage the steam returns to the boiler for reheating. In the turbine.2 Simplified power plant of a conventional power plant is the boiler. permits 'natural circulation' of the feedwater around the boiler. then boiler feed pumps are required to provide the extra driving force.and high-pressure feed heaters which draw heat from steam.2 provides a simplified illustration of the steam flow path in a fossil fuel power plant.1 Subcritical plant In subcritical boilers steam temperatures and pressures never exceed the 'critical point' of steam which occurs at 373. as a result of operating at elevated temperatures and pressures. On exiting the low-pressure turbine the now saturated steam is condensed back into liquid by the cooling water in the condenser. 1. in unbalanced 'forced circulation' boilers the rating of the boiler feed pumps is significantly increased.1 °F) and 22.6 bar). a practical implementation of the ideal Carnot cycle. The temperature and pressure of the feedwater is raised by a series of low.1 MPa (220. the kinetic energy of the steam is converted to mechanical torque as the steam expands across the turbines.Advances in power plant technology Boiler Turbines 3 Fu~ Air ~ Feedwater Boiler feed pump Figure 1. bled from the turbines. .

whose density can range from vapour-like to liquid-like. Control in a supercritical boiler is somewhat different from that in a drum boiler. While for a supercritical boiler it is the boiler feed pump that determines the steam flow rate. a drum. To turbine ~ 'Drum' boiler P erfee . due to the elevated temperatures and pressures. Currently. since the feedwater circulates only once through the boiler in each steam cycle. to control superheat steam temperatures a once-through boiler first adjusts the fuel-firing rate. Consequently. this requirement is met by the fuel-firing rate for a drum boiler.7. as shown in Figure 1. their increased installation cost can not often be justified over the life of the plant. Consequently. is eliminated. Supercritical boilers operate at pressures greater than 22 MPa (220 bar) and are also referred to as 'oncethrough' boilers. While supercritical plant should be more efficient than conventional drum plant. rather a fluid results.4 1. When operating at pressures above the critical point of steam there is no clear distinction between the vapour and liquid states. 'Once-through'boiler Figure 1. 2001). To turbine [[ . as opposed to using spray water attemperation for a drum boiler (Goidich. Despite the reduction in operating costs resulting from higher unit efficiency. as compared with subcritical plant (Goidich. 1998). operating at state-of-the-art steam conditions a 3 per cent improvement in unit efficiency can be achieved.2. When operating a boiler in the supercritical region improvements can be made to both unit efficiency and heat-rate.3 Boiler steam flow paths .3. This 125 MW installation at the Philo Plant operated at 31 MPa (310 bar) and 621 °C or 1150 °F (Smith.2 Thermal power plant simulation and control Supercritical plant The world's first supercritical power plant began operating in 1957 and was commercially operated until 1979. 2001). normally required to separate the steam from the water. their development and deployment has been slow.

for single-shaft systems. They bring together the Rankine cycle from conventional steam plant and the Brayton cycle from gas turbine generators. the heat recovered in this process is sufficient to drive a steam turbine with an electrical output of approximately 50 per cent of the gas turbine generator. operating on the Rankine cycle. For startup.... by piping the exhaust gas from the gas turbine into a heat recovery steam generator... In general. the gas turbine and steam turbine are coupled to a single generator. In terms of overall investment a single-shaft system is typically about 5 per cent lower in cost. or 'open cycle' operation of the gas turbine alone.. gases Flue HRSG Turbine Alternator II Steam •L Condenser Cooling water .Advances in power plant technology Gas Turbine Air Alternator 5 ill tl Exhaust. However. 1. yielding significant improvements in thermal efficiency over conventional steam plant.. fewer stability problems and more degrees of freedom in the mechanical design.....~ I Feed water Boiler feed pump Figure 1.. it is the boiler . as their name suggests..4 1.. Alternatively.2... Benefits of multishaft arrangements are shorter shafts. in tandem...... with its operating simplicity typically leading to higher reliability. 1~_. combine existing gas and steam technologies into one unit. the steam turbine can be disconnected using a hydraulic clutch.. In both types of plant it is the inherent energy losses in the plant design that constrain their thermal efficiency..3 Control and instrumentation Modern power plant is a complex arrangement of pipework and machinery with a myriad of interacting control loops and support systems. However.3 Simplified CCGT plant Combined cycle gas turbines Combined cycle gas turbines.. in a CCGT plant the thermal efficiency is extended to approximately 50-60 per cent.4. A simplified multishaft CCGT plant is illustrated in Figure 1..

closing the governor valves reduces the generated output. whereby the combustion controls of the boiler are set to achieve a fixed output. Controlling the volume of heat released when burning large quantities of fossil fuel is a demanding and . which sets their individual setpoints and controls the behaviour of the plant. electrically operated safety valves are essential for variable pressure operation to protect against sudden. such units can be operated with their governor valves remaining fully open.1 Combustion control Burning a fossil fuel releases energy in the form of heat. The strategic behaviour of the unit is governed by various boiler control configurations. which is absorbed by the feedwater through convection and radiation mechanisms.3. These actions alter the main steam pressure. and enables operation of the turbines at lower temperatures and pressures. For safety reasons. since it allows the generating units to operate continuously at their maximum capacity rating. From this all other individual loop controllers receive their demand or setpoint signal. fast-responding. For nuclear plant. sliding pressure mode is an 'instructive' development. since opening the governor valves. however. where the constant steam pressure is replaced by a variable steam pressure mode. the ability to use the stored energy of the boiler to meet short-term changes in demand is restricted. and releasing the stored energy in the boiler. The reduced throttlingback action by the governor control valves. the steam demand signal is often known as the master control signal. not the input as in boiler following. All the main control loops must respond to a central command structure. dangerous increases in steam pressure that may occur while the pressure setpoint is low. However. such units do not respond to frequency deviations and so cannot assist in a network frequency support role. Variable pressure operation also provides faster unit loading. and the behaviour of the master control signal within these arrangements is now discussed. • Boiler following mode Boiler following or 'constant pressure' mode utilises the main steam governor as a fast-acting load controller. Operating a unit in this mode does.6 Thermal power plant simulation and control control system that is central in determining the overall behaviour of the generating unit. Turbine following mode A generating unit may alternatively be configured to operate in turbine following mode. at lower outputs. contain inefficiencies as throttling of the governor valves reduces the available steam flow. Conversely. leads to improved unit efficiency. It is the demand for steam that resides at the top of this control hierarchy. Due to its importance. so it is the role of the master pressure controller to suitably adjust the fuel-firing rate. creating energy losses. • • 1. meets short-term increases in electrical demand. Sliding pressure mode Although boiler following mode is commonly used. Consequently. The position of the main steam governor valve is controlled by the valve outlet pressure. there are also safety benefits in providing continuous steady state operating conditions. However. Turbine following mode is preferred for thermal base load and nuclear plant.

which combines drum level. a 'three-element' controller is used. Steam temperature control regulates the temperature of the steam exiting the boiler after the superheater and reheater stages. The natural ingress of air through these openings is referred to as 'tramp air'. which determines the steam load for the unit. air flow. D r u m level control is closely linked with feedwater control. Control systems or loop controllers at lower levels derive their demand or setpoint values from the master controller. The time delay between coal entering the mill and reaching the boiler. The continuous flow of air to the boiler furnace is achieved using forced draft (FD) fans to force air into the furnace and induced draft (ID) fans to extract the combustion gases. Overseeing the combustion process is the burner management system (BMS) which regulates the extremely hazardous process of firing the fuel. to name but a few. The fundamental problem of combustion control is to adjust the fuel and air flow rates to match the energy demand of the steam leaving the boiler. resulting from changes in steam demand. Typically.3. • • . As previously stated. Excess air is always necessary in a real plant and can be as high as 10 per cent above the 'stoichiometric' ratio to achieve complete combustion. The long time delays associated with these loops make for challenging control. along with the startup time of additional mills. The ideal or 'stoichiometric' ratio for complete combustion of the fuel is impractical and results in incomplete combustion due to unavoidable imperfections in the mixing of fuel and air.or gas-fired boiler. The 'swell' and 'shrinkage' effects. oxygen.a coal-fired boiler being significantly different from that of an oil. NOx and CO sensors. The internal draft pressure (furnace pressure) is maintained just below atmospheric pressure to prevent hazardous gases from escaping through observation portholes. is often a limiting factor when the unit is required to respond quickly. These include a UV flame detector. and furnace pressure.Advances in power plant technology 7 potentially dangerous problem.2 Boiler control subsystems Boiler control systems exist in a hierarchial arrangement. excess air may generate unwanted NOx and SOx emissions and reduce the efficiency of the boiler by carrying useful heat out the chimney. poisonous carbon monoxide and the danger of unburnt fuel accumulating within the boiler. residing at the top is the master control signal. steam flow and feedwater flow signals. numerous sensors supply data on current operating conditions. Without sufficient air flow to the furnace. In contrast. 1. which is very much dependent on the fuel being burned. incomplete combustion results in the formation of black smoke. To ensure safety. are confusing to simple single-element controllers. as well as increasing ID/FD fan requirements. A short list of other (boiler) control loops is as follows: • Coal pnlveriser control regulates the supply ofpulverised fuel to the boiler from coal mills. soot-blower openings and other orifices in the furnace.

Indeed. control and instrumentation equipment has changed unrecognisably in the last hundred years. At its core. 1. where a simple mechanical flywheel with rotating weights was connected to a hydraulic system through a series of sliding linkages and springs. however. it is their ability to handle control on large-scale systems that distinguishes them from their smaller programmable logic controller (PLC) and PC-based counterparts. the radical transformation in control came with the advent of the microprocessor. burner angle. distributed control systems have become the domain of large industrial processes and power plants. so as processing power advanced. four distinct types of device can be identified. cooling water flow rates. The microprocessor permitted new and innovative control solutions to be considered.4 Distributed control systems Over the course of the last two decades. Although distributed control systems are used primarily for loop control their processing power and flexibility has allowed them to handle many other data management applications.3. The dichotomy between high-end PLC systems and DCS installations is.ability to handle and store tens of thousands of data points in real time. Centralised administration . Connected to a typical network. LP/HP feed heating. Typical tasks may involve programming the distributed control units and adding/removing spare I/O capacity to the network. . each with unique functionality.8 Thermal power plant simulation and control In addition to the control systems previously described there are many others that are essential for operation: generator excitation. system functionality grew. The distinguishing features of a DCS can be summarised as: Size . flue gas recycling. Since then.3 Plant instrumentation More than any other aspect of power generation. high-speed communications network.capacity to handle many tens of thousands of signals. with the capability to control entire power stations. When power stations were first constructed in the 1880s control was typified by the steam governor. bidirectional. A simplified generic DCS network is illustrated in Figure 1. However. leading to stand-alone devices being adopted for individual loop control in the 1970s and early 1980s. which facilitates the transfer of vast amounts of data between nodes. pneumatic and then analogue electrical equipment have been introduced for general plant control. uncertain as both have similar functionality and network topologies. the DCS has a dual redundant. 1.3. etc.complete control of distributed units from one single node on the network. Arranged in hierarchial order they are: The engineering workstation provides complete control over the DCS. Today these isolated control systems have evolved into distributed control systems (DCSs).5. Data management .

Managing a station today involves juggling a myriad of conflicting external factors. allowing the plant operator to control the unit using a human-machine interface (HMI).Advances in power plant technology Plant 9 *~put/output 0ffice~etwork '~ Data ~ ~ ~ ~[l~l II~l atwaomr=t ¢:::::q Distributedcontrolunits ~ Operatorworkstation " Figure 1. The data managementworkstationis usually assigned 1. where unit efficiency and good engineering practice are the main considerations. Distributed control units are responsible for implementing plant control. They are directly connected to plant signals and can usually operate independently of the rest of the DCS. and on the other. . dual or triple redundancy is employed to ensure availability of control equipment at all times. The operatorworkstationprovides high-resolution mimics of the plant. As already suggested the two areas which have had the most significant influence on station management are liberalisation of the energy markets and environmental legislation.4 Externalinfluences The environment in which power stations operate has undergone a radical shakeup over the last two decades and still remains in a state of flux.5 Simplifieddistributed control system the task of managing the process database containing all the process data points or 'tags' on the DCS. Time stamping new data as it arrives on the network may also be performed. On one side there may be shareholders anticipating a profitable return on their investment. environmental legislation forcing the procurement of emissions reducing plant and equipment. No longer can a station be operated in isolation. Like most other parts of the DCS.

utility management in the United States and Europe focused on the major task of building new power plant and improving the transmission and distribution grids to meet the demands of rapidly growing economies. In the United Kingdom. . The United States has gradually been moving towards increased competition. The only competition that existed was between individual concerns trying to install the largest generating unit of the day or the most thermally efficient unit. The United States was the first to truly witness the 'winds of change' for the regulated utilities.4. and obligated the relevant utilities to transmit power across their networks. Growing discontent from the general public was fuelled by the continued price increases in electricity. privatisation is not considered an issue. the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) in the United Kingdom and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the United States. Beyond this. the Electricity Act of 1989 legislated for the breaking up of the nationalised CEGB industry into smaller privately owned companies. Plans exist to extend these arrangement to Scotland by creating the British-wide Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements (BETTA). where generators competed against each other for contracts to generate electricity (Hunt and Shuttleworth. These arrangements were replaced in March 2001 by the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) in an attempt to facilitate greater market freedom for generators and suppliers. In an attempt to placate the public the United States introduced the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act in 1978 to allow unregulated generators to supply the grid. costs could be unbundled into an 'energy' and a 'delivery' component. utility managers remained cooperative with their colleagues. as the majority of electricity companies are investor-owned utilities that are territory based. in theory. as few secrets existed among their members. Their restructuring model resembles that which was implemented in the United Kingdom. benefit from increased competition. In doing so. The business and technological strategies they employed were all very similar and governed mainly at national level. particularly in the wholesale market. This measure proved sufficiently successful that by 1993 some 50 per cent of new generating capacity in the United States was being constructed by IPPs.1 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Power system deregulation During the years between the end of World War II and the 1970s. A 'pool' system was introduced. These changes challenged the long-held belief that electrical generation and distribution was a natural monopoly. With this realisation the next step was to open up the market whereby customers could. By doing so it was hoped that nonconventional and independent sources of power would appear. In 1992 the Energy Policy Act permitted wholesale customers the choice of supplier. The level of cooperation extended to national research and development organisations. The new legislation separated the product (generated electricity) from the transportation medium (the transmission grid). Here. 1997). the spiralling costs of large generation plant and widespread fears about nuclear generation. for example. These independent power producers (IPPs) were not allowed to sell to end users but it was mandatory for local regulated utilities to purchase their generated output. These organisations engaged in collaborative research and openly shared their findings.10 1.

the current popularity in burning natural gas and low sulphur oil and coal in conventional power stations. without any restrictions in place.4. with oil burning accounting for a further 25-30 per cent. Amendments to Directive 96/92/EC on March 2001 committed member states to be fully open to competition by January 2005. As of February 2000. and oxygen from the air. the European Commission (EC) is similarly endeavouring to liberate the electricity markets of its 15 member states. which then currently generated approximately 56 per cent of the country's . Nitrogen dioxide also contributes to the formation of ground-level ozone (O3) when mixed with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a sunlight-initiated oxidation process. The two member states who led the way. sulphur dioxide (SO2). when absorbed into the atmosphere. During this time it was assumed that emissions for industrial countries would substantially increase. have focused on reducing emissions by setting stringent targets. Washington. and the United States to 93 per cent. but expensive. In addition to the above. particulate emissions may be produced. James Markowsky. carbon monoxide (CO). nitric oxide (NO). pointed out that to meet that goal the United States would have to retire most of its coal-burning plant. The simplest approach to reduce SOx emissions is to burn fuel with a low sulphur content. The treaty specifies that industrial countries have until 2010 to reduce their GHG emissions by particular percentages below 1990 levels. 2001). burning fossil fuel releases undesirable and harmful emissions into the atmosphere . especially when burning coal and heavy oil. nitrogen dioxide (NO2). However. 1999. at a luncheon briefing on Capitol Hill. and optimised boiler control. Oxides of sulphur (SOx) are formed when the fossil fuel itself contains sulphur. and have already taken action to deregulate their electricity industries. in particular the Kyoto Protocol. Alternatively. combine. the term acid rain. The European Union committed to cutting its emissions to 92 per cent of its 1990 level. 1. Hence. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are formed during high-temperature burning of fossil fuel. etc. In addition. Minimising NOx formation requires correct design of the furnace bumer. slightly increase the acidity of the precipitation that falls to earth. Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are formed when nitrogen from either the fuel or air supply. Carbon dioxide and ozone (formed from NO2) are classed among the greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are contributing to global warming. Recent attempts at environmental legislation. accounting for almost 50 per cent of annual global emissions. loopholes in the legislation allow individual countries to opt out entirely or comply in a piecemeal fashion. Coal burning is the single largest man-made source of sulphur dioxide. approximately 60 per cent of EU customers have a choice of electricity supplier (Lamoureux.Advances in power plant technology 11 In Europe. the higher the combustion efficiency the higher the formation of nitric oxide. flue gas desulphurisation plant 'scrubbing' is available.2 Environmental factors From an environmental perspective. Unfortunately. on behalf of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). both NOx and SOx. Hence. are Belgium and the United Kingdom.carbon dioxide (CO2).

the only way to generate the power the United States requires and still meet the emissions standard is to burn gas. where it joins a stream of crushed fresh coal which is burned in the boiler furnace (DOE. tidal. From Figure 1. to absorb sulphur compounds. the production and separation of gas into carbon monoxide and hydrogen. the UK Cabinet Office Performance and Innovation Unit proposed a target of 20 per cent renewables . Gasification technology has also been combined with fluidised bed designs. established a target of 10 per cent renewable generation by 2010. while the latter offers a source of hydrogen for a fuel cell or chemical process. burning gas is not a sustainable long-term solution. world reserves will be severely depleted within 40-50 years.12 Thermal power plant simulation and control 500+ 400 ~ 300 200 g~ lOO e~ o North Southand Europe Former Africa America Cent. the fuel is gasified and cleaned. 1999). etc. it can be seen that proven reserves of gas are limited. The former produces a gas stream that can be burned for electric power. Unfortunately. appear to be the most promising technologies at present (DOE. and dried coal. 2001a. situated in the city of Lakeland. The total reserves for coal. IGCC plant typify emerging technology aimed at combating the emissions problem associated with coal. In November 1997 the European Commission set itself a target of doubling renewable energy supply from 6 to 12 per cent by 2010. as viable alternatives to fossil fuel are somewhat limited. Similarly. Gasification and gas reforming.e. before being burnt in a conventional combined cycle plant. hydro. solar. for example.6 Fossil fuel reserves as of 2001 Asia Pacific electric power (ASME. i. a carboniser receives a mixture of limestone. wind. Given today's technology. however.6.) have been presented as part of any future solution to energy needs. 1998). Florida.b). the United Kingdom. Indeed. The latter is sent to a pressurised circulating fluidised bed. Renewable sources (biomass. are substantially larger than those for oil and natural gas combined. 2001). This would suggest that future technology may focus on 'clean coal' plant. In a typical demonstration plant. based on data from the BP Statistical Review Of World Energy (BP. If the current rate of consumption of gas continues. America Soviet Union Figure 1. Here. The coal is partially gasified to produce syngas and char/limestone residue.

with novel and innovative approaches being given consideration. The potential list of applications is virtually endless (DOE. with programming software allowing these to be tied together to create multilevel control programs. It is also worth noting that electricity consumption is projected to grow by 75 per cent relative to 1999 figures (DOE. April 1999 . US Department of Energy. intelligent alarm management. Worldwide. the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) postulated a 'coal intensive' scenario with renewables contributing 65 per cent of the primary energy by 2100 (IPCC. 2001. September 2002. from the vast amount of real-time data available only a small proportion is typically used. reveals that the constraints of former mechanical and analogue solutions are gone. 2000). 1996). a pledge was made to increase 'substantially' the use of renewable energy in global energy consumption. usually to alarm the operator of plant faults and occasionally to drive simple data trending for fault finding or management summary reports. However. However. it may remain for nuclear fission (or perhaps someday. the control systems used in the DCS are often simply a copy of what had been used in the past. London. data mining and genetic algorithms for supervisory control. A new vista is opening in power plant control and management. data management systems. in Johannesburg. In most cases loop control is implemented using single-input single-output (SISO) linear structures in the form of PI or PID controllers. Minimal advantage is taken of the high-speed communication network for plant-wide control schemes or supervisory layers. fusion) to meet growing energy needs (VGB. These new technologies are embracing all aspects of power plant operation. the DCS provides an abundance of logical function blocks (AND. 2001). however.Advances in power plant technology 13 by 2020 in March 2002. 2001 a. from intelligent maintenance. Hence. It is now possible to implement non-linear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) model-based control. purchasing and accounting. Lausterer. Federal Energy Technology Center. Oluwande. 1. December 1998 BP: 'BP statistical review of world energy' 50th edition. 1. coordinated plant control (trajectory following and optimisation) or pseudo-intelligence in the form of expert systems. OR. More recently at the UN World Summit on Sustainable Development. XOR.6 References ASME: 'Technology implications for the US of the Kyoto protocol carbon emission goals'. June 2001 DOE: 'Vision 21 program plan'. environmental protection.5 Plant technology developments Many power stations view the DCS as a direct replacement for older stand-alone analogue or digital controllers. An enlightened view of distributed control systems. fault diagnostics. etc). on shorter time-scales. productivity management. 2002) by 2020. For sequence control. ASME general position paper. artificial neural networks (ANN). ASME.

S. September 2000 GOIDICH.V. 1996) LAMOUREUX. pp. London. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation. intergovemmental panel on climate change. 63-67 SMITH. December 2001b DOE: 'International energy outlook 2002'. US Department of Energy. July 2001 . pp.: 'Evolution of electric utility restructuring in the UK'.: 'Efficient power operational flexibility: The once-through supercritical boiler'. April 2001a DOE: 'Software systems in clean coal demonstration projects'.14 Thermalpower plant simulation and control DOE: 'Environmental benefits of clean coal technologies'. March 2002 DTI: 'Innovative supercritical boilers for near-term global markets'. Computing and Control Engineering Journal. pp. pp. Barberton. 11-14 HUNT. 1EEE Power Engineering Review. Pub. Ohio. Proceedings of lEE Control 2000 Conference.: 'Exploitation of advanced control techniques in power generation'.'. US Department of Energy. Chichester. Cambridge UK.1658) VGB: 'Research for a sustainable energy supply . G. and SHUTTLEWORTH. 1997) IPCC: 'Working group II to the second assessment report. US Department of Energy.: 'Supercritical (once through) boiler technology' (Babcock & Wilcox. climate change 1995: impacts.A. Topical Report Number 18.K. URN 00/1138. BR.: 'Competition and choice in electricity' (John Wiley. Energy Information Administration. Foster Wheeler Review. G. G. September 2000.A.W. lEE Control. 1-8 OLUWANDE. Topical Report Number 17.recommendations of the Scientific Advisory Board of VGB PowerTech e. M. June 2001. Department of Trade and Industry. adaptations and mitigation of climate change' (Cambridge University Press. United Kingdom.: 'Knowledge-based power plant management . S. J.the impact of deregulation on it solutions'. US 1998. April 2001. 3-5 LAUSTERER. Autumn 2001.

Part 1 Modelling and simulation .

. SIMCON-X. Here. 1989. Weber et al.e. Maffezzoni et al. For simulation models representing an entire power plant or a large subsystem. The models here are referred to as dynamic. (1984). it is quite common to seek model accuracy over an intermediate time-scale. which may also include some model tuning. Possible experimental data are.Chapter 2 Modelling of power plants A. they are able to predict transient responses. i. we shall limit the scope of this chapter to power plants based on the firing of a fossil fuel. with evidence given to variables and parameters corresponding to well-defined measurements or physical entities. Modular Modelling System (1983). in the range of a few tenths up to a few thousands of a second. depending on the purpose for which the model is intended. With reference to the survey papers of Carpanzano et al. that is. (1976). (1984). possibly equipped with heat recovery boilers. Finally. passes through the earlier engineering-oriented works of Caseau et al. Cori et al. There is a long track record of research and engineering effort in this area.e. we shall restrict the presentation to the case (most interesting for engineering) where the model is built to allow system simulation over a rather wide range of operation (non-linear model) and is based on first principles and design data. conventional thermal and gas turbine plant. it is advisable to focus on the use of a dynamic model over a defined horizon. This will be the implicit assumption in the description of the basic models. Maffezzoni 2.b). Since power plant dynamics operate on a range of time scales. . even for large process variations. i. dating back to the pioneering work of Chien et al. and leads to presently available simulation codes (APROS. (1958). Lausterer et al. Leva and C. This specification naturally leads to a model structuring approach based on the representation of plant components and of their interconnections. not used for system identification but for model validation. ProTRAX. (1970). generally.1 Introduction Modelling power plant processes may be approached from different points of view. 1994a.

the chapter is organised as follows: first the basic concepts of object-oriented modelling are introduced with reference to the typical structures met in thermal power plant. At present there are well-assessed methods to treat lumped parameter components (LPC) while. on the contrary. Maffezzoni and Girelli. among which a fundamental role is certainly played by the following: • The definition of physical ports (also referred to as terminals) as the standard interface to connect a certain component model. The definition of models in a non-causal form permitting reuse.2 Classification of plant components and of physical ports From the point of view of model structuring. In the case of a classical Rankine-cycle unit. 1999). Elmqvist et al. in order to reproduce the structure of the physical system.. 1992. abstraction and unconditional connection. The approach is based on a number of paradigms. the task of defining a realistic model of the plant distributed control system (DCS) is investigated.18 Thermal power plant simulation and control (1999) and Maffezzoni (1992). according to the approach proposed by Aime and Maffezzoni (2000). Elmqvist et al. the objective here is to review the important knowledge (concerning both methods and applications) accumulated along that track and to transfer it to the unifying framework of object-oriented modelling.2. 2. • • State of the art OOM is well represented by the development of the Modelica project (1999). a recent international effort to define a standard modelling language.. then a review is presented of basic models for typical power plant components. which are quite important in power plant modelling. gPROMS. Subsequently. which appears to be most effective in dealing with real-size engineering problems and in sharing modelling knowledge among diverse users. the principal subsystems are the steam generator . 1998. 1998).modelica.2 Model structuring by the object-oriented approach 2. 1999) and software packages (Piela et al. 1993.. The mutual independence of the model interface (the physical ports) and its internal description. there are no unified solutions to describe distributed parameter components (DPC).1 Foreword Object-oriented modelling (OOM) is a widely accepted technique which has already produced both modelling languages (Mattsson and Andersson.org) with the minimum extension required to cope with DPC's. for example heat exchangers. As such. 2. it is convenient to look at the typical layout of a fossil-fired power plant (Maffezzoni and Kwatny. So.2. in the remainder of the chapter we shall adopt the Modelica language as the formalism for writing the described models (whose specification manual is available at www. some remarks about the application of dynamic decoupling and methods of model validation are then reported. 1991.

and so forth. displayUnit displayUnit = = "Pa". w. while defining small modules implies a larger reuse when the plant structure changes. TSC). "Enthalpy". the steam turbine. being devoted to heat transfer from the combustion gas to water and steam. Note also that Modelica has an extensive library of predefined types. a matter of choice: defining large modules implies a simpler aggregation structure. unit "kg/s". etc. unit = = "kg/s").se). Here. There are components which take part in one circuit only (one-side components.fl) and LEGO (Coil et al. To define the structure of an OSC it is convenient to introduce a physical port through which a component may interact with another. so in the following the electrical subsystem will be drastically simplified by considering only the electromechanical balance of the alternator. The Modelica language (like many others) allows type definitions to enhance the clarity of the simulation code. 1989).2.dynasim. MassFlowRate = Real(quantity = Real(q~antity = Real (quantity = = = "Pressure". Throughout this work we shall assume that all the required types are defined in this way. h. For instance. which is specified through the following Modelica script: type type type Pressure MassFlowRate Enthalpy THT Pressure flow Enthalpy p. lb. namely heat exchangers. headers. the thermohydraulic terminal (THT). OSC) like pumps. while there are components. then considering the nature of the process transformations that they implement. We do not report their definitions because of space limitations and because they can be immediately deduced from those given. the process scheme of Figure 2.1 a suggests the model structure of Figure 2.Modelling of power plants 19 (or boiler).1 Boiler components The boiler is the most complex subsystem. The structure of the power station's electrical subsystem is not relevant to the principal characteristics of a power unit. appropriate for implementing an object-oriented approach to physical system modelling. and it can be split into a pair of interacting circuits: the water-steam circuit and the air-gas circuit. the 'size' of basic modules is chosen according to the best practice employed in engineering dynamic simulators: this choice is compatible with packages like APROS (www. AngularVelocity. The connection between the pump THT Out (outlet) and the valve THT In (inlet) means that the pressure and enthalpy at the pump outlet coincide with the pressure . "J/kg" ) . "MassFlowRate". hence we shall refer to types like Quality.vtt. 2. which take part in both circuits (two-side components. and DYMOLA (www. Modelling power units by aggregating component models is very convenient because it reflects the physical plant layout and enhances reuse of modelling software. This is illustrated in the previous script by defining Pressure.e. the condensed water cycle and the electrical subsystem.. Structuring by modules is. Plant components may be classified first by looking at the subsystem they belong to. to a certain extent. = "J/kg". displayUnit connector end THT . i. unit = "Pa"). MassFlowRate and Enthalpy. valves.. widely used for power plant simulators.2.

The model of a complex heat exchanging system like that of Figure 2.1 is as follows: c o n n e c t (PUMP. where spatially distributed heat transfer configurations are introduced.1 Simple process scheme and its model structure °t u Gas Figure 2. In) . The interaction between a couple of neighbouring OSCs can always be modelled by the direct connection of two THTs. V A L V E . Out. The THT can be used both for OSCs belonging to the steamwater circuit and to the air-gas circuit. in a modular way. the variation in heat transfer configurations of boiler tubular heat exchangers.20 Thermal power plant simulation and control a< Figure 2. PUMP and VALVE are instances of suitable elementary models stored in some library. Pressure and enthalpy are effort variables while mass flow rate is a flow variable.2 could be structured according to the very general approach proposed by Aime and Maffezzoni (2000). The Modelica script stating the aggregation of Figure 2. where. because in this case we need to model. A typical situation is depicted in Figure 2. respectively.2. More pragmatically. where gas flowing through the boiler back-pass exchanges heat with the principal bank (A) disposed in cross-flow and with an enclosure panel (B) disposed in long-flow. while the mass flow rates at the pump outlet and valve inlet sum to zero. is TSC structuring. Considerably more complex however.2 Typical heat exchanger configuration and enthalpy at the valve inlet. . of course. one can exploit two common properties of boiler heat exchangers: • Gas flows have negligible storage with respect to metal wall and steam-water flows.

We may call this physical . denoted in the following by Tw (t) and • (t). radiation and/or diffusion.3. however. Thus. This requires the introduction of a specific port that extends the THT to permit transfer of heat independent of mass flow. A typical finite-element discretisation of Tw(x. Tw(x. t) replaces such functions with their interpolating approximations obtained from two vectors of nodal temperatures and fluxes. respectively. in simulation code. mechanical work is already included in the product wh. we may have transfer of energy by convection (expressed by the group wh). high-temperature gas volumes (either in the furnace or in other parts of the back-pass) where radiation heat transfer from one gas zone to those adjacent is not negligible. Tw(x. t) are represented by two vectors of suitable dimensions. The connection between a bank and a gas zone takes place through a distributed heat transfer terminal (dHT). t) and the heat flux profile ~0(x.2 is sketched in Figure 2. t) and ~0(x. where the gas temperature can be assumed to be almost uniform or linearly varying. Zone splitting is guided by the structure of the tube bank: typically a gas zone extends to include one row or a few rows of tubes. at a boundary surface between two fluid volumes. t) released to the wall. There are. t) are functions of time t and of the banks' tube abscissa x. it has been assumed that the transfer of energy from one gas zone to the adjacent one is solely due to mass transfer. which consists of the bank walls' temperature profile Tw(x. In Figure 2.Modelling of power plants 21 Figure 2. t) and ~0(x.3. The model structure corresponding to the situation of Figure 2. t) and qg(x.3 Modular structure for heat exchanging system • The gas ducts may be split into a cascade of gas zones. as implicitly established by the connection of two THTs. In principle.

can be structured as shown in Figure 2.g. a model of the furnace zone. c o n n e c t o r THHT extends THT.4 Interactions between furnace zones and walls I port the thermo-hydraulic and heat transfer terminal (THHT). Temperature tempProfile[vectorSize] flow HeatFlux heatFluxProfile[vectorSize] . the heat rate to the furnace wall Tr. f l o w HeatFlow Q. the flame temperature) of the lumped gas volume. For instance.1 Zones interaction Furnace ~ zone i Zones ~ interaction Furnace zone i +1 I I . e n d THHT. where there are neither burners nor secondary air inputs. pressure p and heat rate Q at the interface between the gas volumes. Temperature Tr. the radiation temperature of the gas zone. enthalpy h. Terminals dHT. . . THHT and HT are defined in the Modelica language as follows: connector parameter dHT Integer vectorSize=l. e n d HT. c o n n e c t o r HT Temperature Tr. the radiation temperature Tr (e. flow HeatFlow Qw. which will consist of the following variables: • • the mass flow-rate w.22 Thermal power plant simulation and control Furnace ~ zone i. where the heat transfer terminal (HT) consists of the following two variables: • • Qw. e n d dHT.4.T r Gas wall interaction [aHT] Furnacewall tubes Figure 2.

hR = 0 QL + QR = 0 (2. Model . etc.Modelling of power plants 23 Note the distinction between He a t F l u x ( W / m 2) and He a t F 1 ow (W).g. it is usual to split a turbine into a number of cascaded sections. turbines are generally modelled as lumped parameters. respectively.5. Such clauses are available in any object-oriented modelling language. such as the presence of steam extraction or a change in the stage design (e.2. These scripts employ the Modelica e x t e n d s clause.2) (2.PR = 0 hL -. while a mechanical terminal (MT) is needed to represent the power transfer to the shaft. When accurate modelling is required. The extension of a section is typically dictated by some physical discontinuity along the steam expansion.1) (2. and of more complex heat exchangers and/or storage tanks.3 the interaction between two adjacent zones is very simple (there is no heat transfer besides convection) so that zone interaction becomes trivial and is omitted.3) (2.T4) where the subscripts 'L' and 'R' denote variables belonging to the left and fight terminals. headers. Interaction between a turbine section and other components at its boundary may simply be modelled by THTs as shown in Figure 2.3 Condensate cycle components The condensate cycle is composed simple compact components like valves. 2. The same approach can be used for gas turbines. directly incorporated in the gas zone.2 Steam turbine components For the purpose of power plant simulation.4) (2.3 is a particular case of that depicted in Figure 2. The MT is represented in Modelica as follows: connector MT omega . where the situation is even simpler because there are no present physical discontinuities. AngularSpeed flow Torque end MT .2. when passing from impulse to reaction stages). tau. which allows us to define a model or a connector by adding elements to a previously defined one.4: in Figure 2. we provide here a possible implementation: WL + WR = 0 PL -. To fully understand the role of the model ZONES INTERACTION. a section being in turn composed of a number of cascaded stages.5) QL = K(T 4 . It should be noted that the situation of Figure 2. and K is the radiative heat transfer coefficient. the gas-wall interaction is summarised by a heat transfer coefficient.2. pumps. The MT consists of the two variables w (angular speed) and r (torque). 2.2.

it is advisable to follow the latter approach.24 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Steam extraction I I Turbine Turbine section IH[~HI section [ H [ ~ I I Header Turbine section ] Turbine section ~-----~--] I _ Shaft I IMTI- Alternator Figure 2. physical ports between cycle components are still THTs. Since the internal structure of the condensate heat exchangers is quite complex while the design of such large components is highly repetitive. In this case.5 Interactions between turbine sections and boundary components Low pressure I turbine I _ I C°°ling ~ water discharge piping I THT ' ~ Condenser ~ ~ I C°°ling water pump _ Extraction pump Figure 2. whereas non-trivial questions arise for complex heat exchangers such as the condenser. . deaerator. An example of structuring is given in Figure 2.TI I i Model structuring example for the condensate cycle structuring is quite obvious for the former components. and low-pressure and high-pressure heaters.6 I T.6. There are two possible approaches: to build the heat exchanger model as the aggregate of simpler objects or to directly define the heat exchanger as an elementary (indivisible) component.

what are specific to a given instance of the aggregate model are the model . it is common practice to repeat plant or subsystem designs from one power unit to another.Modelling of power plants 25 I Fuel storage I ] THT I Valve position T~Exhaust header ]~ Fuel valve I ~ Atmosphere ~ 1 Compressor I MT I I THT 1 ~ Combustion chamber Shat~ Gas turbine I MT I I Figure 2. we may store in a library the model of an economiser.8. by aggregating model objects internal physical terminals disappear (they saturate with one another) so that the global model of the economiser (including its enclosure) may look as in Figure 2. Model structuring is generally simple. Internal modelling of basic components is. as sketched in Figure 2.2.2. The essential components are: • • • the gas turbine the compressor the combustion chamber.7. However. a non-trivial task. Of course. however. For instance. because of the outstanding efficiency achievable by combined cycle plants. 2. Reusing an aggregate model implies that the model structure and model equations are not accessible to the user (they cannot be changed when using the aggregate).7 2.2. where ICT denotes an input control terminal.4 Model with an input control terminal Gas turbine components Gas turbines have become increasingly important in power generation.3. that is a control port where a command signal is issued. structuring of elementary models as non-causal systems and standardisation of physical ports (or terminals).3 Aggregation of submodels Reuse of models for different case studies is enhanced by modularity. which may result from aggregation of a block scheme like that of Figure 2. This is discussed in the next section. especially because it is often very important not only to predict power release of the turboalternator but also concentration of pollutants to the atmosphere.

some quantities may be evaluated by referring to functions . When an aggregate model AGGREGATEMODEL is obtained by composing two or more simple models (S IMPLEMODEL1. 1998.SIMPLEMODEL2. 1999). it can be defined by a Modelica script of the form: model A G G R E G A T E M O D E L SIMPLEMODEL SIMPLEMODELI SIMPLEMODEL SIMPLEMODEL2 end AGGREGATEMODEL. connect(SIMPLEMODELl.2.8 Aggregation of model objects (economiser) parameters which must be transferred from the internal submodels to the resulting aggregate.26 Thermal power plant simulation and control Connectionto enclosuretubes Connectionto gas circuit Connectionto high-pressure condensatecircuit ~T ~ Connectionto enclosuretubes Connection to gas circuit Connection to steam drum Economiser ~T HT Figure 2. both for the DAEs and the logical conditions. VariableType variableName.connectorName. S I MPLEMODEL2 in the example). equation end SIMPLEMODEL.. ConnectorType connectorName. (Maffezzoni and Girelli.4 Internal model description The typical internal structure of a simple (non-aggregate) model using the Modelica language may be as follows: model SIMPLEMODEL parameter ParamType paramName.connectorName). (paramName=paramValuel).e. Maffezzoni etal. 2. alternative sets of DAEs that describe the system dynamics under different conditions. (paramName=paramValue2). It is worth noting that the section equation in the format of the simple model is generally constituted by switching differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). Moreover. i.

an efficient and accurate treatment of water-steam properties is crucial for power plant simulation. These formulas. T) couple. Therefore. entropy. based on (very complex) empirical formulas (Properties of Water and Steam. because entry variables are not those needed. where p is the pressure. In the case of the full tables these are the (p. S) or (p.Modelling of power plants 27 of one or more variables.1.t a b l e s may be treated either as a set of functions or as a simple model to be incorporated by any component model. (p. This can be a boolean parameter. (p. being non-linear. so as to allow smooth and accurate approximation over the whole plane. however.) 2.1 Steam properties The large majority of models considered in this chapter require that various thermodynamic properties are evaluated starting from a couple of state variables. when required. yielding either a single property or a vector of properties. h). Partial differential equations may be treated by finite element or finite difference approximations written as implicit matrix equations (Quarteroni and Valli. including look-up tables. S entropy and T temperature. formulas are very complex and. Finally. typically (p. cannot be used for modelling in their current form. it is generally required that one or more properties be evaluated from at least three different couples of entry variables. like enthalpy. from which the required derivatives can be obtained by symbolic manipulation. T). It is quite common that the computation of a global power plant model requires many thousands of steam property evaluations at each time step. not only standard thermodynamic quantities. the sole practical approach is to build a suitable grid in the thermodynamic plane. in the saturation tables these are the pressure and a two-valued parameter stating whether the liquid or vapour properties are required.3. 1989). for dynamic modelling.1 The evaluation of steam and other fluid physical properties 2. although in the examples presented herein its value . The steam tables are implemented as a set of functions receiving two parameters. with a convenient number and disposition of nodes with respect to the saturation curve. h enthalpy. All these constructs are compatible with the Modelica language (and with several other modelling formats. they should be used in a Newton-like algorithm to determine even a single property. S) and (p.3. h). So. In this work the first option has been chosen. Within the object-oriented modelling environment.3 Basic component models 2. but also viscosity. depending on the application. Water-steam properties can be computed using steam tables. Moreover. pressure and density are needed. Then. 1997). the 'model of the steam-water fluid' is constituted by large look-up tables with the required entry variables. the s t e a m . conductivity and thermodynamic partial derivatives (in particular specific heats at constant pressure Cp and constant volume Cv) or line derivatives along the saturation curve.

2 Air and flue gas properties Similar to the steam case. the partial derivative of the steam density with respect to pressure at pressure p and entropy S. and the syntax should be self-explanatory.3. then one can evaluate the gas properties as if the composition was equal to a constant (nominal) value. The Gas and A i r functions employ two different nominal compositions. the functions SteamPHtablesEnt ropy (p. at least in the equilibrium state. the classical way to build such a model is by the equations of mass. as well as some thermodynamic variables like the mixture pressure and temperature. Several functions like these are used in the equations of the models that will be introduced from now on. For simplicity it will be assumed that all these functions are overloaded for vector treatment. the saturated vapour density at pressure p and the derivative of the saturated liquid enthalpy with respect to pressure computed along the saturation curve at pressure p. "liquid" ) return the steam entropy at pressure p and enthalpy h. for air and flue gases this work adopts the same solution as for steam: two sets of functions similar to those presented are used. Accurate modelling of gas dynamics would require balance equations for the different species involved. interacting with the external fluid (gas). when the combustion gas composition undergoes such limited variation so as not to affect the relationships among the relevant thermodynamic properties significantly. As a result. respectively. h) SteamPStablesDdensityDpressure (p. This is not difficult to implement in modern programming languages. which can be coded in the functions themselves or as a global variable. As is known. The same simplification can be used for the air. the 'state' required to determine any property of a gaseous mixture comprises the gas composition. so that for example if in the first of the previously mentioned functions the 13 argument is a scalar while h is a vector. leaving only a couple of thermodynamic variables as arguments. There is one function for each property and for each input couple. accounting also for the chemical kinetics. 2.1.2. S ) SteamSATtablesDensity (p. However. density. For one-phase flow. "vapour" ) SteamSATtablesDenthalpyDpressure (p. specific heat. provided a suitable 'nominal' composition is employed. where the function names' prefix is G a s or A i r in lieu of S t e a m and the rest of the syntax is the same.28 Thermal power plant simulation and control is represented by the strings l i q u i d and v a p o u r for better clarity. For example. the corresponding vector of entropies is returned. it is also necessary to evaluate various properties of air or flue gas including enthalpy. 2.3. energy and momentum for the fluid .1 Heat exchanger segment This describes the dynamics of the fluid flowing into a tube bundle and of the metal wall. from the state variables.2 The boiler's water-steam circuit 2. etc.3. and/or the accuracy required for the model is not very high. In this case. the gas functions depend on two state variables only.

10) where T is the fluid temperature at (x. 1985). z the tube height. t) :--. t) can be considered 'nearly constant' along x. ~ i P where (8p/Oh)p and (Op/Op)h denote the partial derivatives of p with respect to the thermodynamic state variables h and p.6) P i .7) (2. Pw and Cw the metal cross-sectional area. ~oi is usually expressed as: qgi = yi(T . w(x. i. p.12) Ai(Po .~ . Since the pressure drop and mass storage in a heat exchanger tube have definitely faster dynamics with respect to thermal energy storage.9) dz Cf wlwl ai ~x -'l-p Aig-~x + -~ooi--~i = O AwpwCw ~ 0Zw ----OgetPe -. in equations (2. w are the density.Ai~---Pt+ W~x = witPi A Oh Oh (2. it is convenient to build the model with the following approximations: • The pressure p(x..7) and (2. h. t) and Vi is the heat transfer coefficient for turbulent internal flow (Incropera and Witt. Cf a frictional coefficient. in the momentum equation. ~Pethe heat flux from the external gas to the wall. i. t) ~. enthalpy and mass-flow rate of the fluid (depending on the tube abscissa x. ~oi the heat flux from the metal wall to the fluid.Modelling of power plants stream and the energy equation for the metal wall: ai~ 29 Ow + ~x = 0 (2. 0 _< x <_ L.6)-(2. pressure. a suitable correlation for evaluating ~0i is needed.po(t).to(O.t o O d t (2.Pi) + Aig fOL P-~x dx + -~--. Assuming turbulent flow in the tubes.8) (2.p(L.e. 0 < x _< L. Tw is the wall (mean) metal temperature. we obtain: Ai -~ p "~dx-'l-ai ~P h dx . o)i the corresponding total perimeter. and on the time t). t) := wi(t).O)i~0i where p. . 0 < x < L. t) ~. the density and specific heat capacity. integrating equations (2. p(x.11) (2. the effects of inertia and of kinetic energy variation along x have been neglected.Tw) (2.: / / ) i . The mass flow-rate w(x.8). Note that. g the acceleration due to gravity.6) and (2. as normal.8).8) with respect to x.--Twwilwil fo L -1 dx = 0 dz Cf (oi ZA. and Aw. t) can be considered 'nearly constant' along x. We the total external perimeter. Ai the tube (bundle) internal cross-section. To complete the model. for the sake of the evaluation of p and Op/Ot in equations (2. • Then.e.

. Applying the finite element approximation with a Petrov-Galerkin type method (Morton and Parrot.wi(t) . Equation (2.Tw) + C ~ e where T and Tw are the fluid and metal nodal temperature vectors. t) ~ ha(x. hu(t)]' and of its derivative i-/(t).13) where the functions 69 and F correspond to the second and first integral of (2. Details are omitted for brevity and can be found in Lunardi (1999). while h(.. t)) = 0 (2. h(. Assuming a positive direction flow that from the 'i' terminal to the 'o' terminal. and indicating by m and e the non-zero . K and vectors V. . to equations (2. one obtains a couple of N-vector equations to be used for the computation of the fluid and metal temperature profiles. h(. Cf obtained from suitable correlations. ~e is the nodal external heat flux vector. the matrix E and vector M enforce the boundary condition on the side where the fluid enters the heat-exchanger segment (with enthalpy hiN). If any spatial approximation of the enthalpy profile is assumed.. in turn. B. h(. .t (. .Wo(t) + F(po(t). ~ and fi become functions of the nodal enthalpy vector H ( t ) = [hl (t).. 1997).D T + D T w + MhIN dt K T w : G ( T . E. but even despite this. t) are the enthalpy profile and its derivative on the whole domain 0 < x < L.14) where ~p and ~ are suitable functions and k = (LCfogi)/(2A~). t)) dt (2. As such. such equations take the form AI-I + w i B H + E H : A dp° V .. h(. M depend on dimensional data.. but it is important to note that weak boundary conditions do not constrain the first and last element of H to equal the terminal enthalpies. hz(t) .9). can be written as: Po . The position of this element depends on the sign of the flow rate. h(. respectively.7) and (2.. G.Pi + g L ~ ( p o . if weak boundary conditions are imposed (Quarteroni and Valli. 1997). t) and/. 1980. Quarteroni and Valli. t) := Z j=l hj(t)otj(x) then 69. and the matrices A. In the most general case. while the state variables (vector H ) remain the same and cannot undergo change. F. the vector equations are affected only by the input and output structure. t)) dp°(t) . C..12). D. t). Moreover.11).1 1) can be written as: O(po(t). for example the finite element approximation N h(x. t)) + kwilwilO(po.30 Thermal power plant simulation and control Equation (2. they have only one non-zero element. on the fluid properties and on the specific finite element method chosen (applied to the interpolating functions otj and on the weighting functions used for computing the residual over the whole domain 0 < x < L).

M=[m 0 . 0]'..H[N]. this means that ifw >0 hlN=hi. T [N] . L.heatFluxProfile. Phie[N].tempProfile. where hydraulic phenomena in heat exchangers are characterised by a much simpler spatial distribution with respect to thermal phenomena. .G [N. E = d i a g ( e .T w [N] . ho = H ( 1 ) . this model can be implemented seamlessly in any language assuming a conditional equation construct like the i f clause in Modelica. = Inlet.N] . pi.omegae. possibly. 1999).ho.po.N] . Ai.N] .Outlet. while if w < 0 hlN=ho. . It is also worth noting that. M=[0 . E = d i a g ( 0 . po wo ho = Outlet. a convenient correlation as a function of the external gas properties and. cw. . 0). . A possible Modelica formulation of the model is given by the following script: model H e a t E x c h a n g e r S e g m e n t parameter Length parameter Area parameter Density parameter SpecificHeat parameter HeatXferCoeff parameter FrictionCoeff parameter Integer parameter Length parameter Acceleration dHT THT Wall Inlet. .M[N] .D [N.h. wi.B [N.e. A[N.p. row.h.K[N. k.wo. Cf.. .omegai.Aw. (vectorSize=N). hi. = Outlet.w. e).. of the wall temperature is naturally incorporated in the model of the gas zone corresponding to the heat-exchanger segment. = L*Cf*omegai/(2*Ai^3). . Hence.N].Modelling of power plants elements of M and E.3). 0.w. E IN. = Inlet. Pressure MassFlowRate Enthalpy Temperature HeatFlux Real Real SpecificVolume V[N]. g..m. heightProfile[N]. = Inlet. = Wall. = -Outlet.N] .N] . . The external flux vector ~ e is one of the variables included in the dHT (Figure 2.N] . . 0 . with the adopted approach.p. TW Phie pi wi hi k = Wall. equation Expression ofvec~rsand matricesdependingontheFE me~odchosen(Lunardi. a heat-exchanger segment uses a coarse approximation for the pressure and flow-rate profiles along the tube (one node for each segment) and a more accurate approximation for the enthalpy/temperature profiles. N=I.hIN. gammai. h o = H ( N ) 31 m]'.C[N. This really corresponds to the nature of the process dynamics.

I] E[N. while h e i g h t P r o f i 1 e is passed to the F u n P s i function implementing 7t as defined in (2. H. = m. with suitable definition of the density and enthalpy of the two-phase mixture.H. E[I.N] = H[I]. In these languages. = e. since the data needed for calling these functions are the fluid properties and some geometrical data. because heat transfer is heavily affected by the flow regime. this value can then be changed when instantiating the model. = A*der hi.9). where the slip s or the drift velocity VD are given by suitable correlations (Collier.heightProfile) A*der if else (H) + w i * B * H + E * H then hIN= M[I] hIN= ho. In the forced convection regime (which is generally applicable to boiler evaporators).H) = 0.N] = e . but the variety of . . Accurate modelling may require that it be considered as a variable. These can be implemented as functions if required. ho = H[N]. 1998a.32 Thermalpower plant simulation and control (po. the parameter N determines the length of the vectors used for spatial discretisation.b) provide native support for partial differential equations. = M[I] O. because the evaporator is often the core of the power generation.D * T + D * T w + M * h I N . In the presented script the heat transfer coefficient )4 has been considered a parameter.14). E[I. wi>0 end i f . FunTheta po-pi+g*L*FunPsi(po. A non-trivial aspect of two-phase flow is the evaluation of heat transfer through the boundary layer (Collier. 1981). H) * d e r (po) = wi-wo+FunGamma (po. In steam generation. this model is also called a slip model (vL = svv) or drift model (rE = vv . + k*wi*abs(wi)*FunVtilde(po.6)-(2. = m M[N! = 0 .VD). two possible models are applicable to power plant simulation: (a) (b) a flow model where the vapour and liquid phase velocities vv and VLare assumed identical (vv = vL). .13) and (2. F and as defined in (2. In the heat-exchanger segment script. Empirical correlations are available for typical conditions. which are available in the model. For completeness it must be said that some modelling languages (e. called a fully homogeneous model. h = 0 . it is very important to work with two-phase flow heat transfer. In such cases it is possible to define a variable over one or more continuous spatial coordinates (in gPROMS this is termed a d i s t r i b u t ion domain) and write equations in their partial differential form (using constructs like the partial clause in gPROMS).14) and represents the tube height profile. a flow model where the vapour and liquid phase velocities may be different but related by a static factor depending on the fluid conditions. computed from empirical correlations. E[N. the choice of spatial discretisation is made by the user separately from the model. F u n T h e t a . M[N] (po) * V . gPROMS. FunGamma and F u n V t i l d e implement 0 . For high-pressure evaporations model (a) is often acceptable: in this case the twophase flow representation takes the same form as system (2.I] = 0. K*der(Tw) = G*(T-Tw)+C*Phie. The models presented herein could be implemented in such languages by convenient redefinition of the distributed terminals.g. 1981). d e r (H)) . Moreover. end H e a t E x c h a n g e r S e g m e n t Note that the parameters used for the vector expansion (like N in this case) must be assigned a (default) value in the prototype models.

in equation (2. the model equations wf Figure 2.2.to be used in equation (2. With this assumption of perfect phase segregation and the further approximations that the pressure is uniform. it is often acceptable that the heat transfer coefficient . Of course.3.9 Steam drum component .. the deaerator). interaction between the two phases at the separation surface turns out to have a negligible effect (Leva et al. that the heat flux to the wall is negligible and that each phase is well stirred. 1999). The mixture flow Wr coming from the risers. separates t into a nearly saturated steam flow w v (with steam quality x~) and a saturated water flow (Wr . A typical steam drum is equipped with the following fluid inlets and outlets (Figure 2. in this case the evaluation of Yi is not necessary. This allows the elimination of Tw and of the corresponding equation.Modelling of power plants 33 situations is very large.2 Steam drum A model of the steam drum is useful for circulation boilers but is also applicable to other components where the vapour and the liquid phase interact within a large volume (for instance. 2. As the flow rates coming from the risers and from the feedwater are considerable.w~).is so large as to assume.9): • • • • feedwater inlet wf (usually subcooled liquid) two-phase mixture inlet Wr (coming from the risers) (nearly) saturated steam outlet Wv slightly subcooled water outlet wd (to downcomer tubes). with a steam quality of Xr. For boiler dynamic modelling.9) that. 0Tw dTsat dp Ot dp dt where Tsat(p) is the saturation temperature of the fluid depending on the pressure p.10) .

rols. wd = . hi. hr = RisersInlet.wv .p. Xr tOv =tOr-57 Xv (2. Energy EI.15) (2. h~v = hvs . dt -. FeedWaterInlet.g.97-1. MassFlowRate wf. ' so setting x v at its nominal value is generally an appropriate choice. h . equation wf = F e e d W a t e r I n l e t . Density rol.Wtv) + w¢ . Pressure p. p . w .Ev. w . E v = V v ( p v h v .hd.19) dM~ dt dEl dt = (Wr .19) represent the steam separation (x~ is a parameter). mass conservation in the liquid volume and energy conservation in the liquid volume. RisersInlet. Quality xvprime. Quality xr. Enthalpy hf.Mv. Experiments (Leva e t a l . it is quite difficult to correlate its value to the drum conditions (e. p = = RisersInlet.rovs. SteamOutlet. Volume Vl.15)-(2.SteamOutlet.(1 -XPv) (hvs .w. Vv. The parameter X~vcharacterises the separation efficiency and should be given a value in the interval 0. hf = F e e d W a t e r I n l e t .h.DowncomersOutlet.hv.wr.p .34 Thermal power plant simulation and control can be written as follows: .D o w n c o m e r s O u t l e t .p (hr-hls)/(hvs-hls). his are computed using steam tables with entries p and hv or hi. wr = RisersInlet. xr = wvprime wr*xr/xvprime. Pl.17) (2.18) (2. hv = S t e a m O u t l e t .p ) is the total liquid energy (hi is the liquid enthalpy) and ht is the feedwater enthalpy.Vv) is the liquid mass (V is the total volume of the drum and Pi the liquid density).Vv. Of course. hd = DewncomersOutlet.0 according to the design specification.p. hvs.hr. unfortunately.hls. wv = -SteamOutlet. mass conservation in the steam volume.wv.h .wvprime. p p = FeedWaterInlet.Wv dEv = wvh v ! l dt wvhv (2. h .hvs. Mass MI.his) is the enthalpy of W'v (hvs and his are the saturation vapour and liquid enthalpies). Equations (2. the unit load). E1 = ( V .p ) is the total steam energy (hv is the steam enthalpy and p the pressure in the cavity).hvprime. 1999) show that steam wetness may have a non-negligible effect on the superheated steam temperature. hv. The model has four state variables: p.16) dMv .hl.V v ) ( p l h l . . = = DowncomersOutlet. .rov. energy conservation in the steam volume. Pv.Wd W'v)hls + wfhf (Wr Wdhl where Mv = Pv Vv is the steam mass (Pv and Vv are the steam density and volume).w.wd. A possible Modelica script for the drum model is as follows: model S t e a m D r u m parameter parameter THT THT Volume v. Ml = p l ( V .

). = (wr-wvprlme)*hls+wf*hf-wd*hl.hl). 1971). = SteamPHtablesDensity(p. for which storage of any quantity can be neglected. rol rols hls = SteamPHtablesDensity(p. so that their application to the flow equations is affected by the following limits: • • prediction may be a little conservative in general and even crude in those conditions where the valve should not operate (e. w the mass-flow rate and y the valve stroke.3. 35 = Vv*rov."vapour")."liquid"). the robustness of the valve model at low flow rate is very important because it is often necessary to simulate conditions where the valve enters no-flow conditions. SteamSATtablesDensity(p. These international standards are conceived to supply formulas applicable for valve sizing. The modification of the flow equation Pi hi ~ w P o ho Figure 2.hv). 2.20) (2.10) is a 'small-volume' component.2.21) w = f(Pi. E1 = Vl*(rol*hl-p). Systems and Automation Society (ISA Handbook of Control Valves. derived from sizing formulas. flow conditions and valve types.g. Pi and Po the upstream and downstream pressures. This measure can also be combined with the representation of a typical device which prevents the valve from undergoing reverse flow. Its model will therefore be expressed by algebraic equations.21). except for those cases where specific experimental data are available. = Vv+Vl.21) can be written according to a recommended intemational standard. though for very small values of w the accuracy is not important. which in fact are: ho = hi (2.vapour. The flow equation (2. it is necessary to modify the equation to extend its applicability down to w --+ 0. However.. = SteamSATtablesEnthalpy(p. Ev = Vv*(rov*hv-p). SteamDrum. der(Ev) der(El) M1 = wvprime*hvprime-wv*hv. does not consider this case. = SteamSATtablesEnthalpy(p. hvprime = hvs-(l-xvprime)*(hvs-hls). = SteamSATtablesDensity(p. = (wr-wvprime)+wf-wd. y) where hi and ho are the inlet and outlet enthalpies. which generally covers all the possible fluid states. For simulation. = Vl*rol.10 Control valve component . Po."liquid"). there is no practical alternative to the use of sizing equations.Modelling of power plants der(Mv) der(Ml) Mv V rov rovs= hvs end = wvprime-wv. for instance the Instrumentation.3 Control valve A control valve (see Figure 2. hi. Since the flow equation (2. cavitation) flow prediction at partial valve opening may not be very accurate.

which are supposed to mix perfectly.22) j=l dTw y S ( T w .w = V a l v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( I n l e t . as is the fluid enthalpy.T) pwVwcw-dt (2.Z m Woj (2.2. C v m a x . y . THT Inlet.23) P qg (3t0)_~ -~dh V (~pp) -~dP ~ = h WiJ -. The Modelica script of the control valve may be as follows.. Inlet. Energy storage in the metal body may be relevant.h) -- + v S ( T w . Simplifying assumptions are that the pressure p is uniform. where the parameters are the valve Cvmax and the integer identifier CharTD used for selecting the valve characteristics: model C e n t r o l V a l v e p a r a m e t e r Real Cvmax. end ControlValve.36 Thermal power plant simulation and control at low w is required to avoid discontinuity of the equation Jacobian when w ~ 0. I n l e t .. Real y.11. C h a r I D ) . and m outlet flow rates. The model is built by mass and energy conservation for the finite volume V of the header: dh do n p V . equation Inlet.0utlet.h. There are n inlet flow rates. I n l e t .3.h = Outlet. p . wi2 W [] [] [] [] ~//////////////~///////////////A I wol Figure 2. h . parameter Integer CharID.w.T) (2. Head losses due to inlet and outlet effects may be incorporated in the model of the upstream and/or wi.24) j=l j=l where the notation is analogous to that of the previous models. 2. O u t l e t .V ---5-~ = Z dt dt wu(hij -.4 Header The typical situation is depicted in Figure 2.11 Header component l worn . p . w = -Outlet.

metal body energy and fluid mass conservation.Vw. hi [n] .Outlets[m]. drodh drodp = SteamPHtablesDdensityDenthalpy(p. ro = SteamPHtablesDensity(p.p.p.12 the model is formed by the Pij. ~ hi Figure 2.2. parameter parameter Volume SpecificHeat Density HeatXferCoeff parameter parameter parameter parameter THT MassFlowRate Pressure Density Enthalpy Temperature Real Integer n=l. + gamma*S*(Tw-T).drodp. = sum(ElementwiseProd(wi.h i m i n u s h [n] . + V*drodp*der(p) T = SteamPHtablesTemperature(p. = -gamma*S*(Tw-T). ro*V*der(h)-V*der(p) row*Vw*cw*der(Tw) V*drodh*der(h) wo[i] p = O u t l e t s [ i ] .h). himinush[i] = I n l e t s [i] . cw. h. S is the header inner surface and Vw the metal wall volume.5 Pump Storage of mass and energy are negligible and the model is expressed by algebraic equations. Equations (2. row. 2. Inlets[n]. wi In] .h). p = I n l e t s [i] . wi [i] = I n l e t s [i] . drodh.h.12 Pumpcomponent Po ho . h = O u t l e t s [ i ] . p.Modelling of power plants 37 downstream tubes. respectively. In this script.w. The Modelica script of the model may be as follows: model H e a d e r parameter Area S. Integer m=l.w.h). V.O u t l e t s [ i ] .Tw. = . hi[i] = I n l e t s [i] .22)-(2. ElementwiseProd is a function requiring two vectors as input and returning a vector formed by their element by element product. equation for i in l : n loop end for.h).24) describe the fluid energy.wo [m] .h.h-h.himinush)) = sum(wi)-sum(wo). = SteamPHtablesDdensityDpressure(p. end H e a d e r . ro. With reference to the notation of Figure 2. for i in l : m l o o p end for. gamma.3. T.

q) and fix(12.J .omega.w = -Outlet. by assuming that the angular speed £2 is nearly equal to its set-point.%'H -(-2 (2. 1975.27) are termed the first and second characteristic equations.dt (2. which is not easy to model. q. Inlet. q = Inlet. THT MT Torque VolumetricFlowRate Density equation Outlet. Perry and Green. I n l e t . assuming that heat losses through the pump body are negligible. To complete the model it may be necessary to include an energy balance for the fluid volume. £2 is the pump shaft speed. tauH. q) (2. q the volumetric flow rate (q = w / p ) and rH is the resistant hydraulic torque applied by the fluid to the shaft. A possible simplification can be made when the pump is subject to feedback speed control. because the speed of feedwater pumps is often regulated by an oleodynamic coupling. The model can be given a more efficient formulation by using dimensionless quantities and/or introducing the pump characteristic angular speed. ro = S t e a m P H t a b l e s D e n s i t y ( I n l e t .38 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control following equations (Dixon.27) where pp is the pump head (Pi and po are the inlet and outlet pressures). Integer CharFunID. q) rH = fii(S-2. A Modelica script for the model pump may be as follows (a boolean parameter decides whether the rotor inertia must be included or not and an integer parameter is used for selecting the characteristic functions): model P u m p parameter parameter parameter I n e r t i a J.CharFunID). .w.29) which allows the computation of the outlet enthalpy. Inlet.p+ PumpCharFunI(Shaft.28) where rM is the active motor torque.w/ro. Shaft. It is also possible to include the total rotor inertia J in the pump model: dl2 rH = rM -. h ) . Equations (2. q) are suitable functions derived from the manufacturer's design data. p .Outlet. A useful approximation can be obtained for centrifugal pumps by assuming a parabolic characteristic equation and introducing suitable dimensionless numbers (Dixon. while f l ( ~ .p = Inlet. Boolean IncludeRotInertia.26) and (2. tauH = PumpCharFunII(Shaft'°mega'q'CharFunID) .25) (2.q. ro. one obtains: w(ho . 1975).26) (2. 1985): Po ----Pi + Pp Pp = f I ( ~ . Modelling of the pump drive in detail may be complex.hi) ---.

Evaluation of Yej is a complex function of the gas properties and the bank geometry. ~. x) is the heat flux from the gas to the j-th tube bundle at its abscissa x.g.h) = tauH*Shaft. Mass and energy storage within the gas volume are generally negligible because of the very low density.L [nTubeBundles] . . O~ej the total perimeter of the j-th tube bundle. g e o m e t r y D a t a [nTubeBundles] . the gas zone model may simply be completed by a head-loss equation: Pgi -.31) ~g = ~rg~ + (1 . . t) is the j-th wall temperature and Yej is the heat transfer coefficient between the gas and the j-th tube bundle. The gas pressure is not included in the model as it is generally fair to assume that it is atmospheric pressure. it can be obtained from empirical correlations set up by boiler manufacturers (Incropera and De Witt.30) represents gas energy conservation. I"g is the 'average' gas temperature in the zone. . only for certain problems (e. q~ej(t.h-Inlet.3.3 2.omega./Sg is the average gas density and k is a suitable constant (k ~ 0 is often acceptable because head losses are essentially concentrated in gas dampers and fans). t a u . Stultz and Kitro.33) where Pgi and Pgo are the inlet and outlet pressures.J * d e r ( S h a f t . Twj (x.1 The boiler's air-gas circuit Gas zone The gas zone was introduced in Figure 2. since the mass storage is essentially due to the furnace.30) q~ej = Yej(Tg .hgo) = j=l O)ejd~ej dx (2. o m e g a ) . Notice that equation (2. omegae [nTubeBundles] . else tauH = Shaft. n (2.z)rgo (2. furnace pressure control studies) is it necessary to consider pressure dynamics. 39 2. 1992) and accounts both for convection heat transfer and intertube radiation. e n d Pump. while Tgi and Tgo are the gas inlet and outlet temperatures.w*(Outlet. tbSizes [nTubeBundles] =ones (nTubeBundles) . is a weighting parameter. The Modelica script for the gas zone model may be as follows: model GasZone parameter parameter parameter parameter Integer Integer Length GeomData nTubeBundles= 1 .Modelling of power plants if I n c l u d e R o t I n e r t i a t h e n t a u H = S h a f t . so that the model is given by the following set of algebraic equations.32) where tOg is the gas mass flow rate.Pgo = k w~ Pg (2. In that case. e n d if. Inlet.Twj). 1985. .3. .3. j = 1. where the generic case of n heat transfer surfaces is considered: wg(hgi . hg i and hgo are the inlet and outlet gas enthalpies.3.tau.

T g t i l d e .w*(Inlet. infinitely fast combustion kinetics and a diffusion heat radiation mode (Fryling..~k.. dHT tubeBundles[nTubeBundles] (vectorSize=tbSizes). . upwards) ~. .woho + tofhf + Qc + toaha + wrhr . .w. .. Also. end for.31).34) (2..toihi . In this script G e o m D a t a is a record type (a feature provided by any language) used for storing geometry data and provided as a parameter to the function GammaFun computing Yej in equation (2... . . Wr(recirculatinggas fl°w) :l. h ) . Qo is the radiation heat rate to the downstream zone and Qw is the total heat rate released to the wall. 1966. while hi..40 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control parameter Real lambda.'.p = Outlet.13 Furnace zone component .~/2 wi (gas flow in. .35) -. w . Wa(air fl°w): ...p.. Tgtilde = l a m b d a * G a s P H T a b l e s T e m p e r a t u r e ( I n l e t . Inlet.tOo + tOf q. Qi is the radiation heat rate to the upstream zone. gammae[j] = G a m m a F u n ( I n l e t .3. . p .w = -Outlet. the following equations model the furnace zone: dMg dt dEg dt -.w. . .. ho. I n t O f P h i e O m e g a D x [j] = o m e g a e [ j ] * L [ j ] * A v e r a g e ( t u b e B u n d l e s [ j ] .. Assuming a uniform gas temperature in the zone. p .Qo .Qw where Qc is the heat rate due to the combustion reaction.tempProfile). h ) + (i l a m b d a ) * G a s P H T a b l e s T e m p e r a t u r e ( O u t l e t .2 Furnace zone A generic furnace zone. THT Inlet. . 1977). may be depicted as in Figure 2. . .. O u t l e t . .h-Outlet. Inlet. a grey gas approximation. Glassman.. h e a t F l u x P r o f i l e ) .. A v e r a g e is a function requiring a vector argument and returning its average. . Inlet. H e a t X f e r C o e f f gammae [nTubeBundles].13. . : S Losses .heatFluxProfile = gammae[j]*(Tgtilde*ones(tbSizes[j])-tubeBundles[j].toi -.Wr (2.Oi . Temperature Tgtilde. equation for j in i: n T u b e B u n d l e s loop tubeBundles[j].3. . 1967. ha and hr are the enthalpies of wo (gas flowout. wf (fuel flow). end GasZone.. introduced in Figure 2.Outlet. .h) = sum(IntOfPhieOmegaDx). ~radiatio / /+~ .Wa q. frombottom) Figure 2.. .. g e o m e t r y D a t a [ j ] ) ... .N~! a / ~ ~ l Gas] c_onv_ectlon_ I_ Wall or ~ walls . .4. 2. HeatFlow IntOfPhieOmegaDx[nTubeBundles]. . .. I n l e t . Hottel and Sarofim.

34) and (2.Q.h. wo .35) represent the mass and energy balances. = GasFromBottom.h.RecGasInlet. Tg = Wall.hi)+GasPHtablesTemperature(p. = GasUpwards.h = RecGasInlet.wa.p./] and To being the inlet and outlet temperatures.Modelling of power plants 41 the corresponding flows.AirInlet. one may simply assume Tg = (/] + To)/2.hr. However. = GasFromBottom.wo.w. Mg. = GasUpwards.4). hi and ho.3. GasFromBottom. Eg. = = (GasPHtablesTemperature(p. respectively. it is necessary to extend the affected terminals (in the case of the F u r n a c e Z o n e model.w = AirInlet. Qc can be simply computed by the following equation: Qc = min ( Wa) tOf/-/f. wi. ho p = -GasUpwards. der(Mg) der(Eg) Mg Eg Tg Qc Qi Qw = wi-wo+wf+wa+wr.Qi. To interface the model with the i n t e r a c t i o n s modules (see Figure 2. Tg = RecGasInlet. wi*hi-wo*ho+wf*hf+Qc+wa*ha+wr*hr-Qi-Qo-Qw. it is necessary to estimate the flame radiation temperature Tg. = GasUpwards. = GasUpwards.Tg)-p*V.2.ho))/2. = AirInlet.Tr. Tg. The matter is quite complex and strongly based on manufacturers' data. the Modelica script implementation may be as follows: model F u r n a c e Z o n e parameter Real parameter ChalorificValue parameter Volume THT THHT HT lambdas. Neglecting gas composition variations as discussed in section 2. If an ideal reaction is assumed.ho.p. Mass MassFlowRate Enthalpy Energy Pressure Temperature HeatFlow equation wi wa hi ha p p Tg = GasFromBottom.Qw. Qo = GasFromBottom. Q. Wall. if the zone is rather narrow. . If one cannot neglect the composition variations. the THHTs and the THTs) to .p. = AirInlet.wf. There are various empirical correlations to use for relating Tg to the inlet and outlet enthalpies.wr. Qc.Qw. = Wall. = wr hr = GasFromBottom.1. = V*GasPTtablesDensity(p.Qo. -~-s nf where Hf is the fuel calorific value and )~s the stoichiometric ratio.p. . FuelInlet. wf hf = FuelInlet. = Mg*GasPTtablesEnthalpy(p.ha. end F u r n a c e Z o n e .p. Equations (2. V. Hf. p. p Tr. min(wf*Hf.w. p = FuelInlet.Tg). and possibly to the heat release Qc.h.wa/lambdas*Hf).w . = FuelInlet.Tr.w.h = RecGasInlet.GasUpwards.hf. hi.

Q = 0. dHT Wall (vectorSize=N). end GasWallInteraction. In equation (2.w+Right. Q + R i g h t . p = 0. Gas. Right . The Modelica script may be as follows: model G a s W a l l I n t e r a c t i o n parameter Real Kw.Tr^4-Right. models will then have to include the appropriate balance equations for the relevant species. THHT Left.w = 0.3.heatFluxProfile[i] = Gas. 1992) relating them to the zone geometry and gas properties.3 Zones interaction Model equations are given by the system (2. HT Gas. 2. . Temperature Tg. Left.h = 0. equation Twtilde = A v e r a g e ( W a l l .3. end for. while the radiation coefficient Kw and the convection coefficient Yc are given by empirical correlations (Stultz and Kitro. parameter H e a t X f e r C o e f f gammac. 2.Tr. end ZonesInteraction. Tg = Gas. The Modelica script (treating K as a parameter for simplicity) may be as follows: model ZonesInteraction parameter Real K.5) can be computed according to empirical correlations (Hottel and Sarofim. much lower than Tg.36) Tw denotes the average wall temperature: this approximation is not critical because the wall temperature is generally quite uniform and. p . for i in I:N loop Wall. typically expressed as a vector of mass or molar fractions.5).4 Gas-wall interaction The following model equation accounts for radiation and convection heat transfer from gas to wall: Qw = K w ( T 2 .7"4w)+ ycSw(Tg .Tw) (2.3.42 Thermal power plant simulation and control recognize fluid composition. parameter Surface Sw. L e f t .h-Right. Left. the coefficient K in equation (2. parameter Integer N=I. however.Qw = Kw*(Tg^4-Twtilde^4)+gammac*Sw*(Tg-Twtilde). Of course.3.Twtilde. L e f t . The Modelica script is complemented by the following two additional models.Tr^4) .Qw/Sw/(N-l). 1967). t e m p P r o f i l e ) .R i g h t .1)-(2.Q = K*(Left. equation Left.36) where Sw is the contact wall surface.

In general.38) (2. however.4 Steam turbine Depending on the required accuracy (especially with reference to the interaction between the turbine and the feedwater heaters through steam extraction). the model equations are: Po = Pi nt. energy and momentum balances) adiabatic gas plenum (by mass and energy balance only) control damper (by a flow equation similar to a control valve) air preheater coal pulverisers. while the flow is regulated by inlet vanes. ~ 2 and Y22. Coal pulverisers are described in detail by Ferretti and Maffezzoni (1991) and Cao and Rees (1995). The theory of similarity is generally not applicable: the characteristic equations are then derived from manufacturers' data. Rotor inertia and enthalpy increases can be taken into account by equations (2.Pp pp = fl(~QN. pp and rH are proportional to I2. ideal or real-gas state equations are applicable with suitable formulas or tables for the computation of gas properties. O) rH = f[[(~2N. fans are operated at rated speed.39) where S2N is the nominal angular speed and 0 the orientation angle of the inlet vanes.37) (2. Air preheaters may be of different types. the turbine can be presented as a compact or more detailed representation.Modelling of power plants 2. details of the above models are omitted here. respectively. A reasonable trade-off.3. 0) (2. q. It is only worth noting that: • • for air and flue gas.6 Miscellanea To complete the component library for the air-gas circuit we need to model at least the following elements: • • • • • adiabatic gas duct (by mass.3.37)-(2. 2. For the sake of brevity. So. using the same symbols of Figure 2. control dampers are strongly non-linear elements for which the flow characteristics need to be estimated by experimental and/or design data.3. . q. one has to keep in mind that q. which is a complex item of equipment characterised by considerable energy storage. or suitable approximations.29).28) and (2.3. 2. To extend the model (2.5 Fan 43 The model is conceptually similar to that of a pump: we use an algebraic model consisting of the first and second characteristic equations. widely employed is the rotating Ljungstrrm preheater. startup).g.39) to variable speed conditions (e.3.12.

2.4 Power output Pm = to(hi .41) where hi and ho are the inlet and outlet enthalpies. We may note that the mechanical terminal (MT) of Figure 2.rs2 (2. with Po the downstream pressure and kT is a constant (which can be derived from design and/or experimental data). 2. The evaluation of the section efficiency r/ might be quite complex (Salisbury.42) where Pm is the total mechanical power transferred from the steam to the wheel. hlso is the enthalpy that would be at the outlet if the expansion were iso-entropic and r/is the section efficiency.3. the angular speed $2 and the torque rm.3. The possible inconsistency of formula (2. Partial arc admission is applied to ensure good thermodynamic . rs = Po/Pi. is to structure the model according to the scheme of Figure 2.3.40) where w is the mass flow rate.ho = (hi .5 Control stage The control stage is usually an impulse stage equipped with a set of independently operated control valves.f2 --+ O. applies to all turbine sections but the control stage.4. but for turbine operation at rated speed and at reasonably high load ( > 2 0 per cent) one may assume 0 -~ const. the computation of rm is simply given by: rm = Pm/S-2 (2. so that the model consists of the following algebraic equations.5. Excluding the latter.43) and the angular speed S2 is a state variable of the 'shaft' model.3 Energy equation hi . 1950).3. of course.4.f2 ~ 0 is naturally avoided bearing in mind that ~ ~ 0 as . Pi.4.4.4. Of course.ho) (2.1 (Generic) turbine section Mass and energy storage in the steam volume are negligible. which.43) as .2 Flow equation In this case the Stodola law (Cooke. hlso is a function of hi. a generic turbine section is constituted as a cascade of similar stages (generally reaction stages) without any extraction in between. 2.5 consists of two variables.3. 1985) proved to be quite accurate: W = kT~/1 -. 2. and Po. Pi and Pi are the upstream pressure and density.44 Thermal power plant simulation and control compatible with the object-oriented approach.hlso)r/ (2. which allow the steam flow to be admitted in full-arc or partial-arc mode. 2.

14 Turbine control stage component efficiency at partial load. 1999). we must only specify that the 'nozzle and wheel sector' is.40)-(2. with possible refinements for the flow equation (2. The model of Figure 2. corresponding to the m sectors into which the control stage is partitioned. A detailed model can be built by assembling elementary modules according to the scheme of Figure 2. the steam flows coming from the different paths mix to form the total flow feeding the downstream turbine stages. which is based on particular steam turbine design parameters.43). 2.3. . as nozzle conditions are more variable in the control stage with respect to the downstream stages.14. At the outlet of the control stage.Modelling of power plants 45 From the boiler Impulse chamber To the downstream stages Valve m Nozzle Figure 2.40) and for the computation of the thermodynamic efficiency r/. where it is indicated that there are m parallel lines.15.15. To develop a model of the control stage. reference must be made to its structure. in fact.5 Condensate and feedwater cycle The principal components in the considered subsystem are the following: (a) (b) (c) deaerator condenser feedwater heaters. activated by a master control signal. Among the model objects of Figure 2. schematically shown in Figure 2. each one equipped with a control valve. the model of an impulse turbine stage for which we may apply the modelling approach expressed by equations (2. The approximate model is determined under the restriction that the control valves are moved according to a fixed opening program. under this condition it can be proved that it is subject to quite limited errors.15 may be replaced by a global approximate model (Maffezzoni and Kwatny.

The model equations are. to meet the two possible designs: vertical or horizontal shell heaters.15 Model structuring for turbine control stage I They are complex heat exchangers.. it is generally required to build two types of model for feedwater heaters. as usual. whose models might also he obtained by assembling smaller model objects.46 Thermal power plant simulation and control D - Control valve m _ wheel sector L_ Header ~ ICT' ~ ~ N°zzle& ~ Control wheel -valve sector L_ Header I--- ~ Control ~ ~ Nozzle& ICTI wheel ~ valve sector U +-q [___ Figure 2.3. The interaction structure would be quite complex (especially for feedwater heaters).1 Compressor Thanks to the very limited mass of air in the compressor volume. the condenser is a typical tube and shell heat exchanger where condensation takes place. 2. derived from mass and energy balances applied to suitable control volumes: the detailed formulation is rather tedious and is beyond the scope of this work. so that it is advisable to conceive simple models of the components (a)-(c).6. the model consists of two characteristic algebraic equations describing the global machine performance . 1987). To this end.3. exploiting the standardisation of the mechanical design. the tube bundle could be modelled by a heat exchanger segment interfaced to a two-phase cavity through a condensing thin layer. 2. there are three principal components of gas turbines: the compressor.6 Gas turbine Apart from auxiliary equipment. the combustion chamber and the turbine (Coen et al. for instance.

Pi the inlet gas density. p . p . nf = I n l e t ..I n l e t .ho -- (2. Then. h .g l (nf. C h a r F u n I D ) . for unit simulation the functions gl and g2 are required to cover quite extended off-design conditions.44) (2. M b . where w is the mass flow rate.Inlet. end C o m p r e s s o r .p. Mb) where r/is the compressor global efficiency. Simple approximations with low-order polynomials generally work only in a quite restricted operation domain. eta = { h I S O .Outlet. where F is the ratio between the gas specific heat at constant pressure and constant volume. hISO = AirPStablesEnthalpy(Outlet. 1987). rp = C o m p r e s s o r C h a r F u n G l { n f . To this aim. Real rp.p.p.Inlet. po and hi).h)).. h ) / ( O u t l e t .nf. I n l e t . Enthalpy hiS©.w.omega*D*sqrt(gammaR*AirPHtablesTemperature{Inlet.p. The major problem is that. h ) .h)).gammaR. .to/pi~QD3. the blade Mach number Mb := ~ D/~/y R Ti.Modelling of power plants 47 (Coen et al. equation gammaR = AirPHtablesCp(Inlet..Inlet. Inlet. Inlet.h) *(AirPHtablesCp(Inlet.h)). h ) * S h a f t . THT Inlet. possibly validated and extended by experimental data. the Modelica script of the compressor model is as follows: - model Compressor parameter integer CharFunID. while hIso is the enthalpy that there would be at the outlet with an isoentropic compressor (of course hiso depends on pi. The net mechanical power transferred to the air is Pm = w(ho hi).p. I n l e t . rp = O u t l e t .[ n l e t .p. MT Shaft. R the ideal gas constant and Ti the inlet gas temperature. w = -Outlet. parameter length D.p. defined as hlso q-. I2 the rotor angular speed and D the mean wheel diameter. If air composition variations due to air humidity are neglected. it is useful to introduce the following three dimensionless quantities: • • • the pressure ratio rp := Po/Pi between the outlet and inlet pressure. C h a r F u n I D ) . Mb = Shaft. the flow number nf :-.Mb.eta.h)-AirPHtablesCv(Inlet. p / I n l e t . o m e g a * D ^ 3 ) . Mb) = g 2 (nf. They can be built as suitable interpolations of manufacturers' data. eta = C o m p r e s s o r C h a r F u n G 2 { n f . w / ( A i r P H t a b l e s D e n s i t y ( I n l e t .AirPHtablesEntropy(Inlet. the two characteristic equations may be written as r p .45) hi hi (2.h)/AirPHtablesCv(Inlet. M b .46) -- where hi and ho are the inlet and outlet enthalpies. Inlet.

suitable functions or tables are required to . respectively.nf) . based on global mass. Q1 the heat losses. Of course. p g .pg) w h e r e pg is the gas density corresponding to h g . hf and Hf the enthalpy and the calorific value of the fuel.tog dt dEg dt (2. When both scopes (1) and (2) are relevant. Mg the mass of the gas stored in the combustion chamber. Pa the pressure before the air nozzles.48) (2. pg the pressure in the chamber volume.48 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control 2. modelling NOx and CO production is deeply affected by reaction kinetics and by the actual temperature field in the combustion chamber volume.2 Combustion chamber Though rather small. to complete the model. momentum and energy balances. In the model.3. While meeting scope (1) is quite easy by global mass and energy balance. to predict the production of pollutant emissions (mainly NOx and CO).g.Pg = kwza Pa where Wa is the total inlet air flow rate. since gas turbine combustion chambers are operated with a large excess of air. wf is the fuel flow rate. Pa the density of the inlet air and k a suitable constant. it is assumed that the pressure drop is across the air nozzles and that the mass Mg and energy Eg can be evaluated from the outlet gas enthalpy: M g = VcPg Eg = V c ( p g h g .toghg . only the first part will be considered. It is worth noting that. For this reason.49) -. formed by the following equations: = tOa q.47) (2.waha -Jr-wf (hf q. hg the outlet gas enthalpy. the combustion chamber has a certain storage volume.VJf -.6. ha the inlet air enthalpy.Q1 Pa .47)-(2. The scope of the model is generally twofold: (1) (2) to predict the chamber outlet gas enthalpy.49) represent the mass and energy balances and the pressure losses. Equations (2. low-order. wg the outlet combustion gas flow rate. a possible solution is to organise the model into two parts: a 'thermo-mechanical' part. neural networks) of more detailed design or experimental data. combustion is always complete and most of the chamber volume is close to the exit temperature. so that mass and energy storage should be considered. and a 'chemical' part based on non-linear interpolations (e. Here. first-principles modelling does not guarantee reasonable accuracy for task (2). Eg the corresponding energy.

50) where only the constant kT is derived from design data. There is.h. = k*wa^2/AirPHTablesDensity(pa.hg. pa. end C o m b u s t i o n C h a m b e r .3 Turbine The model of the turbine is built using the same line of reasoning as that of the compressor. wg hg pg = -GasOutlet. Mass MassFlowRate Enthalpy Pressure Energy HeatFlow equation wa ha = AirInlet.wf. parameter Volume Vc. a significant simplification because the first characteristic equation (2.6. NOx.7 Special problems in modelling combustion processes Combustion of fossil fuel is a complex chemical process which involves many components either contained in the reactants or produced by the reaction itself (like CO.hg).w.pg. . wa.wg.Modelling of power plants 49 compu~ gas prope~ies (e.ha). this makes the model quite complex. = GasOutlet. QI.wg).w = AirInlet. = wa*ha+wf*(hf+Hf)-wg*hg-Ql. F u n Q l o s s is a function devoted to computing the heat losses. reaction kinetics can be considered so fast that all the reactions are at their equilibrium.g. = Mg*hg-Vc*pg. hf . 2. Eg. however.3. combustion modelling is aimed at two different scopes: (1) (2) predicting heat release in combustion chambers. 2. The Modelica script of the model can be as follows: model C o m b u s t i o n C h a m b e r parameter R e a l k. p der(Mg) der(Eg) pa-pg Mg Eg Q1 = wa+wf-wg.GasOutlet. = FuelInlet. parameter CalorificValue parameter E n t h a l p y hf. pg = FuelInlet.44) can be implemented by the simple Stodola law (Cooke. = Vc*GasPHTablesDensity(pg.AirInlet.3. THT Hf. . wf . FuelInlet.\Pal ( p--~°)2 (2. ha. Mg. ~mperature and density from enthalpy and pressu~).h pa = A i r I n l e t . predicting pollutant concentration at the chamber outlet. = FuelInlet. = GasOutlet. Moreover. H20).p. 1985): W= kT~l -.p.h. For the case of power plant simulation. CO2. = FunQloss(wa.w. In this script.

neural network training). which concern both logic control functions and modulating control.org). i.1. can actually be considered as a control software specification. DIN IEC 3B/256/CD (1999). The block diagrams.din. (www. (2) In the second case. interlocks. etc. because NOx production is very sensitive to local flame temperature. even the digital nature of the real control system may be not relevant.normung. gas temperatures can be predicted quite well at least at sufficiently high load. ANSI/ISA 5. so that even the control components are treated . ANSI/ISA 88.1. PID. 2001). A crucial issue is the evaluation of radiation in a large furnace. Siegel and Howell (1972) and Perry and Green (1985).g. the reactions involved are the oxidation of hydrogen and carbon.) ignoring most auxiliary signals devoted to logics. DIN 40719-6 (1992). control functions may be simulated by a simpler library consisting of generic blocks (lead-lag.3. 2. describing the control strategy assuming a functional equivalence. There are two possible approaches to DCS modelling: (1) reproduce the control specification with a one-to-one correspondence of blocks (at least for the functional areas under investigation).01-1995 and many others. as discussed by Hottel and Sarofim (1967). with further simplification of the model. though they need experimental tuning (e. Empirical models combined with the first-principle models used for purpose (1) yield good results (Ferretti and Piroddi..2). the correct simulation of the DCS is necessary to assess power plant performances during the design phase. Then.e. 1979) that if a large furnace is modelled by 10-20 layers. Because of the essential role of automation in modern power plant. Since radiation depends on T 4. replace any (complex) functional group consisting of cascaded control blocks by a global control function implementing the same control concept while ignoring equipment and instrumentation details. protection and so on. What is generally needed is the computation of combustion gas composition and the evaluation of gas properties (see section 2. On the contrary. in particular the computation of flame/gas emissivity which is due to the superposition of the non-luminous gas emissivity (due to CO2 and H20) and of the luminous soot emissivity (formed in the combustion flame).de and www.4 Modelling of distributed control systems A power plant DCS is a very complex system involving many thousands of signals and specified by hundreds of I/O diagrams collected in a CAD database.50 Thermal power plant simulation and control For scope (1). the correct evaluation of radiation temperature is very important: experimental validation showed (Caruso et al. The system specification is generally expressed by functional block diagrams. thus using a control block library tailored to the appropriate international standard. based on some international standard such as IEC 1131 (1993).isa. for which 'very high' equilibrium constants can be assumed. simple lumped parameter balances do not give reliable results for scope (2) above.

but the validity of the model is not ensured. It is worth stressing that most power plant simulation environments do not support hybrid systems modelling. As an example.. with unscheduled events. www. 1989). two major problems need to be tackled: (a) (b) consider system complexity with adequate support for analysis. . especially because it is often not necessary to simulate events (including those related to the sampling process). Synchronous events that are scheduled at the simulation start are correctly processed.fi. we may mention the solution implemented by Guagliardi et al.Modelling of power plants 51 as continuous-time dynamic systems. The approach based on functional equivalence requires the analyst to develop a subjective translation of the original control scheme into a compact functional equivalent. assemble block diagrams using constructs provided by the modelling language for model aggregation. Coil et al. event-driven and logical blocks. very important when actual DCS verification is needed. Implementing the two-step procedure for real-size systems requires that the modelling language is equipped with control-oriented libraries and paradigms.16b. where a client-server architecture is provided. Then.se. in these cases the interaction between the continuous time and event driven parts (including sampled signal control systems) is to a certain extent left to the user. Detailed modelling of control software specifications or designs is. however. in particular to deal with discrete-time.16a. activating zero-time switching of discrete and logical variables while stopping continuous-time integration.dynasim. however. is reported in Figure 2. As an example. Experience of Matlab/Simulink ® for detailed modelling and testing of a power plant DCS is reported by Carpanzano et al. hybrid systems.e. the extension of the modelling power and generalisation to any relation-triggered event implies further effort in the model specification. Such generic control components are generally available in the libraries of power plant simulation packages (www. The continuous process simulator modelled by the specialised power plant simulation code LEGO runs with a fixed integration step and acts as a server for a Matlab/Simulink ® application where the DCS is modelled. It is widely applied to check control strategies in the early stages of the design process. i. recognize systems that combine continuous process simulation with events. implementation problems are not critical. Detailed DCS modelling is typically approached in two steps: (1) (2) build a control library consistent with the selected industrial standard. however. 1993) in Figure 2. A full treatment of hybrid modelling is supported in Modelica (www. (2000). the Modelica script of a sequence step.org). while respecting the process control concept. Problems may arise. (2001) and shows that this environment can be effectively customised to be consistent with a DIN standard (1992).modelica.vtt. possibly in the same way as CAD tools for control do. described using the functional block diagram (FBD) formalism (IEC1131-3.

52 Thermal power plant simulation and control logicalSignal Info. I2. a node characterised by a slowly varying pressure). 1998) and is also supported in Dymola (www. Info or I3.se). 02.5 Application of dynamic decoupling to power plant models In general. that are characterised by fast dynamics.. a largescale non-linear system (by a Newton-like method) must be solved. at every integration step.. connector boolean 0! 13 02 a b Figure 2. 1989). i. . I3.Info a n d I2.g. such as temperatures. backward Euler) for the fast part and an explicit method (e. The dynamic decoupling stemming from different-scale dynamics can effectively be introduced in power plant modelling with the concept of 'weak interaction' in recognition of typical situations found in thermo-hydraulic networks: • When part of a pressure net is linked to another one through a weak branch (i. such as pressures and flow rates. flue gas dynamics are very fast. end LogicController. a more efficient solution may be obtained by decoupling the integration of the two subsystems. block LogicController input LogicalSignal If. forward Euler) for the slow part. dynamic decoupling is applicable to dynamic system simulation when the system consists of sections characterised by different dynamics. This expedient has been applied in power plant simulators (Busi et al.e.16 Simple controller specified in FBD and implemented in Modelica 2. We may recognise such a situation in power plant models..Info. For instance. according to the recursive scheme of Figure 2. where the system splitting is under the user's control. typically a 'slow' and 'fast' subsystem. then the net can be split into two subnets by 'freezing' the node pressure when solving that part of the net containing the inlet branch.dynasim.g. if the number of 'fast' state variables is small with respect to the total. Moreover. Bartolini et al. This approach may make the numerical solution quite involved because. and state variables. However. using an implicit method (e. that are characterised by slow dynamics. then the two parts can be solved in two steps at any integration instant. 02. e n d Logicalsignal.e.e. in the one-phase subnet of the steam-water circuit there are state variables. equation Ol.17. When a pressure net contains a node with a large capacity having one inlet branch (i.Info. stabilisation of the integration process may be obtained by using implicit integration methods (Brenan et al. 1985. a branch with little discharge capacity). Info = not II.Info = 01. because the gas inertia is very small. Output LogicalSignal 01. It is known that when the system is stiff. which ensure numerical stability even for rather large integration steps. .

momentum and energy balances are more tightly coupled. we have to tackle the following problems related to 'model certification': • • • testing intrinsic correctness of model. Then. which may concern both steady-state and transient conditions.g. and each component model (CM) is either taken from a library or built by analysing the component design data. model validation by experimental tests. the application of dynamic decoupling can be extended with the introduction of the concept of 'weak variable'. dynamic decoupiing is relevant to a number of typical physical situations and can be systematically applied to split the system integration into a considerable number of small tasks. Very often it is necessary to customise. which has a 'weak' dynamic participation in a certain equation. e. in the simulation of the circulation loop) where mass. and so on. These principles have been systematically implemented in the development of ProcSim (Bartolini et al. 1998). 2. In all the above situations. i.am cs I 1 o' es ow yoamic J I Figure 2.6 Testing and validation of developed models We consider the case where a model is developed by aggregating component representations based on first principles.. either because it is slowly varying or because it has a minor effect (Casella and Maffezzoni. model validation versus design data. In power plant modelling.Modelling of power plants k=k+ 1 53 I o' e st y.. .g. A typical situation is that the model is structured into components by looking at the design flow diagrams. Experience (Leva et al. flue gas hydraulics. 1999) showed that the application of these decoupling criteria requires particular care when dealing with two-phase flows (e. testing and validation may involve either a component. the solution of feedwater system hydraulics. to a certain extent.e. generally only available for steady-state conditions. model correctness versus physical principles. 1998). a process simulation environment oriented to thermohydraulic networks.17 Recursive scheme for dynamic decoupling In fact. subsystem or the whole system. a library CM on the basis of some specific feature of the case at hand.

the sole source of information for modelling consists of design data. It is then very important to establish procedures ensuring that the new models respect the fundamental principles of mass.54 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Testing intrinsic model correctness 2. design data allow validation component by component. Thus. or after simulation. evaluate plant Moreover. performing the necessary computations on the logged variables. steady-state validation is quite significant. the creation of new component models or the modification of existing ones (by the mechanisms of inheritance. momentum and energy conservation. Cases of extensive validation by design data are reported by Castoro and Oldnati (1995) and Maffezzoni and Aime (2000). the plant manufacturer has important additional knowledge about component behaviour. override and polymorphism) is quite easy. Note that often it is not advisable to take masses and energies as state variables.g. typically expressed by empirical or semi-empirical correlations (e. For power plants. that is the identification of the actual source of modelling errors. It should also be noted that using design data for validation means that component models are usually built with 'tuning knobs' expressing uncertainties about model parameters: those knobs are actually set to minimise the discrepancies between .6. In these cases. those of liquid and vapour in a drum) and active only when some global logic variable or parameter is set true. heat transfer correlations). if the environment permits access to its variables in that phase.2 Model validation versus design data Power plant simulation is frequently used during the late phases of plant design or during plant construction. since design data are generally detailed and extensive (they cover plant operation in different conditions) and incorporate the best knowledge about the plant before commissioning.g. validation versus design data is a basic step toward model 'certification'. the correctness testing can be done at any time and in any relevant condition. Thanks to their detail. steady-state design code computations. required to performance.1 When a powerful object-oriented modelling environment is employed. a Modelica script may consist of two sections: one corresponding to the standard model and always active. the other computing the mass and energy of all the species and phases that are present (e. so devoting a subsidiary model section to their computation reduces the simulation effort. which may be split in two parts: (a) (b) dimensional parameters (geometrical and physical data). Once the model is equipped with this section. non-linearities are very important and many complex phenomena (particularly combustion and heat transfer in the furnace and through the convection banks) can be captured even in the steady-state. This can be done at the component level (aggregate models inherit this property from submodels) by equipping each CM with a switchable monitoring function devoted to automatic checks. 2. for instance when the component model is part of a larger model where certain significant transient conditions may be simulated. As an example. Testing can be done during simulation.6.

where possible.. based on these. It is clear that step responses are much more significant for validation because the plant dynamics are sufficiently excited.3 Model validation versus experiments Unlike design data. Such data are generally sufficient for an extensive validation of the plant model in the steadystate. dynamic validation may consider selected plant responses for which ad hoc experiments are then performed. One of the major problems is that open-loop tests are very critical to obtain because a boiler is not . Unfortunately. Moreover. Once steady-state model assessment has been done. steady-state experimental data allow thermal balances across the different convection banks to be computed. 1993) subject to small pseudo-random excitation and the second to a laboratory boiler to which extensive step response tests have been applied (Leva et al. which is designed to record and store data in forms suitable for steady-state performance evaluation. So. However. since process measurements are sampled at a slow rate for routine supervision purposes. correction (fouling) factors of the involved coefficients can be tuned. dynamic validation of power plant models is sporadically available. So. As an example. and concern limited parts of the plant (a few relevant variables). The major source of experimental data is the supervision system. experience shows that reconciliation of measurement data is often required when using standard instrumentation. 1974) and a drum boiler (Coil and Busi. Validation programmes are also reported also for a once-through boiler (Cori et al. there is no systematic method to integrate all the available information: it is difficult to properly weigh experimental measurements with respect to design computations because experiments cover the whole field of operation irregularly and measurements are incomplete. it is necessary to combine information coming from design data with information coming from measurements. it is worth mentioning the assessment of heat balances concerning the convection part of a fossil fired boiler: • • Design data and manufacturer's correlations lead to the formulation of gas zone models incorporating heat transfer coefficients. normally as part of special research programmes. but they are very costly in commercial plant. (1984) and Castoro and Oldrati (1995). experiments generally supply an incomplete set of data. 2. 1977).Modelling of power plants 55 model outputs and design data. steady-state validation (with the inherent parameter tuning) must always precede dynamic validation. Examples of this procedure are reported by Maffezzoni et al. As an example.. even though the available measurements do not allow independent validation of each component model (for instance temperatures of combustion gases are not measured in the different plant sections because of technological problems and for cost reasons). 1999). the parameterisation of the flow characteristics and efficiency curves for a gas turbine may be found in Maffezzoni and Aime (2000). Two different examples are worth mentioning: the first relating to a commercial unit (Astr/3m and Bell.6.

closed-loop tests do not highlight the process dynamics. for which simple zero-dimensional models based on first principles fail. 1993). and aggregation to form subsystems can be used. From the reported experience it may be inferred that pressure. though application libraries are not yet available for power plants. • • . with special emphasis on its stability (Kwatny and Berg.. hybrid systems modelling is not supported in a general and rigorous form. 1999) adopt a model structured approach oriented to components.56 Thermal power plant simulation and control asymptotically stable and tends to move away from its equilibrium point. being strongly dependent on control actions.7 Concluding remarks and open problems Modelling by component for power plants has been greatly enhanced by objectoriented techniques based on non-causal model formulation and model connection through physical ports. Areas substantially lacking in validation of boiler dynamics modelling are the behaviour of furnaces at low loads (Kwatny and Bauerle. 2. Though many existing simulation codes treating power plant (Carpanzano etal. level and load dynamics are well reproduced by large-scale modular models. the results of dynamic model validation are quite limited for thermal power plant and also for available test databases for independent model validation. dynamic measurements are rather scarce so that isolation of components for validation is impossible. Further investigation and development is required on the following aspects: • full integration between lumped-parameter and distributed parameter modelling. while more problems have been found in the validation of steam temperature dynamics. For all these reasons. particularly with reference to the complex heat exchangers employed both in conventional and heat recovery boilers. CO.) in furnaces and combustion chambers. In addition. On the other hand. the strong interactions among the different sections of the plant make it difficult to identify the source of plant-model discrepancies. etc. we have outlined here the basic principles by which a component library can be developed. improvements in symbolic and numerical techniques to efficiently deal with hybrid systems and to exploit dynamic decoupling in the simulation of large-scale power plant models.g. Emerging standards in object-oriented modelling (such as Modelica. which has been assumed herein) overcome the above drawbacks. Control systems are also considered with the aim of facing real-size control engineering problems based on two key issues: adherence to widely accepted standards (e. IEC 1131 and 1499) and proper consideration of the hybrid nature of the control-process combination (which is essential when control system functionality has to be tested). For that reason. 1986) and the behaviour of drum level at very low loads. the underlying modelling language suffers from the following drawbacks: • • component models are neither inspectable nor assignable in descriptive form. So. modelling of pollutant production (NOx.

LEVA. R.vtt.. L. C. CAMPBELL. A... and DE MARCO.g. 443-450 CARPANZANO.8 References AIME. L. IFAC Symposium on Control of Power Plants and Power Systems. Marseille 2001 CARUSO. Erlangen-Nuremberg.. S. Cancan 1995 pp.. 1999. S. Simulation. L.. Proceedings 13th European Simulation Symposium.: 'A process simulation environment based on visual programming and dynamic decoupling'..: 'Simulation environments for industrial process control'.: 'Fuzzy logic control of vertical spindle mills'. GODIN. and QUATELA. 395-398. A... and MAFFEZZONI. 1970 (in French) . and BELL. 71. J.. A. much attention has been given here to object-oriented modelling languages (e. and MAFFEZZONI. Technical report ENEL 372053-14. E.: 'A nonlinear model for steam generation process'. P. to the authors' knowledge. Journ~es de I'AIM. A preliminary effort has been made with the prototype environment MOSES (Maffezzoni and Girelli. pp. 1993 BARTOLINI. but the state of the art is far from satisfactory. as is necessary when developing a power plant project in any phase of its life cycle. pp.. W. 3.: 'An efficient modelling technique for power plant training simulators: the FAST method'. G.: 'One-dimensional mathematical model of a furnace'. pp. C.: 'Modular testing of logic control functions with Matlab'.. Amsterdam 1989) BUSI.fi. P. /~STROM. M.. Modelica) and to software tools supporting them. Oslo 1985 CAO. there is a substantial lack of model libraries for power plant applications. S. Sydney.. Proceedings of 1 lth IMACS World Congress. This could be the scope for international cooperation to eliminate this dearth by developing libraries in a non-proprietary language to be shared by interested contributors. K. (3). E. and PETZOLD.Modelling of power plants 57 For aspects peculiar to an engineering environment (crucial to enable modelling and simulation for engineering practice). 2. Proceedings ESS '99. which combines object-oriented modelling and database management. (4-6). Preprint 12th IFAC World Congress. pp.. and MAFFEZZONI. FERRARINI L. 183-193 BRENAN. P. D. and MALHOUITRE.. C. 1979 (in Italian) CASEAU. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation. P. COLOMBO. 345-351 APROS home page. we may observe that modelling and simulation environments are generally not equipped to efficiently manage large amounts of data. E. DE MARCO A. T. Likge. 2000. K. and MAFFEZZONI. G. 1998). N.: 'Numerical simulation of a steam generator'. and REES. However. R. 49-55 CARPANZANO. Finally. F. 53. C. 1998. as such languages are quite recent. FERRARINI L.: 'Numerical solution of initial-value problems in differential algebraic Equations' (North-Holland. www.: 'Modelling and simulation of combined lumped and distributed systems by an object-oriented approach'..

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S. 1992) 'Modelica: a unified object-oriented language for physical systems modelling language secification. www.: 'OMOLA . P. FERRARINI. D. Proceedings first IFAC Workshop 'Modelling and Control of Electric Power Plants. 'Modelling and simulation of hanford K-Area boiler-turbine-generator system'. Computers and Chemical Engineering. v. and KITRO. G..2'. New York. and VALLI. (8). and MASSIMO. Technical report CS/NP-2989. E M. Pergamon. A. New York. 40th edn.: 'Object-oriented models for advanced automation engineering'. S.an object-oriented modelling language'. 1983 MORTON. G. 1950) SIEGEL..: 'Steam turbines and their cycles' (John Wiley.) SALISBURY. Berlin.. L. Technical report ABB SIMCON. R. 1989) ProTRAX home page. H. R.. WESTERBERG. 1985) PIELA. (Eds. B. K. 1994a 'SIMCON-X Profile'.): 'Recent advances in computer aided control systems engineering' (Elsevier. K. Modelica Design Group. and HOWELL. an object-oriented computer environment for modelling and analysis: the modelling language'.. and MARCOCCI. Technical report ABB SIMCON. 7. Berlin. 1997.. pp. J. KONOPACKI.. 1999 'Modular modelling system (MMS): a code for the dynamic simulation of fossil and nuclear power plants. L. (Springer-Verlag. 1976 . and HERGET. 1999. overview and general theory.. and CARPANZANO. EPRI. E.traxcorp.: 'Thermal radiation heat transfer' (McGraw-Hill. M.: 'Computer-aided modelling of large power plants'. D. A. Journal of Computational Physics. R. 249-270 PERRY. S. 53-72 'Properties of water and steam in SI Units. In JAMSHIDI. 15. and ANDERSSON... K. C. M. K.com QUARTERONI. New York. Technical report ERDA 76-151. 1992.. and WESTERBERG. pp.: 'Numerical approximation of partial differential equations' (Springer-Verlag. 1994b STULTZ. Amsterdam.: 'Generalized galerkin methods for first-order hyperbolic equations'.60 Thermal power plant simulation and control MAFFEZZONI. EPPERLY.): 'Steam: its generation and use' (Babcock & Wilcox. (Eds. 36. 1991. 957-968 MATTSSON. 1. 1980. W. 1984 MAFFEZZONI. MAGNANI. and PARROT. M. A. Technical report. 'ASCEND. 1972) 'SIMCON-X engineering station: model development'. C. J.. A. 2nd edn.. Control Engineering Practice. A. 4th enlarged printing'. and GREEN. C. C.) WEBER. T.. W. J. C. pp.. Barberton.: 'Perry's chemical engineers' handbook' (McGrawHill. W.

Part 2 Control .

beyond the wit of the engineer to model. Particular attention has been paid to steam temperature control (Mann and Lausterer. and that mills are subject to all sorts of disturbances such as wear. 1996. there is plenty of evidence that properly modelled and controlled mills can respond much better than at present. 1996. Waddington and Maples. 1992.W. 1997).Chapter 3 Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills N. however. indeed it has been suggested that performance equal to that of oil-fired plant is possible (Rees. 1986). Against this. This is in spite of the fact that it is now accepted that coal mills and their poor dynamic response are major factors in the slow load take-up rate and they are also a regular cause of plant shut-down (Maffezzoni. The reasons for this lack of interest are uncertain but relate very much to the idea that modelling mills is very difficult. although control engineers generally feel much more could be done than is currently the case (Rees and Lu. if not impossible. 1987) and water level control (Kwatny and Maffezzoni. Fan 3. 1989). choking and unknown coal properties. An area of power plant control that has received much less attention from modelling and control specialists is the coal mills. Peer and Leung.Q. load pressure control (Maffezzoni. 2002). Rees and G. The control vendors and the applied control literature now regularly describe 'modem' control systems for the industry. . Nakamura and Uchida. and from that of others. it is now possible to implement many of the ideas resulting from modelling and control studies. In the rest of this chapter we take a closer look at the modelling and control of coal mills and give some ideas from our own experience. With the introduction of modem distributed control systems (DCSs). where the future automation of this important area may be going. 1993).1 Introduction There can be no doubt that the ideas of modelling and control have generally been found quite acceptable within the electric power generation industry.

. Robinson. with one of the most popular types being the pressurised vertical spindle bowl mill as shown in Figure 3. As in the separator the classifier contains a significant mass of suspended coal. As shown in Figure 3.1 the main inputs to the mill are the raw coal and the primary air while the output is the pf flow.1 Vertical spindle mills There are many types of coal mills in use.2. Numerous studies based on these models using step response or frequency response testing have been carried out both for single-input single-output (SISO) systems and multivariable control (Bollinger and Snowden. In operation. introduced models of coal mills relating input demand to firing rate by transfer functions. whilst particles that are travelling fast enough enter the classifier zone.. play a major role in the dynamic behaviour of the mill.2 Modelling of coal mills The problem of the transient performance of coal mills has been recognised for some time. consisting of a first-order lag and a pure transport delay. 1986. 1980. 1983. The size distribution of the pf flow particles or 'finers' is usually required to be less than 75 microns and cannot be measured. whilst the heavier particles hit the side of the classifier cone and drop back onto the mill table for further processing. 1997.64 Thermal power plant simulation and control 3. together with the mass of coal on the mill table and the three recirculating loads. Typical values of these parameters for different types of mills were given.1. for further grinding. The separator contains a large amount of coal particles in suspension by the powerful air flow. 1985). The lighter particles are drawn out of the resulting vortex as classified pf fuel for the burners. Slightly more complicated models based on overall mass balancing (O'Kelly. The coal then moves under centrifugal force outwards and under three passive rollers where grinding and crushing take place. It is determined largely by the intemal mill behaviour and the classifier settings which . These masses of coal. The heavier coal particles are immediately returned back to the bowl for further grinding whilst the lighter particles are entrained in the air flow and carried into the separator section. These particles are given a swirl behaviour by vanes or deflector plates. raw coal enters the mill down a chute dropping on to a constant speed of rotation table or bowl. In addition some of the heavier particles entrained in the primary air-coal mix lose their velocity and fall back onto the mill table as shown. The coal output then moves towards the throat of the mill where it mixes with high-speed hot primary air. 1973) or heat balance analysis (Dolezal and Varcop. Hougen. primary. 1980). Rees and Mee. it has very low coal storage so that good control is very important. 3. secondary and tertiary. Whilst these models have been beneficial it is now recognised that some aspects of particle size distribution as well as the complicated internal structure of the mill must be considered (Corti et al. This mill is very popular because it is economical. 1970) have also been developed. We will discuss this matter soon but first we need to look a bit more closely at the mills themselves. however. Early work by Profos (1959) on pressure and combustion control. Neal et al.

Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills Raw coal 65 from feeder 06~O Deflector plates Tertiary recirculating load Secondary recirculating load Primary recirculating load Flash drying zone Mill throat Figure 3.1 Physical structure of a vertical spindle mill .

rhg the flow of coal to the grinding table. which gives some indication of mill load.. and the differential pressure between the top part of the mill and the under bowl.1 and 3. Roll Figure 3. mill motor current. rhrc and rhpf represent the raw coal flow entering the mill and the pulverised fuel flow leaving. I ii ow. 3.2 Schematic of a vertical spindle mill . rhpre. rhsr e and rhtre are the recirculating loads and rhpff. rhff = kfrhrc is the amount of fine coal in the raw feed that is blown straight out of the mill. Air flow can be measured accurately although the measurement is often noisy. rhsff and thtff represent the entrained coal flow picked up at the throat. but no satisfactory measuring equipment has yet been developed. Figures 3. which is easily measured and controlled by hot air and cold air dampers. This AP measurement is very useful in helping to understand mill recirculating load..mass balance models A useful physical model of the mill can be developed using internal mass balances..2 Modelling vertical spindle mills .~ ~ Phsff ~r~_~ ] [ I m~r~ i Separator I I M~. separator and classifier by the primary airflow rhpa. mtre mtff ClassifierMtfl. The size distribution of the raw coal input is measured infrequently using mechanical sieves and the particles are mainly in the range 75 microns to 70 mm. ~pf fT. A block diagram schematic of the mill is shown in Figure 3. and rhgc the output of the grinding mills. There is no doubt that mill control would be much improved if particle size measurements were available.2.2.2 show the key mill structure and the variables necessary to write the mass balances.66 Thermal power plant simulation and control are usually not varied during mill operation. Other important variables around the mill are mill temperature. Mpr is the mass of coal on the table.

8) . The recirculating loads in equation (3.rhsff dt dMtr = (1 -.-rhsr e -4. for example.ksre)rhsff .kprerhpff (3. dt (3.1 . A more control-oriented model has been developed by Fan (1994) and Fan and Rees (1994). treatment of the grinding zone includes an analysis based on known communition theory and established breaking rate functions and breakage distribution functions.rhtff. 1981).2 but the processes in each box are simplified.2 has been developed by Robinson (1985).w0 (1 . Likewise. As a consequence of all this detail the model consists of 76 ordinary differential equations and is more of a knowledge-based model (Maffezzoni.thre 1 -wl (3.ktrerhtff d/htre "t'tre.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 67 A detailed transient model of the mill based on Figure 3.6) .4) (3.2) can be adequately determined from drhpre rpre dt t'sre drnsre dt rhpre q.thff where w0 and Wl represent the moisture in the raw coal and in the coal on the bowl.-dt where kpre. This model considers coal in 15 particle sizes with detailed physically based models developed for each box. the flow of raw coal from the chute to the grinding zone has been modelled in terms of centrifugal effects and the difference in height of the raw coal as it flows across the coal bed.ksrerhsff rhtre q.kpre)rnpff . The entrainment of coal from the table into the separator and classifier is examined using Lagrangian particle calculations and empirically determined classification functions. In the bowl modelling.3) rare = ff/pre -[. It is an excellent reference model and highly recommended reading but too complicated for most control studies. ksre and ktre are the appropriate steady-state gains and the time constants rpre. 1996) than a control model. This model uses the same physical structure as shown in Figure 3.2) (3.kf)rhrc q-.5) (3. The following mass balances can be written by inspection: rhg -.1) (3. Eleven particle sizes are assumed in the raw coal but the grinding model is much simplified over the size mass balance model (Prasher.rhsre q. The suspended mass of coal in the separator Msr and the classifier Mtr can be calculated from dMsr = (1 .7) (3. rsre and rtre are due to aeroresistance and inertia to the flow with the finer particles having longer time delays.thtre -[.rhtre /hpf = ff/tff .

(3. Prasher. Kunii and Levenspiel (1969) show that the entrained particles travel at the same velocity as the carrier air and from this it is straightforward to show (Fan.thg -. in the separator and in the classifier we need to find a relationship between the air mass flow rate at the point of interest and the pick-up rate of the coal particles.rhgc (3. 1994).9) dt However from the entrainment point of view it is the ground coal conditions at the rim (throat) that matter so that we really need to know the flow output of the grinding rolls rhgc.rhg . (3.rhtre. In this study R has been determined by measuring the weight of coal in each of 11 sieve sizes and feeding this information into a Matlab program for calculation (Fan. Assuming that the mass of primary air passes quickly through the mill then the secondary and tertiary final flows can be expressed by similar formulas: rhsff = ksrMsrrhpa rhtff = ktrMtrrhpa (3. which results in the rolls being described by 1 drhgc R dt -.11) where kpr is a shaping factor that depends on the area of the particle flow path. 1981). but a simpler model is used here based on the idea of 'similarity' (Fan. 1981). The particles are picked up by the drag force and will be entrained as long as this force is greater than the gravitational force. The coal mass balance on the table can be written as dMpr -.13) so that rhpf : kpf(Mtr + Mff)rnpa -.68 Thermal power plant simulation and control To complete the model we need to determine the mass of coal Mpr on the table and the entrainment flows rhpff. This can be determined in a complex way using the size mass balance concept (Prasher. 1994. 1994) that rhpff = kpr Mprrhpa (3. the area of the primary air flow path. the density of the air and the volume of the mill occupied by the fine coal particles near the classifier.10) where R is the size reduction rate of the raw coal particles and rhgc is defined as the flow of ground coal such that 80 per cent of the particles will pass through a 75 micron sieve.13) where all the shaping constants have the same structure as kpf but with their own local parameter values.12) (3.rhpff. rhsff and rhtff. Since a small amount of 'finer' coal enters the mill in the raw coal and gets blown straight out again as pf coal it is appropriate to add this flow to equation (3.14) . To determine the entrainment rate of the coal by the air at the throat.

too high a A p .2.. and must be controlled within narrow bands. it is essential for any control studies that thermodynamic and hydrodynamic effects are also considered..3. It is interesting to compare the above model with the more empirical model developed by O'Kelly (1997).10) except that of the two particle sizes in the ground coal the production of one is seen as proportional to the mass of raw coal on the table while the production of the other is proportional to the mass of the larger size ground coal on the table. Raw coal (l~g/s) Primar air (kg/s) Figure 3. The grinding model is similar to equation (3. Likewise mill differential pressure A P measured between the mill under-bowl and the separator is a critical variable since it is an indirect measure of mill recirculating load . The mill temperature Tm measured at the mill outlet is a critical variable from a safety viewpoint.3 Verticalspindle mill. u 2 e d due ~ ~ ' to air velocity (%) Transfer Fen2 Mill level (kg) Coal returned due to mill rim (%) dmd Raw coal Saturation Transport (kg/s) Sum aulrll Grinding zo~e~Vtable (kg) . An interesting non-linear model is described for the entrainment of coal of the larger ground size at the bowl rim. This is expressed as rhpff = kpr(mprmgc) n' thpa (3...3 Modelling vertical spindle mills . A non-linear function such as this allows saturation to be modelled as might occur for example in mill choking. ]. 3.Q Mill pf flow (kg/s) I ~ Transfer Fen3 Coal returned due to classification (%) Coal near classifier (kg) Gain7 Co..temperature..Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 69 :D Sum6 Gain9 Small portion fine coal (%) . This model uses three particle sizes that are carried through all the calculations. pressure and energy issues Whilst the mass balance model describes the pf flow quite well.Matlab/Simulink ® simulation A complete Simulink simulation model of the mill based on the above mass balance is shown in Figure 3.15) where nl is an experimentally fitted constant and Mgc is the mass of ground coal on the table...

raw coal and the moisture.Ümoo dTm (3.16) with the above substitutions represents the temperature equation used in the simulations. The mill energy balance then results in MmCn---~.2.1 Mill t e m p e r a t u r e .Tin) C)rci = (1 . 3. Early results.Tm A simple and useful model of mill temperature can be obtained from a global input/output energy balance. By standard techniques these quantities can be written as: C)pai = Clthpa(Tpa .qpfo -.Tin)C2 C)moi -----to0rhrc(Ta .3. suggest that significant improvements are possible using this approach. Another useful measurement and model relates to the energy E needed to drive the mill and its coal load.3. .Tin)C3 qpao = C1 thairTm 0pro = C2rhpfTm qmoo = C3tolrhrcTm + Co(wo . It may be possible to improve the temperature model by including heat generated during grinding so that the temperature of the coal bed differs from the measured pf outlet temperature. and Mm and Cn are the mass of metal in the mill and its specific heat.70 Thermal power plant simulation and control indicates possible mill overload and will trip the plant. The simulation equations for Tm. coal and air mass temperature in the mill.qpao . and energy lost by the air in picking up the coal. Mill wear can also be related to A P. changes in the air flow path area due to the suspended coal. This pressure loss is caused by frictional losses. The problem is complex because there is a mixture of single-phase air flow below the bowl and two-phase coal/air flow in the separator.2 Mill differential pressure .to0)thrc(Ta . picking up coal from the table. however.= qin -.2.tol)rhrc where Tpa and Ta are the primary air and ambient air temperature. a differential pressure A P is developed between the under-bowl pressure and the pressure in the separator.qout = 0pai + qrei + C)moi-. rhair is the air flow outlet of the mill and the coefficients Ci are the appropriate specific heats. 3. A P and E are outlined below. Equation (3. This would require a higher-order dynamic model and much more information on coal mass and surface parameters. It is assumed that the mill temperature is measured in the mill pf outlet duct and that this lumped parameter Tm is the same as the mill body.16) where the 0 terms represent the input and output heat in the primary air.A P As the primary air flows through the mill.

3 Energy model Large coal mills consume significant amounts of power amounting to about 500 kW at full load. the mill power consumption E is mainly a function of the amount of coal mass m on the mill grinding table. useful information about mill wear. the global model is represented by a set of constant-coefficient lumped-parameter models. Since z2 is determined by the mill classification settings which are fixed.3 Plant tests. 3. then the energy E required by a mill charged with coal mass m is E = m E u + W. 3. and the raw coal distribution is more or less constant.2. Unfortunately there is little coal mill data available so that most of the few models available in the literature are qualitatively evaluated or checked against a number of simple step responses. . coal hardness and other operational issues can be resolved. (3. results and fitting model parameters Models of physical plant are of course only as good as how well they fit the data. 1969) then E = mkB(Z21/2 -. 1980). These parameters can be determined off-line and stored in a look-up table relating their values to operating conditions or they can be determined adaptively on-line. Consequently. kre and krl are complex functions of mill air flow. Details are given in Fan (1994) with the resulting equation for A P being kree-Tds . (1986).17) where dh is the distance between the mill entry and the measuring point.•2 A P = kpedh + kpadth~a + (1 + Tms) 2dmrc + krldMtr (3. (1986) that data collection was being carried out by ENEL in Italy. In addition by observing the mill power requirements for coal pulverising.3..z l I/2) (3.19) where kB is a constant depending on the coal. This will be discussed in subsequent sections. If Eu is the energy required by a unit mass of coal particles to be ground from size Zl to size z2 and W is the energy required to drive an empty mill.18) Assuming Eu is given by Bond's law (Kunii and Levenspiel. and it has been suggested by Corti et al. Some frequency response testing has been performed (Neal et al.Modelling and control o f pulverised fuel coal mills 71 A global model for A P can be developed from an energy balance between the air input and the mill measuring point. The parameters kpe. kpa. It should be noted that the mass of the mill M is constant. A similar relationship for the consumed energy is given by Corti et al.

transient data. Three different mill control configurations were used.2 when fitted to data collected from power stations in New South Wales. Once the first set of parameters was determined the simulation model was run in parallel with the mill and the resulting error signal was then used to further refine parameters. It was quickly found that a large number of parameters were constant throughout plant operation.4 where the mill power and mill A p outputs are shown. In Figure 3. Deterioration in the results is obvious both for . but a small set of parameters varied with load and other factors such as wear. Australia.72 Thermal power plant simulation and control In this section we describe some model data fitting carried out using the model from section 3. In addition special tests were carried out. However. or air flow with constant fuel set-point. Rather steady-state data.5 a similar test is carried out but at 80 per cent load. it is worth mentioning the fact that the data was collected from experiments carried out on two plants. the model has the same 70 per cent load parameters as the previous simulation. Data logging includes the mills (six of them) and appropriate pressures. for example. It was developed in a collaborative project between the University of New South Wales and Pacific Power International in a project designed to develop and test modern control concepts as applied to coal mills. The fitted model test results against the data are shown in Figure 3. The experiments were specially designed by the modellers. Although this approach might appear somewhat ad hoc it is a very effective engineering approach and an excellent way of building up knowledge and understanding of the plant for modeller and plant engineer alike. the data are not available for general use. one a 500 MW plant and the other a 660 MW plant. This means that step and ramp changes are made and during the experiments normal plant controls are maintained except around the mills. It can be seen that the model responses are quite satisfactory. Since the experiments were carefully designed it was possible to fit many of the parameters to the data by simple least squares. No particular parameter identification method was used to fit the model parameters. In the first experiment. The tests were also carried out for new mill rollers and worn mills. on an empty mill to determine the no-load relationship between mill A P and primary air. plant technical staff and operators so that model parameter estimation was possible without excessively disturbing the plant or placing too much demand on the operators. In the other two experiments mill controls were removed. temperatures and flows from all around the boiler turbine plant. Extensive experiments were carried out for five different power demands between 60 and 90 per cent MCR. plant power demand was ramped up and down with the normal mill mass/mass control in place so that fuel and primary air varied. data from the special tests and design data were used in a heuristic way. In passing. To cope with these variations a distributed model parameter set was determined as discussed later. The parameters used in the model were determined for 70 per cent load as the feeder speed indicates. Unfortunately. power demand was set constant. Following each step the plant was allowed to settle before the next step occurred. and a step change was applied to fuel flow with constant primary air setpoint. In this test the mill PA flow was constant and the feeder speed step changed after 90 and 430 samples.

dotted line . Figure 3. After 800 samples both feeder speed .15 1. 700 . 1.model output.1 1. Sample time = 3 s steady-state values and for the transient response. I I I I I I I d 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Figure 3. 300 . 500 .6 shows the results of a more complicated test.4 Step changes in feeder speed at 70per cent load (fixed parameter model): solid line -field test data. 900 . 600 . 800 .Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 75 73 70 65 L 6C 100 360 ~" 340 320 o 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 300 280 b 1. A similar test at 50 per cent load showed even worse transient performance.05 C [ I I I i I I I 100 22 20 o = 18 16 14 I 200 .2 1.3 I I l I l I I [ 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1. In the first 600 samples the feeder speed was constant and the air varied.25 ~. 400 .

. .6 1. In this data the mill is ' c h o k i n g ' d u e to the h i g h coal flow a n d low air flow.3 1." solid line -field test data..5 Step changes in feeder speedat 80per cent load (fixedparameter model). T h i s .2 24 I I I I I I I 100 I 200 I 300 I 400 I 500 I 600 700 800 ~" o 22 20 . . .. S u c h a n e v e n t is n o t u n u s u a l and c o u l d c a u s e the mill to b e shut down. . Sample time = 3 s a n d air vary t h r o u g h r a t h e r large c h a n g e s . .74 Thermal power plant simulation and control 85 80 75 . . .4 1. .. . 100 i i i r 70 ¢~'ll~r~Pd~t'~'~|L~'g~ t 200 300 400 500 f i i i I 600 i I 700 800 400 380 360 340 32O 300 1. . dotted line .. . . It can b e seen t h a t the data fit for a fixed m o d e l for this test is n o t very g o o d a n d especially after 800 s a m p l e s w h e r e the error increases. . . . ~ - - . .model output. . . . ~7 16 14 I I [ l I l I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . .5 e~ I I I I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1. .

6 Step changes in both airflow and feeder speed (fixed parameter model): solid line -field test data. L i = ~ . .model output. ~L. however. is largely missed by our fixed parameter model. ~ . ~ l . . m .LO 75 i I 500 lO'O0 1500 300 b 250 0 500 ' 1o'o 0 1500 15 0.5 22 ~ o i.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 90 80 70 60 50 40 0 450 ~" 400 350 o .Llll i . We will discuss this in section 3. . . ~ m . This is because it cannot be measured and so cannot be c o m p a r e d with the model. 500 0 ' 1 00 O' 1500 20 18 16 d 14 I 0 500 1000 15oo Figure 3. . Sample time = 3 s p h e n o m e n o n .4. It might be noted that in these figures we have not chosen to show the p f flow from the mill. dotted line .

.model output. . .. .05 I I I I I I I I 0 22 100 I 200 I 300 I 400 I 500 I 600 I 700 I 800 I 900 ~ 20 - - .. Sample time = 3 s T h e mill m o d e l l i n g p r o b l e m s j u s t d e s c r i b e d are d u e to the n o n .-..1 C 1...... dotted line ... " - t . . . ... .7 Step changes in feeder speed at 70 per cent load (distributed parameter model): solid line ....76 Thermal power plant simulation and control 7 5 . ~T -.3 1.test data.....r.- . .25 I I l I I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 t~ 1....15 1.T r T 70 65 LT........2 1. T h i s difficulty can b e o v e r c o m e by u s i n g a d i s t r i b u t e d p a r a m e t e r set m o d e l w h e r e different p a r a m e t e r s are u s e d for different o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s as m e a s u r e d ..l i n e a r i t i e s in the p l a n t so t h a t one set o f p a r a m e t e r values w i t h the s i m p l e m o d e l c a n n o t g l o b a l l y fit the data. i i 60 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 360 340 o e~ ~ 320 300 280 0 1. ..... . .%-" ~ -=- 18 16 14 I I I I I I I I d 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Figure 3.

7-3.2 0 24 22 2o I l l I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 14 d 0 I I I I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Figure 3. dotted line .6 are shown with the distributed models in Figures 3. .45 I I I I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1. 500 . Sample time = 3 s by mill feeder speed and PA flow. 300 . 400 .25 1.9 and are obviously much . . 200 .model output.8 Step changes in feeder speed at 80 per cent load (distributed parameter model): solid line .4 1. 70 a 400 0 1 O0 .test data.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 85 77 8o 75 LI.35 1. By dividing the operating space up into regions and then forming a database of parameter sets for each region a more satisfactory model can be produced.43. The results of the same experiments shown in Figures 3.3 1. 600 700 800 ~' 380 360 340 320 3O0 0 1.

model output..10 shows the distributed results for a 'worn mill' over a range of loads and these are also good. The modelling results shown in this section are very encouraging. The results of Figure 3.9 are particularly interesting since they show the 'choking' behaviour well. It should be remembered.8 22 20 18 16 14 L I 500 1000 1500 i l y .8 1. Figure 3. 500 10 0 1500 Figure 3. Sample time = 3 s improved..4 1. dotted line ... that to obtain this behaviour requires a lot of plant .test data.6 1.. however.9 Step changes in both airflow and feeder speed (distributed parameter model): solid line ..78 Thermal power plant simulation and control 90 80 70 i ~" 60 ~.2 1 ' 500 i 10'0 0 i 1500 0.:.. 50 40 450 ~" 400 I I I a 5OO i 1000 i 1500 o 350 300 b 2513 1.

model output.2 1 I I I I I I 0 24 "~ o Z~ d 22 20 18 16 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 I ~ I I I I 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Figure3. for all loads a n d for c h a n g e s in o t h e r factors such as coal calorific value a n d m o i s ture. dotted line .4 1. Sample time = 3 s testing a n d data collection.6 1.~ I I I I I I b 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1. w h i c h m u s t be d o n e for g o o d a n d w o m mills.Modelling and control o f pulverised fuel coal mills 80 79 60 t~ 50 0 350 300 o ~ 200 i 400 I-- I I -- / 600 800 1000 1200 1400 --. a n d thus requires a large database.250 200 0 2 . . In section 3.5 a n alternative a p p r o a c h will b e discussed.test data.8 1.10 Operation with a worn mill (distributed parameter model): solid line .

Variations of the controller structure are also possible. and the controlled variables are fuel flow and TV position. but increasingly coordinated or integrated controls are used as shown in Figure 3. the use of derivative control in the feedforward signals. The unit load controller essentially maintains the balance between thermal power in the boiler.11.. MW measurement I TV position measurement i ~A1 ~ ] nator ]M~ output Figure 3. air and MW controllers and power plant .4 3. [02 set point I [ I 02 controller F 1 [ Flue gas r-] [ I Steampressure output ~ ] ~ Heat~Bc le-~r . e.11 Unit fuel. either locally (LC) or remotely (RC) from the load dispatch centre.80 Thermal power plant simulation and control 3. In operation the unit demand sets the set-point for pressure and power output._ Gen. and the control systems do the rest. There are a number of key issues that must be discussed in relationship to Figure 3. it is fairly straightforward to set controller parameter values for stable operation over an acceptable load range.11. The two most important issues are the use of pulverised fuel pf feedback in the fuel control loop and the contents of the milling group box. There are many ways in which this can be done. In practice.4.1 Mill control General issues To understand mill control and all its issues. ~ FUce~Air . Fundamental to this balance is the steam pressure at the inlet to the throttle valves (TVs) or turbine governor valves..g..~ I Steampressure Pulverised fuel measuremer ~ m e ~ surerr er tf___q I set-point Bo~l~t~Pl~eSrS. it is 0 2measurement aemana / ~-] ~ I gen. The figure also shows an oxygen controller... it is helpful to fit mill control into the broader base of unit control. In this figure the controlled outputs are steam pressure and MW load. Isu'. L. since fuel gas composition is strongly linked with furnace behaviour. and mechanical-electrical power developed by the turbine generator.. With most plants now controlled by distributed control systems.

Feeder1 Submail 2 controlsystem • 3 ~ 4 ~ 5 . . . . . In the rest of the chapter we will first consider the control of a single mill in an attempt to improve how an individual mill is actually controlled. mills must be switched in and out of service. .11. ~ Hot air damper 1 . . there are major mill problems due to the uncertainty in mill input. . . The final part of the chapter will then discuss overall mill control and the development of an intelligent operator advisory system.4. . . Primary air flow and temperature are significant influences in mill control as we shall now see. . For safe and efficient mill and furnace operation primary and secondary air flow must also be correct. .12 Unit fuel control with air/fuel mass/mass submill control not possible to measure the pf feedback and in addition the milling block is not just one mill but many mills . .~ demand [ Fuel controller [-~ PIPI + +__~ ~+ ~ +1~ ! 1 4 . . . . Note that the fuel demand is for the entire mill group and this has to be split into the fuel demand for each of the individual mills. . . . 3. as set by the unit demand. 6 Figure 3. . . . . . . . This means that depending on load. especially calorific value and wetness. . . These operator diagnostic issues are of great importance and must be considered in the development of any useful mill control system. . . I Fuel control signal [ I. . . The above two issues of fuel flow measurement and multiple mill use are key issues in overall mill control. . . . mill choking and mill fire. . . . In steady-state operation this is a satisfactory thing to do. . Figure 3. In addition. . Mill performance is also influenced by mechanical issues like mill wear. .up to eight for example for a 500 MW unit. . . .2 Control studies on a single mill As we have seen it is very important that the milling group and hence the individual mills provide the correct amount of fuel. . .12 shows a more detailed description of the unit fuel control part of Figure 3. . . . Secondary air flow is important in the furnace but does not affect the mill. . . In addition. .Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 81 . . . . . Its control is usually fairly simple and is done by measuring the air pressure . . . but transiently there are significant differences resulting in challenging environmental problems during load change that significantly reduce maximum load change rates. . it is usual to replace this measurement by the feeder speed measurement of fuel flow. . Pressure set-point + ( ~ Steampressure controller 1-----] + PID ~ . .~ 6 I Pressure measurement Feeder speedmeasurement1 I controller I HOtair [ . . . since pf flow cannot be measured. . . . . .

13 for the air follow mode. The minimum air flow is set by the need to establish a satisfactory recirculating load in the mill. meas. which is usually used since it allows fuel to move first. This load line is predetermined for a mill and shows the relationship between the air mass flow and the coal mass flow required for the mill to operate in the safe air-fuel range of 1. controller) Fuel controller ~ ~ Fuelcontrol I ' " I ] r signalto mills S~ Fdr. computation | . The box RB is the rnnback controller whose purpose will be described later.82 Thermalpower plant simulation and control in the hot air duct to the burners and controlling this by simple feedback to a desired set-point. spd. In this mode the overall fuel demand is compared with the fuel being produced as measured by the feeder speed. Where:* .13 Mass~mass control of mill (air follow mode) .Air damper • . set-point LFdr.' feedback Othermill fdr.Sensors ~ Raw c o a l j Fuel control ~ l J signal ~ " i oa. There are a number of ways of controlling the mill to meet all these requirements with the most usual being so-called mass/mass mill control. the submill control system.f. In the PA controller the feeder speed and the computed air flow are compared with the load line in the function generator (FG) and an error signal generated to drive the Fuel [ demandlb~ (Frompres.."~ demand J ~ l pf -O I ~ I ~ ~ ~ MILL PA flow STemp "~" Cold • air ql I Hot air Figure 3. measurement Mill temp. PA controller pf Mill temp. The mass/mass mill controller can be operated in either air follow mode or coal follow mode with the basic idea being shown in Figure 3.PA flow spd. . The air temperature is set by the requirements of having the coal sufficiently dry in the mill whilst at the same time not having the mill temperature too high and thus risking mill explosion. The basic idea behind the control of primary air and fuel to the mill..5. a PI fuel controller then regulates the feeder speed as required. is fairly straightforward and is based on the so-called 'load line' of the mill.5-2. Note that it is a purely static relationship and most mills are only operated at 40-100 per cent MCR. spd.

x / ~ I ~ Fdr. .-Sensors ~ils. 2~U U:L Imeasurement tl Mill temp. since a high A P indicates dangerous mill operation (ICAL.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 83 hot air damper thus modulating air flow.~ " . . The mill AP measures the resistance of the mill to the primary air flow and is thus indirectly measuring the amount of coal in the recirculating load in the operating mill. which is an important factor in dynamic mill control. as shown.otair Figure 3.£-"x. This pressure ratio is compared to a predetermined constant KRLD. instead of the fuel demand error. The mill mass/mass controller is simple and reliable and extensively used. set . Where: * . 1989).~ _. however. Any difference. ] . Simultaneously the temperature control loop adjusts the cold air input so that the mill outlet temperature remains at its set-point. 1989).. which is then used to control hot primary air flow." %wi7 I ' PAiow[ ~ Fi~~°ntr°l ] K I ~ Coalfeeder ~ temp. I I . Fuel ] Fuelcontroller ~ demand x~ 1--7 Fuelcontrol [ (Frompres~? " ~ signalto mills| controller) ~ _ _ ~ Othermill PA flowmeas. This method is shown in Figure 3.. Should this value rise too high then the runback controller (RB) reduces the coal feeder speed to a minimum value securing safe operation of the mill. the recirculating load derivative. ] Milltemp. poor since it does not continuously use information about the internal coal storage in the mill.14 where the main difference can be seen to be the use of feeder speed as a control variable working on a pressure measurement ratio. Its transient operation is._. however. will cause a change in feeder speed with an increase in pressure ratio indicating too high a recirculating load and vice versa.PA flow computation I1_Air damper . The performance of the mass/mass controller can be improved using a method based on the Hardgrove grindability index (ICAL. -point "\ P T / . The pressure ratio is defined as A P divided by A Pair.O C RC° ~ d a i r M I L ~L - - " I . ~ demand [ .14 Mill control using Hardgrove index . the recirculating load.. and if they are equal no change in feeder speed from its normal mass/mass value is used. spdN.

usually based on Kalman filtering using mill models. It should be noted in passing. In both the above control systems.3 Mill control using p f flow Many attempts have been made to develop suitable instruments for on-line measurement of pf flow (Maffezzoni. It has been suggested (Fan. the output of the mills in the form o f p f flow or energy is not measured.4. modifying the pressure ratio.indeed it has even been suggested that pulverised fuel mills might. Improved pulveriser control is usually achieved by lagging the PA flow to the load demand change whilst having the feeder speed respond immediately and including a lead feedforward signal from the PA flow measurement (Peet and Leung. 1989) that. 1989). however. In practice. reasons given by the industry for the low take-up rate of the system. have performance almost matching oil-fired systems. All on-line experiments or simulation studies seem to show significant improvement in the mill control provided that good estimates of the pf flow can be determined. Unfortunately.4. The sensitivity of the controller performance to its parameter values and the cost of setting the system up properly are. 1994). The extra coal contains a percentage of fines that are immediately transported to the pf flow. the lag and lead settings are strongly affected by the operating conditions of the mill. rapidly resulting in an overshoot in feeder response. This of course is not surprising since the pf flow is now controlled directly by feedback. The mass/mass controller by contrast does not produce this extra coal.84 Thermal power plant simulation and control Based on this idea the feeder speed can either be increased or decreased to take into account the transient effects of the recirculating load. if one is available. More success has been achieved by inferential methods. however. or on a more ad hoc basis (Clarke et al. In section 3. The reasons for this can be seen from Figure 3..15 show that for a mill operating alone under mass/mass control or Hardgrove control the performance of the Hardgrove controller is significantly faster. 1987). because of the out-of-balance fuel-air ratio. ICAL. provided all the functions required to set up the Hardgrove control loops are known. that the basic problem with the mass/mass control remains. The results of Figure 3. The essence of the idea is to set up a linear dynamic model of the boiler turbine and mills such that the pf flow and other important states of the mill are observable from available measurements. is discussed. when integrated into the coordinated control of the overall plant. The difference in the speed of response causes significant pollution problems during transients. Here the airflow measurement A Pair changes instantaneously. attempts are made using lag-lead filter networks. no account is made for the dynamics of the primary air response and the coal response. and a number of these are working on-line (Waddington and Maples. 3. Parameters of the model can then be fitted to .15c where the Hardgrove controller has an overshoot in coal on the grinding table following a demand change.3 the performance of the mass/mass controller and the Hardgrove controller. 1994. 1986) most of which have not been satisfactory. The model can be obtained either by linearising a dynamic model of the system (Fan. namely. 1993). wear and moisture. such as load. when appropriately tuned. excellent performance is possible from this control system .

Hardgrove.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 85 0..mass~mass... Standard Kalman filter (KF) programs can then be run to determine the filter gains.r~ b 15 10 5 0 5 100 150 200 "~ 2500 2000 ¢~ ~0 .4 0.8 e- '~ 0..=_ 1500 'r-. dotted line . 1000 ol) o o 500 0 I I I c 15 0 50 i 100 i 150 i 200 "~ 10 ~ 5 0 I I I d 0 50 100 150 200 Figure 3.2 0 30 5 0 I / I 100 150 200 "~ o 25 20 7- . however.. Properly set up.... L ~ E .15 Simulation results for mill control following fuel change: solid line . the KF filter feedback system produces a time leading fuel estimation signal that can provide significant ... The whole process is non-trivial. Sample time = 20 s plant data with process and measurement noise parameters being particularly important... requiring skilful setting up and plant testing if robust estimates are to be available.6 e EL a 0.

. . Waddington.....fuel control ~__ _ s!gna} .~ "J Pressure measurements Kalman filter 14 . 1987). i Steam/energy flow Figure 3. Waddington and Maples. ... From Figure 3.19a shows that the power output response of the Hardgrove controller is almost twice as fast. The results shown in Figure 3. .. I | l . fast actuators are needed on the . Kalman filter estimators have been operating successfully in a number of power stations in the UK since the 1980s (Clarke et al.... .. .19 simulation results are shown of the mass/mass controller with estimated pf feedback compared with the system under Hardgrove control..... [ " ] demand ' -- ' I ~ ~" Power output measurement PI power ~ controller Derived TV position reheater I ] dynamics ~ J o r '. It should be noted that the simulation contains the boiler turbine systems and the pressure and power output controllers.17a and b the throttle valve pressure and generator output responses are faster using feedback of the estimated pf due to the observed faster change in pf flow (Figure 3..18 where a 20 per cent disturbance in the fuel input energy has occurred at 50 samples. . ~ ~ "[ controller [ "l .. . .. . ... . ... however..86 Thermal power plant simulation and control Fuel estimation ] ^1 _x . The responses show some oscillation but this is not serious. Pressure measurement ~ ~ ~ ' ] PID pressure ] controller [ ~ u . . The figure indicates that the pf controller keeps much tighter control of the generated power output and this is very significant since the stability to such unknown disturbances is very important.. To get some idea of the performance of the pf estimated controller the system of Figure 3. In Figure 3. .16 was simulated in Matlab/Simulink ® (Fan. . . . . . .~ . where particular emphasis is placed on obtaining good low-order models. The process is well described by Clarke et al.. .. .. To achieve this response.. Even better performance of the pf feedback is shown in Figure 3.17 show the performance of the mass/mass controller under feeder speed feedback and pf feedback for a step increase in power demand at 10 samples. 1989. . costly. Figure 3. .... (1989) and Fan (1994)... [ [ G .. 1994). .. . 1994. .. .... .. .. .17d).16 Matlab/Simulink ® simulation of mill and power plant with mill control using estimated p f flow improvement. . as well as the mill and its controllers. .

By contrast a properly tuned mass/mass controller .fuel estimation feedback. Sample time = 1 s control feeder and precise knowledge is required about the mill. and even slight modelling errors dramatically affect performance.5 I-10 a 5 100 150 200 460 440 o 420 4013 50 I I b 100 150 200 30 25 20 15 10 I I I 50 18 16 O 100 150 200 14 12 10 5o 100 ' 150 ' 200 Figure3. dotted line . such as the relationship between mill pressure and mass flow.> 10.feeder speed feedback. These relationships are usually difficult to obtain and must be determined regularly for each mill.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 12 11"5 ! o i I i 87 11 .17 Plant control using feeder speed and estimated pf flow feedback: solid line .

~ I I 50 100 150 200 250 300 Figure3. I I I I 50 1O0 150 200 250 300 630 Z~ I I 628 626 ~9 J t . Sample time = 10 s . 15 14.. . 11 . . \ g 624 622 [ ) I I I 50 17. .5 i 1O0 150 200 250 300 I I I I I II rl q~ 0 "-T . .5 II . .5 .-& 10. . .88 Thermal power plant simulation and control 16 Z~ 15. .5 17 16. . .5 50 100 150 200 250 300 12 I I I I I 11. . . . dotted line -feeder speed feedback.5 16 15. . .18 System response to fuel step disturbance: solid line -fuel estimation feedback. .5 iI II i "~• ~. .

... 5 ~ d ~ 0 I I I I 0 1O0 200 300 400 500 Figure 3.~...Kalman filter feedback.19 Simulation results of system with Hardgrove and KF feedback: solid line .. dotted line ... Sample time = 2 s .~ 40 o ~- 20 o 0 I I i i l O0 200 300 400 500 20 15 R 10 e~ 5 0 0 .Hardgrove feedback..Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 8O0 ~600 400 200 o 0 6O ea~ I I I I i i i i 89 1O0 200 300 400 500 ~.... t~ I 1O0 200 300 400 500 15 i i I 10 ---- ...

Major studies using LQ control were . It is similar to the scheme of Maffezzoni (1986). In this section we examine the use of multivariable control using linear quadratic (LQ) and predictive control techniques. Rees and Mee (1973) describe a very simple study of mill control using LQ techniques. The procedure used is to tune the inner loops first. ~ Kalman ~-Dynamic / non-linear/ . is easy to set up. compensatorl F-~ estlmat°r~ @Estimated ~ mill level ---o Dynamic .g.12 has been carried out using simulation. which includes a special instrument for measuring pf flow as against the use of a soft sensor here.3 is essentially SISO control with ad hoc procedures used in the design. Hardgrove control is therefore not very often used in industry whilst mass/mass controllers with pf feedback are becoming more popular (Waddington and Maples. The resulting control scheme decoupled the two major control loops and added dynamic LQ designed compensators. plant knowledge and control experience. then the subsystem loops and finally add in feedforward compensation. e. The tuning of the mill control systems shown in Figures 3.4 Advanced multivariable and predictive control The control described in section 3. The controller settings also vary with the mode of control.20 ~ " Primaryair demand FIlialSpeal I Mill control with estimator dynamic compensation and limits with pf feedback performs acceptably well. The method has proved quite quick and satisfactory. are also multivariable.11 and 3.4. so this must also be considered.4. Most of the controllers are PI or PID controllers. 3. o Feederspeed demand Primaryair demand Feederspeed demand Figure 3. Mills.20.90 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Fueldemand stimatedpulverisedfuel ~ J . which are part of a complex multivariable system that includes pressure control. very robust. and does not require high-performance actuators. Note also the inclusion of limits in the control valves/dampers that are a function of mill level. The control system developed in this section is outlined in Figure 3. besides being highly non-linear. 1987). electrical power and throttle valve control as well as local submill controllers. boiler or turbine following.compensator[ 1 J.

Waddington and Maples. 1997. The results of Figure 3.input~output results . 1987). A fairly simple receding horizon predictive controller forms the basis of the control and is implemented in Simulink on a 486 platform. Waddington. The simulation assumes that mill wanning starts at t = 0 and at 20 minutes the feeder is started at its minimum speed. Significant improvements in mill control were shown. In more recent times there has been some attempt made to control mills using predictive control with quite interesting results (O' Kelly. In the start-up test shown.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 91 carried out in the UK in the 1980s resulting in a number of power stations adopting LQ methods on-line (Clarke et al. and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. Rees. 1994..21 Start-up of mill . Advanced techniques of mill control using fuzzy logic and neural network concepts have also been tried in simulation with promising results (Cai et al. Mill dP pf flow (kPa) (kg/s) 15 1 Control flows (kg/s) 30 10 \6 20 10 0 0 50 100 Time in min 150 0 50 100 Time in min 150 l . 1997.p f f l o w 2-Mill dP 3-Hot airflow 4-Cold airflow 5 Feeder speed 6-pfflow set-point 7 Mill dP set-point Figure3. After 90 mins the results show the mill responding to fast ramp changes. Figure 3. In the simulation study described by O'Kelly the model used is similar to the model of section 3.21 shows the response of the mill during start-up. 1989. In developing the responses it is assumed that the mill model used by the controller acceptable. Palizban et al. 1995)... Hard non-linearities are placed on both state and control variables with tests driving the plant over the whole non-linear operating region. 1997). the performance of the controls is superior to the current control. The controller does not require excessive computing performance and is capable of being implemented on most modem DCSs. Cao and Rees. 1995. At 30 mins mill loading commences at around 10 per cent rated flow per minute until the mill reaches its operating condition.21 show that the predictive controller has excellent setpoint tracking control even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity.2. Robustness studies have shown that the controller is not sensitive to quite large modelling errors and will respond well provided that the linear model response is regularly updated and the general direction of the model response is correct.

1 Knowledge-based operator support system The ICOAS system just described can be extremely complex and there are many problems in modelling. to be overcome. An important feature of ICOAS is its use as a 'soft sensor'. and the hierarchical supervisory control (HSC). mainly simulation studies. no such system exists for coal mills. Its two major features are the intelligent operator advisory system and its associated alarms (IOAS). moisture content. To the authors' knowledge. however. fewer mill runbacks. It might therefore be expected that any successful advanced mill control system would be able to handle all these conditions. using either the process model or a Kalman filter. by combining mill controllers with some type of knowledge-based system to take into account the critical events that have just been described. Included with the ICOAS is an additional advanced graphical user interface (GUI). and these major events which are not modelled currently require experienced operator intervention or mill shut-down.5 Intelligent control and operator advisory systems In the work that has been described so far. An intelligent control and advisory system (ICOAS) adds considerable expertise to the existing control system. It can be developed either as part of the existing DCS or as a stand-alone system. The motivation for doing such work is quite strong. 3. optimal mill operation.92 Thermal power plant simulation and control 3. The IOAS performs quick and early diagnostics of plant faults and possible causes and it also gives reasoning behind the alarms and recommended operator actions. expert control and the like.. which displays all the additional information developed above in a form compatible with existing plant graphics. although some expert systems have been used for power plant control (Majanne et al. The HSC integrates the existing controls with plant operational knowledge and operation. Mills. are also subject to regular non-normal changes caused by such factors as roller wear. In this section. These estimates can then be used to improve the IOAS and to create useful indices for features such as mill wear.5. 1991). This is especially true for normal operation of the mill where the model is a satisfactory global predictor of plant behaviour. A 'history' feature allows this information to be stored for future use and operator training. automatic operation of the mill over a wider range. however. the effect of excessive moisture and other operational issues not included in the dynamic models. It can also supply limits to controlled process variables to ensure mill stability under all operating conditions. it has been shown that it is possible to develop non-linear dynamic models of a vertical spindle mill and to use these models to better understand the mill and design improved control systems. we try to show what could be done by listing some work from our own experience. A prototype ICOAS . since it can be estimated that substantial savings can be made from such factors as fewer mill fires. mill blockage and the like. coal grindability and calorific value changes. This can only be done. and rapid diagnoses of mill faults. but carried out in collaboration with the local power industry.

. . . . . . .. The system described . . Processhistory database Control room screen Control room screen & alarm . . o w o 11 I [ Pre-data processing I [ Pre-dataprocessing ] Featureextraction I Fault detection [ E A S D E o i. a more formal knowledge-base development process is needed. .. i. Boiler/mill ~ . . .. as described by AI-Dabbagh et al... . .. The scope of KBOSS essentially covers the IOAS part of the ICOAS system.. . . .. Data log ~' i A o R S u p Process history database I ... .. The KBOSS rule base has been developed to recognise 15 faults or operational conditions covered by approximately 50 rules. . .. talking with plant experts.. ... To extend the work to cover all major faults.. ! . worn mills). . . .. .. i' NO Inferencemachine (C) I Controlroom screen .... 93 _~_. .. . . ..[ Dynamicmill model ~--~ 1~[ Knowledgebase Inference machine (A) Yes T Fault detection ~' Data log ~... mill moisture) and supervisory control (auto mill load sharing). .. . ... .. Direct experience of faults has also been included. . . . . .. 'I' Measurement [ ~.. . including mill wear. ... .. I Dataacqnisiti°n I I ~. . .. carrying out mill tests and reading training and maintenance literature. . The system known as KnowledgeBased Operator Support System (KBOSS) has been installed in stand-alone mode in a small Bailey Infi90 DCS (Fan and Rees. . . . . 1997). . . . . . .Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills Control signals ~-] . O T y S s I M E Figure 3. It has been tested. for a limited number of plant faults. turbine and mill simulation and also partially tested on a 500 MW power plant. .... .. operational problems (mill choking. . .22. (1993) and Parker (2003). @ [ [ No I p E R I I Dataprocess * ng Inferencemachine (B) I . The essential features of KBOSS are shown in Figure 3. . . .22 Structureof KBOSS has been developed by the University of New South Wales in a collaborative project with the utility Pacific Power International (PPI). .. . . . Rule development has been achieved by surveying the operational literature. . I Boiler/mil~ outp_ut_... . .. .. . . [ ] Data processing ~. mill choking and mill optimisation on a Matlab/Simulink ® boiler._--t___. . . . The rule sets have been developed to provide a range of examples or scenarios including plant faults (feeder blockage. .. ... ... .. .

1.1.000-10. This can be determined by KBOSS using not just a mill A P measurement but also mill power.5 kPa so that the mill can continue running. but by high moisture content in the raw coal and reduced mill grindability. KBOSS uses a special adaptive control system that continuously computes local dynamic models. In Figure 3. Whilst it is certainly the case that the mill should be shut down to minimum load if the high A P is due to mill overload. the high mill A P has been caused not by load. This means that the complete knowledge base need not be searched for all situations.5 kPa). the knowledge base is searched and appropriate advice given to the operator for action.23.23 shows that when using the runback controller.5. The above system seems to work quite well in its limited task for both simulation and plant studies as the two examples in the next section indicate.94 Thermal power plant simulation and control in Figure 3. Once this possibility has been recognised. However. Experiments show that there is a best depth for the most efficient coal grinding and that this depth can be related to mill power and the soft sensed mill . For normal process behaviour the model matches the plant behaviour and no advice needs to be presented to the operator.22 has been developed using a reference model combined with a fuzzy logic/pure rule base inference mechanism. A point of significant interest is that the adaptive model can be used very effectively by any advanced model-based controller such as those described in section 3. These snapshots will only need to be changed when future plant behaviour indicates significant differences between the database reference model and the latest dynamic model.2 Optimal grinding control Mills consume large amounts of power so it makes sense to try to optimise the coal grinding process. each time the worn mill rolls are replaced (approximately 6. Furthermore. 3.5 kPa is reached.000 hrs) a completely new model of the mill must be established. In section 3. the plant is run back to base load when 4. there is a considerable incentive to be sure that runback is absolutely necessary. thus increasing search efficiency and reducing the computational burden. high A P can be caused by other factors which do not require such action. A key feature of the KBOSS system is the existence of a good reference model.5. However using KBOSS stops A P rising above 4.4.3 it has been shown that this requires a large database and this entails extensive plant experimentation. mill level and other soft sensed mill conditions. Figure 3. the operating condition can be alleviated without running the plant down. together with a set of rules. when there is a system mismatch. To avoid this problem. The searching mechanism used in the knowledge base is multilayered with a branch tree structure. Snapshots of these models are then stored in the database as the reference models. 3.4.1 Mill runback and KBOSS control The mill runback controller described in section 3.4 is essentially a switch which detects high mill load defined by a specified value of high mill A P (4. Since shutting down to minimum load is an operational loss and under certain circumstances can result in mill instability.

.. . . .~ . . .. . . . . . .KBOSS. .. . . . . . lO0 0 I I I I I d 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Figure3. . 2 0 0 500 I I I I I 1O0 200 300 400 500 600 •400 300 200 .runback. .23 Simulation results for mill controlled by expert system: line . dotted line . .Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 3O 25 i i i i 95 ~ 2o o "r" ~ 15 E 10 o 15 I I I I I 1O0 200 300 400 500 600 i p i _ _ i \ i --~ lO o 5 0 0 5 e~ I L I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 i i i i i 4 3 r~ . . Sample time = 10 s solid . . . .

96 Thermal power plant simulation and control 500 ~'400 300 I i i i i 200 100 0 F I I I i I 0 3O 25 o 100 200 300 400 500 600 i i i i 20 b 0 o I I I I I 1O0 200 300 400 5 O0 600 20 15 ~: o 10 _ o C i I I i I lO0 i 200 i 300 i 400 i 500 i 600 Y I I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 Figure 3.mass~mass. dotted line .24 Simulation results f o r mill with optimised grinding solid line .KBOSS. Sample time = l O s .

Note that in Figure 3. contrary to conventional wisdom. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. P. Z. 3. 1473-1477 CAI. Beijing.. China. M. and ACHORN. The results given in the chapter are largely the outcome of simulation studies. E. LI. Proceedings of the IFAC/CIGRE Symposium on ControlofPowerSystems and Power Plants. 214-218 .7 Acknowledgements The authors wish to acknowledge the support given to this project by the former Australian Electrical Research Board and by Pacific Power International. J. 1983. and SNOWDEN. H.24a. and WANG.: 'The development of an intelligent alarm processor . This can be done by estimating pf flow from the mill and by evaluating the internal mill recirculating loads. The latter support was made possible by Mr Don Parker of PPI whose knowledge and enthusiasm were a great help. 1993. R. E. 102. Australia. pp. it is possible to develop fairly simple models of coal mills which can be used to obtain better performance.8 References AL-DABBAGH.6 Conclusions In this chapter we have looked at some problems associated with the control of vertical spindle coal mills. 361-367 BOLLINGER. MOORTHY. Proceedings of the Australian Universities Power Engineering Conference. K. 3. S.24d the mill control keeps A P just below its critical value.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 97 level through a set of knowledge-based rules.. pp. CHEN. Dr Michael Cheng must also be thanked for his work on the simulation and site tests towards the end of the project. pp..24 show that an expert system can hold the mill power in a tight optimum range (350-400 kW) as shown in Figure 3. Wollongong.an alternative approach'. D.. (6).. It is now well recognised that all the various types of coal mills associated with power plant have difficult control problems and often restrict plant take-up of load or cause plant shut-down.. 3. The results of Figure 3. The chapter shows that. 1997. The chapter develops a vertical spindle mill model to better understand mill control. These studies also show promising results indicating that mill control is a fruitful area for research and development. Limited studies have however been carried out on a 500 MW plant in a collaborative project with PPI.: 'Fuzzy control of a ball mill for the pulverizing system of a thermal power plant'. This information can also be used as part of an intelligent control system to improve operator performance and the analysis of mill alarms.: 'The experimental determination of coal mills'.

P. 4.. Supervision and Safety for Technical Process. Pittsburgh. ME thesis.: 'Fuzzy logic control of vertical spindle mills'. (1). N. D. 1996. G. O. G. pp. pp.. 1-13 MAJANNE.. practice and trends in fossil fired power plant control'. RADICE.. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Control of Power Plants and Power Systems. Q. 49-55 CLARKE. China.: 'Boiler-turbine dynamics in power plant control'. 1994 FAN. 1989.: 'Modeling and control of vertical spindle mills in power plant'. lEE Colloquium. G. N. pp. 9. S. 1. DEMARCO. and LEVENSPIEL. Proceedings of the Electrical Engineering Congress. and REES. IEEE Control Systems Magazine. ISA Transactions. Digest No. J. 1970) FAN. pp. and MAFFEZZONI.. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection.S. 1989) KUNII. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Power Plants and Power Systems. 1989. and ZIZZO. pp. J. pp. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Control of Power Plant and Power Systems.: 'Process dynamics' (Barking Elsevier. 235-240 FAN. and ALASIVRU. 101-108 HOUGEN. C. M. C. Proceedings of the IFAC 13th Tri-annual World Congress. R. A.. W. pp. 1453-1482) MAFFEZZONI. Baden-Baden. San Francisco. G. pp. A. Q.: 'Fluidisation Engineering' (Krieger. 1-9 MAFFEZZONI.: 'Control and modelling of coal mills'..: 'Control strategies for pulverised coal fired systems'. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Power Plants. H. 92-97 DOLEZAL.. Germany. W. and VARCOP. A. New York. vol. L. and UCHIDA. 1969) KWATNY. 1996. 33-38 . University of New South Wales. 1986. W. J. R. O. KURKI. Huntington. and REES. 1986. N. G. (Ed.: 'Hierarchical online diagnostics system for power plants'. G. Sydney.. Cancun. WADDINGTON. Control Engineering Practice.. and WALLACE.. 19.98 Thermalpower plant simulation and control CAO. pp. 1991 MANN. (1). 1989/27 pp. Windsor. N. Beijing. RVORONEN. 1995. Germany. O.: 'Temperature control using state feedback in fossil power plant'. 2/1-2/6 CORTI. (1).. New York. Berlin. 1994. 29-35 ICAL: 'General principles of coal milling' (ICAL Publication.: 'Concepts. M. W. 1992. C. and REES. pp. K. K.: 'Control of electric power'. L. New York.): 'The Control Handbook' (CRC Press.. J.: 'Modelling of vertical spindle mills in power plant'. 1980... and LAUSTERER. 37-42 NAKAMURA. T.: 'An intelligent expert system (KBOSS) for power plant coal mill supervision and control'. Q.: 'The application of Kalman filters to load/pressure control of coal fired boilers'. Mexico. Connecticut. Y. in LEVINE..: 'Optimal regulation for thermal power plant'. 1997.

ME thesis. 1995. Journal of the Institute of Energy. 1981) PROFOS. 51..Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 99 NEAL. H..: 'Synthesis of advanced mill control'. Transactions Institute of Measurement and Control. and LU. 208-213 PALIZBAN. 1993. (2). lEE Power Engineering Journal. 1997.: 'Kalman filter applications for coal fired generating unit control'. Hong Kong. pp. C. IEE Control'94 Conference. J. and WILSON. pp.: 'Advanced power plant control for large load changes and disturbances'. Combustion.: 'Some thoughts on the advanced control of electric power plants'. pp. E A. N. R W.. Sydney.: 'Simulation and control studies of coal fired boiler systems'. 1959.: 'Practical optimal predictive control of power plant coal mills'. H. 1. 389. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Automatic Control of Mining.: 'The control of large coal and oil fired generating units'. pp. 2107-2114 O'KELLY. E: 'Dynamic simulation application in modem power plant control and design'. 1980.: 'Crushing and grinding process handbook' (John Wiley.. E: 'A model of the transient operation of a coal pulveriser'. 150-155 ROBINSON. Beijing. W. no. W. 121-129 PRASHER. and LEUNG.. 31. 51-63 WADDINGTON. C. pp. 379-384 WADDINGTON. N. 25-36 . and MEE. E A. 1997. J. pp. O'KELLY. pp. K. Mexico. W. and REES. W.. Australia. Beijing. 24. R. 641-649 REES. Proceedings of the IFAC/CIGRE Symposium on Control of Power Systems and Power Plants.. Proceedings of the IEE 2nd APSCOM Conference. 209-228 REES. J. 2002. New York. pp. 1973. E: 'Dynamics of superheater control'. W. 177-183 PARKER. pp. C. J. 1994. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Control of Power Plants and Power Systems.: 'Determination of mill and boiler characteristics and their effect on steam pressure control'. G. and MAPLES. 2003 PEET. (4). pp.. University of New South Wales. G. A. pp. N. 1985. D. X. China. China. Chemical Engineering Science. (1). 1987. G. 35. 1. 34-43 REES.: 'Prototype design of operator knowledge base support system for pf mills'. D. Cancun. N. Mineral and Metal Processing. L. WADDINGTON. T. Proceedings of the IFAC/CIGRE Symposium on Control of Power Systems and Power Plants.

. such as adaptive control. W. Moreover. One solution to these problems is to obtain an accurate non-linear model of the plant. that attempt to improve overall control of turbo-generator systems. However. 1996). if a self-tuning controller is to be a practical prospect. neural networks have generated considerable interest as an alternative nonlinear modelling tool (Hunt et al. In power systems.. coupled with the demands of economic and operational requirements. however. with adaptive control strategies lies in the robustness of the parameter estimation stage. 1992). However.D.Chapter 4 Generator excitation control using local model networks M. extending their operational stability margins (Wu and Hogg. Research studies have suggested a number of strategies. drives the need for continuing improvements in power plant performance and control. Accurate plant modelling and subsequent controller design is paramount to attaining the required performance and to seeking future improvements in design and operating procedures. as such. 1984). Conventional fixed parameter control technology is unable to provide the most effective plant and system control over the full non-linear power plant operating range (Kanniah et al. neural networks have been applied to load forecasting. the tuning and integration of the large number of control loops typically found in a power station can prove to be a costly and time-consuming business. and use this in an appropriate control scheme. Brown. Utilising the ability of the neural network to approximate arbitrarily non-linear vector functions and combining this with dynamic elements such as integrators. Irwin 4. Flynn and G.1 Introduction The increasing complexity of electric power systems. 1991). it must incorporate a reliable jacketing scheme. So. The main difficulty. alarm processing and system diagnostics. yields a powerful. Recently. these methods tend to be very complex and. yet relatively easily applied modelling technique. filters or delays. D. the application . have had limited success in industry (Unbehauen.

when used to control a laboratory-based microalternator system. ¢p) = Z fi(¢)Pi(CP). and compares its performance with both a conventional fixed gain controller and a more sophisticated model-based self-tuning regulator. The micromachine test facility is then described and all three controllers are compared against a series of typical disturbance rejection and set-point-following scenarios. 4.1. i=1 The M individual local models fi (~) are functions of the measurement vector ~. neural network modelling fails to exploit the significant theoretical results available in the conventional modelling and control domain.1 Local model network structure . ~. and are multiplied by a basis or interpolation function Pi (¢P). of the LMN is given by: M = F(~k.102 Thermal power plant simulation and control of neural networks for modelling and control does have some fundamental limitations. black-box approach makes it difficult to incorporate a priori system information. the non-transparent. The output. The architecture can be considered as a generalisation of a radial basis function neural network and is similar in form to a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system. and secondly. The chapter begins with a description of the LM technique and explains how the technique is used to both model the generator system and to form a transparent and simple non-linear controller. An alternative approach that facilitates the use of conventional control techniques within a non-linear context is the local model network (LMN). 1997). ¢Pis a function of the current ~-- controller Inputs controller Model/ controller Output Interpolation~)-----------~[ controller Model/ regions Figure 4. Firstly. This chapter investigates the use of LM control for generator excitation control. Figure 4.2 Local model networks Local model networks are a recent development in the neural network field (MurraySmith and Johansen. making it very difficult to analyse their behaviour and to prove stability.

) is not a good approximation to ~.1) + . n~ > 0. + f l n u ( k . where the equivalent f f j and fljare time varying to represent non-linearities in plant behaviour. the form of the local models. kd is .) is a good approximation to ~. For the present application of an automatic voltage regulator (AVR). and if aij and bij are the parameters of the local linear ARX models. 4.+ Ctn~+ly(k . adaptive control schemes. u(k). etc. rather than using the full model input vector. VT.nc~) + ~ou(k) + ~lu(k . and y(k) and u(k) are the plant input and output at time k. state space. The interpolation function can be viewed as a model validity function. .1) + .n~) where n..then the LM network represents the non-linear ARX model ~(k + 1) = otly(k) + ct2y(k ..l ) u ( k . . a linear single-input single-output (SISO) ARX model of the generator-exciter system (Wu and Hogg.2. here they depend on the operating point (Brown et al. VR. while Pi (~0) ~ 0 when the local f / 0 are such that F(. for example. by the exciter voltage. and the system input. such that Pi (~0) --~ 1 in regions of ~0 where the local f / 0 are such that F(. In order to take advantage of established linear techniques at the control design stage it is customary to use linear local models such as ARX (AutoRegressive model with eXogenous input). over other nonlinear modelling techniques.l ) y ( k ) = B ( z .. is that a priori knowledge of the process can be utilised in model structure selection.cill2/2a 2) Pi(~O) = EM_I exp (--lifo - cill2/2~ 2) where ci and ai represent the centre and width of each multidimensional Gaussian function. ~t. if the local models are of the linear ARX form. such that M M aJ = Z i=l PJ (¢p(k)) aij. 1997).kd) + ~(k) (4. ARMAX (AutoRegressive Moving Average model with eXogenous input). e. Hence.1 Plant modelling A major advantage that the local model network structure offers.. is represented by the terminal voltage. and the operating point vector. 1988) can be formed as: a ( z . then the parameters ~j and flj are dependent on the operating point.1) where the system output. and can be generated from a subset of the measurement data available. of the synchronous machine. the number and initial position of the interpolation functions. flJ = E i=l PJ (~o(k)) bij.g. ~o(k). y(k).Generator excitation control using local model networks 103 operating region vector. The basis functions Pi (~0) are commonly chosen to be normalised Gaussian functions: exp (-II~0 . It is worth noting that in comparison with.

and hence suitable selections are na = 2. and z -1 is the backward shift operator. n b = 1 (Brown and Irwin. For the local model network it is. based on both simulation and practical studies. QT. . 1999).2 Synchronous machine response time characteristic .104 Thermal power plant simulation and control the time delay in an integer number of samples. ."" • q. . is normally defined in terms of its real power output.bnb z-nb where na and nb are the orders of the respective polynomials.1) and B ( z .l ) = bo + b l z -1 + b2z -2 q. Each local linear model can then be identified for small perturbations about different values of PT and QT. and reactive power output.. the number of local models required to adequately cover the operating space for the application. convenient and intuitive to select the operating point ~o(k).8 0. Here the polynomials A ( z . +anaz -ha B(z .3. The response time is determined as the time to reach approximately 63 per cent of the final.1) are deft ned as: A(z -1) -. . Pr. as the vector [Pr(k) QT(k)]. Previous work by the authors and others. These were obtained by performing open-loop step tests in simulation across a wide range of operating points. has suggested that second-order ARX models are sufficient to capture the main dynamics of the AVR loop. at sample time k. . The operating point of an alternator. steady-state vt/vr res ~onsetime • . synchronised to an infinite busbar system.2 and 4.. response time and gain characteristics were examined.5 Reactive power (p u ) 0 02 ~e~\~° Figure 4. 4020- ~ ~ ~ 105 2 0. ~(k) is a zero mean white noise sequence disturbing the system.1 + a l z -1 + a 2 z -2 + . . Figures 4. In an attempt to determine M. therefore.

. i ~e~\9 8 io... . followed by linear optimisation of the local linear models (aij and bij) (Brown et al..... seven local models were considered sufficient to provide an accurate representation.... while the gain equates the variation in terminal voltage to that of the exciter input. .) 0 02 Figure 4... It is clear that the turbo-generator system is highly non-linear...Generator excitation control using local model networks vt/vr gain 105 4000 - 000 2000 ""' ". training of the LMN was performed using training data sampled at 300 ms.. It is also interesting to remember that a synchronous machine is open-loop unstable when PT is high and QT sufficiently negative.. if Figure 4.... in order to establish the interpolation region parameters.6 s which would suggest a steady-state sampling interval of approximately 300 ms... with the interpolation region parameters fixed.. 1997). •~ 1000- i i. Subsequently... Such an arrangement .. However. whereby a least squares cost function was minimised using non-linear optimisation for the centres and widths (ci and o-i ) of the interpolation functions. By inspection.. . In order to create a more parsimonious representation. ° 200 0.... a hybrid optimisation strategy was implemented. the local linear models were identified using a linear optimisation method with a sampling period of 20 ms..... Consequently. The cost function was formed as the predictive errors of the LMN against an extended training data set.. given that the operating point changes comparatively slowly. Reactive power(p... with the majority of these models being centred in the leading power factor region where the variation in non-linearity is changing most rapidly.. This requirement potentially conflicts with the actual response time of the turbogenerator itself and could lead to ill-conditioning of the linear optimisation due to oversampling effects...3 Synchronous machine gain characteristic value. i . while an AVR requires a sample period of 10-20 ms to enable boost/buck excitation transient response post fault. particularly when operating at leading power factors where QT < 0..2 is re-examined it indicates that the minimum plant response time is around 1....5 .u........

4 i ... .~ . .3 0.2 o.. . and would be largely undetectable ... . 0. . furthermore..6 Reactive power 4)..... ~ _ ~ ~ 4)...106 Thermal power plant simulation and control Interpolation on model 1 0..1 0 0..i . .2 0.i .. i ' 1 0 ~ ... ' .. ! " : 0.6 ....4 .. The training data itself was obtained on a laboratory micromachine by superimposing a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRB S) on the exciter input with a 20 ms sample period..3 ..2 0 Interpolation on model 2 0.4 LMN interpolation regions reduces the amount of training data required.. i .5 0.. i . This type of perturbation is permissible on real plant. 0.5 0.2 0 0.4 0. while driving the plant across different regions of the operating space. ': . ....i . speeds up the optimisation process. .4 Real power b Reactive power Figure 4. and it. .1 07 0.

Generator excitation control using local model networks

107

Interpolation on model 3

0.5

i....... :

0.30.4 0.2 ...... ~

~ ~ ' . . !

'

"1

C

....... :.

:

,:. <.

0.4 d
Figure 4.4

1 ~).2 0 0.2 Real power

Reactive power

LMN interpolation regions (Continued)

as the operating point of the machine changes during scheduled load-following or two-shifting operations. The data was then decimated to create the LMN model with a sample period of 300 ms. The result of the optimisation process was that the original figure of seven local models was reduced to five. The normalised interpolation regions for the models are shown in Figure 4.4.

108

Thermal power plant simulation and control
Interpolation on model 5

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.6 "1 .... .

P

~l 2

0

Real p o w e r

Figure 4.4

LMN interpolation regions (Continued)

4.3

Controller design

Having developed a non-linear model of the turbo-generator system it now remains to design controllers for each of the individual local models. For comparison between the individual schemes, self-tuning and fixed gain controllers are also described. The fixed gain controller is intended to be representative of existing commercial implementations, while prototype self-tuning schemes have performed acceptably in power stations (Malik et al., 1992), with commercial power system control manufacturers beginning to apply such strategies to their own automatic voltage regulators.

4.3.1

Local model network control

The local model network has been formed from second-order linear models, which makes it relatively straightforward to design appropriate linear controllers for each model. Since these local controllers are interpolated to form a composite control output, in the same manner as the local models, the designer can shape the response of each controller to ensure uniform control performance across the entire operating range. In this way, conventional linear control theory can be exploited within a nonlinear control framework. The transparency of the LM structure permits any suitable linear design method, e.g. PID, generalised predictive control or pole placement, to be used. However, examination of the individual linear models reveals that some of them are both unstable and non-minimum phase; this is not surprising given that individual models were deliberately placed in the leading power factor region. Consequently, for this study

Generator excitation control using local model networks

109

the generalised minimum variance (GMV) algorithm (Wellstead and Zarrop, 1991) has been selected. Form the plant pseudo-output y (k) as y(k + kd) = S ( z - 1 ) y ( k + kd) + W ( z - l ) u ( k ) - R ( z - l ) r ( k ) where r(k) is the set-point, kd the time delay in an integer number of samples, y(k) the system output and u(k) the system input at sample time k, and R(z -1) = ro + rlz -1 + r2z -2 -1- ... -k- rnr z-nr
S(Z -1) = 1 + slz - l + s2z -2 + "'" + SnsZ-ns
W ( Z - 1 ) = / / 3 0 -~-//)lZ - 1 --[- w2Z - 2 -~- . . . -~- WnwZ -nw"

G(z -1) is introduced as

S(z -1) ----A(z -1) -I- z-kdG(z -1) where G(z -1) = go + glz -l + g2z -2 + . . . + gngZ -ng. Since, in this case na 2 and if it is assumed that kd = 1 and nw = 0, it follows that G(z -1) = go + glz -1 = (sl - al) + (s2 - a2)z -1
~--

whereupon, the GMV controller equation is defined as
(B(z -1) + wo) u(k) = - G ( z - l ) y ( k ) ÷ R(z-t)r(k).

(4.2)

For a regulator application r(k) = 0, and since nb = 1, the controller equation reduces to
u(k) -- - [-(go + g l z - 1 ) y ( k ) - b l z - l u ( k ) ] • bo + wo
1

Controller design is completed by selecting the polynomial S(z -1) = 1 + SlZ - l ÷ S2z -2, and the scalar term wo. A convenient approach for choosing S(z - l ) is to assume that it is a discrete, stable, second-order filter. Hence, using the discrete equivalent pole positions to an ideal continuous second-order filter, ~<1: ~ > 1: si = - 2 × exp (-~ognTs)× cos (o)nTs 1 ~ - ' ~~ 2) ~2~-~-1)]

Sl------exp(-~oJnTs)[exp(-wnTs ~ 2 ~ - 1 ) + e x p ( w n T s s2 = exp (-2~wnTs)

where ~ is the damping ratio, Wn the natural frequency, and Ts the sampling period.

110 Thermal power plant simulation and control The weighting factor, w0, where w0 > 0, permits detuning of the control signals and becomes necessary when dealing with non-minimum phase systems. The selection of w0 trades closeness of desired output reference following against control effort. Since there are five local models, suitable S(z -l) and W(z -1) polynomials can be selected for each of the five controllers, tailored to the particular operating region. These five controllers are operated in parallel and all receive the same input from the plant. The output of each controller is then multiplied by the respective interpolation function, and the resulting weighted signals are summed to form the full control signal, which is then subsequently applied to the plant.

4.3.1.1 Power system stabilisation For practical implementation, the plant output y(k) can be gainfully modified as follows

y(k)=VT(k)+~.w(k)

-1 <,k<0

(4.3)

where VT(k) is the terminal voltage, ~o(k) the rotor shaft speed, while ~ is a factor that determines how much weight is placed on the speed signal. Under some circumstances, the voltage regulator can introduce negative damping into a power system, with almost all the negative damping for a regulated machine originating in the AVR. The inclusion of an auxiliary signal w(k) in y(k) introduces a power system stabilisation (PSS) function to enhance system damping (Kanniah et al., 1984), by introducing a damping torque through regulating the field flux linkage, in phase with variations in shaft speed (Bayne et al., 1975). For large steam turbine generators, turbine shafts cannot be regarded as infinitely stiff, and speed detectors have to be restricted to points along the turbine shaft corresponding to nodes of oscillation. Any vibrations can lead to operational difficulties of power system stabilisers. Consequently, the auxiliary signal may be conveniently derived from electrical output power, although the potential for excessive terminal voltage excursions during mechanical power changes, etc. requires the stabilising signal to be limited. For the micromachine arrangement, excessive vibrations are not considered an issue and speed is adopted as an auxiliary signal.

4.3.2

Self-tuning control

Self-tuning control relies on the principle of separating estimation of unknown process parameters from the controller design (Isermann and Lachmann, 1985). Hence, the scheme can be thought of as consisting of two loops - an outer loop incorporating the process and feedback regulator, and an inner loop containing a recursive parameter estimator and design calculation.

Generator excitation control using local model networks

111

An important aspect of adaptive control is the need for an estimated model of the plant. The SISO ARX model of equation (4.1) is again appropriate:
A ( z - 1 ) y ( k ) = B ( z - 1 ) u ( k - kd) + ~(k)

and recursive least squares (RLS) identification can then be employed to identify the parameters of the A(z -1) and B(z -1) polynomials on-line (Wellstead and Zarrop, 1991). As before the plant input u(k) is the exciter voltage and the plant output y(k) is formed, as equation (4.3), as
y(k) = V T ( k ) + L o g ( k ) - 1 < X < O.

The parameters of the plant model are allowed to adapt with time, and in this way the non-linearities of the system can effectively be captured. This arrangement contrasts with the LM architecture where the local model parameters are fixed, and the relative contribution of the individual models is determined based on the current operating point. If it is, subsequently, assumed that the estimated parameters represent the true parameters then a selection of methods becomes available to design the self-tuning controller itself. For convenience, and ease of comparison, the identified model is used to design a generalised minimum variance controller, equation (4.2), as (B(z -1) + wo)u(k) = - G ( z - 1 ) y ( k ) + R ( z - 1 ) r ( k ) and the polynomial S(z -1) and the scalar term w0 can again be suitably selected by the user. The task here is slightly more challenging than before since two fixed polynomials are required for the entire operating region, rather than individual polynomials for each local controller.

4.3.2.1 Supervision schemes The non-linear nature of power systems implies that the model of equation (4.1) is only valid for a small region about a given operating point. So, given that a power system is frequently subjected to various disturbances such as transformer tap-changing, line switching and occasional major disturbances such as short-circuits or lightning surges, a self-tuning controller must incorporate a reliable and robust supervision scheme if it is to work safely in practice (Astrom and Wittenmark, 1989). A number of methods have been developed in the literature to ensure satisfactory operation of self-tuning controllers. These usually take the form of protection algorithms for the parameter estimator, and are commonly referred to as jacketing software. Four such methods are now briefly outlined. For the process of identification it is essential that the dynamics of the process are persistently exciting to eliminate ambiguity in the relationship between plant input and output signals. However, under normal circumstances, the excitation present on a system is not sufficiently rich in frequency, and artificial input signals must be introduced. A PRBS is often selected, simulating a white noise process. To ensure

112 Thermal power plant simulation and control
that the estimator inputs are persistently exciting the energy (variance) of the control signal can be monitored. It is important that the parameter estimator should be able to track slowly varying process conditions, while at the same time not discarding important information too rapidly. This leads to a scheme involving a variable forgetting factor (Isermann and Lachmann, 1985). However, for a generator system there may be long periods at constant operating conditions, which may cause the estimator to discard old information, and uncertainties in the parameters will rise, leading eventually to estimator wind-up. This problem can be counteracted by monitoring the Kalman gain vector of the estimator, so that should this measure exceed a preset level then the forgetting factor is reset (Brown et al., 1995). Transient disturbances on a power system may give rise to abrupt changes in the estimated parameters, which are not due to a change in the process dynamics. Individual moving boundaries are therefore introduced to protect each of the parameters against such disturbances (Wu and Hogg, 1988). The permissible positive and negative deviations for each parameter are determined as a weighted fraction, r/, of the mean value of the estimated parameter. By adjusting r/and the time period over which the mean is calculated the adaptability of the parameters can therefore be controlled. Finally, perhaps the most important feature of the supervision scheme is deciding when the estimator should be used. During a transient condition, the synchronous machine outputs may vary to an excessive degree, leading to ill-conditioning of the estimator and a model that does not represent the process behaviour. Since the purpose of the control scheme is to regulate the terminal voltage, the deviation of this signal from its set-point has been selected as an estimator deactivation indicator. Consequently, if the terminal voltage deviation exceeds a preset limit the estimator will be switched off, and will only be switched on again once the terminal voltage returns to its preset level, remaining there for a fixed time. This ensures that the estimator will remain deactivated during severe oscillations and generator hunting.

4.3.3

Fixed gain automatic voltage regulator

For industrial applications, an automatic voltage regulator is traditionally implemented as a proportional filter with a transfer function of the form

K

(1 + Tls) (1 + T3s) (1 q- Z2s) (1 -k- T4s)"

The controller is typically tuned from open-circuit step response tests, and as the controller does not incorporate integral action, a steady-state control error may be anticipated. Being intended for industrial use, the software will also contain provision to restrict the AVR output under field forcing conditions to avoid overheating the rotor, VAr limiting under leading power factor operation, overflux protection during generator synchronisation, etc.

Generator excitation control using local model networks
Terminal voltage, VT

113

VTref

5/
-k

I

F

Exciter voltage, VR

G(I + Tls ) ( | + T2s )

Speed deviation, A~o

Figure 4.5

Fixed gain AVR implementation

Experience shows that the above arrangement is not able to match the steady-state regulation or transient damping capabilities of the previously outlined schemes (Flynn et al., 1996). Consequently, an alternative fixed gain control scheme is proposed consisting of an AVR coupled with a PSS, Figure 4.5. The controller parameters were obtained using eigenvalue analysis with a linearised tenth-order state variable turbo-generator model (Ahson and Hogg, 1979). Fault studies and long-term operation tests, through simulation and on a microaltemator, have proved the acceptable performance of this controller over a wide range of operating conditions and environments. It should be noted though that the derivation of the fixed gain controller gains is based on an analytical model of the generator system. While this is readily available for a laboratory machine, such models are difficult to obtain in practice, and consequently the selection of individual gains is not a trivial exercise.

4.4

Micromachine test facility

The local model network controller was initially developed and tested using a simulation of a single-machine infinite-busbar system, driven by a boiler/turbine system, with associated step-up transformer and double transmission line (Hogg, 1981). However, a simulation environment has difficulty in representing effects such as non-ideal transducer characteristics leading to limited resolution and noise, computational delays, variations in busbar voltage and frequency, saturation, hysteresis, and other non-linearities present on a real machine. A laboratory micromachine provides a practical test-bed for both measurement and control algorithms under an industrial environment. A full-scale generator will have up to six or more rotating masses, while a micromachine system typically constitutes a two-rotating mass system. It is unrealistic, therefore, to expect results comparable to a full-scale power station. However, it does provide a means of verifying simulations as well as permitting control systems to be tested under real-time conditions.

114

Thermalpower plant simulation and control
Field voltage ]_ amplifier ]- Field excitation

d.c.
motor

~ , , . , , , ~
Generator Transmission line system

Turbine simulation 9 Valve demand

Figure 4.6 4.4.1

Micromachine system

Micromachine system

The micromachine system, Figure 4.6, consists of a specially designed synchronous generator, with an associated turbine simulator, tied to the busbar through a transformer and artificial transmission lines (Flynn etal., 1997). The synchronous machine is a 3 kVA, 220 V, 50 Hz, four-pole microalternator, whose parameters have been selected to match those of a full-size machine. The alternator is driven by a separately excited d.c. motor, whose armature current is controlled by the analogue turbine simulation. A three-stage turbine with reheater and a fast electrohydraulic governor is emulated, with each turbine stage, reheater and governor being simulated by a single time constant. The weighted sum of signals from each stage is proportional to the turbine mechanical power. The alternator is directly connected to a delta-star transformer which has an onload tap-changing device on the secondary terminals, with tapping ratios from 65 to 116 per cent available in seven steps. This transformer is connected through a transmission line simulation to the laboratory busbar. The transmission system is simulated by lumped-parameter n-networks, representing a typical double line transmission system. Provision is made for the application of short-circuits at the secondary terminals of the transmission transformer or half-way through the line. It is also possible to switch out one of the transmission lines.

4.4.2

Hardware platform

The performance of any control system depends almost entirely on the quality of information received. In an electrically noisy power station environment, reliable and accurate measurements of generator terminal quantities are difficult to achieve. Harmonic interference and unbalanced generator operation inevitably lead to distortion and ripple, while any subsequent filtering may further degrade the information content, especially during transient conditions. Therefore, improved control can only truly be achieved if enhancements in measurement strategies are introduced. 4.4.2.1 Fourier measurement

algorithm

Signals from a synchronous machine are contaminated by harmonics and noise. If a three-phase system is perfectly balanced, the harmonic content in the signals will

. Any periodic waveform.U9) -[. N is selected to be 12. F(t). . High-frequency noise. However.U6) q.4 ( U I .U5 . centred around the main power frequency of 50 Hz.4 ( U 2 q.UlO) Jr. Consequently. applying equation (4.U7 =[. d. a system of 12 equations in the 12 unknown coefficients [a0 . n=l Through approximating the series as a0 ao F(t) = -~.U4 . As a compromise between accuracy and computational burden. so that any unsymmetrical behaviour will invalidate the measurements obtained.4) an expression for F(t) with 12 unknown coefficients is obtained. a0 Uo = F(to) =-~ +al cost0 + azcos2t0 + . An advanced algorithm based on a finite Fourier series has instead been adopted.1(UI "4. permitting smooth control. So.+ al cos t ÷ • . al and bl. and that often means that more advanced control algorithms work no better than their simpler counterparts. During even severe transients the Fourier algorithm supplies continuous feedback signals. The fundamental components. al = l [ ( U o . and low frequencies are completely rejected. offsets. .UII) Jr" I(U2 .4) for the sampled point U0.U7 . The harmonic content will also have no effect on the final calculation of the terminal quantities. . are then obtained as an algebraic sum of past samples as follows.U4 . The Fourier algorithm effectively acts as a band-pass filter.. permitting existing RMS techniques to be applied.U8 . The applied Fourier analysis algorithm is based on an N sample point. + a6cos6t0 + bl sin to + be sin 2t0 + • . can be expressed by its Fourier series as Oo F(t) = -~ + ~_~(an Cos(nt) + bn sin(nt)). bs] is created. moving window approximation to the general Fourier series for a periodic waveform (Brown et al. physical systems are rarely perfectly balanced. .. + a6 cos 6t + bl sin t + b2 sin 2t + • • • + b5 sin 5t (4.5) bl = l [ ( u 3 .c. .U8 -1= UIO)] (4.U11)].U5 .Generator excitation control using local model networks 115 cancel out. + b5 sin 5t0. . during transients the RMS measurement may cause violent fluctuations in the controller signal due to the highly oscillatory nature of the estimated feedback signals. Repeating for the remaining sample points. . 1995).

5) and (4. with four slots cut at approximately 90 ° intervals.7.ock ~ Mlcrocontroller . cycle. to the non-drive end of the alternator rotor by a flexible coupling.v/~ 4. Squared phase voltage q Slotteddisc Machine speed I l Rotor angle Figure4.2. since the neutral point of a synchronous machine is generally inaccessible: ~/3(alCl - VT:V/~+b26 +bldl)+(aldl . c.2 Measurement of machine speed and rotor angle Measurement of machine speed and rotor angle is achieved here by attaching an aluminium disc. If al and bl are the fundamental components of a phase voltage. An average value can be taken for each quantity by repeating this process across all three phases.4.blCl) 4~/3 IT= ?+4 2 ~/3(aldl Q~ - -blCl)-(alCl + b l d l ) 4.c. current (IT). Equivalent expressions may be formed in terms of the fundamental components of the line voltages.116 Thermalpowerplant simulationand control The time series filter equations (4. and Cl and dl of the equivalent phase current then the electrical terminal quantities of voltage (VT).7 Speedand rotorangle measurement . Figure 4. .6) are executed at every sample interval to provide a moving average of the fundamental components of the periodic waveform. The disc rotates through Lamps& _ L _ _ _ _ \ \" ~ ~.. / . real (PT) and reactive power (QT) can be calculated as 1 PT =~(alCl + bldl) VT= +b2 2 IT= ? +d2 2 QT=~(aldl-blCl). assuming 12 samples per a.M.

which triggers the master Motorola 68020 board to read in samples of the filtered electrical waveforms from the analogue I/O board. The VME transputer can be linked to an external network containing any number of processors. the algorithm was subsequently implemented on the VME system using a single transputer module.3 VME hardware system The measurement and control algorithms have been implemented on a standard VMEbus based system. The waveforms from the voltage and current transformers are directed through signal conditioning circuits and anti-aliasing low-pass filters. to produce the four electrical terminal quantities. 1996). They are then transmitted along with speed and rotor angle.Generator excitation control using local model networks 117 a fixed head that contains an optical transducer consisting of three lamps. before reaching an analogue I/O board. A line voltage signal is squared and similarly triggers a further read of the 1 MHz counter. Previously. 4. In a power station.4. to a program running on a TMB04 transputer board. A moving average of the last four counts is calculated. every l0 ms (for a four-pole machine). This creates a system with vastly increased computing power. and is well established in many industries. 1994). triggering the reading of a l MHz counter. through a hardware link. Each time a slot passes through the fixed head a pulse is generated. Indeed. The machine rotor angle is determined in a similar manner to that for speed. An Intel 8751 programmable microcontroller generates an interrupt signal at 12 times the system frequency. This policy has been adopted for measurement of the rotor angle on the micromachine. The three-phase voltages and currents are sampled using installed instrumentation on the micromachine. The angle measured is that between the terminal voltage and the generated EME rather than the true transmission angle between the infinite busbar and the generated EMF of the machine. This structurally open-ended environment is already being used by power system control manufacturers (White et al. for testing on the micromachine system. and associated light detectors and circuitry. The multitasking parallel implementation of the measurement and control algorithms is facilitated by the use of transputers. although the mains signal is available in the laboratory environment... the raw values are passed to shared direct memory access (DMA) memory for retrieval by an IMS BO11 T800 transputer. as a measure of the machine speed. and potentially provides the control systems designer with the opportunity to implement virtually any advanced control strategy. corresponding to a complete revolution of the disc.2.5 Results Having outlined the development of a local model network controller. comprehensive tests . the control system has been integrated with and tested on existing industrial implementations (Flynn et al. and to record measurements of machine speed and rotor angle. 4. the infinite busbar voltage is difficult to measure and so the terminal voltage of the machine would be used instead. On completion of a read sequence. The Fourier measurement algorithm is then performed on the transputer.

this is partly due to the injection of a PRBS.5 and QT = 0. confirming the fact that they have been tuned for different nominal operating points. Figure 4. It can be seen in Figure 4. and subsequent set-point recovery after 9 s.2 pu. at an operating point of PT = 0.12.10 shows the FGC. It should be noted that the self-tuning controller is tuned at each operating point. prior to commencing each test. at an operating point of P'r = 0. From the responses. its main role is actually to maintain machine rotor angle. therefore. during the first few seconds. the operating point changes rapidly causing highly non-linear behaviour.11 that the controller responses vary significantly.2 pu. STR and composite LMN controller inputs. which are subsequently multiplied by the weightings of Figure 4.8 pu and QT = 0. it is clear that the LMN and self-tuning controllers provide significantly better damping than the fixed gain controller (despite the explicit inclusion of a PSS). Voltage set-point change of A VTref --0. the protection software for the self-tuning controller will ensure that the estimator is deactivated during the voltage transients. and from position 6 to 5 after 9 s. While at first sight the main purpose of an automatic voltage regulator should be to minimise deviations of the terminal voltage. although the STR is significantly more vigorous . and the relative contributions of the individual controllers changes significantly. Paradoxically. at the sending end of the transmission line system.9 illustrate the terminal voltage and rotor angle responses for the three controllers following the three-phase short-circuit at the sending end of the transmission line. with individual local controllers being phased in and out at various stages of the event. which can be understood by examining the interpolation functions of Figure 4. to assist in preserving steady-state stability (Hirayama et al. duration 180 ms. .05 pu after 4 s. with large improvements in the second rotor angle swing and subsequent oscillations. comparison is made with self-tuning (STR) and fixed gain controller (FGC) schemes. following both severe and minor disturbances.4a and b. reducing the rotor angle oscillations is more important than minimising voltage deviations after a fault condition. By contrast. 1993).11 shows the output of the LMN local controllers. During these tests. at an operating point of Pr = 0. The responses are somewhat similar in shape. and then combined to form the composite response of Figure 4.118 Thermal power plant simulation and control were conducted in simulation to ensure both the short-term transient and long-term dynamic stability of the turbo-generator system. following the clearing of the short-circuit.10. The performance of the controllers is illustrated under the following test conditions: • Three-phase-earth short circuit. -'- • • Figures 4. Transformer tap change from position 5 to 6 after 4 s. which effectively freezes the identified model parameters.8 and 4. after 2 s. Prior to the fault. During the fault. and. Figure 4.6 pu and QT = 0. For all controllers the terminal voltage rapidly recovers.1 pu. by applying a PRBS input as part of the on-line estimation process. the contribution from controllers 1 and 2 is insignificant. to aid estimation model convergence..

1 119 o 0.9 > ~ 0.2 1. . 55 50 45 0 i i L i i h 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (s) Figure 4.7 0.6 0.9 Three-phase short-circuit . .terminal voltage 85 8O 75 70 65 60 • . .8 0.Generator excitation control using local model networks 1. . .rotor angle . .5 i i i i i i 0 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 5 6 7 Figure 4. .3 1. .8 Three-phase short-circuit. .

14 illustrate the terminal voltage and rotor angle responses following successive voltage set-point changes. the controller remains vigorous in operation.16 .10 Three-phase short-circuit. as seen from Figure 4.controller outputs Figures 4.~. 2 O > 0 -2 -3 -4 0 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 5 6 7 2 1 o 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 [ I I I I I 1 2 3 4 5 6 b Time (s) Figure 4. Figure 4.13 and 4.15.120 Thermal power plant simulation and control 5: i . Here. the LMN responses are well damped with a short settling time. The steady-state voltage regulation for all the controllers is acceptable. although the STR response is now more clearly overdamped and.

L M N local controller outputs . I 1 Three-phase short-circuit .Generator excitation control using local model networks 121 2 0 o -2 -3 -4 -5 c Figure 4.lmn controller outputs 2 & ~-o a< 1 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 L i 0 1 2 11 I i J i 3 4 5 6 Time (s) Figure 4.controller outputs (Continued) L I i [-.10 i t I i i t l 2 3 4 5 6 Time (s) Three-phase short-circuit .

12 Three-phase short-circuit .12 g 1.11 > 1.7 0.LMN interpolation weightings 1.3 0._= e~ 2 0~ .15 1. 7~ gN i i i 0 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 5 6 7 Figure 4.13 "~ 1.1 .4 0.08 1.3 ~ 1.07 i o 5 Time (s) Figure 4.6 0.14 1.terminal voltage .lmn controller weights [ 0.5 ¢3 i i .2 ol . [-.09 El .122 Thermal power plant simulation and control 0.13 10 15 Voltage set-point changes .

14 Voltage set-point changes . 3 and 5 at the original operating point.Generator excitation control using local model networks 123 54 52 50 48 46 *6 44 42 ~ 40 38 I ..18 illustrate the voltage and rotor angle responses.e.1 pu and QT = 0. the rotor angle is increased. with the STR response marginally over-damped.17 and 4. Figure 4. Finally. By examining Figure 4. In a similar manner to the voltage set-point test. the majority of the control signal is formed from models 2. it can be seen that controller 1 does not play a significant role either in steady-state or during transients for any of the test scenarios presented. As a final point. This model is required to ensure that the LMN controller is capable of maintaining performance over the entire operating region. Figures 4.'. It is interesting to note that the contribution from controllers 2 and 4 is increased at the higher operating point. 0 5 Time (s) 10 15 Figure 4. The LMN controller proves slightly better at minimising the rotor swings. while during the transient phase the contribution from controller 2 is significantly reduced.1 pu. leaving controllers 3 and 5 to each provide approximately 40 per cent of the excitation signal. The presence of a PRBS during the first 3-4 seconds can again be seen on the STR responses. . it is unlikely in practice that the generator will be required to operate at such low output levels. while that from controllers 3 and 5 is decreased. however. i.19 shows the relative weightings of the LMN local controllers.4a it can be seen that the associated model is centred at an operating point of approximately PT = 0.rotor angle displays the relative contributions of the five local controllers. the tap change between positions 5 and 6 corresponds to an 8 per cent variation in the output of the delta-star transformer. with the LMN and STR controllers again providing excellent damping with a very fast transient response.

6 ~o e~ o l 0 u~ 2 -3 -4 -5 i i 5 a 10 Time (s) 15 5 I--Imnl ~.6 Conclusions Industrial AVR implementations are typically based on proportional filters. and offer relatively crude performance with a steady-state control error and poor regulatory capabilities.124 Thermal power plant simulation and control 2 . but requires the availability of an analytical model of the synchronous . 2 Q > 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 5 b Time (s) i 10 15 Figure 4. Even the fixed gain scheme presented here would provide much improved performance.15 Voltage set-point changes .controller outputs 4.

~ 0. ..16 Voltage set-point changes . eo Q 2 0 ~.~ -| -2 -3 -4 -5 0 C ' 5 Time (s) ' 10 15 Figure 4.Generator excitation control using local model networks 125 ~..a~.35 0.~ .L M N interpolation weightings .4 0..a._~.3 m 3 5 I -.2 0.~. ./N~ f 5 Time (s) 10 15 Figure 4.~ ..~...~.~.25 e~o .05 0 0 /~.1 0.15 0.lmn controller weights [ 0..15 Voltage set-point changes ..controller outputs (Continued) 0.

rotor angle .05 0 .126 Thermal power plant simulation and control 1. E- 1 0.terminal voltage 55 50 45 40 o 35 30 25 i i 0 2 4 6 Time (s) 8 10 12 14 Figure 4.18 Transformer tap changing .9 0 2 4 i i i 6 Time (s) 8 10 12 14 Figure 4.15 1.95 0.=.17 Transformer tap changing .1 1.

1979. the performance of the LMN controller was compared with a GMV self-tuning controller and a fixed gain arrangement comprising an AVR and PSS. By contrast.7 References AHSON. Subsequently.3 . 30. a hybrid optimisation algorithm was applied to provide a parsimonious representation to capture the non-linear dynamics of the system.LMN interpolation weightings machine to determine the control gains. Generalised minimum variance controllers were then designed for each of the local models.: 'Application of multivariable frequency methods to control of turbogenerators'. and HOGG. (4).05 0 0 ~ 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 Figure 4. S. taO 1~ ~ 3 2 0. Consequently. Using information from plant tests and previous simulation studies. while maintaining performance over the entire operating regime.Generator excitation control using local model networks 0. Int. I. the interpolation regions and GMV parameters for the LMN controller were selected off-line. 533-548 .2 0. W. Control. J.45 . Using a laboratory micromachine setup. estimates were obtained for the non-linear interpolation regions and the structure of the local linear models. a local model network controller has been developed for the excitation loop of a synchronous machine. The performance of the self-tuning controller was comparable with the LMN scheme. B. The LMN approach to improved excitation control is therefore seen as a low-risk option compared with self-tuning control and more complex non-linear techniques such as neural networks. pp. A range of tests was performed and the LMN controller provided excellent disturbance rejection and set-point-following capabilities.15 0.25 0.19 Transformer tap changing . but requires significant protection software to safeguard the on-line model estimation.=._ r 1 r 127 I- lmn controller weights I 0.35 0.4 0.1 0. leading to a much more robust implementation. 4.

128 Thermal power plant simulation and control ASTROM, K. J. and WITTENMARK, B.: 'Adaptive control' (Addison-Wesley, 1989) BAYNE, J. P., KUNDUR, P. and WATSON, W.: 'Static exciter control to improve transient stability', IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, 1975, 94, pp. 1141-1146 BROWN, M. D. and IRWIN, G. W.: 'Non-linear identification and control of turbogenerators using local model networks'. 1999 American Control Conference, San Diego, 1999, pp. 4213-4217 BROWN, M. D., LIGHTBODY, G. and IRWIN, G. W.: 'Non-linear internal model control using local model networks', lEE Proceedings Part. D, 1997, 144, (6), pp. 505-514 BROWN, M. D., SWIDENBANK, E. and HOGG, B. W.: 'Transputer implementation of adaptive control for a turbogenerator system', Int. Journal of Electric Power & Energy Systems, 1995, 17, (1), pp. 21-38 FLYNN, D., HOGG, B. W., SWIDENBANK, E. and ZACHARIAH, K. J.: 'A self-tuning automatic voltage regulator designed for an industrial environment', IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 1996, 11, (2), pp. 429-434 FLYNN, D., MCLOONE, S., BROWN, M. D., SWIDENBANK, E., IRWIN, G. W. and HOGG, B. W.: 'Neural control of turbogenerator systems', Automatica, 1997, 33, (11), pp. 1961-1973 HIRAYAMA, H., TONE, Y., TAKAGI, K., MURAKAMI, H., SHIBATA, M., NAGAMURA, H. and TAKAGI, Y.: 'Digital AVR application to power plants', IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 1993, 8, (4), pp. 602-609 HOGG, B. W.: 'Representation and control of turbogenerators in electric power systems', in NICHOLSON, H. (Ed.): 'Modelling of dynamic systems' (P. Peregrinus, London and New York, 1981) pp. 112-149 HUNT, K. J., SBARBARO, D., ZBILOWSKI, R. and GAWTHROP, P. J.: 'Neural networks for control systems - a survey', Automatica, 1992, 28, (6), pp. 108-112 ISERMANN, R. and LACHMANN, K. H.: 'Parameter adaptive control with configuration aids and supervision functions', Automatica, 1985, 21, (6), pp 625-638 KANNIAH, J., MALIK, O. P. and HOPE, G. S.: 'Excitation control of synchronous generators using adaptive regulators', IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, 1984, 103, (5), pp. 897-910 MALIK, O. P., MAO, C. X., PRAKASH, K., HOPE, G. and HANCOCK, G.: 'Tests with a microcomputer based adaptive synchronous machine stabilizer on a 400 MW thermal unit', IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 1992, 8, (1), pp. 6-12 MURRAY-SMITH, R. and JOHANSEN, T. A.: 'Multiple model approaches to modelling and control' (Taylor and Francis, London, 1997) UNBEHAUEN, H.: 'Modelling of nonlinear systems'. EURACO Workshop on 'Control of nonlinear systems: theory and applications', Portugal, 1996, pp. 201-218 WELLSTEAD, P. E. and ZARROP, M. B.: 'Self-tuning systems - control and signal processing' (John Wiley, 1991)

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WHITE, B. J., ZACHARIAH, K. J. and HINGSTON, R. S.: 'Commissioning of a power system stabilizer using a dynamic signal analyzer'. IEE Control '94, Coventry, 1994, pp. 356-361 WU, Q. H. and HOGG, B. W.: 'Robust self-tuning regulator for a synchronous generator', IEE Proceedings Part. D, 1988, 135, (6), pp 463--473 WU, Q. H. and HOGG, B. W.: 'Laboratory evaluation of adaptive controllers for synchronous generators', Automatica, 1991, 27, (5), pp. 845-852 ZACHARIAH K. J., FINCH, J. W. and FARSI, M.: 'Application of digital selftuning techniques for turbine generator AVRs'. Proc UPEC, Aberdeen, 1990, pp. 623-626

Chapter 5

Steam temperature control
T. Moelbak and J.H. Mortensen

5.1

Introduction

A power production system is a very complex structure - in a technical sense as well as in a business sense. In a control sense it can be regarded as a multilevel distributed system - see Figure 5.1. At all levels optimisation is very important and top-level performance is dependent on the performance of all the underlying levels. The steam temperature control of a power plant is part of the process control level and strongly interacts with the plant control level as well as the servo system level.

es

rvo systems

Figure 5.1

Control levels in a power production system

132 Thermal power plant simulation and control The control of steam temperatures in power plants is one of the most widely discussed control problems in power plants. The reasons for the extensive attention to this problem are mainly found in issues such as:

Plant lifetime: The steam temperature control has a significant influence on the variation of the steam temperatures and accordingly on the thermal stress of the plant. A significant reduction in the low cycle fatigue of superheaters, headers and turbine can of course be advantageous. If the variation in the steam temperatures is large, e.g. -4-10°C during steadystate operation due to a poorly performing control loop, lifetime improvements can be obtained to some degree by introducing better control performance. For small temperature variations, e.g. ±2 °C during steady-state operation, the costs incurred will most probably exceed the profits as regards increased lifetime. Efficiency: If the steady-state variations can be reduced significantly, the outlet set-point can be increased and the turbine efficiency will increase accordingly. If the fluctuations during normal operation are already small, the potential for increasing the set-point is of course modest. An important point when determining the upper set-point limit is the temperature distribution across the superheater pipes to the outlet header. The steam temperature control has no influence on this distribution. A rule of thumb says that increasing the live steam temperature by 10 °C will increase the efficiency of a 400 MWe unit by approximately 0.25 per cent, leading to large fuel cost savings. Load-following eapahility: Improved steam temperature control improves the boiler stability, which can improve the load-following capability of the plant significantly. Improving the boiler stability in general can, of course, lead to improved load-following capability, but it is crucial in so-called special situations such as load changes, start/stop of coal mills, soot blowing, fault situations, etc. Since the power market is becoming increasingly liberalised, the load-following capability is increasingly becoming an important commercial parameter in the competition. Availability: The improved overall stability and the resulting reduced probability of forced plant outage is an indirect advantage of improving the steam temperature control. Nevertheless, it is an important advantage - e.g. a forced outage of a coalfired base-load unit will imply additional fuel costs for restart, lack of power sales, increased wear of the plant and reduced availability. The costs of a forced outage will be dependent on plant size, time of occurrence, duration, but will most often be of major economic significance.

This chapter will focus on steam temperature control based on the experiences of Elsam-owned power plant in Denmark with emphasis on once-through boilers. After introducing the processes in question and outlining conventional control strategies, the focus will be on advanced control strategies. Due to the fundamental

Steam temperature control

133

differences in behaviour the discussions will be separated into evaporator control and superheater control.

5.2
5.2.1

Plant and control description
Plant description

A characteristic feature of the once-through boiler is that the pumps force the feedwater/steam through the boiler tubing, which in principle is arranged a continuous pipe. In contrast to a drum boiler there is no large internal water reservoir. The nomenclature used throughout this chapter is shown in Figure 5.2. The boiler process includes several steam superheating processes - most often boilers include superheaters in a number of levels often divided into parallel lines thus giving typically 4-8 high pressure superheaters and 2-4 intermediate pressure superheaters. Each of these processes serves as an energy transferring system-energy being transferred from the flue gas to the steam. Each superheater is equipped with an attemperator device (water injection at the inlet) for control of the steam outlet temperature. A superheater process with its typical instrumentation is shown in Figure 5.3.

Once-through boiler

ser

m

Is

%11 Feedwater

Figure 5.2

Outline of steam power plant. Eco: economiser; Eva: evaporator; Sh: high-pressure superheater; Ish: intermediate pressure superheater; Att: attemperator

134

Thermal power plant simulation and control
rhi

Steam outlet Steam

Energy transfer from flue gas

Ill

Figure 5.3

Superheater process with typical instrumentation: To: outlet steam temperature (°C); Ti: inlet steam temperature (°C); X: valve position (%); mi: water injection flow (kg/s)

5.2.2

Control characteristics

The interactions between the inputs and outputs of the once-through boiler can be set up in a matrix equation:

y(s) = G(s)u(s)

psh3(s)
rshl(S)l Zsh2(s)l=lg
Tsh3(s) / ]qsh2(s)l

I-g~(s) g~*2(~) g~(s)g~(s)g+(s) 1 ~,hfue,(S) 1
(s)
/g41(s) Lgs+(s)

g (s> O g;2(s) g33 (s)
g4z(s)
gs-2(s) g43(s) g53(s)

o
0 g~(s) g54(s)

i /,mfw S,,
/,ha,, (s)/ .
/rhatt2(s)/

(5.1)

g ~ ( s ) l Lrhatt3(s).J

The sign of the response is shown as a superscript on the individual transfer functions. The control problem can be characterised as being: • • • • multivariable the dynamics are of high order (lumped system) the dynamics (time constants and gains) are load dependent it is exposed to major stochastic disturbances from flue gases

5.2.3

Conventional control

5.2.3.1 Evaporator control The control of the steam temperature in the low part of the boiler is tightly connected to the control of the live steam pressure, utilising the main boiler inputs, feedwater flow and fuel flow. The reason why the control of these two variables is so very tightly

Steam temperature control

135

Load demand(La)

Temp. ~,

I ~ Kp(Ld) Ti(Ld)
Enthalpy Pressure
Kp(td) ~'i(Ld)

~Fe FF edwater
~,demand

L

FF Fuel
~, demand

Figure 5.4

Control diagram for Benson boiler: fl (x), f2(x): set-point generation from load demand; F FI (s), F F2(s): feedforward transfer functions; Cl(S), C2(s): decoupling network; PI(D): feedback controllers with proportional gain and integral time scheduling from load demand

connected can be found in equation (5.1), where it is clear that we are dealing with a fully connected 2 × 2 system from mfw and mfuel to Tsnl and Psh3. The conventional control of feedwater and fuel flow is normally divided into a feedforward control (FF) and a feedback control (FB). Figure 5.4 shows an example of a control diagram structured according to the above.

5.2.3.2

Feedforward control

The purpose of the feedforward control structure from the load demand to the feedwater and fuel demand is to feed the correct amount of feedwater and fuel to the boiler. From a static point of view the required input is known for each parameter to operate the boiler at a certain load point. This is given through the gain = 1 part of the feedforward structure. The other part of the feedforward is a filter which ensures that the feedwater and the fuel are fed to the boiler in a dynamically optimal way thus

136

Thermal power plant simulation and control

ensuring that no control fault arise - neither for the temperature nor for the live steam pressure during load changes. Because of the presence of large time constants in the boiler due to the large metal masses and delays in the firing system there is a limitation to how hard the feedback loops can be tuned. This implies that if it is required to operate the plant at large load gradients or it is desired to stress the plant as little as possible the presence and correct tuning of the feedforward part is very important.

5.2.3.3 Feedback control The purpose of the feedback control is to reject disturbances (the feedforward blocks act as a good 'reference follower' as described above) which mostly originate from the furnace during normal operation (mainly due to changes in fuel flow and quality). The feedback control consists of a temperature and a pressure control loop. The Tshl temperature is controlled by a cascaded control loop. The enthalpy at the evaporator outlet is PI controlled in the inner loop, while the Tshl temperature is PI controlled in the outer loop, as illustrated in Figure 5.4. The reason for controlling the entbalpy at the evaporator outlet instead of the steam temperature is that in this way non-linearities originating from the steam characteristics are automatically incorporated. The proportional and integral part of the PI controllers must be scheduled according to the actual load point since the gain and time constant of the boiler are highly dependent on the load point (because of the change in steam flow). The live steam pressure is controlled by a single PID-based control loop. For this loop the parameters of the PID controller must also be dependent on the actual load point following the same arguments as above. Since the boiler process is fully connected (the feedwater flow and the fuel flow affect both the steam temperature and the live steam pressure) it is important to introduce a decoupling network between the two feedback loops. Consequently, the two feedback loops can be tuned independently and with as high a bandwidth as possible since no oscillatory modes will arise between the two feedback loops. Isermann (1989) presents three different representations of a decoupling network.

5.2.3.4

Superheater control

As can be seen from equation (5.1) the superheaters form part of a multivariable system. Nevertheless, the superheater control problem is conventionally considered as a SISO control problem. A simple example of an existing scheme for steam temperature control is shown in Figure 5.5. This is a cascade control based on fixed PID controllers in which the controlled variable is the outlet temperature. The inner loop is required to reject temperature disturbances originating upstream. The inner loop is, of course, much faster that the outer loop. Due to the load dependent dynamic and gain variations, a strategy based on fixed controllers, like that shown in Figure 5.5, can only be well tuned in one operating point.

Steam temperature control

137

ro

+

_

-

To, re f

+

x~ef

Figure 5.5

Pl-based control strategy at Skaerbaekvaerket, Unit 2

Performance can be improved relatively easily by introducing load-dependent gain scheduling in the inner control loop. In special cases where the superheater operation is close to the wet steam range, gain scheduling in the outer loop might also be beneficial. Furthermore, introduction of feedforward disturbance compensation may also improve performance, e.g. using fuel flow as an indicator of combustion disturbances. Further details on conventional superheater control can be found in Klefenz (1986).

5.3

Advanced evaporator control

Adopting the control structure described in section 5.2.3 and assuming model-based tuning has been performed, it is possible to obtain good performance, for the loadfollowing operation as well as for disturbance rejection during steady-state operation. To estimate the boiler dynamics for the purpose of performing model-based tuning, an open-loop test must be performed or estimation performed in closed loop. Both tasks might be difficult. Furthermore, for plant equipped with non-programmable control systems the implementation of the conventional way is quite tedious. To overcome these difficulties, an alternative concept has been developed. The objective was to improve the load-following capability of existing power plant units. During fast load changes, the major problem is to keep certain critical variables (e.g. steam temperature and steam pressure) within predefined limits, as excessive

138

Thermal power plant simulation and control

Load demand ""~1 Scheduled LQG controler

r

Existingboiler controlsystem

l

Boiler

Figure 5.6

Scheduled LQG controller with feedforward action from load demand signal as a complement to an existing boiler control system

deviations will seriously affect the lifetime of the components or cause a trip. One way of improving the load-following capability of power plants is to improve the control of these critical variables. In order to increase the robustness and facilitate commissioning and switching between automatic and manual modes, the control system has been designed as a complement to the existing boiler control system. Figure 5.6 shows how an optimising LQG controller is connected to the boiler process and the existing control system. It can be seen from the figure that the optimising LQG controller calculates an additive control signal, Uad~t, from the control error, e, and from the load demand, which is added to the control signal from the existing control system. The process to be controlled thus comprises the boiler as well as the existing boiler control system. The additive control signal, Uaad, can be weighted between 0 and 1, which facilitates commissioning and switching between automatic and manual operating modes. In stationary operation when the control error is 0 and the load demand is constant, the additive control signal is 0, because no integral action is included in the optimising controller (this is normally present in the existing boiler control system). When a control error arises, or when a load change is imposed on the boiler, the optimising controller will be active.

5.3.1

L Q G controller

The problem of finding the control law for a linear state space system, when the states are directly measurable, can be solved by minimising a performance index formulated as a weighted quadratic function of the states and the control signal. Minimising this function results in an optimal linear controller known as the linear quadratic regulator

Steam temperature control

139

(LQR). When stochastic perturbations are considered, the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) regulator is obtained. In this case the states must also be estimated. The state space model of the system to be controlled is:

x(k + 1) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) + w(k) y(k) = Cx(k) + v(k)

(5.2)

wherex is the state vector, u the input vector andy the output vector. The process noise w(k) and the measurement noise v(k) are assumed to be sequences of independent random variables with zero mean value and covariance: E[w(k)] -- 0, E[v(k)] = 0,

E[w(k)wT(k)] = Rw, E[v(k)vT(k)] = Rv,

(5.3)

E[w(k)vT(k)] = O.
According to the separation theorem (Isermann, 1989) the design of the LQG controller can be divided into two parts, one concerned with an optimal control problem and another concerned with an optimal filtering problem. These two issues will be described below. Optimal control: The performance index is defined as:

I =E
Lk=0

xT(k)Qlx(k) + uT(k)Q2u(k

(5.4)

where Q1, positive definite, and Q2, positive semidefinite, are weighting matrices used for tuning the controller. The linear state feedback controller is given by:

u(~) = -Lx(k)

(5.5)

which minimises the performance index. This is calculated by (Isermann, 1989): L = (Q2 + BTSB) -1BTSA (5.6)

where S is given as the stationary solution to the discrete Riccati matrix equation:

S = QI +ATSA -ATSB(Q2 + BTSB) -1BTSA.
Optimal filtering: A Kalman filter is introduced: ~(k + 1) = AJ~(k) + B u ( k ) + K ( y ( k ) - CYc(k))

(5.7)

#(k) = C~(k).
where .~ is the estimated state and K the Kalman gain.

(5.8)

140

Thermal power plant simulation and control The Kalman gain K can be calculated as (Srderstrrm, 1994): K = A P C T ( c P C T + Rv) -1 (5.9)

where P is the stationary solution to the discrete Riccati matrix equation: P = Rw + APA T - A P C T (CPC T + R v ) - 1CPA T" (5.10)

According to the separation theorem, the state estimate .~ can be used in the control law given in equation (5.5). Another approach is to identify a model in the directly parameterised innovations form, where the Kalman gain is estimated together with the model parameters: .~(k + 1) = A~(k) + Bu(k) + Ke(k) y(k) = CYc(k) + e(k). It can be shown that equations (5.2) and (5.11) are statistically equivalent descriptions (Van Overschee and Moor, 1996). Since there is often no available knowledge about the covariances in equation (5.3), this method is a good alternative.

(5.11)

5.3.2

L Q G controller with f e e d f o r w a r d action

A state space model of the system to be controlled including a measurable disturbance d(k), is obtained: x(k + 1) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) + Bdd(k) + w(k) y(k) = Cx(k) + v(k). Feedforward and feedback control based on the LQG theory can then be introduced, as will be explained. In the concept derived, the feedforward feedback parts are tuned individually, which is preferable. The feedforward controller is given as: uff(k) = -Lff.~ff(k) with the open-loop state estimator: kff(k + 1) = AJ:ff (k) + Buff(k) + Bdd(k). (5.14) (5.13)

(5.12)

The feedforward controller matrix, Lff, is calculated as described in the previous section.

Steam temperature control

141

The feedback controller is given as
Ufb(k ) = - L ~ f b ( k )

(5.15)

with the closed-loop state estimator: .~fb(k + 1) = aYcfb(k) + Bu(k) + K(y(k) - ~fb(k))
~fb(k) = C~fb(k).

(5.16)

The feedback controller matrix, Lfb, is also calculated as described in the previous section. The structure of the LQG controller with feedforward action is shown in Figure 5.7. g(k)

~,k

+l)r-----~ ~ff(k)

1V

u~k)

J--].,(~) X(ko)

,,(k)~
I I

Lx(kl) l ~ +
ueo(kl

+

Figure 5. 7

LQG feedforward and feedback controller

142

Thermalpower plant simulation and control Scheduling an LQG controller

5.3.3

If it is known how the dynamics of a process change with the operating conditions, it is possible to adjust the controller parameters accordingly, known as gain scheduling. A measurable process variable, descriptive of the operating condition and used to adjust the controller parameters, is known as a scheduling variable u and in this context is assumed to be a scalar. A set J = {oq . . . . . am}, containing m values of the scheduling variable is chosen and arranged according to: o~ > 0t'j i for i > j. For each value of a in the set J a linear model (A, B, Bo, C, K) is given and for each model the state feedback matrices Lff and Lfb are calculated from equations (5.5) and (5.6). The LQG controller (A, B, C, K, L) can be scheduled between the frozen operating points using linear interpolation: X(a) = X ( a l ) +

X(at+l) -X(at)
~1+1 --~1

(u-at)

(5.17)

wherel=l ..... m-l. A disadvantage of this method is that security is not provided for placement of the closed-loop poles when interloping between the frozen operating points. An alternative and more preferable method is to perform the scheduling directly on the calculated control signals:
U(Ol) = U(Oll) d- U(~I+I) -- U(Oq)(0/ -- Otl) ~1+1 - - ~ l

(5.18)

where l = 1. . . . . m - 1. An alternative to the described scheduling policy would be to designate each controller to a specific operating range. To obtain a bumpless change from one controller to another, one needs to perform some automatic adjustment of the inactive controllers. By applying the described scheduling policy this problem is automatically overcome.

5.3.4

Case study

The plant used for test purposes is the Skaerbaekvaerket unit 2 (SKV2), a 265 MW coal-fired unit equipped with a Benson boiler. At SKV2 oscillations in Tshlb and partly Teva and Psh3 (Figure 5.4) are considered as the limiting factor in the load-following capability for the boiler and hence the unit as a whole. Improvement of the control of these variables and especially of Tshlb during load changes, is therefore expected to improve the load-following capability of the unit. The maximum allowable deviations in the outlet pressure (Psh3) are about 7 bar, about 25 °C in the steam temperature after superheater lb (Tshlb) with a maximum gradient in the evaporator temperature of 8 °C/min. Hence during load changes, the design goal is to decrease the deviations primarily in Tshlb,err, but also in Psh3 keeping ATeva < 8 °C/min.

8 at the 187 MW operating point. The action of the LQ feedforward controller can be interpreted as follows: the decrease in the steam temperature (note that the control error is defined as the reference value minus the measured value) is compensated for by increasing the fuel rate and decreasing the feedwater rate. MathWorks. this plot reveals that the impact of the load change on Psh3. 240 MW} = {43%. 49%. Figure 5. Feedforward control and parameter scheduling are introduced using the boiler load demand PB.1 Feedforward control Feedforward controllers of the form (5. for cases with and without the LQ feedforward controller active.13) are designed for each operating point in JSKV2. The distribution was not chosen to be equally spaced because of dedicated load intervals for start/stop of coal mills. Psh3.10 shows the corresponding additive control signals. The models were estimated from SKV2 data (PRBS excitation of controllable inputs (u : Uadd) and ramps in boiler load demand (d = PB)) using the N4SID. Figure 5.14). the following control inputs are used: • • additive control signal to fuel flow. since there are practically no deviations in either Psh3 or in Tshlb. 71%. The test results show that an almost perfect dynamic compensation of the load disturbance has been obtained with the feedforward controller. The offset in TsH. The number of load points (four) was chosen to be the minimum possible while allowing for the non-linear dynamic behaviour of the combined boiler and existing control system.add.4.err is caused by the existence of a deadband in the existing control system. both resulting in an . 130 MW. Teva. with the open-loop observer as given by equation (5.9 shows the responses to a load change from 200 to 180 MW at a gradient of 4 MW/min. 187 MW.err evaporator temperature. Theoretically.err is shown in Figure 5. 5.3. 1994.err and Tshlb. The sensitivity function from the load disturbance PB to the outputs Psh3.err control error on steam temperature after superheater lb. 1995). if/fuel. The load range to be covered was chosen so that the normal operating range is covered. rhfw. 143 The following controlled output variables are used: • • • control error on outlet steam pressure.Steam temperature control In the optimising control system. 91%}.err is significantly reduced (~ 10 dB). Tshlb. Eleventh-order linear state space models of the following form are the basis for the controller design: x(k + 1) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) + Bad(k) + Ke(k) y(k) = Cx(k) + e(k) (5. subspace system-identification method (Van Overschee and Moor.19) for the operating points JsKv2 = {115 MW.err and Tshlb.add additive control signal to feedwater flow.

xb i.foTaTs ' 10-l Sensitivity from PB to TshJb' err. 10-2 co (tad/s) .err.) 10 12 14 16 18 Figure 5.= -10 -20 .) r 10 12 14 16 18 t ~" / ."~"'fi ~0 10-3 :: i i i i i .8 Sensitivity function Load change from 200 MW to 180 MW at 4 MW/min. I With LQ feedforward Without LQ feedforward .WithoutLQ ?ed."~' [ x x \ With LQ feedforward Without LQ feedforward o 5 a= -10 -2 i t i i i L i i i 0 2 4 6 8 Time (min. (187 M W ) 20 10 ' i I ! ' ! ' ' i ! ' ' ! ! ' ! ~" "O 0 .% 5 i i i ~ i L i i -2 15 10 0 2 4 6 8 Time (min.9 Load change from 200 to 180 MW . / / "-. (187 MW) 20 lOm = ' i i ' i iiii ~ i i i i'ii 0 -10 -20 -30 .144 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Sensitivity from PB to Psh3.7 -30 -40 lO-3 Q feedforward " • [ - Without LQ feedforward 10-2 co (rad/s) 10-1 Figure 5.

which ultimately results in a reduced steam-pressure deviation. It can be seen that the deviations in both outputs are reduced significantly. by designing the LQG controller given by equations (5.11 the responses for the outputs Psh3.4. and specifically to reduce the impact of starting/stopping coal mills on the controlled variables since this event typically occurs during load changes.Steam temperature control 0.err and Tshlb. Start/stop of coal mills introduces significant transient disturbances in the furnace. These two actions have a mutually opposite impact on the steam pressure. In order to test the controller performance a test case is examined in which a 5 per cent fuel ( ~ 1. In Figure 5. in the form of a redistribution of the coal and combustion air flow to the furnace. In practice this is done by tuning the controller with good fuel disturbance rejection properties.) 12 14 16 18 2 0 -6 i i I I J J i I -2 0 2 4 6 8 l0 Time (rain.) 12 14 16 18 Figure 5.5 kg/s) disturbance is introduced.2 0 i J 3 ~0. Similar improvements have been obtained for all operating points in JsKv2. Figure 5. A coal mill start/stop has not been used for comparison purposes since the stochastic content in this disturbance is too high. to reject disturbances entering the furnace. . $.err are shown with and without the LQG feedback controller.16).4 e~0 145 Load change from 200 to 180 MW at 4 MW/min 0.2 Feedback control The purpose of the feedback part of the LQG controller with coordinated feedforward action is defined as a general improvement in the stability of the boiler.10 Corresponding additive control signals increased steam temperature.2 -2 I 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (min.6 0. It is intended.15) and (5.3. which affect the steam temperatures and the steam pressure.12 shows the generated control signals together with the imposed fuel disturbance.

FB control signal .Disturbance signal - 40 5'0 60 2 0 -2 -4 ~5 0 l'O 2'o 3'o Time (rain.12 Generated control signals .. / ] 30 410 Time (rain.err to fuel disturbance LQG FB-test with fuel disturbance (130 MW) • i i i i i o._..) 4o 5'o 6o Figure 5..5 i i -1.err and Tshl.5 -2 110 I 210 3'0 Time (rain.) .146 Thermal power plant simulation and control LQG FB test with fuel disturbance (130 MW) i r i r 2 o r~l ok ^ v ~e" 2 -4 ~6 I I I I I I 0 10 20 30 40 Time (mind i i 50 60 70 15 10 i ! i r r O o i"= 5 0 --5 i -10 -15 -20 10 2~) \ -.11 Response of Psh3.510 With LQG FB Without LQG FB 610 70 Figure 5.) .

5. as shown in Figure 5.3. The field test results reveal that the maximum allowable load gradient can be increased from 4 to 8 MW/min. which minimises the performance function: PcPc = E + j ) . so it is relevant to survey the predominant methods. is the control horizon and )~ is the control weight. Here N1 and N2 are the minimum and maximum cost horizons.10 have been obtained with the scheduled LQG feedforward and feedback controller.w ( t + j)]2 + )~ ~--~[Au(t + j . N. independent of disturbances. with the load-dependent . Further details regarding GPC control theory can be found in Clarke et al. The objective of the steam temperature control is to maintain specified temperatures after the superheater.almost exclusively focused on feedback control.13. the development within steam temperature control has until now . The outlet temperature is most often controlled by injection of water before the heating surface. Furthermore. All controllers discussed in this section were tuned according to identical criteria.20) where A u ( t + j . starting with practical applications at Elsam power plants. (1987).5 Cost~benefit a s s e s s m e n t 147 The resulting control system consists of the LQ feedforward compensator and the LQG feedback controller as shown in Figure 5. In order to adjust to load-dependent non-linearities the feedforward and the feedback control signals are scheduled according to the policy shown in equation (5. Below. soot blowing and load changes.18). 5.1) = 0 for j > N.3. As shown in Figure 5.4. Similar results to those shown in Figures 5.4 Advanced superheater control As previously mentioned.1)l 2 j=l (5.Steam temperature control 5. the test results indicate that it is possible to perform smaller (40-50 MW) load changes without coal mill start/stop at a gradient of 10-12 MW/min. the GPC controller was introduced in the outer control loop.1 G e n e r a l i s e d p r e d i c t i v e control Each strategy was compared to an adaptive control scheme based on the generalised predictive control (GPC) concept.7. The common characteristics of the power plant involved in the field tests are: • • coal-fired once-through boiler most dominant disturbances: start/stop of coal mills. an evaluation on a general level will be attempted.9 and 5.. Adaptivity was obtained by on-line identification of the model parameters using the recursive least squares (RLS) identification method.

A comparison between the two strategies can be carried out simultaneously. Further details can be found in Moelbak (1991). The results confirm . The minimum/maximum selectors in Figure 5. Unit 2 dynamics it was scheduled as a function of the load (steam flow). Again the improvements are evident.148 Thermal power plant simulation and control T~ ~ T°'ref mst~ msteam. Figure 5. with the GPC controller reducing the variation in outlet steam temperature.J xA~. The main objectives of the supervisor function are to ensure anti-wind-up in the identification algorithm. Figure 5. a result of faster and larger control actions on the control device (water flow). and effectively rejecting the disturbance by 60 minutes. of course.13 were included to limit the scheduling signals.the improvement in temperature regulation is obvious.13 Adaptive and predictive control strategy based on GPC at Skaerbaekvaerket.0°/° ]0B~ 1 mh. a supervisory function is a necessity. which can be introduced without causing instability because the model-based controller explicitly utilises process knowledge. as the second superheater of the boiler is divided into two parallel lines to which the old and the new control strategies were applied. The improvements are. an online check of model validity and explicit utilisation of a priori process knowledge. As this is an adaptive strategy.14 shows an example of a field test during which the boiler was exposed to soot blowing and a load gradient .Min.15 shows another field test result in which the boiler was exposed to a coal mill start after 40 minutes.value r" x~f Figure 5.

~ ..i .13...) F i 60 70 80 90 2O 15 ~1 o o i i - GPCbased control Plbasedcontrol [ i : i . ) ~ i i ...14 Field test at Skaerbaekvaerket..21) where the time constant T is adjusted according to the load conditions and the order of the model x is determined by the design of the superheater ...) 60 i 70 I 80 90 Figure 5... :... ~ 10 5 0 0 i 10 i 20 i 30 i 40 50 Time(min.... V '~ .. . A so-called 'simple' model-based strategy as shown in Figure 5. 5... ...... ..... To compensate for the high-order and load-dependent dynamics of the superheater a PTx-model of the superheater is used: PTx (s) -1 thsteam Ts (5. . .. i i _ I • i i I i 440 © 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time(min.Steam temperature control o~'~ 460 I GPC based control I i PI based control I ... ..typically x is in ..... The 'simple' model-based strategy is actually a cascade control with a PI controller in the inner loop and a P controller in the outer loop.. .. Unit 3 two model-based control strategies were compared: • • A strategy based on GPC and the main principles such as the strategy shown in Figure 5... 149 455 _1 445 .. Unit 2 during which the boiler was exposed to soot blowing and a load gradient.16.. Note the separate references for each steam temperature that control of the superheater temperatures can be improved using some kind of model-based control method rather than fixed parameter PID controllers.....2 PTx control At the 380 MWe Esbjergvaerket... .4.... ....

.... .... . 20 30 40 50 T i m e (min.. Unit 3 . .1 15 . E 445 440 435 430 © 425 0 I I 1 I I I 10 ... 60 70 80 90 25 . i • i i .. F Figure 5. .....re f msteam "-] ri + thst IO0%B~ ..) ~ J 60 70 80 90 Figure 5. . value PTx control strategy used infield tests at Esbjergvaerket.9 460 455 450 _--[• I l G P C b a s e d control] P1 b a s e d control I ' ~ ' i ' .150 Thermal power plant simulation and control (. ool r---: Gpc b~'sedcont~o.16 ••X. II : . Note the separate references for each steam temperature + To. .i .¢.) ... M:~ .15 Field test at Skaerbaekvaerket. Unit 2 during which the boiler was exposed to a coal mill start. ef Max. . i .. O' 0 i 10 i 20 i 30 i i • 40 50 Time (min.

.17 Field tests at Esbjergvaerket. . . . In Figure 5. . .- i i i i i PTx based control GPC based control . ..- PTx based control GPC based control ' ' I I I I I v'e- ly/V . .. In this case the maximum deviation was approximately 8 °C for both controllers. . .) 60 70 80 90 Figure5. . . . .17 shows that both model-based controllers produce very tight control during soot blowing . . most probably a result of slightly different closed-loop bandwidths which again are a result of minor differences in the tuning of the controllers. It is sufficient to perform one step response for establishing the PTx model . Figure 5.Steam temperature control 151 the range 3-6. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (min. t. N ~ 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (min. . ~" 10 ..) 570 2 565 560 555 © 550 .) i i 60 70 80 90 15 . . Sliding pressure operation and steam temperatures near the saturation conditions may necessitate gain scheduling of the P controller as well. . During this sequence.. .18 the boiler was exposed to one of the most significant disturbances the stopping of a coal mill. Due to load-dependent variations in the differential pressure it may be necessary to introduce gain scheduling of the PI controller. . . . . .the maximum deviation is approximately 2 °C for both controllers. . the full control range of both control valves was used. The water injection flows behave in much the same way. . Comparing the two model-based strategies it can be concluded from the field tests that the differences in performance are only marginal. Unit 3 during which the boiler was exposed to soot blowing . . .. .the scheduling function will adapt the model to cover the total operating range. . . This type of strategy has been widely used by Siemens and others. ' . .

.PTx based control GPC based control 10 20 30 40 50 Time (rain...20 where the boiler was exposed to disturbance from the flue gas. and a fuzzy-based strategy..--~-. In this case the controllers were tuned to maximise the disturbance rejection capability without exhibiting oscillatory behaviour. is illustrated in Figure 5..152 Thermal power plant simulation and control 570 565 ~560 ~555 © 550 I I I ~ I I I I I I I I I --~...18 Field tests on Esbjergvaerket. Figure 5.5. the applicability of fuzzy control for the regulation of superheater temperatures was investigated• The simulations were based on a fuzzy PI controller complemented by a set of 'breaking rules' to handle the high-order dynamics..4....19. In the fuzzy controller.. 5..16.. triangles were used as membership functions on the inputs and singletons were used as membership functions on the output... A performance comparison between a conventional PI-based strategy.. a model-based strategy..) 60 70 80 90 Figure 5. 1996) among other issues.3 Fuzzy control In a simulation study on the utilisation of fuzzy control within the Danish power industry (Moelbak and Hammer. The rule set is shown in Figure 5... Figure 5.) 60 70 80 90 14 . I ~lO f "~12 ~ 8 0 PTx based control GPC based control ~ 6 ~4 2 0 I I * I 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (min. Unit 3 during which the boiler was exposed to a coal mill stop In this case. the PTx-based strategy was preferred due to its simplicity as regards implementation and commissioning.

The coal flow would be a good measure for the disturbances. but it cannot be measured on a continuous basis.e) NL NL NM NL NL NM NM ZE NM NL NM NM ZE PM ZE NM NM ZE PM PM (Au . &e: control error and change of error. These considerations have resulted .Steam temperature control 153 e(t) AU=f(Ae.PL) PM NM ZE PM PM PL PL ZE PM PM PL PL Ae(O ZE PM PL IF (u(t)-u(t. As regards commissioning and tuning the fuzzy controller is significantly more resource demanding compared with the P! controller and the model-based controller.19 Fuzzy rule set for superheater PI control: e.u(t (u(t)-u(t L) = NM) THEN (Au = NM) L)=NL) THEN (Au=NL) Figure 5. One possibility for improving steam temperature control further could be to measure the disturbances even before they are reflected in the outlet steam temperature.4 Dynamic measurement of flue gas temperatures As already mentioned. Such measurements will of course be suitable for feedforward control. Most of these disturbances are initiated by the processing and combustion of fuel (coal). Faster and larger control actions can be allowed in the case of the model-based controller as it uses an explicit and accurate process model while the fuzzy controller uses a less accurate and implicit process model (rules). Au: change of control signal.L) = PL) THEN IF (u(t) u(t-L)=PM) THEN (Au=PM) IF (u(t)-u(t L)=ZE) THEN (Au=ZE) IF IF (u(t).4. This conclusion is related to the indirect type of process modelling in a fuzzy controller which implies a very time-consuming trial and error type of commissioning. while the P! controller is the worst. 5. Alternatively. the predominant disturbances to the superheater process come from the flue gas. the temperature of the flue gas in the vicinity of the heating surface could be suitable. L: load-dependent deadtime As regards performance (overshoot) the model-based controller is the best.

. it was the general understanding that reliable dynamic measurement of flue gas temperatures was not possible.2. such as thermocouples.o i I I l. At time = 5 min. i i [ - ! .in this case radiation emitted by the CO2 in the flue gas... P I and model based controllers. This decision was based partly on correlation analysis between flue gas temperatures and . From field tests of both types it has been found that the equipment based on radiation pyrometry was preferable for feedforward control of superheater temperatures. exploiting the fact that sound velocity varies as a function of the media temperature . suction pyrometry and radiation pyrometry... Two types of equipment have been investigated with respect to utilisation in boiler control: acoustic pyrometry.. PI control Fuzzy control Model based control ~ -5 o-10 r. Time (rain. the superheater was exposed to a disturbance from the flue gas in a project mainly dedicated to developing an efficient feedforward function based on dynamic measurement of the flue gas temperatures.20 Simulation results comparing a fuzzy.) -15 0 5 10 15 Time (rain..in this case the temperature of the flue gas.f'X".. radiation pyrometry (new type).) 2'o 2.. Fuzzycontrol [ 1 2 g 0 o O-2 '5 i .. exploiting that fact that gases emit electromagnetic radiation in a narrow band of wavelengths . i .154 Thermal power plant simulation and control ~'10 8 6 E ~ f t i i . all involve significant disadvantages/limitations concerning the practical handling and the information quality.. ~-.) 20 25 30 Figure 5. . Conventional methods. 3o i t ~ 0 . Until recently....

see Figure 5. feedforward action is only applied to one of the superheater parallel lines.g.23 illustrates very well that introducing the feedforward . steam temperatures and partly on a cost/benefit evaluation.23 shows a sequence caused by the start of a coal mill.4. Using the previous approach. The most frequent and significant disturbance at Esbjergvaerket Unit 3 is the start and stop of coal mills.see Figure 5. 5.5 Feedforward control using radiation pyrometry The implemented control strategy comprises a feedforward function based on radiation pyrometry and a feedback function based on a model-based controller .2 ro.21 The control strategy used infield tests in Esbjergvaerket. A derivative function with a conventional low-pass filter for which the gain and the time constants have to be tuned. Unit 3. Figure 5. burner setting . which has to filter out the noisy part of the signal.22. Further details can be found in Moelbak and Jensen (1994). The feedforward function consists of two main features: (i) An adaptive filter. e.~f ~. (ii) The idea is that the feedforward action should be inactive most of the time and only intervene when significant disturbances occur. The adaptive feature is necessary because the noise band is dependent on the state of operation. The field test sequence in Figure 5." ::i'::! adiati!n pyrometer r~ + l Adaptive mst~ rhsteam'10~B A/B I F" LL __Min value Max value Figure 5.21.Steam temperature control 155 ToZ .

) 3 3.5 Figure5.5 Time(min.23 Field test results comparing control strategies with and without feedforward.5 4 4.156 Thermal power plant simulation and control ~1100 L) ~ 1050 1000 c~ 950 0 100 200 i 300 400 500 Time(min. © s58 556 0 i i i i i i I I 0. The significant improvements are due to earlier detection of the disturbance and an accordingly earlier control action.23. .) 3 3.22 Measurement of theflue gas temperature using radiation pyrometry 570 ~-~568 ~ 566 564 . ~ ~~.5 ~10 ~8 [ W::hh ~dfef°dfoa~.) i 600 i 700 i 800 900 i 1000 Figure 5. . shown in Figure 5.5 Time(min.5 2 2.5 1 1. ~ 562 560 I I I I I I I g Withfeedfor~vard " l With°ut feedf°rward ] i ~ i ~ / j .5 4 4. .5 1 1.a ofe rd ] ~ "~ ~6 ~ 4 2 0 0 0. . The disturbance is initiated by the start of a coal mill function halves the temperature overshoot. which is clearly indicated by the development of the water flows. .5 2 2.

....) i ... ..... The flue gas temperature and the resulting feedforward signal are also shown in the figure.1.. 1 i 2 i 3 i 4 i 5 Time (min... 5. J 6 7 i 8 I 9 10 1250 i C 2... The disturbance is initiated by a fault situation (fire in separator) In Figure 5....~ 560 ....24 a fault situation occurred ...4..24 Field results comparing control strategies with and without feedforward...... e~ -5 -10 0 1 2 4 5 Time (min.........6 Cost~benefit assessment The experiences with different types of feedback controllers are summarised in Table 5. 1200 ~ 1150 E N 1100 o 1050 kl.......~ © 555 0 .... 1000 1o 0 1 5 2 3 4 5 6 Time (rain.Steam temperature control ~" 580 575 I I I I ~ ! ~ ~ ~ :: 157 With feedforward 565 ...........) 10 Figure 5...) 7 8 9 10 ..a fire was detected in the separator of one of the coal mills and as a result the coal was forced out.. Again significant improvements were obtained for the superheater line on which the feedforward was implemented...

New measurement techniques are continually being developed and becoming commercially available. as the feedforward function is only active when major disturbances occur. These new techniques pave the way for the development of control schemes offering performance improvements. a model-based controller. (1989) and in Mortensen et al.1 Comparisonof different types offeedback control methodsfor superheater control The experience acquired indicates that a model-based controller should be used for feedback control of the superheater temperatures. it is suggested that future work put less emphasis on the development of feedback control strategies for this process. should be sought using multivariable methods. A future perspective is to introduce a similar strategy to the feedwater control loop. The field test results shown and experience from other plants indicate that an efficiency limit has been reached as regards pure feedback control relying on modelbased methods. the improvements regarding the load-following capability and availability will justify the investment. The boiler process. When choosing a type of model-based controller the implementation and commissioning effort should be considered. improvements in steam temperature control should be sought in other areas: • Steam temperature control makes up only a small part of the boiler process and the control system. (1997). • Assuming an effective feedback controller is already present. the introduction of a feedforward function based on radiation pyrometry will only have little influence on the lifetime and efficiency of the plant. as previously discussed. This limit is actually set by the superheater itself and is determined by the metal mass of the superheater pipes.g. e. . However. which is even more significant to the stability and availability of the plant. is a highly multivariable system and further improvements in overall performance. on the whole. including steam temperature regulation. This issue will not be discussed further here . More likely. As a consequence.work on this issue can be found in Nakamura et al.158 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Controllertype PI Fuzzy Adaptivemodelbased 'Simple' modelbased Control performance Low Medium High High Resource demand Low High High Medium Table5. and that the load-dependent dynamics should be handled directly by a scheduling function.

combining several measurements into high-level information (sensor fusion methods). interlocks. The basic algorithm. 5. W. Nevertheless.: 'Generalized predictive control Part I. modelling of the processes should be direct this conclusion favours methods like LQG. MOHTADI.Steam temperature control 159 5. been determined by historical issues like the theoretical developments at the time and personal preferences. and TUFFS. 23. e. The deregulation of the power industry and the increased utilisation of renewable energy sources are some of the reasons why further improvements are still in demand. pp. GPC and PTx. particularly in relation to disturbance rejection and improved dynamic stability during abnormal situations. much effort has been put into the theoretical development of improved feedback control methods. Furthermore..5 Conclusions In this chapter conventional and advanced steam temperature controls have been discussed. It is obviously very important to keep objectives and perspectives in mind when improved solutions are targeted and conclusions are drawn. it can be concluded that it is important to choose some kind of model-based method. Another way could be to focus on the development and application of more accurate (nonlinear) models and hence adapt or develop control methods based on the new model structures.6 References CLARKE. The state-of-the-art is that advanced control methods have been widely applied in the power industry to steam temperature control. to some extent. Evaporator control is more complex than superheater control in terms of the number of required inputs and outputs and control structure. E S. 137-160. etc. D. as opposed to fuzzy-based methods. Extensions and interpretations'. In general. Future developments and applications should focus on new ways of acquiring information regarding disturbances and abnormalities. (2). The choice of advanced methods in the discussed applications have.g. The practical experience presented indicates that model-based methods are capable of coming close to the upper performance limit for feedback control for the processes in mind. Experiments with new measurement techniques and advanced filtering methods for disturbance detection have shown significant improvements in critical situations. C. Automatica. only some of which have been applied and of which most are based on linear methods. This difference in strategy should be seen as a consequence of the difference in process and control complexity. As the thermal processes are quite well known in mathematical terms. which are based on indirect modelling. Part II. it was decided to use a complementary strategy for evaporator control while it was decided to substitute the existing strategy in the case of superheater control. 1987 . One way could be to develop new measurement techniques and new methods for signal utilisation.

169-174 NAKAMURA. China. 1994) OVERSCHEE. T.: 'Model-based steam temperature control in PFUSC plants .: 'Digital control systems. estimation and control' (Prentice Hall.Part 1: analysis of methods for dynamic measurement of flue gas temperatures. VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 6. TOYOTA. pp. and JENSEN. MOELBAK. and UCHIDA.: 'Subspace identification for linear systems' (Kluwer. Y. KUSHIHASHI. T. D.: 'Optimal control of thermal power plants'.: 'Utilization of fuzzy control in power plants Part 2: simulation study'. 71. 1996) . (3). 1991. pp.160 Thermalpower plant simulation and control ISERMANN. 1989) KLEFENZ. Proceedings of IFAC/CIGRE Symposium on Control of Power Systems and Power Plants. 1989.: 'System identification toolbox user's guide' (1995) MOELBAK.: 'Robust adaptive control of superheater temperature in a power station'. G. and PEDERSEN. 1986) The MathWorks Inc. Dordrecht. 1996 (in Danish) MOELBAK. 1997 pp. report EP96/694.. 511-520 SIEMENS: Lettechnische Konzepte: Regelung der Hochdruck-Dampftemperatur. volumes 1 and 2' (Springer Verlag. E66 ProzeBtechnik Energieerzeugung SODERSTROM. T.: 'Discrete-time stochastic systems. L. T. 558-561 MOELBAK. and HAMMER. 1994 (in Danish) MORTENSEN. B. M. T. Beijing.: 'Automatic control of steam power plants' (Wissenschaftsverlag. (6). ELSAMPROJEKT A/S. ELSAMPROJEKT A/S. E V. Measurement and Control. New York. report EP94/582. I. M. H. B. T. H. Berlin.. S. S. Journal of Dynamic Systems. R.: 'Optimization of boiler control for improvement of load following capabilities using neural networks'. J.. and MOOR. 111.

The control strategy. The main goal was to satisfy certain constraints. For example.1 Introduction During the last few years the ever-growing demand for electric power has given rise to increasing interest in combined cycle thermal power generation plants because of their high efficiencies and relatively low investment costs. Katebi and Johnson (1997) describe a decentralised control strategy. Cipriano 6. Many approaches examine the steady-state costs to provide optimal static set-points. Bemporad et al. Adopting a state space representation. have been developed for these plants. possessing only a regulatory objective. the objective function was formed by the minimisation of the reference trajectory error. can provide in order to reduce the operational costs further. In this work. such as a generalised predictive control (GPC) cost index. applied to a chemical reactor.. There are some papers that deal with dynamic models. 1994). de Prada and Valentin (1996) propose a predictive control strategy based on the optimisation of an economic index. usually PI and PID controllers (Ordys et al. S6ez and A. A different approach for a reference governor with the same . like fuzzy.Chapter 6 Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant D. this methodology does not recognize transient behaviour (Becerra et al. In many industrial processes cost optimisation and the inclusion of operational constraints are necessary. Though well-known regulatory control strategies. 1999). is applied to a thermal power plant simulator. (1997) and Angeli and Mosca (1999) propose a reference governor at the supervisory level. based on the optimisation of a particular objective function. The algorithms were developed using a state space representation.. a state space representation was used. However. it is extremely important to determine the improvement that more advanced control strategies. neural or predictive optimal control.

1994). obtained from a static optimisation. This problem can be solved using two alternatives. As shown in Figure 6.1 A combined cycle power plant .1. The second one. the design of both the centralised and decentralised supervisory control strategies are introduced. Next. the proposed supervisory controllers are assessed using a thermal power plant simulator and are compared with a more traditional control strategy where the set-points remain constant. In this case.1 A combined cycle thermal power plant Process description Combined cycle power plants have high efficiencies and they require comparatively low investment costs relative to other technologies.~ 0 t -@ Gasturbine Figure 6. covering the simulator and the regulatory level controls.. Finally. provides the set-points for the PI controllers using on the same objective function. a supervisory objective function is considered in order to minimise both the economic index and a regulatory criterion for a combined cycle thermal power plant. In this work. a centralised control strategy directly gives the control actions.2 6. without using the regulatory level.. These plants use a gas turbine and a steam turbine to generate electricity (Ordys et al. the decentralised control strategy. First.2. Boiler fQ) Steam turbine Air Fuel Fuel "1 0 I I 'l Exhaustgas Air. 6.162 Thermal power plant simulation and control objective was proposed by Gilbert and Kolmanovsky (1999). Then. the conclusions are summarised. the reference governor was defined by a non-linear pre-filter. A combined cycle thermal power plant is first described.

.2. 1988. 1997). there are intermediate models (Nicholson. Ordys et al. In this case.~strtJm and Bell (2000) presented a non-linear boiler model that balances accuracy against simplicity of its modelling. equations that can be applied individually to each stage of the impulse and reaction of the turbine are developed.2.1 Boiler For the boiler. . This model has been utilised in the design of multivariable controllers. Recently. 6. De Jager et al.Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant 163 both turbines are combined into one single cycle in which energy is transferred from the gas turbine to the steam turbine. 1991. and the steam turbine cycle has good performance in the low-temperature region. 1991). Rhine and Tucker. The model describes the complicated dynamics of the boiler over a wide operating range. 6. consisting of more than 10 differential equations and over 100 non-linear algebraic equations. On the other hand. there are very simple models for the steam turbine. (1994) present a model that includes the more important nonlinearities associated with the turbine. 1964. depending on the application. the combination of the gas and steam turbines are joined by the steam boiler.2. that have been introduced for transient stability studies of the electric network (IEEE Committee.2 Thermal power plant models There are many proposals in the literature concerning modelling of the main components of a combined cycle power plant (boiler. The exhaust gases from the gas turbine and additional firing are used to provide the necessary heat for the steam production in the boiler. there are specific models to measure the thermal plant efficiency or to control one variable in particular. intermediate-pressure and low-pressure stages.2 Steam turbine Ray (1980) describes a model of the steam turbine that is based on the fundamental thermal balances. many of the dynamic equations and variables are not included in the modelling process (. Also. In this case. like the behaviour of equivalent nozzles for the high-pressure. This steam is fed to the steam turbine. like those presented by Cori and Busi (1977) and McDonald and Kwatny (1970). De Mello.2. 1991). The gas turbine cycle has good performance in the high-temperature region. steam turbine and gas turbine).2.. there are very complex physical models. 1995) that characterise with enough detail the dynamics of the most relevant variables of the boiler. Therefore. Those models have different complexity levels. 6. On the other hand. mainly linear models. the waste heat boiler and the high-pressure steam generator within one facility (Kehlhofer.~str6m and Bell. Combined cycle (CC) operation offers practical advantages for both the hightemperature and the low-temperature part of the combustion process.

~E 4.4 Superheated steam pressure 4.2.3 A Simulink-based simulator A computer-based physical simulator was developed for a 45 MW combined cycle thermal power plant.164 Thermal power plant simulation and control Gas turbine 6. (1994) present much simpler models. (1994) are used.2.2 Step change in drum water level set-point (controlled variables) . This model includes the main dynamic of the gas turbine for a wide range of operating conditions. consisting of a boiler. In this work the models proposed by Ordys et al. 4. because they are a modelling solution that incorporates the main process variables and the nonlinear behaviour. Rowen (1983) describes an intermediate model for the gas turbine that permits design of a supervisory control strategy.6 0 50 i i i i I I i i I I i i i i I 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Drum water level ] I I I I I I 5J0 100 i 150 i 200 i 250 i 300 ~ 350 i 400 | Furnace gas pressure 50 100 150 200 250 r 300 .3 Cohen et al. 350 i 400 Superheated steam temperature I i i i I i 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6. a steam turbine (Ps = 1 1 MW) and a gas turbine (Pg = 34 MW).2. The gas flow dynamics are described for each section of the turbine.102 0. (1987) and Shobeiri (1987) present very detailed distributed parameter models of the gas turbine. Hung (1991) and Biss et al. including only 34 differential equations and about 100 algebraic equations.2 0 5 . 6.100 0 718 717.5 40 0.8 717. using steadystate equations derived experimentally.104 ~ 0.6 ~ 4.

Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant
14.5 . . . . . Gas turbine fuel flow z~ 14 0 100 50 I 0 64.1 64.05 Furnace air flow 64 0 0.5 5~0 J 100 , 150
i i J i J

165

5~0

L 100

, 150

200

250

300

350

400

~ 5'0 ~ 100 L 150 L 200 ~ 250 ~ 300

Feedwater flow k 350 400

0

, 200

~ 250

~ 300

, 350

400

~

o
Attemperator water flow -0.5 0
i i i i i i i

50

100

150

200 Time (s)

250

300

350

400

Figure 6.3

Step change in drum water level set-point (manipulated variables)

The models and their parameters were adapted from Ordys et al. (1994). There are algebraic loops in the gas turbine and steam turbine models, which are solved numerically using a non-linear equation at each step of the simulation. The simulator was programmed in the Matlab®/Simulink ® environment under the Windows 2000 system. As Ordys et al. (1994) propose, the integration step for the simulations is 0.1 s, applying the fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration method.

6.2.4

Regulatory control strategies

The regulatory controllers for the combined cycle power plant are established for each subsystem, i.e. the boiler, the gas turbine and the steam turbine. The tuning of PI controllers was obtained from the work of Ordys et al. (1994). Next, a qualitative analysis of the models is presented considering different tests and analysing the similarities between the simulation responses and real plant behaviour. First, the boiler response with the control strategy based on PI controllers is tested. In this case, the controlled variables are the superheated steam pressure (Ps), the drum water level (L), the furnace gas pressure (PG) and the superheated steam temperature (Ts). The manipulated variables are fuel flow (wf), feedwater flow (We) or valve position (Xl), air flow to the furnace (WA) and attemperator water flow (Watt) or valve position (x2), respectively.

166

Thermalpower plant simulation and control
11.5 ll.0 10.5 10.0 9.5 Steam turbine power

5'o

I

I

I

I

100

150 Time (s)

200

250

300

11 10 9
8
i i i
i i

HP turbine steam flow

0

50

100

150 Time (s)

200

250

300

Figure 6.4
1150 ~ 1100 1050 1000 34.0

Step change in steam turbine power reference

/
Io i i

GT exhaust gas temperature
i i

5

100

150

200

250

300

/
GT mechanical power
0 i i i i

33.9 I

5

100

150

200

250

300

9o8l_
90.6 t 0 5
0

91

/" NOx conc. in exhaust gases 100
i

150 Time (s)

i

200

i

250

i

300

Figure 6.5

Stepchange in gas turbine exhaust gas temperature reference (controlled variables)

Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant
50 Compressor air flow 45 40 0.62 r~ 0.615 0.61 0 0.188 Combustion chamber steam injection ~ 0.186
i i

167

I

/

I

I

I

0

50

100

150
i

200

250

300

GT fuel flow

; 5

i

i

L

100

150

200

250

300

'

~

'

0

50

100

150 Time (s)

2 0

250

300

Figure6.6

Step change in gas turbine exhaust gas temperature reference (manipulated variables)

As an example, Figures 6.2 and 6.3 present the boiler responses to a 10 per cent step in the drum water level set-point. The simulation shows that the PI controllers respond appropriately, providing good performance with a settling time less than 100 s, as would be anticipated for real plant. Also, the responses for superheater steam pressure (Ps), and steam temperature (Ts) and furnace gas pressure (Pc) are non-minimum phase, as described in Ordys et al. (1994). For the control strategy for the steam turbine, the manipulated variable is the flow of steam to the high-pressure turbine (Win) that controls the steam turbine power output (Ps). In Figure 6.4 the step response of a closed-loop steam turbine system subject to a 10 per cent decrease in the power reference is presented. The results show acceptable behaviour of the controlled variable, comparable with real plant, and with a settling time less than 50s and a maximum overshoot is about 2.5 per cent. Finally, for the gas turbine, the controlled variables are exhaust gas temperature (TTout), the power output of the gas turbine (Pg) and the NOx concentration in the exhaust gases (gcNox). The manipulated variables are the air flow to the compressor (Wa), the fuel flow (Fa) and the flow of the steam injected into the combustion chamber
(Wis).

Figures 6.5 and 5.6 show the responses of the closed-loop gas turbine system to a 10 per cent step change in the exhaust gas temperature reference. The settling time is

168 Thermal power plant simulation and control less than 30 s. The gas turbine power exhibits slightly non-minimum phase behaviour due to an existing controller saturator.

6.3

Design of supervisory control strategies for a combined cycle thermal power plant

In this work, the proposed objective function considers both an economic and a regulatory level objective, that is, the minimisation of the operational costs (Jcf) and the minimisation of both the set-point trajectory error together with the control action effort (Jcr). Hence, the total objective function to be optimised at the supervisory level is:

J = Jcf + JCr.

(6.1)

Also, considering the fuel flow to the gas turbine Fd, the fuel flow to the boiler wf and the feedwater flow We as the main process costs, the economic objective function (Jcf) is given by:

N Jcf = Z C F F d ( t W i i=1

N 1 ) + E Cfwf(tWi i=1

-

N 1)+ Z C e w e ( t W i i=1

-

1)+CF

(6.2)

where CF and Cf are the fuel unit costs, Ce the feedwater supply unit cost and CF fixed costs given by the cost of operational technical personnel, etc. N is the prediction horizon. The regulatory level objective (JCr) is given by:

JCr = CrPg j=l
+ Crps

(/3g(t + j ) _ p;)2 + ZFd E AFg(t + i - - 1) i=1
(/3s(t + j ) - P2) 2 + )-wfZ

)
(6.3)

AW2(t q'- i -- 1)

j=l

i=1

+ CrL
j=l

(/,(t + j) -- L*) 2 + Zwe Z
i=1

Aw2e(t + i --

1)

where/;g(t + j) is the j-step-ahead prediction for the gas turbine power,/3s(t + j ) is the j-step-ahead prediction for the superheated steam pressure and L(t + j) is the j-step-ahead prediction for the drum level. Also, CrPg, Crps and CrL are the cost factors of the regulatory levels and ZFd, ~.wf and Zwe are the control weightings. The external set-point trajectories for the gas turbine power, P~, the superheated steam pressure, p*, and the drum level, L*, respectively, are constant and previously fixed. As the currency unit, a fictional $$ was chosen to evaluate costs. Table 6.1 shows the parameters of the objective function for the CC power plant. The cost values CF, Cf and Ce were chosen to represent economic criteria for real

Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant Table 6.1 Objective function parameters
Value 100$$/kg 100$$/kg 1$$/kg
34MW

169

Parameter CF Cf Ce
P~

p* L* CrPg Crps
CrL

4.5251MPa 4.1425m I$$/MW2s 10-9$$/MPa2s
106 $$/M 2 s

~-Fd
)~wf )~we N

1022MW2s2/kg2
1011MPa2 s2/kg2 I m2s2/kg 2 100

plant, with the weightings for the fuel costs significantly higher than the feedwater cost. The external set-point trajectories Pg, p* and L* were selected using operational criteria, while the cost factor values of the regulatory level CrPg, Crps and CrL were chosen by trade-off criteria. ~-Fd, ~-wf and )~we were selected by regulatory criteria that encourage stable behaviour at the regulatory level, and N was chosen near the maximum settling time. Next, two solution algorithms are proposed in order to solve the optimisation problem of equation (6.1).

6.3.1

Centralised control strategy

The centralised control strategy introduces a supervisory level which directly determines the optimal control actions of the process, with the corresponding PI controllers replaced by a supervisory level. As Figure 6.7 shows, the economic optimiser provides the optimum control actions for the gas turbine and the boiler. The optimisation variables proposed here are the fuel flow to the gas turbine, Fd, the fuel flow to the boiler, wf, and the feedwater flow, We. Hence, in this case, the PI controllers for the power output of the gas turbine, for superheated steam pressure and for the drum level are eliminated. The set-points for the exhaust gas temperature (T~out), the NOx concentration in the exhaust gases (grNox), the exhaust gas pressure (p~), the superheated steam temperature (Tsr ) and the steam turbine power (Pr), respectively, are maintained constant, as the corresponding manipulated variables do not affect the economic optimiser.

170 Thermal power plant simulation and control

Pg* Ps* L*

Supervisorylevel: Economicoptimiser

~T~out~gcrNox
PI Controllers

PG

rI 1
PI Controllers

Pl ~_ Controllers

FZd,

~Wa ~Wis
Gas turbine ~__

We ,welwA~Wa,t,
Boiler

Wi n
Steam turbine

I

Figure 6. 7

Centralised control strategy for the combined cycle thermal power plant

Pg* Ps* L*

Supervisorylevel: Economicoptimiser

4 .~----------m

TT°ut Pg

gcNox
PI ! Controllers

~esr

PI ~ Controllers

Controllers

,Wa ~ ~ *~i
Gas Turbine

~wf~We~WA~
Boiler

~ Win
Steam turbine

L
Figure 6.8

I

Decentralised control strategy for the combined cycle thermal power plant

6.3.2

Decentralised control strategy

In the proposed decentralised control strategy based on the supervisory level, all the PI controllers remain untouched. Thus, the supervisory optimiser gives the optimal set-points at the regulatory level (S~ez et al., 2002). The economic optimiser shown in Figure 6.8 will provide the optimum set-points for the regulatory level.

Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant

171

The optimisation variables proposed here are the set-points of the power of the gas turbine, P~, the superheated steam pressure, pr, and the drum water level, L r, as they directly depend on the main process inputs: the fuel flow to the gas turbine, Fd, the fuel flow to the boiler, wf, and the feedwater flow, We, which are included in the proposed objective function. As for the centralised control strategy, the set-points T~out, gr r cNOx, Pg' Tr and Psr will be constant as they do not impact on the economic optimiser.

6.4
6.4.1

Application to the thermal power plant simulator
Centralised control strategy

In order to design the centralised control strategy, linear models of the boiler process and gas turbine process are necessary.

6.4.1.1 Boiler process models
The dynamics of the main variables of the boiler process are identified around their operating points using controlled auto-regressive integrating moving-average (CARIMA) models. These models are appropriate for many industrial process in which disturbances are non-stationary (Clarke et al., 1987). The parameters of the CARIMA models were obtained using a least squares approach from the Matlab Identification toolbox. Identification of the superheated steam pressure, Ps, loop dynamics was achieved by superimposing an excitation signal on the fuel flow, wf. The resulting C A R I M A model using a one second sampling time is formed as the following expression:

e(t) A(z-1)ps(t) :- B ( z - l ) w f ( t ) + - A
where

(6.4)

A(z - 1 ) = 1 - 0 . 9 7 4 z

-1,

B(z - 1 ) = 2 7 1 3 z - 1 + 3 5 3 6 z -5

and while A --:--1 - z -1 , e(t) is zero-mean white noise and z -1 is the backward shift operator. Similarly, a C A R I M A model for the drum level, L, was obtained using feedwater flow as an excitation signal, so that:

e(t) A(z-1)L(t) -----B(z-1)We(t) q- - A
where

(6.5)

A(z -1) = 1 - 0.228z -1 - 0.772z -2, B(z -1) = (0.754z -1 + 0.570z -2 + 0.014z -3 + 0.007z -4 + 0.002z -5) × 10 -3.

172

Thermal power plant simulation and control
Gas turbine process model

6.4.1.2

The dynamics of the gas turbine process are similarly identified around its nominal operating points using CARIMA models. The resulting CARIMA model for the gas turbine power, Pg, with respect to the fuel flow, Fd, is obtained as:

e(t) A(z-1)pg(t) = B(z-1)Fd(t) + --£with A(z -1) = 1 - 0.717z - j , 6.4.1.3 Supervisory controller

(6.6)

B(z -1) = 1.244 x 107z -7.

The centralised control strategy minimises the economic objective function defined in equation (6.1), giving the optimal control actions. The process models (6.4)-(6.6) are considered as constraints. The optimum control actions are calculated, using the Matlab Optimisation toolbox, by numerically solving the defined quadratic objective function.

6.4.2

Decentralised control strategy

In the decentralised control strategy, the optimiser provides the optimum set-points for the PI controllers. Thus, models of the PI for the fuel flow and the feedwater flow are necessary. As previously outlined, the parameters of the PI controller were obtained from the work of Ordys et al. (1994). 6.4.2.1 PI controller models

A discrete model for the boiler fuel flow control loop is:

ac(z-1)wf(t) = Bcr(z-l)p~(t) -~- Bcy(Z-1)ps(t)
where Ac(z -1) = 1 - z - l , Bcr(Z -1) = 1.55 × 10 -5 - 1.45 × 10-5Z -1, Kp ---- 1.5 × 10 -5 ,

(6.7)

Bcy(Z-1) = -1.55 × 10 -5 + 1.45 × 10-5z - l ,

Ki = 10 -6.

Similarly, a model for the feedwater flow control loop is obtained as:

Ac(z-l)we(t) = Bcr(Z-1)Lr(t) + Bcy(Z-1)L(t)
where Ac(z - 1 ) = l - z Bcy(Z-1)
=

(6.8)

-1,

Bcr(Z - 1 ) = 1 8 1 - 1 6 4 z -1, Kp = 10,
K i ----

--181 + 164Z-1,

1.

Finally, a model for the gas turbine fuel flow control loop follows as:

Ac(z-l)Fd(t) = Bcr(z-l)pg(t) + Bcy(z-l)pg(t)

(6.9)

9.95 x 10 -9. the steam flow varies between 12. As previously.2. for the purpose of this simulation. corresponding to changes in power output produced by the steam turbine. 6. [ ~o 12 ~11 10 Superheatedsteamflow I 0 100 ' 200 300 ~ 400 Time (s) 500 • | 600 700 800 Figure 6. the optimum set-point for the superheated steam pressure is: p~(t) = p~ Cf 2CrpsKps t > 0 (6.9) are introduced as constraints. Bcy(Z.10) where Kps = 0.l .4)-(6. given by equation (6.4) and the static minimisation of the objective function given by equation (6. The process models (6. Then.4.4. the optimum control actions are calculated by numerically solving the quadratic programming optimisation problem. Similarly. given by equation (6.1).2 Supervisory controller Bcr(Z = 2.z .322 Mpa s/kg is the static gain between the superheated steampressure and the fuel flow. calculated by optimisation of the proposed objective function considering a static model of the boiler process.3 Comparative analysis We assume that the superheated steam flow (Ws) changes.1).6 and 10.95 × 10 -9. giving the optimum set-points for the PI controllers. using the Optimisation toolbox of Matlab. The proposed supervisory centralised and decentralised control strategies are compared with a control strategy in which the set-points remain constant. and. 173 Kp = 1. using the static model for the superheated steam pressure given by equation (6. The decentralised control strategy minimises the objective function defined in equation (6. the optimum 13 / ~.6) and the PI controller models (6.9 Disturbance sequence for superheated steam flow . using the static model for the drum level.48 × 10 -9. As shown in Figure 6. 6.7)-(6. this is treated as a disturbance.95 × 10 -9.5) and the static minimisation of the objective function. -1) Ki = 2.Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant where Ac(z -1) = 1 .1).l ) ----2.8 kg/s over a period of 800 s.

25 0 i i i i ~ 1 i 100 200 300 400 Time (s) 500 600 700 800 Figure 6.35 i i.25 4.40 0 4.2). the centralised control strategy directly provides the control action based on the same regulatory objective function.. centralised control (dotted line) and decentralised control (solid line) static set-point for the drum water level is: Lr(t) = L* Ce t _> 0 (6..345 m s/kg is the static gain between the drum water level and represents feedwater flow. The fuel flow to the boiler decreases when using the proposed optimal control strategies..174 Thermal power plant simulation and control 14 Boiler fuel flow J 13 12.4o ~ 4. relative to the feedwater supply cost coefficient (Ce) in equation (6. with the centralised decentralised control strategy.30 Superheated steam pressure (reference) 4.30 4. 4..3) (S~iez et al.10 shows the closed-loop response for superheated steam pressure (Ps) with constant set-point.11) 2CrLKL ' where KL ---.5 .11 presents the drum level response applying the same control strategies. Figure 6.35 0 100 ~ 200 L_ ~ i ~ 300 ~ 400 L___ 500 600 700 800 ¢~ 4. . The centralised and decentralised controllers give similar improvements in performance. while the feedwater flow remains similar to the original control strategy. 2002)._ Superheated steam pressure i i i - ) " i 100 200 30 400 500 600 700 800 ~ ~4. This is because the decentralised control strategy is intended to eliminate the action of the low-level PI controller and the algorithm implicitly replaces the PI controller with the predictive control action given by the regulatory objective function (equation 6.0. Figure 6. This follows from the much higher value for the fuel cost coefficient (Cf).10 Closed-loop response for superheated steam pressure with constant setpoint (thick line). Also.

520 133. Drum level 200 . .11 Closed-loop response for drum level with constant set-point (thick line).2 Comparison of the economic and regulatory objective functions Supervisory level Jce [$$] Jcr [$$] 33.12 100 .2) and (6. 30 400 .400 Constant set-points Centralised Decentralised 135.280 J Control strategy Savings % [$$] 169. the mean values of the objective functions (6. 60 .16~4._ 4"16 t ~'~4.12) . Also. .700 146.799 13. centralised control (dotted line) and decentralised control (solid line) Table6.77 In Table 6.12 0 . the savings for the fuel costs regarding the control strategy with constant set-point are defined by: ffCf with supervisory level "] 100 .310 146.603 13. .100 133.14 4. Savings = (6.14 ~ 4.100 Jcf with constant set-points/ per cent.2.120 1. ! 1.Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant 14 175 10 8 I I I I Feedwater flow I L 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 4.3) are evaluated according to the results presented in Figures 6. 700 800 /"-'""-~ I I /----'"~ I I /~'~ Drum level (reference) I I 0 100 200 300 400 Time (s) 500 600 700 800 Figure 6. 500 .10 and 6.79 1.

Therefore. an objective function has been defined.79 per cent when using the centralised controller. the fuel flow to the gas turbine. as the operational costs of a thermal power plant are very high and each percentile point in savings represents a significant amount of money. and the drum water level for the regulatory level. the objective of the supervisory optimal control is to minimise the operational costs. For the implementation of the optimal control strategy. two alternatives are considered. Alternatively in the decentralised control strategy. the superheated steam pressure. The same component. The supervisory control strategy has also to maintain the superheated steam pressure. called a centralised controller. boiler and the feedwater flow. the Ordys et al. that is to say. also improving the regulatory level with PI controllers. which combines an economic (operational cost) and a regulatory component. The minimum difference between both strategies can be explained because the decentralised controller is intended to eliminate the PI control action. generating the manipulated variable based on the defined objective function. the PI controller gives the control actions. The results show that both strategies present very similar behaviour to changes in superheated steam flow. also compared with the same regulatory control strategy.5 Discussion and conclusions Of all the physical models available in the technical literature. In this study.77 per cent. Then. that is the plant operational costs. compared with a regulatory control strategy with constants set-points. that is to say. the fuel flow to the boiler and the feedwater flow. in the case of the decentralised control strategy. is reduced by 1. The simulation tests using the regulatory control strategy show similar behaviour to real power plant. (1994) model has been selected for this study. The supervisory controllers also reduce considerably the second component of the objective function that minimises the differences between the controlled variables and their set-points. which mainly depend on the fuel flow and feedwater flow. the implementation of those control strategies is recommended. Based on this model. drum level and gas turbine power variables close to their set-point values. are reduced by 1. using these optimum set-points. the optimisation algorithm calculates the optimum set-points for the gas turbine power output. a non-linear dynamic simulator has been developed for the evaluation of supervisory and regulatory control strategies. the fuel flow to the gas turbine. In the first strategy. the optimisation algorithm directly gives the final manipulated variables.176 Thermal power plant simulation and control The savings obtained with the centralised and decentralised control strategies are approximately 1. because it represents quite accurately the nonlinearities of the process.78 per cent. and minimises the control energy. The first component of the objective function. obtained from static optimisation of the same objective function. 6. The results of this exploratory study show that supervisory control offers interesting perspectives in order to reduce the operational costs of a combined cycle thermal . Therefore.

and MOSCA.6 Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank FONDECYT for the support given to project 4000026 'Stability for optimal supervisory control systems with a fixed regulatory level'..: 'Command governors for constrained non-linear systems'. 26-1:26-19 . C. MOHTADI. H. pp. Harlow. 1988. 816-820 /kSTROM. and ROBERTS. 2000. 1990101 'Non-linear predictive control with fuzzy constraints and fuzzy objective functions' and 1020741. Z.. H. 1997. pp... Computing and Control Engineering Journal. 1989. pp. IEE Control'94.) CORI.: 'Robust control of a 1. 6. Knoxville. in some cases. CASAVOLA. 42. D. 23. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. E. ABU-EL-ZEET. Control and Testing Symposium. Belgium. (4). (2).. Brussels. (3).: 'Generalised predictive control. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. 'Design of predictive control strategies based on non-linear models and its application to the control of thermal power plants'. pp. P. 2980029. (b) it reduces the natural opposition of the operators to the incorporation of more sophisticated advanced automatic controllers which.Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant 177 power plant.~STROM. T. SCHAUTT.' Automatica. may limit manual intervertion. 10.: 'Non-linear control of constrained linear systems via predictive reference management'. pp.: 'Parameter identification of a drum boiler power plant'. 198-208 BEMPORAD. 1994. G. September 7-9. 1977. Proceedings of the IFAC Power Systems Modeling and Control Applications. pp. R.. Proceedings of the 3rd Power Plants Dynamics.7 References ANGELI. which is better known by plant operators. 363-378 BECERRA. Tennessee. The decentralised strategy maintains the existing regulatory level. V. and WALZ. for their support. 6. 21-24 March.: 'Drum-boiler dynamics'.. Doris S~iez also wishes to thank the Facultad de Ciencias ffsicas y Matem~iticas. M. and TUFFS. and BELL. 'Failure diagnosis and detection for non-linear and time-variant dynamic systems'. pp.. 1176-1181 CLARKE. (Longman. K. A. This also offers a number of advantages: (a) it allows safer operation in the case of a failure. Universidad de Chile. and SARAVANAMUTI'OO. R. and BUSI. E..: 'Gas turbine theory'. D. 1999. 44. 340-349 BISS. D. and (c) it improves the supervisory controller without modifying the regulatory level.. 123-127 . Automatica. K..5 MW free turbine with complex load: non-linear closed loop simulations'. 36.. and BELL. A. pp.: 'Integrating predictive control and economic optimisation'. (5).. 137-160 COHEN. M. 1987.. P. and MOSCA. 1999. ROGERS. 3rd edn. R. which implies low implementation cost in comparison with the centralised control strategy.: 'Simple drum boiler models'.

77-82 DE MELLO. (2). Proceedings of the IFAC Conference on Control of Power Plants and Power Systems. 1995. and GRIMBLE. 33. 6.: 'Modeling and simulation of power generation plants' (Springer-Verlag. CIPRIANO. ANNEVELD..I. PIKE. A. 1997) MCDONALD. R.W.. E: 'Boiler models for system dynamic performance studies'. JOHNSON. H. 2002) SCHOBEIRI. J. 1964. Proceedings of the IEEPart C. Oklahoma. A.. and TUCKER. 111. (4). 1991.:'Dynamic modelling of power plant turbines for controller design'. (3).. 342-350 IEEE COMMITTEE: 'Dynamic models for fossil fueled steam units in power system studies'. and JOHNSON. Applied Mathematical Modeling. 'A mathematical model for reheat boilerturbine-generator systems'. pp. MOxico. Proceedings of the IEEE PES Winter Power Meeting. 138. 161-173 . M. London 1991) ROWEN.: 'Dynamic optimisation of a boiler'. 74. Proceedings of the lEE. W. pp. E. 753-761 KATEBI. D. pp. pp. June 30-July 5. A. pp. and DE BLOK. pp. 9. 1117-1141 HUNG. 109-112 RHINE. Brown Boveri Review... 421-425 KEHLHOFER. C. and KOLMANOVSKY.. 1994) RAY. M. London. H. M. London. B. pp.. 1991. New York..178 Thermal power plant simulation and control DE JAGER. ASME Journal of Engineering for Power.: 'Digital computer simulation of the dynamic operating behaviour of gas turbines'. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. A.. 6. (15). San Francisco. 1970.. Int. (4).. H.: 'Modeling of gas-fired furnaces and boilers' (McGraw-Hill. M. R. J. 4.: 'Simplified mathematical representations of heavy-duty gas turbines'. 1479-1499 ORDYS. 351-356 GILBERT. pp. and KWATNY. Robust Non-linear Control.: 'Combined cycle gas and steam turbine power plants' (PennWell Publishing Company. 1997. 1996. W. T. December 6-8. pp. 1980. Proceedings of the 13th World Congress of IFAC International Federation of Automatic Control. KATEBI. and ORDYS. and VALENTIN. Canctin. January 25-30. 1999. A. J. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.. (2).: 'Setpoint optimization in multivariable constrained predictive control'. (3). pp.: 'Dynamic simulation of a gas-turbine generating unit'. R. Automatica. 1-19 NICHOLSON. (8).: 'Fast reference governors for systems with state and control constraints and disturbance inputs'. pp. A. 105. simulation and control of multi-fuel once-through boilers'. 865-871 SAEZ.: 'Optimisation of industrial processes at supervisory level: application to control of thermal power plant' (Springer-Verlag. E: 'Modeling. pp. 1983. 1987. 1991.: 'Predictive control design for large-scale systems'.(1 ). 66-74 DE PRADA.

this structure has been adopted in all Rankine cycle-based plants. is that they do not account for the interactions of the different thermal properties in the plant. Its success is motivated by the fact that it is highly reliable and allows the operator to intervene manually on single components in emergency situations. singleoutput (SISO) loops. the control system of a thermal power plant is based on a number of regulation loops and feedforward compensators that contribute to maintain the main thermodynamical variables within reasonable values. remains isolated due to failures of the distribution system. A typical case where the dynamic evolution of the thermal variables is unsatisfactory takes place when a portion of the grid.1 Introduction The introduction of new control concepts and technologies in thermal power plant is very difficult. With a few variations. the control system dynamic performance is in general satisfactory under normal plant operation. based on separate single-input. The main drawback of these systems. 1970. Performance degradation can be so significant that. a given control variable used to regulate the respective controlled property in a loop influences the dynamic behaviour of all the others. the power request to the plant suddenly drops and the thermal variables start to oscillate.Chapter 7 Multivariable power plant control G. In this case. More precisely. 1971) that are penalising in terms of performance. Moreover. Klefenz. Poncia 7. in emergency situations. including the plant. Usually. Sharp changes of the power demand are more likely to occur in plants operating in a deregulated market. the thermodynamical variables could oscillate significantly. The mutual influence of the regulation loops is often minimised by enabling frequency decoupling strategies (DoleZal and Varcop. where a significant number of units are not available for the central . producing thermal stresses of the plant components and affecting their lifetime. The push for innovation must overthrow several cultural obstacles and well-assessed procedures that designers and operators are not keen to modify.

with the remainder still operating. The latest developments in the field of power plant multivariable design try to follow this principle. the conventional multi-SISO solution cannot be completely abandoned. the migration from a multi-SISO control system to a new concept based on multivariable techniques in a thermal power plant appears to be a good solution to improve plant operation. based on different structures and control techniques. the fulfillment of the load requirements and the minimisation of the operational costs are no longer the primary control objectives. When such procedures are activated. the introduction of distributed generation and microgrid systems requires plants with enhanced load-following capability (Oluwande. First (section 7. multiple-input. SISO controllers are preferred because a regulation loop can be disconnected in case of emergency. The presence of a new control structure would make necessary the training of plant personnel. The transition to a new system would lead to various problems: • Controls centralisation. Design. Moreover. used to traditional systems. • • Therefore. A multivariable controller may also induce dynamic phenomena that the supervisory personnel. In the occurrence of sudden load changes. multivariable techniques are known to improve the dynamic performance significantly. these techniques consider the system as a whole. 2001). the most recent approaches to the design of multivariable controllers for thermal power plant will be presented and discussed. avoiding potentially dangerous behaviour. An appealing solution would therefore be a multivariable control structure that corrects the existing classical regulation system. Industry and academic institutions have proposed a variety of solutions. which may require the temporary shutdown of the commercial operation. In this way. a description of a typical fossil fuel power plant and its main control requirements will . without compromising the plant safety. A multivariable controller would work on a centralised control unit. emergency procedures or safety features are introduced in the control system. Indeed. The design process would include a thorough testing programme on the plant. A multivariable. multiple-output (MIMO) control system would reduce the occurrence of potentially dangerous events and the intervention of the emergency procedures. both performance improvements and plant operability would be guaranteed. In this way. Training. whose reliability is not in question. Still. Therefore. The power reliability as well as the plant efficiency would therefore be increased. In processes where the dynamics of the state variables are strongly interacting. may not expect. and generate a single controller that allows optimal response. because of the reluctance of the power plant industry to accept changes that would revolutionise well-assessed procedures.180 Thermal power plant simulation and control dispatch centre. Its presence in the control structure keeps alive a well-assessed technology. A failure of the control algorithm would induce a failure of the entire plant. multivariable controllers are far from being widely employed.2). In the following sections. that consider SISO loops as part of the whole control structure. any new multivariable system could be disconnected anytime.

the economiser is denoted by ECO. the vast majority of plant in operation worldwide are still based on the water-steam cycle. The suggested system significantly improves plant performance in extreme situations. In general. including the choice of architecture. SH1 and SH2 are the superheaters and RH is the reheater between the high and low pressure sections. Here. the fuel and the fluid that undergoes the thermodynamic transformations. The success of predictive approaches is mostly related to the fact that they can include constraints and measurable disturbances in their formulation.1. based on frequency decoupling. Pe. The structure of the classical control. 7. referring to the most recent research studies in the field. correcting its actions. Pt. They are characterised by a multitude of possible configurations. oil or pulverised coal. according to the adopted thermodynamic cycle. In this class of power plant. The power load must be adjusted to the instantaneous requests of the grid. operating on gas. The evaporation pressure. to keep the thermal energy stored in the evaporator within acceptable margins.3). The MIMO system acts in parallel with the traditional one. The temperatures at the outlet of SH2 (TsH2) and RH (TRH). the design of a multivariable controller for a once-through boiler will be described in section 7. have been traditionally preferred for their simple and reliable operation. such requirements are fulfilled by controlling relevant thermal variables in the plant. Their typical structure is sketched in Figure 7. A state space model predictive control technique has been adopted. and the choice of the control framework. Attemperators are used for the control of the steam temperature. The emphasis will be put on multivariable techniques based on predictive control theory. . the control system is required to guarantee the correct operation of the whole process. Plants with a water-steam Rankine cycle.Multivariable power plant control 181 be provided. where sudden changes of the power load occur.4. Notwithstanding that the newest generation units are built on the basis of modern designs such as the combined cycle. with the highest possible thermodynamic efficiency. dealing effectively with the presence of measurable disturbances such as the power request. and to the latest developments in the industrial realm (section 7. the hottest zones of the plant. A variety of multivariable control configurations and techniques will be discussed. 2003). Plant durability and safety must also be guaranteed (Moelbak and Mortensen.2 Classical control of thermal power plants Thermal power plants represent the majority of electricity generation units worldwide. modelling and identification of the plant. namely: • • • The electric load. Finally. will also be introduced. The relevance of methodological aspects will be emphasised. The design process must be based on a rigorous approach.

This configuration allows the fast tracking of the power requests and the prevention of potentially dangerous situations. such changes affect the pressure at the turbine inlet and in the boiler... This task is achieved by acting on the governor valve at the turbine inlet. in once-through boilers a direct measure of the water content is not possible. When critical conditions occur. the turbine-following mode . the turbine power output must be promptly controlled. through a fast-acting loop. Moreover. it is preferred to restore the pressure level to a defined value in the fastest possible way.182 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Intercept valve . Moreover.. the control system is in boiler-following mode.. the load is controlled with a fast loop acting on the turbine governor valve. the coordination between boiler and turbine following modes is implemented. it is preferred to keep the pressure proportional to the load. the pressure is restored with an action on the governor valve. To chimney . Turbine following mode is an alternative method that secures plant safety. While in drum boilers the water level (yw) can be regulated.. 9 Furnice q ~ Feeding valv Turbines Combustion chamber ~ Feed pump Hopper. Here. or modifying the heat released to the generator.. A control concept that fulfils this requirement is known as boiler following mode (Hagedorn and Klefenz). In some cases.1 Schemeof the plant The mass of water in the evaporator.Water/steam main path Feed pump .. During normal operation. Here the pressure set-point is allowed to slide within a range of admissible values. both in steady-state and transient conditions. using a sliding pressure mode. the resulting pressure changes are minimised by the modulation of the fuel-air system in the combustion chamber. the control of some related variable is carried out.. the feedforward action of the power load on the fuel system anticipates any load variation and reduces pressure fluctuations. resulting in smoother turbine operation and simpler plant startup.. The load demand is met by acting on the fuel-air system. In a large class of plant. Combustion gases path Figure 7.. Here. In both cases... To meet the energy demand of the grid. For this reason. In order to preserve the amount of thermal energy stored in the plant.

The control scheme is represented in Figure 7. and the inertia of the metal masses. Briefly. The dynamics of the boiler and SH1. SH2 and RH are strongly interacting. 2003). Consequently. Steam temperatures are controlled to avoid excessive heating of the metal pipes. The narrow bandwidth control of TRH is based on the modification of the heat distribution in the furnace by means of burner position. the problem of controlling their temperatures is intrinsically multivariable. at constant pressure. g.Pt Pt° Setpoint ~ ~ ~ Pressure controller Evaporation Pt pressure Figure 7.2 The coordinated control boiler/turbine is selected. the temperature at the SH2 outlet is often controlled by acting on the attemperator placed downstream of SHI. limits the steam mass flow when the pressure exceeds a security threshold. The water content of once-through boilers is instead determined by the nature of the evaporation process and is strongly coupled with the pressure dynamics.Multivariable power plant control 183 Setpoint Powerload controller I Power Pe load -~ g wt ° \ Steammass flow required g / Fuel/air required /. In power plants with a drum boiler. because of the way hot gases are distributed in the combustion chamber. the distribution of the hot exhaust gases or their recirculation. This control is characterised by significant delays because of the propagation time of steam in the exchanger. Pt° . the water contained in the steam generator can be represented by the water level. The . A non-linear deadband element. Its control is provided by acting on the mass flow of feeding water Ww. and eliminate poor performance when temperatures are too low.2. A solution by means of SISO techniques is carried out by introducing decoupling methods based on feedback loops with different bandwidths and feedforward compensation (Moelbak and Mortensen. The regulation of the temperature at the RH downstream is performed by the attemperator only in emergency situations.

A second. As highlighted in section 7. To minimise interactions.3 Multivariable control strategies Generally. say. plant interactions are no longer compensated by the control system when sudden and significant changes of the power demand are observed. and when startup and shutdown are safety-compliant procedures. This condition is satisfied in normal operation.184 Thermal power plant simulation and control pe° Set-point ~'-P~ower Pe load Pt° Set-point EvaporationPt pressure Wt ° CVp Steammass flow required ~_(~ Ww ° itWatermassflow required ~o ~ Set-point Evaporation temperatureor enthalpy Figure 7.3) is then based on frequency decoupling. In any case. slow loop that comprises the regulator C~ introduces a correction of the fuel-air mass flow to adjust ~. the process interactions limit the speed of the control action. In order to avoid the overshoot of temperatures and pressures._# Wc Wa o.1.3 C¢ ~ ~. Significant oscillation of the thermal variables occur. The control signal is provided by the control system C ~ which provides the regulation of power load and boiler pressure. and to improve the load-following characteristics of the control system. the pressure is controlled by acting simultaneously on the fuel-air and the water feed systems. multi-SISO control systems based on frequency decoupling are characterised by satisfactory performance when load variations are smooth and small. The adopted control solution (Figure 7. 7. In most systems. o Fuel and air mass flow required Decoupling of the pressure and load controls with the regulation of water content control of the water content is achieved by indirectly regulating the enthalpy or the temperature (denoted by. ~) in the proximity of the evaporator outlet. ~ is the temperature difference across the attemperator. where the load demand profile does not change suddenly. with an impact on the thermal stress of metal parts. variations in the schemes . while in others it is simply the temperature at the superheater output.

7-{oo techniques are used by Zhao et al. 7... There are a number of reasons to adopt MBPC in the power plant context: • the inclusion of several constraints such as limits on the operability of actuators. Since the appearance of the first contribution on MBPC in 1976 (Richalet et al. Many alternative control configurations and methods. hybrid supervision systems (Garcia et al. the adopted solution is based on the STAR® multivariable predictive control system by . Other studies have been devoted to the adoption of solutions based on fuzzy logic (Ben Abdennour and Lee. ABB Simcon is among the companies that expressly cite the advantages of MIMO controls applied to thermal plant..2 have been suggested and adopted on existing plant. 1995). Klefenz and Krieger (1992) suggested a control system that introduces a delay change to the load set-point. coupling sets a trade-off between load-tracking needs and the reduction of thermal stresses. Information on the introduction of multivariable solutions dealing with coupling is scarce due to intellectual property issues.). 1998.9. At Hitachi (see Takita et al. which modifies the control system set-points in order to achieve smoother evolution of the thermal variables. 1994) and CAD/CAE environments (Bolis et al. With the same intent. for an updated outline of MBPC approaches). The design of innovative control solutions has recently been promoted by several industries that build thermal power plants. In particular. A description of these solutions is also provided by Moelbak and Mortensen (2003). Optimal and robust control techniques (LQG.3. the possibility of dealing easily with the compensation of measurable disturbances such as the power needs of the grid. Clearly. ~ / / z ) have been adopted by Hangstrup (1998) and Mortensen et al. Lausterer and Kallina (1994) introduced a model-based estimator of the load margin. have also been suggested by researchers in academic institutions. 1999) predictive control and dynamic advanced parallel systems are applied to improve operability. The control structure adopted in these works is of extreme interest. 1996. (1998). For instance. allowing optimised use of the energy stored in the boiler. • . admissible ranges on the thermodynamic variables imposed to guarantee safe operation.Multivariable power plant control 185 presented in section 7. based on modem techniques. The efforts of the industrial community have been directed in part to the development of intelligent load-tracking systems that limit the effect of coupling. genetic algorithms (Dimeo and Lee.1 M o d e l b a s e d predictive control Particular attention has been devoted to the study of designs that include model based predictive control (MBPC) algorithms. the area of model predictive control has been enriched by many valuable techniques (see Qin and Badgwell. (1999) in a coal-fired power plant. Modem configurations like those developed by Toshiba or Siemens have improved supervisory systems based on the most recent advances in the field of distributed control systems and communication protocols. 1995). since it addresses the presence of a built-in classical regulation system. 1996).

1998) exploited an artificial neural network.186 • Thermal power plant simulation and control the fact that MBPC has a tradition of success in the realm of thermochemical processes.2.g. A different proposed solution (Prasad et al. (1999) base their multivariable model predictive controller on estimation of states and plant parameters on-line with an extended Kalman filter. The first possibility is to act on the set-points of the classical control.4. depending on which control variables are chosen.e. the algorithm adapts to the nonlinear behaviour of the plant. Different techniques have been adopted in recent years. The control variables are denoted as u. leading to improved control trends. Two different possible configurations can be defined. . 7. i. added to the control input variables of the plant. The schemes of the two architectures. the boiler pressure and the turbine inlet temperature can be considered as controlled variables of the enlarged plant.2 The design process The introduction of a multivariable control system for a power plant requires a MIMO structure added to the existing multi-SISO regulations.1 The implementation of a MIMO control over an existing multi-SISO control configuration can be carried out by considering that the new. The control architecture 7. the power load and the temperature at RH) are not outputs of the enlarged plant. multivariable system is required to modify the dynamic behaviour of an enlarged plant that unites the plant components and the various feedback loops of the classic regulation system. the synthesis and identification of a model of the plant and existing control system.. The controlled variables of the enlarged plant are a subset of the outputs of the power generation unit. the existing PID-based regulation system is upgraded with a multivariable algorithm that modifies the PID's set-points. In this way. named from now on controlled reference value (CRV) and control action correction (CAC). Oluwande and Boucher (1999) illustrate the implementation of MBPC for pressure and temperature control on a coal-fired power plant.3. three activities can be identified: • • • the definition of the control architecture. Prasad et al. To achieve this objective. Both configurations have been successfully implemented in the past. are sketched in Figure 7. while Um is the control variable of the multivariable controller. For instance.3. Here. whereas an alternative is to inject a correction signal. as part of the optimising control algorithm. In the figure. the interactions of the MIMO controller with the conventional system. All other outputs that are regulated by a classical controller but not by multivariable controllers (e. the selection of the control framework and its application. y is the controlled output vector and y° the corresponding reference value.

. .. L1 I i . . . Their approach was put into operation on a Japanese power plant in 1978.. After more than ten years of operation (Nakamura and Uchida. . Nakamura and Akaike (1981) introduced a variant of CAC. . The approach was later implemented at several other Japanese power plants owned by the Kyushu Electric Power Company. ... . control action correction A configuration similar to CRV has been adopted by Ordys and Grimble (1996) to optimise the control of a combined cycle turbine power plant. . ... . . .. .. and a remarkable reduction of thermal stresses was experienced.. . . Structures based on the CAC architecture have also been adopted. Multivariable control yO Ig m En]arge-d. ... ... the optimising controller was still in operation without any readjustment of its control parameters.. . . . .. [ rowerplant ' ! i y. b Figure 7.. . . . .. based on a multivariable state space linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) predictive controller. ... ..Multivariable power plant control 187 r En-large-d-plant . Also. ~ Multivariable control Classical I u I nrowerptant [ t• control I 1 _ _ IIiI I ' . . .. . . Hangstrup (1998) and Mortensen et al. . . ... A non-linear simulation model was used for the design and test of the final control scheme. . .. .. . . Y i. 1989). . . . recognising the benefits of combining a conventional control system with an optimising multivariable strategy. plant _ [ Classical I .. . This was possible despite the modifications of the power plant dynamics due to ageing and subsequent maintenance operations.. . . (1998) have designed a CAC-based multivariable control system for the control of steam pressure and temperature of a 85 MW ... .... t . .. . . . . ..... . Oluwande and Boucher (1999) use a CRV structure to synthesise a MPC controller for a coal power plant. .... ....4 MIMO control architectures a b controlled reference value. ... . .. . .I _ 1 ~ ~ I ~ .

around a specified equilibrium point. (1999) for the implementation of a multivariable control system that replaces the pre-existing controllers. such .g. Also. to apply methods based on the blackbox identification of a multivariable model from available data sets generated from the simulator. linearisation is more difficult. 7.2. The availability of a plant simulator extremely simplifies the work of the control designer. designed by Poncia and Bittanti (2001). Usually. Physical-based models derived from thermodynamic governing equations allow the designer to better understand the plant dynamics. Symbolic manipulation or numerical methods are usually applied. The black-box identification procedure has several advantages. e. In the multivariable case. The design cycle time is reduced significantly. Moving Average with eXogenous input (ARMAX). in these cases. Such models are linear for most implementations. Models identified by prediction error methods (PEM) are based on external representations such as Auto Regressive with eXogenous input (ARX) or Auto Regressive.3.188 Thermal power plant simulation and control coal-fired power plant boiler (see also Moelbak and Mortensen. The results obtained show a significant improvement of the control system performance.4. the simulator can be used to extract the reduced order model needed for the implementation of the control algorithm. once the data set has been extracted from the simulator. The details will be discussed in section 7. when the CRV or CAC architectures are adopted: • • • the speed of execution. Physical-based models describe the process non-linearities. Indeed. Dymola and gPROMS. since expensive and time-consuming testing in the field can be avoided. their structure and parameterisation can be related to the geometric and physical characteristics of the plant. It is preferable. the training data set can be obtained directly from the enlarged plant.2 Identification of a model for control A reduced order model of the plant is usually included in optimal control algorithms. The choice of a specific control algorithm imposes the model structure that needs to be implemented. based on MBPC. When the control architecture includes SISO feedback control loops. The linearisation of model equations has been adopted. for instance. This process can be carried out automatically by resorting to specific modelling tools. via a set of experiments that can be carried out without shutting down the plant. by Prasad et al. providing accurate simulation of the plant behaviour over a wide range of operating conditions. This procedure is indeed complicated for a multivariable system with a high number of state variables. this can be achieved by linearising the non-linear equations to obtain a set of state space linear relations. the availability of several well-assessed identification tools. since alternative configurations can be tested rapidly and with no impact on the plant. especially when the system is characterised by implicit relations. 2003). CAC is also the structure of the control system.

An effective way of estimating state space models from data is provided by subspace model identification (SMI) methods (Viberg.3. 7. Data preprocessing: All data need to be depolarised and normalised. and precise requirements in terms of the allowable range of the thermodynamic variables is also imposed. and choose algorithms that include the compensation for measurable disturbances and the presence of constraints.3. In SMI methods this step is part of the identification algorithm. As observed in section 7. The appropriate order of the system can be visually or automatically extracted from data. Identification: The parameters are estimated from data. Consequently. The identification procedure must consider the following steps: • Experiment design: The system (the simulator or the enlarged plant) is excited around a steady operating condition for a given interval of time. this class of plant shows strong coupling between the pressure dynamics. . since the information on the dynamics is contained in a limited number of parameters.2. Generally. its objectives and constraints. This is particularly important in power plants.2 was used for the development of the multivariable control system of a conventional power plant with a once-through boiler (Poncia and Bittanti. The designer might look for a solution that is more focused on optimal performance rather than robustness. SMI methods lead to reliable models with reduced computational effort when the number of states.4 An application: MBPC control of a 320 M W oil-fired plant The design methodology discussed in section 7. a representation based on a state space model is often preferable. 2001). • • • • 7. in order to assure the effectiveness of the identification. In order to deal with high-order MIMO systems. The possibility of comparing several different techniques by means of simulation greatly simplifies the decision process. Validation: The model performance is confirmed by carrying out a comparison with unseen sets of data. Lovera. since actuators can saturate.Multivariable power plant control 189 models contain a very large number of parameters.2. Finally. inputs and outputs is high. the water content in the boiler and the temperature at the turbine inlet. 1998).3 Control framework The choice of an appropriate control technique is necessarily influenced by the nature of the problem. 1995. The input must excite the plant in order to reveal the plant dynamics. their estimation and the selection of the model complexity are affected by an excessive computational load and numerical errors. Choice of complexity: The model complexity is chosen based on defined criteria. the need for real-time operation and smooth transition from MIMO to multi-SISO control cannot be neglected.

derived from first principles equations (Bottinelli and Facchetti. and takes advantage of SMI identification techniques.190 Thermal power plant simulation and control Power Pe loadset-point AWl ~ P~ Set-po~ Set'p°intl [ ~ ~ Multivariable controller AWw# Fuel feed adjustment 1 # Plant with classical regulation adjustment I Water feed l at SH 2 outlet Temperature T~H2 {EvaporPttion pressure Figure 7. are the result of two contributions. . which is obtained by comparing the actual pressure with their reference values p~ and temperature T'°SH2"Additional contributions. the unconstrained case was chosen since. It includes a coordinated control structure. owned by ENEL S. Its state space formulation needs only a small number of parameters of the associated linear plant model. the safety boundaries imposed on the thermal variables were never reached. is measured and used for compensation purposes. Giovanni and Rossano Calabro.5 The multivariable control system structure The type of plant considered is oil-fuelled. belong to this category.p. Giovanni plant. The MPC algorithm described by Ricker (1990) was adopted here. the electric power demand. imposed by the multivariable controller (wf and W#w)are added. A classical control system was added to build a model of the enlarged plant. Also. The Italian plants of Castel S. The main control variables of the plant.. Moreover. A complete simulator of the plant dynamics was built on the basis of a nonlinear model. All other variables are regulated # by means of the pre-existing SISO loops. namely the requests for fuel and water flow rates. The proposed multivariable structure (Figure 7. the classical regulation was good enough to avoid the saturation of the control variables. control of the temperature at SH1 by means of an attemperator plus a slow control via modulation of the fuel feeding system.A. Pe. The temperature of RH is regulated by changing the mass flow of the recirculating gases in the furnace. The simulator was validated with data from the Castel S.5) is based on the CAC architecture. 1996). in the considered plant. One is the control signal decided by the classical control law. Also. and generates 320 MW at maximum load. feedforward actions that anticipate load changes.

The matrices A. the pressure Pt to 170MPa. The input/output vectors. .1 Model identification via subspace methods 191 A linear low-complexity model of the plant was designed by adopting a SMI method. Specifically.Multivariable power plant control 7. one could identify the convergence of the controlled variables to their reference values at steady-state. B. the regulated variables are equal to their respective set-point at steady-state (in the absence of unsteady disturbances). 1998) was used. B and C of the original model can be reconstructed from A*. is identified instead of the enlarged plant. All data were depolarised and normalised. the original identification problem is reformulated by defining a new output vector. On the basis of the simulated sequences. The system with input u(k) and the new output y* (k). An additional data series (step identification data). The identification was carried out by setting: • • steady-state condition of interest. whereas the corrections of water w # and fuel w~ mass flows. such that y*(k) = z y(k). and C of A. denoted by y* (k). the algorithm provides the estimated matrices . In this specific case. Since all the SISO classical controls have integral action. represented by the matrices A*.4. the value n = 10 was found. Z--1 where z is the time shift operator. 1994.1 per cent of the nominal value. The data set to be used for identification purposes. due to the presence of the integral action of classical controllers. y(k) ~- [~Pt STsH2]t. The identification algorithm also provides an estimation of the optimal system order. All inputs are pseudo random binary sequences (PRBSs) with range of variability q. and the load w request Pe are input variables. the pressure Pt and the temperature TSH2 constitute the output vector. and the temperatures TSH2 and TRH both to 813 K. the power load Pe was set to 290MW. and C. by performing a singular value analysis (Verhaegen. Specifically. B* and C*. In this way. Therefore. Lovera. the innovation model identification problem (Verhaegen. B* and C*: A= [a* C* 001 B: [B*] C=[C* -I]. 1994). Finally. where 8 ( ) are the normalised fluctuations of the variables. consisting of the system step response. A distinctive feature of this system is that all gains are zero.4. the identification of the reduced order model was performed by resorting to SMI techniques. in the neighbourhood of a preset operating condition. namely: A u(k) = [gw#w gw~ 3Pc]'. °. was also used for identification. In the identification procedure.

variation i i i i i ~ p i i 0.y o ~). with an impact on the control system performance. a linear model cannot correctly represent the plant within a wide range of admissible loads.000 Figure 7. since the power plant dynamics are intrinsically non-linear. On the other hand. Usually.6-7. the plant was linearised assuming that the plant operates at full load (320 MW) most of the time.8). Such errors can be reduced with a sound choice of the reference set used for identification. Simulations carried out with the identified system show very good performance for the identification and validation data sets (see Figures 7.01 . and that the controller can compensate for a . variation i i r i i i i 0.01 I I I t I I I I I 2000 - 4000 Time (s) Simulator 6000 8000 Identified linear model 10.01 o -0. Consequently. In the present case. performance can be further improved by adopting gain-scheduling solutions that incorporate models linearised at different operating conditions. The choice of the operating condition influences the identification of the linear model.6 Performance of the identified reduced order model: PRBS identification data The model was finally validated on the basis of a third sequence (PRBS validation data). not used for identification.192 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Evaporatorpressure. Linearisation errors are therefore introduced when the load differs significantly from the chosen reference value. for the identification of a linear model around different set-point configurations is not required for control purposes. the control set-points of temperatures and pressures are seldom changed during plant operation.Ol I I I I I I I I I SH2outlet temperature. generated by exciting the process with a new PRBS sequence. Remark. When needed.

000 Identified linear model Figure 7.004 L t I t I 0 4000 -- 8000 Simulator 12. varialion 0.000 20. variation 0.000 Time(s) 16.005 193 o -0. variation 0." step identification data Evaporator pressure.8 Performance of the identified reduced order model: PRBS validation data .01 o ~). 7 Performance of the identified reduced order model.01 0 200 - 4000 Simulator 6000 Time (s) 8000 10.01 I t I I t SH2 outlet temperature. variation 0.Multivariable power plant control Evaporator pressure.01 ~ o ~0.000 24.004 o ~).000 12.005 I I I I I SH2 outlet temperature.000 Identified linear model Figure 7.

1). v represents the set of measured disturbances. The matrices of the controller. control horizon c ----2. Bc. The optimal controller is the solution of an optimisation problem. B and C.4. expressed in terms of the control increment Aum. since a greater prediction of the future error is possible.y and #u. Ac. and on the horizons n and c and the w e i g h t s l/.5 0. Cc and Dc depend on the model matrices A. all contained in the state xc(k) and input uc(k) vectors (Ricker. was adopted: prediction horizon n = 15. r(k) is the reference value and ~(k + i Ik) is the predictor based on the observations y(k) and v(k). The tuning of the controller can be completed by choosing the prediction horizons n and c and the weights #y and/L u in (7. i time steps ahead. the identification has been carried out at the intermediate condition of 90 per cent load (about 290 MW). the unconstrained case of the algorithm presented by Ricker (1990) was chosen. 7. based on a rough evaluation of the closed-loop performance.4.5].(k)Aum(k + ilk) (7. In (7. The control algorithm is based on a state space model of the enlarged plant with structure x(k + 1) = Ax(k) + Bmum(k) + Bvv(k) + Bww(k) + Bzz(k) y(~) = Cx(k) where urn is the vector of control variables. The following parameterisation. . a state space model for the controller can be found.5 1. the measured signals y(k) and v(k). This cost function is a weighted sum of the error between the reference and predicted value of the output upton steps ahead starting from k + 1 (the so-called prediction horizon) and the control effort upto c steps ahead (the control horizon). In the absence of constraints.2 Implementation and evaluation of the controller As discussed. This choice was made on the basis of the following observations: • The increment of the prediction horizon n usually allows better performance.~(k + ilk)]'#y(k)[r(k + i) .3].~(k ÷ ilk)] i=1 c +Z i=1 Aum(k + ilk)'lx. where the cost function n J = Z [ r ( k ÷ i) . and the reference value r(k).1).1) is minimised. output weight # y : diag[0.1. Its state space formulation allowed the use of the model identified in section 7. For this reason. 1990). input weight /t u = diag[0. and w and z the unmeasured disturbances. Its output Yc(k) = um(k) is a function of the state prediction.194 Thermal power plant simulation and control sudden drop of 20 per cent.

by choosing values high enough to avoid the saturation of the actuators. In order to achieve good performance. in the unconstrained case the controller solution is computed off-line. saturation does not occur when control constraints are included. the selection of #u must be carried out conservatively. When the control problem is formulated without constraints on the control variables. • R e m a r k . On the other hand. This is due to the fact that the classical regulation of temperature is slow and largely responsible for the overall performance. Conversely. The main drawback of this option is that the resulting control algorithm is much slower.000 Figure 7. so t h a t / t u can have a lower magnitude. #u should not be too high. c and #u influence the strength of the control action. Moreover. since an optimisation problem needs to be solved at every control step. to avoid the excessive penalisation of the control action.0 MBPC 4000 8000 Time (s) 12.000 classical . it has been seen that high values of c induce undesired oscillations of the control variables.Multivariable power plant control 195 • The weight on the temperature control error must be high. leading to faster on-line operation. 320 electric load 178 evaporatorpressure 300 2 280 174 ~ 170 260 820 SH2 outlet temperature 166 830 RH outlet temperature 810 a: 810 790 802 0 4000 8000 Time (s) -12.9 Comparisonbetween MBPC and classical control responding to sudden changes of the power load: simulation of the controlled variables .

000 4000 8000 12. in the isolated grid case).000 Time (s) Air flow rate (kg/s) 280: 14 0 4000 8000 12.196 Thermal power plant simulation and control Attemperator valve at SH] Turbine valve 0.000 Time (s) Pump (rpm) 3400 18 Time (s) Fuel flow rate (kg/s) 3200 16 3000 0 4000 8000 12.g. starting from the reference condition: • starting from Pe = 290 MW.000 Classical . . This test replicates the critical situation that occurs when an unexpected change of Pe takes place (e.000 Time (s) Recirculation gas flow rate (kg/s) 80 250 40 60 220 4000 8000 -12. a positive step of 25 MW is imposed.5 0.MBPC 4000 8000 12.000 Time (s) Time (s) Figure 7.8 0.10 Comparison between MBPC and classical control responding to sudden changes of the power load: simulation of the variables used to control the plant performance The control system was evaluated by simulating a sudden step change of the load request.6 4000 8000 12. A set of three large step changes were imposed on Pe.

The simulation results (Figure 7. in rejecting the disturbance Pe.6 168. Step changes occur at every 4000 s.9) show that the multivariable controller performs much better than the classical one. finally. Indeed.5 0 MW is simulated. the steady-state condition is reached in a shorter interval of time for Pe and TSH2.10).4 RH outlet temperature 817 815 814 815 813 813 4000 Time (s) ~ MBPC 8000 Figure 7. The evaluation of the control signals indicates a negligible change in the magnitude of the input signals. a change o f . and the overshoot observed for the classical controller is significantly reduced. The convergence of the pressure and the two temperatures TSH2 and TRH to their respective references is faster.11 Classical and MBPC control performance: a ramp change of Pe • • then.8 168. In other words. a +25 MW step is generated. . after settling to the steady-state condition. The MIMO controller eliminates the first case and greatly reduces the second. In this case. The sudden and ample change of Pt introduces unwanted behaviourin the enlarged plant. such as the initial overshoot of the pressure and the occurrence of sizeable oscillation of the temperatures (particularly Tsnt ). the correction signals introduced by the optimising algorithm are indeed small. passing from the classical to the multivariable solution (Figure 7.8000 Classical 168.Multivariable power plant control Electric load 320 Evaporator pressure 170 197 ~" 310 300 290 / SH 2 outlet temperature 0 4000 Time (s) . One significant accomplishment achieved with the new controller is the possible use of theattemperator at the SHI downstream only to manage emergencies.

To conclude. the control weight /*u and the component of the error weight /£y related to TSH2. 15 in Figure 7. Trends have been observed for changes in the prediction horizon n. .11. The simulations refer to the normalised values of the controlled variables when a step change of the disturbance Pe is imposed on the identified model.12-7.10 it is shown that this attemperator can be kept closed when the MIMO controller is active. Finally. and high/*u leads to a degradation of performance due to the penalisation of the control action. the evaluation of the sensitivity of the control performance to changes in the MBPC's parameterisation provides guidelines for controller tuning.198 Thermal power plant simulation and control PressurePt IncreasingN -0. a ramp change of the load request (from 290 to 300 MW at a velocity of 10 kW/s) was imposed.04 Increasing N 0 0 ".14). a further set of simulations is shown in Figure 7. it can be observed that a stronger weighting of the error on TSH2 leads to significantly improved behaviour. . simulating a slow transition from one regime to a new one.12 Controller tuning: change of the prediction horizon N = 2 . the multivariable control provides a performance improvement. Short prediction horizons n cause significant oscillation of the responses to step variations of Pe. This analysis confirms the assumptions originally made. denoted as #yT (Figures 7. since efficiency losses and the risk of having water droplets in the turbine are avoided.7 2000 Time (s) ". with negligible changes in the controlled pressure dynamics. . To further evaluate the behaviour of the new control system. . . This particular aspect could be beneficial.7 ~ 4000 Figure 7. Here.2 Temperature TSH 2 0. Again.

. . 1.1 Increasing/~y o n TSH2 i I 0 2000 Time (s) 4000 Figure 7." change of the control weight/Zu = 0. .13 Controller tuning. . .1 . .1 TSFI2 I i 0 2000 Time (s) 4000 Figure 7.14 Controllertuning: change of the error weight/Zy r = 0. .1 . .0 Pressure Pt asilg.2 I h i Temperature 0. 5.Multivariable power plant control Pressure Pt 199 -0.2 I I i Temperature TSH2 0.0 .yonTs~2 -0.

The synthesis of the reduced order models that will be incorporated in the control algorithm. and a multivariable solution corrects it. Solutions that replace the classical multi-SISO configuration have not found application in the industrial realm. Both architectures consist of a multivariable controller that corrects the action of a traditional regulation system. attention is mainly devoted to structures where the classical regulation is kept in operation. The development of a non-linear model of the power plant. It can be observed that: • • • The application of the multivariable solution allows a reduction of thermal stresses and pressure oscillations when extreme conditions are encountered. used for simulation and verification purposes. Also. • 7. Model based predictive control strategies have been demonstrated to be effective and reliable for the control of many chemical and thermal processes. alternatively controlled reference value or control action correction. Amplitudes of the control variables are also reduced. thus diminishing the stress and effort of the actuators. which involve: • The choice of the control architecture. in order to improve the trajectories of the thermodynamic variables. The models can be identified from simulation or experimental data in a fast and reliable way by applying state space identification techniques. mainly because of the diffidence towards systems that revolutionise well-assessed technologies and design procedures. the traditional regulation devices guarantee safe operation of the plant. The model is validated against experimental data from the real plant.5 Conclusions The application of multivariable techniques to the control of fossil fuel power plants has been discussed in this chapter. according to the design specifications.6 Acknowledgements The author is gratefully indebted to Professor Antonio de Marco for being a guide and mentor during his time at the Politecnico di Milano. The controller synthesis and verification over the operating range of the plant. . For this reason. The design process is achieved in a sequence of steps. the results suggest the possibility of eliminating the temperature control by attemperation. many thanks to Professor Sergio Bittanti for his constant support and advice. • • • • The benefits of the introduction of a control action correction multivariable controller based on state space MBPC have been illustrated by presenting an application to a simulated 320 MW oil-fired plant. The improved control system is conceived in such a way that when the multivariable controller is disconnected.200 Thermal power plant simulation and control 7. Moreover. a solution that generates efficiency losses and increases the possibility of damage in the turbine.

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G. 74. pp. A. Tahoe..: 'Recent technical developments in thermal power station supervisory and control systems'. Automatica. 1999. and HOGG. 63-7 OLUWANDE. and HOGG. J. L. 1999 ORDYS.. 1999. pp. T. Hitachi Review. Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. CA. 61-74 VIBERG. SWIDENBANK. (11). and PAPON. 29. pp.. R. Germany. pp. LI..: 'Subspace-based methods for the identification of linear time-invariant systems'. 'Ascona. 1119-67 RICKER. T. J. Industrial Engineering Chemical Results. M. pp. CACHE and AIChE Chemical Process Control-V. 5. 1118-30 PRASAD. G. TAFT.: 'A multivariable dynamic performance predictive control with application to power generation plants'. 232-56 QIN. J. pp. M. and TAKEI. B. H. 1998. and BOUCHER. E.: 'An overview of nonlinear model predictive control applications. (2). M.: 'Identifcation of the deterministic part of MIMO state space models given in innovations form from input-output data'.. number 93. (12). Proceedings of the Nonlinear MPC Workshop. 4631-6 PRASAD. and AKAIKE. and BITTANTI. 12.202 Thermalpower plant simulation and control NAKAMURA.. (1). and BADGWELL. H.. 33-8 OLUWANDE. 2001. (7). S. A. RAULT. San Francisco. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. FUKAI. (2).: 'Optimal regulation for thermal power plants'. Computing and Control Engineering Journal. 9. Automatica.: 'Plant-wide physical model-based control for a thermal power plant'.. W. pp.: 'Algorithmic control of industrial processes'. pp.. G. 30. Proceedings of the European Control Conference ECC'99. pp. 176-82 QIN.: 'Statistical identification for optimal control of supercritical thermal power plants'.. TAKAHASHI. A. 1994.. International Journal of Control. G. 9. IRWIN. 1981. W. H. and BENTSMAN. 425-46 . USA.: 'Implementation of a mutivariable model-based predictive controller for superheater steam temeprature and pressure control on a large coal-fired power plant'. pp. (5). G. 1989. B. 1998 RICHALET. IEEE Control Systems Magazine. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control. and BADGWELL. 1995. M. and UCHIDA. (1). 31.. S. 13. 1976. S. Karlsruhe. SWIDENBANK... M. E.: 'Multivariable model predictive control of a thermal power plant with built-in classical regulation'. Automatica.. 143-55 NAKAMURA.: 'An overview of industrial model predictive control technology'. A.. 1835-51 ZHAO. AIChE Symposium Series 316. T.. H. L. Switzerland. pp.. 374-82 TAKITA. C... S.: 'Robust controller design for simultaneous control of throttle pressure and megawatt output in a power plant unit.: 'Model predictive control with state estimation'.: 'Exploitation of advanced control techniques in power generation'. Proceedings of the 4th IFAC Symposium on Identification and System Parameter Estimation. 1999. 1990. TESTUD. 1996. 1996 PONCIA. (1). G. and GRIMBLE. 48. pp. 17. 2001. J. N. Proceedings of the IFAC World Congress.: 'A neural net model-based multivariable long-range predictive control strategy applied in thermal power plant control'. pp. 267-72 VERHAEGEN.

optimisation and supervision .Part 3 Monitoring.

the load-following capability of a FFPU may also be improved by enhancing the control system strategy. etc. 1991). and regulations on reduced environmental impact.Chapter 8 Extending plant load-following capabilities R.1 Introduction The current operating environment of a fossil fuel power unit (FFPU) is characterised by many needs and requirements. The major courses of action that have been undertaken to facilitate wide-range load-following operation with improved performance include upgrading the physical components of the power unit and the control system (Miller and Sterud. at constant voltage and at constant frequency (Elgerd. Such an approach has proved its value during normal operation maintained at base load. have to be fulfilled (Divakaruni and Touchton. and seasonal cycles. such as minimisation of load tracking error. (Garduno-Ramirez and Lee. where plant characteristics become almost constant. Nevertheless. Moreover. most FFPU control systems consist of multiloop configurations based on conventional PID controllers. Effective participation of a FFPU in load-following duties requires the ability to undertake large variations in the power being generated in the form of daily. In addition. weekly. First. which inherently lead to conflicting operational and control situations. minimisation of fuel consumption and heat rate. 1971). nearly linear and weakly coupled. Currently. as well as random fluctuations about those patterns. 2001a). minimisation of pollutant emissions. 1985). a FFPU must support the main objective of the power system. under load-following conditions the traditional control . stringent requirements on conservation and life extension of major equipment. This context may be synthesised as an essential requirement for a FFPU to achieve optimal and robust wide-range load-following operation under multiple operation objectives. Since wide-range operation imposes strong physical demands on the unit equipment. Garduno-Ramirez and K. competition among utilities and other market driven forces has increased the usage of FFPUs in load-following duties (Armor. which is to meet the load demand for electric power at all times. maximisation of duty life. 1989).Y Lee 8.

The FF control is generated via non-linear programming to provide optimised performance. several simulationbased studies have explored FF/FB schemes using different approaches. With the aim of having a better distribution of the control tasks. That is. feedforward control actions are issued before the deviations occur in the measured variables.3 shows through simulation experiments how typical control systems based on conventional PI controllers fall short in providing satisfactory wide-range load-following operation. but not setpoint tracking.4 justifies the need for a hybrid feedforward and feedback control scheme and introduces the corresponding . The FB law is synthesised by the H~-based structured singular value approach to achieve the desired stability and performance robustness. The FF control provides a predictive command input. The combined action of both controllers yields fast response and steady-state accuracy. Weng and Ray (1997) report a wide-range robust controller for a steam power plant.206 Thermal power plant simulation and control schemes. designed and tuned for regulation and disturbance rejection. This situation makes the traditional control structures less acceptable for wide-range load-following operation. and long time constants and time delays. while the existing closed-loop feedback control is now only used to compensate for uncertainties and unknown disturbances around the commanded unit load demand trajectory. the proposed open-loop reference feedforward control is used to improve the manoeuvrability of the power unit. A control approach that has found its way into practical application to achieve wide-range operation at power plants is a combination of feedforward and feedback (FF/FB) controls. Section 8. the main idea of a FF/FB scheme is to complement the feedback controllers with feedforward control actions to compensate in a predictive way for known large and frequent disturbances. based on the required performance and a simplified steam generator model. or for changes in steam pressure resulting from the boiler transient conditions. so that better response to load and set-point changes can be achieved. In general.2 provides descriptions of the overall operation and the qualitative dynamics of a FFPU as a way to establish the most general operational requirements to be satisfied by the control system. The required process knowledge is extracted from a set of input--output data patterns directly measured at the power unit during normal operation. The feedforward controller is implemented as a set of multiple-input-single-output fuzzy systems whose inference rules are determined through a supervised neural learning procedure (Garduno-Ramirez and Lee. the load-following capability of a fossil fuel power unit is enhanced by augmenting the existing control system with a multivariable feedforward control strategy. 2000). In addition. (1997) present a FF/FB scheme for a nuclear steam generator. The feedforward controller is designed as a process knowledge-based controller that approximates the static behaviour of the power unit through its whole operation range. with the feedback control action providing the necessary adjustments for the control valve non-linearities. which are tuned optimally by a genetic algorithm technique. The FB control path shows a PI-based multiloop configuration with cross-coupling gains. In this chapter. Zhao et al. In Uram (1977) the feedforward power reference is modified by the output of a PI controller that is driven by the difference between the power reference and the power feedback. Section 8. Section 8. may decrease the global performance of the power unit because its non-linear process dynamics vary with the point of operation.

Consequently. On the other hand. All those energy conversion processes are rather complex and show very complex relationships among them. connection and disconnection of individual loads cause random fluctuations about these patterns. long-term frequency stability analysis. steam flow into the turbine. However. and the effect of fuel flow variations on the generated power are in the order of minutes. air flow. steam throttle pressure. Accordingly. From the power system perspective the overall input-output behaviour of a FFPU has noteworthy relevance. 1997). perhaps different from the nominal value. which in turn is considerably affected by the fuel and steam flows. and reheater outlet temperature) (Maffezzoni. drum water level. it is always trying to match power generation with the load in what is known as the load-frequency problem.5 presents a detailed specification of the feedforward controller as a knowledge-based system to be implemented as a set of fuzzy systems. the power system never really operates in steady-state. superheater outlet temperature. 1994). section 8. Thus. The electric power in a drum-type FFPU is the resultant of a series of energy conversion processes within the unit. FFPUs participating in load-frequency control are always subject to changing load demands and load disturbances as part of their normal operation regime (Dunlop and Ewart. but greatly impacts on the drum level.8 summarises this work and concludes that the results demonstrate the practical feasibility of the proposed feedforward control approach to achieve effective wide-range load-following operation. Electric power and steam pressure are tightly coupled and are affected heavily by the fuel/air flow and the steam flow. Feedwater flow slightly affects power and pressure. and spray flows into the superheater and reheater) and outputs (electric power. it should be produced as needed by the consumers. could be in a time frame of several to tens of minutes. On one hand. and seasonal cylical patterns.6 describes the design of the proposed fuzzy systems using a neurofuzzy paradigm. Section 8. Since there are no practical means to store large quantities of electric energy. Finally. 8. the essential overall dynamics may be described in terms of the major inputs (fuel flow. Therefore. in addition. Then. 1975). the dynamics of FFPUs are considered a major factor in frequency stability analysis (Kundur. the spray flows have a minor effect on power and .7 presents a specific realisation of the neurofuzzy systems and their application for wide-range load-following operation. the main boiler dynamics are relatively slow: steam pressure and temperature oscillations.2 Power unit requirements for wide-range operation A power system is intended to supply the electric power demanded by the consumers in a reliable form with high quality characteristics. section 8. which allows automating the design process for the multivariable knowledge-based feedforward control. weekly. Section 8. any FFPU participating in load-frequency control duties should be equipped with control systems that take into account the long-term overall input-output dynamic behaviour of the unit.Extending plant load-followingcapabilities 207 control system configuration for the FFPU. feedwater flow. Similarly. The total system load is not under direct control and follows daily. which assumes that all electromechanical oscillations have died out and that the system is operating at constant frequency.

the open-loop behaviour determines the input-output pairing to form the feedback control loops. and the throttle valve to maintain the steam pressure.1 shows the simulation response to a step change in the steam valve with the fuel and feedwater valves kept constant. but greatly affect the heat exchanger outlet temperatures. and power. Similarly. while the drum level continually decreases. while pressure decreases to a new value and the level keeps decreasing. which are heavily influenced by the fuel flow. suggests these as the primary variables to consider to achieve wide-range operation. Furthermore. In both cases. Figure 8. steam. with the steam and feedwater valves at a fixed position.208 Thermal power plant simulation and control pressure. This will disturb the drum water level and heat exchanger outlet temperatures. Power increases and then decays back close to its original value. From these tests. Spray flows and temperatures can be used for further improvement. a fast response to load variations may be attained using the throttle valve to control power output and the fuel valve to regulate the steam pressure. Consequently. In summary. which may then be manipulated with the feedwater and spray flows. pressure and water level as outputs. fuel and steam flow may be used to drive the unit to the desired values of power and pressure. this chapter concentrates on the former situation. The interaction between fuel. Power output i 80 Throttle pressure 102~ ~ 98 ~ I Drum level ~ 1 0 0 0 ~ ~-100 I 0 500 1000 Time (s) 1500 2000 Figure 8. the drum level has to be regulated to balance plant operation. Both throttle pressure and power increase to a new fixed higher value.2 shows the response to a step in the fuel valve.1 Open-loop response to a step in steam valve position . Conversely. fuel flow should be used to control power output. it can be seen that for short-term purposes. Figure 8. for long-term purposes. and feedwater flows as inputs.

and the set-point for the pressure control loop. while keeping the turbine from exceeding the energy provided by the boiler. u 1. the coordinated control (CC) scheme constitutes the uppermost layer of the control system. the set-point for the power control loop. is obtained from the unit load demand through a non-linear power-pressure mapping. the turbo-generator is allowed to draw upon the energy stored in the boiler. Ed. from the measured . Euld.Extending plant load-following capabilities 209 Power output i g 80 Throttle pressure . To achieve stability. In coordinated boiler-following mode (Figure 8. To attain a fast response. 1988). 1 0 2 ~ 100 a~ 98 200. the load controller generates the demand to the steam throttle valve. E. the CC governs the dominant behaviour of the power unit through the power and steam pressure control loops. the CC provides set-points to both control loops. Pd. while the pressure controller generates the demand to the fuel/air valves. hannonising the slow response of the boiler with the faster response of the turbine-generator. from the unit load demand. Typically. and the measured generated power. Ordinarily. the boiler control adjusts the fuel firing rate according to the required load.1 Conventional power unit control Conventional coordinated control In fossil fuel power units. there are two possible CC modes: coordinated boiler-following mode and coordinated turbinefollowing mode (Landis and Wulfsohn. Drum level -20 I o 500 1000 Time (s) 1500 2000 Figure 8. The CC is responsible for driving the boiler-turbine-generator set as a single entity. Given a unit load demand. to achieve fast and stable unit response during load tracking manoeuvres and load disturbances.2 Open-loopresponse to a step in fuel valve position 8. is equal to the unit load demand.3 8. Euld.3). u2. Depending on how the controlled and manipulated variables are paired.3. which is said to implement the operating policy of the unit.

the CC scheme in a FFPU consists of a decentralised multiloop configuration of single-input-singleoutput feedback control loops evaluating conventional PI or PID algorithms. and the pressure set-point. Pd. As for most control systems in the process industries. and increases only linearly with the number of control variables (i. Based on the unit step responses shown in the previous section. decentralised PID control has a long record of satisfactory performance. and its reliability in the case of actuator or sensor failure. which is easy to understand and to implement. P. the load controller generates the demand for the fuel/air valves. its effectiveness to regulate a process under random load disturbances around a fixed operating point is proven daily all over the world. u2. Despite its simple structure. while the demand to the throttle valve.3 Coordinated boiler-following control scheme throttle pressure. Pd. while the turbine-following CC should be chosen to achieve long-term process optimisation objectives. P.e. u l. The main reason for this is the relatively simple structure of the control system. the boiler-following CC should be preferred for fast transient response. E. which could make it relatively easy to manually stabilise a system when only one loop is directly affected. Euld. 3n tuning parameters for a control system with n control loops). and the pressure set-point.In coordinated turbine-following mode (Figure 8. from the unit load demand. is calculated from the measured throttle steam pressure. . the number of tuning parameters is relatively small. In addition.210 Thermal power plant simulation and control Pressure "]_ mapping ) Pd Pressure controller Combustion controller ) Steam r ' ~ I /1 1 u 2 ~ Load controller Euld %+ --1 / E © Figure 8.4). and the measured generated power.

steam . The results obtained are later used as reference for comparison and to evaluate the performance of the CC augmented with the knowledge-based feedforward control. and are left fixed thereafter.Extending plant load-following capabilities 211 Pressure mapping 1 q I Pressure controller Combustion controller P Steam B Fuel Air u2 E Euld Pd Load controller L (3 i Figure 8. This approach works well for process regulation about the operating point used for tuning.2. Consequently. which thus provides a feasible solution to the optimal wide-range requirements of FFPUs (Garduno-Ramirez and Lee.e. In the subsections that follow the drawbacks of a typical CC. the controller parameters are tuned at some predefined operating point (i. considered as a PID-based multiloop control system. However.e. as illustrated in section 8. 8. i. base load) assuming nearly constant load conditions. power.2 Control loop interaction and tuning The main difficulty for decentralised control of multivariable processes is that of control loop interaction due to the coupling dynamics between the process inputs and outputs.4 Coordinatedturbine-following control scheme Normally. are shown through simulation experiments.3. The effects of control loop interaction for the same FFPU were observed through the closed-loop response to step changes in the set-points. strong physical demands that are detrimental to the unit duty life may be imposed on the plant equipment. The performance of the power unit may decrease due to the non-linear and interactive dynamics of the process that change with operating conditions. current requirements demanding wide-range operation of FFPUs challenge this approach. 2001 b). through the open-loop control valve step responses.

10 + 65MW (8.65 Pd -..7-8. Certainly. This fact is shown by Figures 8.5. In the case of FFPUs there are several practical considerations that prevent the utilisation of step responses. which normally requires the tightest control for either tracking or regulation. which may adversely affect the physical condition of the plant equipment. Figure 8. Second in importance is the interaction between the power loop and the pressure output. satisfactory step responses are an indicator of good control performance.1) which implements a typical sliding-pressure operating policy. As can be seen from the graphs in Figure 8. Pressure set-point tracking is poor.9 for the previously described . The power output is required to increase from 80MW (half load) to 90MW in 150 s. ramp responses provide the same amount of information about the system. The inverse situation is also interesting. Finally.E u l d 1 8 0 . P = 100kg/cm 2. be used in the rest of this chapter to exhibit the behaviour of the system solely in simulation experiments. Now. particularly at the end of the ramp with a large overshoot and settling time. for which tight regulation is not usually required provided that the magnitude of the oscillations about the zero level is kept within safe limits. These results demonstrate that controller tuning based on step responses does not imply good load-tracking performance.212 Thermal power plant simulation and control pressure. 1996). The oscillations in the water level are fine and the control activity is again acceptable. or even a stable response. Results show that the strongest and most significant interaction is from the pressure control loop to the power output. ramp responses are preferred.. do not necessarily provide a good step response. for the case of non-linear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. the interactions between the level control loop to the power and pressure outputs are both relatively small and are usually a minor concern. which is a major concern for wide-range operation. the ramp response of the FFPU is investigated for a low ramp-up loading manoeuvre using the same controller parameters as in the step-response test. and L = 0mm.6. defined by E = 80 MW. Controllers tuned to achieve excellent ramp response. All tests were carried out starting from an operating point at half-load. which would normally be considered a straight forward test. which previously provided excellent step responses. the pressure set-point is obtained from the unit load demand through the mapping: 150 . but its control activity is excellent. Most control systems of all kinds are usually assessed using this approach.5 per cent per minute. Unfortunately. with an excellent low control activity. however. which is a fairly common practice in CC schemes (Ben-Abdennour and Lee. that is a 6. or level set-point. the power set-point tracking is adequate. under the understanding that these tests are not recommended to be carried out in practice. subject to wide-range reference-tracking operation requirements the above is not sufficient to guarantee good performance. Accordingly. Step responses will. Strictly speaking. Next are the interactions between the power and pressure control loops to the level output. The controllers were tuned to achieve an almost critically damped response in all loops.25 per cent power set-point change at a rate of 2.

but with the controller parameters retuned to improve the ramp response.8 0.4~ 0..6 ~' 0.6 .8 0.8~ 0. the load-following capabilities of a FFPU may be enhanced by augmenting the existing control system with a multivariable feedforward control .__.4 Feedforward/feedback control strategy As will be shown shortly.2 0 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 f 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 o -10 -20 Figure 8.6~ 0.4 0.2~ 0[ 50 100 150 Time (s) Pressure response 200 250 300 b 0 50 100 150 Time(s) Steam valve demand 1 86 84 82 80 200 250 300 107 106 ~-.5 Ramp load tracking with step-tuned controller parameters step response tests. 105 104 ~ 103 ~" 102 ~-~ 101 100 99 0.Extending plant load-following capabilities Power response 92 90 88 213 Fuel valve demand 0.-/ 0. 8.2 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 d 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 Level response 20 1 Feedwater valve demand 10 E 0.4 0..

214 Thermalpower plant simulation and control 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 Power response Fuel valvedemand j 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 b Pressure response 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 d Level response 0.6 Ramp load tracking with ramp-tuned controller parameters strategy. both changes in the reference signals and measurable .2 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 f 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 Figure 8. a feedforward control action takes advantage of the available information about external events affecting the FFPU operation before the action of the feedback control takes place. while the existing closed-loop feedback control is now mainly used to compensate for uncertainties and unknown disturbances. In general.6 O.4 -10 -20 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.8 0. the feedforward control is mainly used to improve the manoeuvrability of the power unit along any arbitrary load demand profile.8 0.2 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Feedwater valvedemand 1 20 10 0.6 0. With the aim of obtaining a better distribution of the control tasks. 250 300 0 50 160 150 260 Time (s) Steam valve demand 1 107 106 105 104 ~ 103 102 ~7 101 100 ! 99 0. In this way.

5 99 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time (s) 0.8 ~.4 o.6 0.6 0. since the major interest of this chapter is on load-following e n h a n c e m e n t through wide-range unit load d e m a n d tracking. 100 1~0 200 250 300 Time (s) Pressure response b 0 50 1.4 0.5 80 79. Nevertheless.5 lO0 @ 99.4 0. only open-loop reference feedforward control actions will be considered.0 1.5 1 215 Fuel valve demand 81 80.0 Time (s) Steam valve demand 300 101 1 100.0 2.81 k ~.0. 0. The compensation of control loop interaction as measurable disturbances is out of the scope of the work reported here. 7 Response to step in power set-point with ramp-tuned parameters disturbances can be effectively compensated by feedforward actions. .2 0 i 0 d 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time (s) Level response 20 1 Feedwater valve demand 10 E E 0 -10 -20 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time (s) 0.5 50 0.0 2.8 0. but can be found in Garduno-Ramirez and Lee (2002).2 o! 50 f 100 150 200 250 300 Time (s) Figure 8.Extending plant load-following capabilities Power response 81.

0.10.0 2. (8.6 "-~ 0. Y(s) = Yd(s).1 Response to step in pressure set-point with ramp-tuned parameters Motivation for feedforward/feedback control The initial idea for the proposed FF/FB scheme comes from the two degrees of freedom single-input-single-output linear control system shown in Figure 8. Hence.0 250 300 Time (s) Feedwater valve demand 1 Level response 1000 500 o 0. may be achieved if Gff(s) = [Gp(s)] -1. 0.216 Thermal power plant simulation and control Power response Fuel valve demand 300 200 ~" 100 ~ o -200 -300 .0.O 2. that is.8 8.0 300 Time (s) Steam valve demand Pressure response ll0 1 i 105 0.2 5'0 l. where the output to set-point transfer function is given by: Y (s) = [I + Gp(s)Gfb(S)] -1 [Vp(s)Gff(s) + Gp(s)Gfb(S)] Yd(s).j 50 100 50 100 0. ~ ~ 0. ~-100 0 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 b 0 50 l.4 lOO ~ 95 90 0 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 0.4 0.O 1.4. in the absence of uncertainty and disturbances.20.4.8 ~.0 2.8. if the transfer function in the feedforward control path is equal to the inverse process transfer function.8 ~.6 e~ -500 -1000 -1500 0 e 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 f 0.O l.2) Perfect reference tracking.6 0.2 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Figure 8. .

6 i 4 2 0 -2 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 0.10 Reference feedforward/feedbackcontrolconfiguration .~ Gfo(s) Figure8.8 ~& 0.4 0.6 ~. e~ 0.2 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Level response 8 1 Feedwater valve demand 6 E 0.5 100 ~ 99.2 50 f 100 e 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Figure 8.Extending plant load-following capabilities 217 Power response 81 1 Fuel valve demand 80.6 0. 0.8 0.8 0.2 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Pressure response 101 l Steam valve demand 100.4 ! 0.5 99 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 ~.5 ~.4 ~2 79. 80 0.9 Response to step in level set-point with ramp-tuned parameters t Gff(s) rd(s) [ Ue(s) Urd~) + Gp(s) --~ +.5 79 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 0.

there is still a need for a plant model valid throughout the plant operation space. Difficulties with feedforward include: • • • Compensation of load disturbances requires on-line measurements. since it is based on inputoutput measurements. The measured data represents the actual plant characteristics. the design of the FF control may be automated using machine-learning techniques. Advantages of feedback include: • Regardless of the source and type of disturbance. Nevertheless. Limitations of feedback include: • • • Corrective actions are not issued until after a deviation in the measured variable is detected. Perhaps the greatest disadvantage of this approach for real implementation is its dependence on the accuracy of the process model. and its inverse cannot be guaranteed to exist. feedforward and feedback control complement each other. and unmeasured disturbances. Nevertheless. if known. 1999). Feedback may not be satisfactory in systems with long time constants or long time delays. In general. A model of the process is required and the quality of the feedforward action depends on the accuracy obtained. corrective action occurs as soon as the plant output deviates from the set-point. Feedforward actions are meant to perform fast corrections due to changes in the reference value and known disturbances. To overcome this problem FF control is introduced as a knowledge-based system that solves the inverse kinematics model of the FFPU as determined by steady-state input-output data. The inverse model often contains pure derivatives that cannot be realised in practice in a feedforward controller. which is a particularly difficult issue for FFPUs (Ghezelayagh and Lee. and let the FB control path compensate for uncertainty when tracking any unit load demand profile. Gfb(S). and statistical data may be used to increase the accuracy of the approximation. in any application the drawbacks and advantages of both feedforward and feedback must be taken into account. the requirements on the FF control Gff(s) can be lessened to only approximate the plant inverse dynamics. Hence. which are not always feasible. However. Feedback cannot compensate for known disturbances in a predictive way.218 Thermal power plant simulation and control perfect tracking may be attained without the feedback control path. The key advantage of this approach is that the inverse steady-state model always exists. A FFPU is a large complex system for which Gp(s). the ideal FF/FB strategy with Gff(s) = [Gp(s)] -1 is inadequate to attain wide-range operation. . In addition. is only valid around a single operating point. while feedback provides corrective actions on a slower time-scale to compensate for inaccuracies in the process model. measurement errors. nor to be causal should it exist.

steam. that is to improve manoeuvrability for load-following tasks. as required by the scope of the control actions that need to be coordinated to achieve wide-range operation. since the process can be sustained by the feedforward control action. the purpose of the feedforward controller is to facilitate widerange set-point driven operation. Advantages of feedforward include: • • A fast corrective action can be made in a predictive way if the disturbance can be measured. with set-points. Note that compared to a typical coordinated control system. which provide the feedforward control signals for the fuel. Replace faulty sensors on-line without stopping the plant or switching to manual operation. Avoid plant trips and shutdowns due to faulty measurements that will disable a feedback control loop. Ed. To achieve an open design.2 Feedforward/feedback control scheme As mentioned before.4. Thus. the inclusion of the drum water level control loop enables unit internal balance required . as inputs. u3ff. and drum level.11). Yd. the feedforward controller is built on knowledge about the actual operation of the FFPU. Applied in a control system for a power plant. In this way. and the feedforward control signals.12). Ld. a structure is proposed for the feedforward controller which can be easily and systematically expanded or contracted. For the reasons stated in the previous section. uff. u2ff. pressure. one for each feedforward control signal being generated. Achieve wide-range process optimisation along optimal static operating points. Facilitate manual to automatic mode transfers since the feedback controllers should be initialised while the feedforward action controls the process. ulff. supplied with the set-point signals of all the control loops considered for coordination to provide a single feedforward control signal. as outputs (Figure 8. the feedforward controller is proposed as an open-loop non-linear MIMO compensator in the form of a nonlinear multivariable mapping that implements the inverse static model of the FFPU. feedforward may help to: • • • • • Deal with time delays mainly encountered in temperature control loops. 8.Extending plant load-following capabilities 219 • A model of the process does not need to be perfectly known. valid across the whole operating range of the FFPU. each subsystem implements a non-linear MISO mapping. Approximations to ideal pure derivatives often provide effective control. compensation can be made for model inaccuracies and dynamics not modelled. the feedforward controller consists of three MISO subsystems. control valves. Pd. in terms of the power. and feedwater. To do so. For the case study in this chapter. The design of the feedforward controller is obtained off-line by fitting a set of input-output data patterns measured directly at the plant. setpoints (Figure 8. a multivariable feedforward controller is proposed which consists of several independent multiple-input single-output (MISO) mapping subsystems.

.................. mapping ) (u3ff) Feedwater valve Feedforward controller MISO submodules for wide-range operation.~...................... / i / ....11 Feedforwardcontroller design Poweroutput (Ed) Wide-range MISO \ mapping J (uiff) Fuelvalve Pressure Wide-range MISO mapping (u2ff) Steamvalve # Wide-range ~] MISO Drum level Figure 8.............. but its use is preferred for overall process optimisation purposes rather than for extending the load-following capabilities of a FFPU.............12 (Ld) \.........220 Thermalpower plant simulation and control _ ... .. ............................2. in accordance with the process behaviour explained in section 8.......... ... ........ controller i designer ~--....: YO I Multivariable inversestatic v l FFPUmodel +u U _I rl Fossil-fuel powerunit Y fb I Feedback control Figure 8..... The main steam temperature control loop could also be embraced...... .. Feedforward ..

. the learning procedure takes into account the properties of the associated fuzzy system. 8. and r = 1. thus being equivalently called a neurofuzzy system to reflect its dual nature. . . There are currently several methods available to synthesise a neurofuzzy system. in a systematic and automated way. In this work.1 Knowledge-based feedforward control Neurofuzzy paradigm Each MISO subsystem of the feedforward controller is a knowledge-based fuzzy system that is designed as an artificial neural network through a neural learning procedure. First. determined by a series of procedural statements and an inference mechanism that mimics the human knowledge processing capabilities during reasoning. 2 . Then. the components of the fuzzy system are determined using a neural-network learning algorithm. 2 .5 8. Regarding the format of the procedural knowledge rules. constraining the possible modifications to the system parameters. the learning procedure can be initialised by specifying the components of a fuzzy system that are to be enhanced based on the provided data.5. THEN u r is U r (8. R. 1997). The neurofuzzy paradigm is intended to synthesise the advantages of both fuzzy systems and neural networks in a complementary way that overcomes their disadvantages. The learning procedure is a data-driven process that operates on local information.2 TSK-type f u z z y systems In essence. Since the neurofuzzy structure is always a fuzzy system at each stage of the learning process. The resulting neurofuzzy system may approximate a usually unknown function that is partially defined by a set of input-output data. NEFCON (Nauck and Kruse. a neural network is used to represent the parallel-processing nature of a fuzzy system.Extending plant load-following capabilities 221 8. through the general-purpose adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) technique (Jang. In Mamdani type systems both the antecedent and the consequent of the knowledge rules are fuzzy propositions. including GARIC (Berenji and Khedkar. 1993). . are the system inputs. causing only local modifications in the underlying fuzzy system. The knowledge rules of the neurofuzzy system represent the relationships within the given data in a high-level abstract way. 1994). 1985). facilitating subsequent application.. . n. 1999). the knowledge rules are of the form: IF xl is X~ and . In Mamdani fuzzy systems. a fuzzy system establishes an input-output non-linear mapping. 1994). . for i = 1. . and Xn is X~. In addition. . U r is an output fuzzy set. which are individually synthesised. . ANFIS (Jang. the fuzzy systems may be classified into two types: Mamdani fuzzy systems and Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy systems (Wang. u r is the rule output. FuNe (Halgamuge and Glesner. . and X r are fuzzy sets. is the rule number index. 1993) using steady-state input-output process data. the neurofuzzy MISO subsystems for the feedforward controller are fuzzy systems of the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type (Takagi and Sugeno. 1992).3) where the xi.5. and Neurofuzzy (Ghezelayagh and Lee.

given the actual input values. They allow the representation of complex non-linear mappings through simple linear relations. Ld. and the coefficients. of the TSK fuzzy system is a weighted average of the individual rule outputs: U _ Zr wrur (8. FISU2. Xn. and feedwater. the rule output is calculated as a linear function of the inputs: IF Xl is X~ and .. in terms of the power. as defined by the inference mechanism of the TSK system. by a piecewise linear function. the approximated output value is obtained by interpolating the combination of two or more relations in the rule consequents. FISU2. . To do so. X 1 X X 2 x • "" × X n ~ R. Then. THEN u ~ = c~ + crlxl + ' " + crxn (8. ulff.6) In general. Given input values xl. and x. For first-order systems. control valves. determine the MISO neurofuzzy systems FISU1. set-points. u2ff. [Ul u2 u3.12. the TSK fuzzy systems are a combination of fuzzy and non-fuzzy models that integrate qualitative knowledge representations with precise quantitative data expressions. pressure. is calculated as the product of the input membership values: n 11)r = H # x r (Xi). The feedforward controller design problem may be stated as: given a set of steady-state input-output patterns.3 Fuzzy feedforward controller So far. the total output. The rule antecedents define a decomposition of the input space into a set of overlapping partitions.4) where crare constants. the feedforward controller consists of three MISO neurofuzzy systems: FISU I. the appropriate linear functions needed for the approximation. and FISU3. The major advantage of TSK fuzzy systems is their ability to act as universal approximators. c~. the ANFIS method adjusts the membership functions. E P L]. u. steam. 8. Ed.. The knowledge rules establish an approximation of a non-linear input-output mapping. and level.222 Thermal power plant simulation and control In TSK fuzzy systems. and the consequent is a crisp relation. the antecedent of the knowledge rules is a fuzzy proposition. and implement a switching function that selects. u3ff. LX{. The ANFIS method allows the design of TSK-type fuzzy systems.5) Zr 1Or where each weight w r. as shown in Figure 8. in the consequents of all the rules. Pd. called the degree of fulfilment of the r-th rule. which provide respectively the feedforward control signals for the fuel. with its components refined through a neural learning procedure to fit the input-output behaviour of the fuzzy system. the TSK fuzzy system must be represented as a feedforward neural network. Given arbitrary initial knowledge rules. i=1 (8. • • •.5. is Xr.

[ul u2 u3. are the so-called (normalised) relative rule fulfilment weights: ( wr ) /~r ~_ ~ (8. in the r-th rule. . R is the rule number. E P L]. . Pd. respectively.6) as the product of the input membership values as: w r = IZLE~(Ed) × lZLPS(Pd) × lZLLrd(Ld) (8. and c6. LP~. For each rule.11) Z r = l //)r . FISU2. u3ff]. LPS. R. and IZLL~(') are the membership functions corresponding to the linguistic terms LE~. . are the rule fulfilment degrees or weights. c~. U 2 f f ] . for r = 1. and FISU3 should reproduce the sets of patterns: [E P L. . . u3] as [Ea PaLd. The knowledge rules of the fuzzy system have the form: IF: Ed is LErd and Pd is LP[j and Ld is LLrd THEN: u~ff = c6 + CrEEd+ Crppd + C[Ld (8. For a given input pattern [Ed Pd Ld]. once embedded in the feedforward control path. The feedforward controller design problem is solved independently for each fuzzy system using the necessary data from the complete set of steady-state input--output patterns. in the r-th rule. the output of the fuzzy system is given by (8. u2]./*LPS ('). . [E P L.10) where tbr.8) where 1/dr. . . LE o. ul].5) as: R Z r = l //3r Ulff r Ulff -R E r = l tOr (8. respectively. and [Ed Pd La. . . R.('). so without loss of generality and to simplify the presentation. [Ed Pd Ld. 2 . its fulfilment degree is calculated from (8. Note that FISU1. respectively. the problem consists of finding out the values of the parameters of the membership functions in the rule antecedents and the coefficients in the rule consequents of the three TSK-type fuzzy systems.7) where r = 1. u~ff is the contribution of the r-th rule to the total output of the fuzzy system. In addition. note that (8.8) can be written as: Ulff = r=l ~ r=l wr U r lff = r----I //) Ulff = r=l -r r Ulff -r (8. and Ld. Ulff]. and LLrd. .9) where #LE~. c~. . 2 . the fuzzy system that generates u lff.2 .Extending plant load-following capabilities 223 and FISU3. hereafter all explanations refer to FISU1. More specifically.. and LL~ are the linguistic r r terms of the input signals Ed. and [E P L. for r = 1. and c~ are the consequent coefficients. All three fuzzy systems in the feedforward controller are of the TSK-type and have similar structures.

(8.e. and high. i. medium. without lose of generality. . Also. . and one neuron in Ls. and L4. To this aim. five-layer feedforward neural network. With these dimensions.13 where. fuzzy sets with bell-shaped membership functions and linguistic terms: low.7).224 Thermal power plant simulation and control 1. .6 8. . the fuzzy system is represented as a three-input. the neural network will have three distribution units in layer L0. for this case a complete knowledge base will have 3 × 3 × 3 = 27 rules of the form given in (8. one-output. for r = consequents: 8.1 Design of neurofuzzy controllers Neural representation of fuzzy controller Each fuzzy system in the feedforward controller is designed using the ANFIS technique. nine neurons in L1. L3. R. the number of EaPd La !ifl Lo Figure 8. as shown in Figure 8.6. 2 . each input signal spans its whole operating range with three overlapping fuzzy regions. Therefore.13 LI L2 L3 L4 Ls[ Neural network structure of feedforward fuzzy controller .12) and fi~ff. can be equivalently called the normalised rule -r -r r Ulff ~//3 Ulff. 27 neurons in L2.

. Neurons in layer L3 calculate the relative rule fulfilment weight for each rule (8.12) and (8. . . . Neurons in layer L4 calculate the normalised output for each rule from (8. . . E1 P1 L l ] . .11). this process can be fully automated using the neurofuzzy paradigm and a low-dimensional fuzzy system will do the job perfectly. This number clearly illustrates the difficulty of tuning a fuzzy system following a trial and error approach. The learning process is achieved iteratively. and ci are the parameters of the bell-shaped output function that define the membership function of a fuzzy set or linguistic term and lyi is the output that corresponds to the degree of membership of the input to the fuzzy set defined in the i-th neuron in L 1. and then the optimal consequent parameters are estimated using a least squares (LS) estimation procedure. bi. . The unique neuron in layer L5 calculates the total system output in (8. . First. the neuron's input and output processing functions are of the form: 1Yi =lgi (x) = 1 + ((x . . . the total number of parameters to be determined is 108 + 27 = 135 per fuzzy system.7).13) where i = 1.ci)/ai) 2bi 1 (8. as will be shown shortly. [a9 b9 c9]} and [ [c~ c 1 c 1 c 1 ] . Then.1/31. Each neuron in layer L1 fuzzifies the incoming input signal using a bell-shaped membership function. [ulg u2M UaM.12) and specified by arbitrary sets of parameters {[al bl Cl] . the input patterns are propagated keeping the antecedent parameters constant.108 consequent parameters.10). with two phases per iteration. ai. . the input patterns are propagated again with the antecedent parameters modified by back-propagation.2 Neurofuzzy controller design Given a set of M steady-state input-output patterns {[u I 1 u21.Extending plant load-following capabilities 225 parameters to determine is calculated as follows: 27 rules × 4 consequent parameters per rule ---. The distribution units in layer L0 route the crisp input signals of the fuzzy system to the neurons in layer L1. Secondly. .2 . .9). [EM PM LM.6. . and an initial MISO TSK fuzzy system defined as in (8. . . and 3 inputs x 3 membership functions per input x 3 parameters per membership function = 27 membership function parameters. . 8. [c27 c 27 c 27 c 27] ] corresponding to the membership functions and the consequent coefficients.7)-(8. ul~t]} corresponding to the inverse static model generating u lff. the design process adjusts the parameters of FISU1 so that it reproduces the set of patterns {[El Pl L1. . respectively. Fortunately. Ull] . EM PM LM]}. . In this layer. . which simply gets worse as the number of input linguistic terms increases. 9 is the neuron number. Neurons in layer L2 calculate the rule fulfilment weight for each rule (8.

2 . and C is 108 x 1. . .16) where U is M x 1. . that is M > 108. .l F /~1 tblE1 /hip1 ~ILI ~1 ColEM ffjlpM (olLM . Let z be any of the a. M is the input--output pattern index. . the consequent parameters are to be estimated using a least squares procedure• Each input-output pattern is related by: 27 Ulffm = Z ~ r(C~ -}-CrEEm -}-crppm +CrLLm) O r=l (8. A least squares solution for C can be computed recursively using: T Ci+l = Ci -~ tlli+lXi+l(Ui+l -. . M . Using a vector representation and considering all M input-output training patterns: -4 4 Ulffl] i_UlffM.18) d2i+1 = tl/i -- tllixi+lXl+ 1tll i 1 + xiT+lOttiXi+l where xi is the i-th row vector of matrix X and u i is the i-th element of vector U. and • is called the covariance matrix. In general the problem of calculating the coefficients in C is overdetermined. .. /b27 tb27E1 tb27p1 tb27L1 tb27 Co27EM Co27pM Co27LM 4 c~z _ c 2~ L (8. At the end of iterations. b or c parameters of any membership function #.226 Thermal power plant simulation and control As briefly outlined.Xl+lCi) (8.1 . The adjustments in the membership function parameters are determined by backpropagation. . X is M x (4)(27) = M x 108.17) (8..15) which adopting appropriate definitions can be written as: u = xc (8.14) where m = 1.. for i = 0. where y is a large positive number. C = CM may have been calculated using all available information in the M input-output patterns.. The initial conditions are Co = 0 and ~0 = Y I.2 . 1.. . and Eio be the usual error measure given by the sum of the squared difference .

~ (8.23) Olz ac - - 2blz(X)2 ( ( X .U l f f ) 2 (8.. uTff.U l f f ) to r (1 -.c ) 2 ) = _ b (8.Extending plant load-following capabilities 227 between the target output. Az.19) Then.21) o r = --Ulff(Ulff _ Ulff)tbr(1 Iz where the final term.24) where X = E..tO r ) /_t _a_ #2 ( ( X .c ) 2 ) ~77 a b (8. the change in parameter z. and the actual output.¢ ) 2 ) a b (8.u l f f tUlff -. Thus.20) through the layers of the neural network yields: AZ : -or OEio OUlff Ow r 0113 O~ r OUlff O~ r qoVd qo~ qoz r .25) Ab = . depends on the specific parameter of the membership function being considered: OIZ - Iz(X)2 ( ( X .to r ) b u Z ( x ) /z Ac = .ulff) t? r (1 .(X) (8. for a single rule after a pattern has been propagated is given by: 0Eio Az = .U l f f [Ulff . P or L depends on the membership function being considered. r l b r ( 1 -. after a pattern has been propagated.20) Oz where tr is an arbitrary learning rate factor. the parameter changes for a single rule.. can be calculated as: O" z * AO = . (8.26) .t ° r ) tOr 0 # f ulujulf = ~r(uTf f - wr _ ~r).Ulff ) tO r (1 -.t~ ~) 2 b # z ( x ) /z X-~c (X .~ Iz OZ OZ (8.22) b-1 0a 0# a 2 a ( ( X a c)2 ) -~-~---b. Olz/Oz.c) 2 a o r i . u lff: Eio = 1 (U~ff -.U lrf f ~Ulf f -.. Successive application of the chain rule to (8.

Next. the control signals will be considered as outputs and the power. the resultant MISO neurofuzzy controllers are presented. Finally. the antecedent parameters remain fixed. to be used as training data. Figure 8. must be defined.1 Realisation of wide-range neurofuzzy controllers The present application requires the realisation of a neurofnzzy feedforward controller under a sliding-pressure operating policy. as well as their shape. First. the effect of the number of membership functions and the number of training epochs on the approximation accuracy of the feedforward controller to the inverse static model of the FFPU is illustrated. the learning process is carried out using the training data set to adjust the membership functions. If the error is reduced in four consecutive steps then increase the learning rate by 10 per cent. the input-output process information to be used to design the knowledgebased feedforward controllers is presented. number of membership functions. Stop if the error is small enough. 8. the range of operation.3 As previously mentioned the learning process is carried out iteratively. then decrease the learning rate by 10 per cent.17) and (8. The information corresponds to a typical sliding-pressure operating policy. with the resultant fuzzy system verified using the test data set. For each input. Second. the consequent parameters remain fixed. subject to a given power-pressure operating policy.7 Wide-range load-following In this section. and to determine the consequent parameters.228 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Learning procedure 8. Propagate all patterns again and update the antecedent parameters by backpropagation using (8. If the direction of error change is unpredictable. Another optional data set can be used as test data after training to evaluate the performance of the learning process. pressure and drum water level deviation will provide the inputs. P.7.25)-(8. and the control . consisting of the following steps: (1) Propagate all patterns from the training set and determine the consequent parameters using the least squares method in (8. During this step. a set of input-output data. needs to be generated or obtained from the process. initial structures for the fuzzy system need to be created.6. Finally. During this step. otherwise repeat from step 1.27). the learning process is incorporated in a three-stage design process. neurofuzzy controllers are implemented and applied to enhance the load-following capabilities of the FFPU. 8. (2) (3) (4) For practical application. First.18).14 shows the data for the pressure. Recalling that since the control objective is to approximate the inverse static behaviour of the FFPU.

.14 Input-output steady-state datafor the sliding-pressure operatingpolicy signals ut.~ 0. The stopping condition may be set in terms of reaching a predefined approximation accuracy. two major decisions have to be made in order to obtain controllers with satisfactory performance. u2. First. for the sliding-pressure operating policy with power. Note that the drum water level deviation L is not shown since.8 & 0.2 I I I I I I I /d 1 o o U2 U3 I I 20 40 60 80 1O0 120 Power (MW) 140 160 180 200 Figure 8. Note that since all three neurofuzzy controllers exhibit similar characteristics. and u3.2 Effect of number of membership functions and training epochs Once the data required to design the neurofuzzy controllers are available. E.4 0. the number of membership functions) to be used to fuzzify the input signals has to be decided. The number of linguistic terms per input not only determines the size of the knowledge base. Whatever is decided. the issue of major interest is the impact on the accuracy of the resulting fuzzy system and its ability to provide an inverse steady-state model of the power unit. at steady-state. as an independent variable. it must be decided how to stop the learning process. or in terms of the execution of a predefined number of training iterations (epochs). the number of linguistic terms (or equivalently. 8. but will also affect the number of parameters to be calculated. 7. Second. In what follows the effect of both the number of linguistic terms and the number of learning iterations on the approximation accuracy is shown.Extending plant load-following capabilities 229 250 ~E 200 150 100 E 50 210 ! i 4'0 i 60 i 8'0 i 100 120 Power (MW) i i 1'~0 i 140 i 180 i 200 ~' 0. only the results for FISU 1 are provided. that is. the number of knowledge rules. it is always zero. and the number of input-output data patterns required for the learning process.6 .

7.. that is... five. it can be seen that very good approximations of the inverse steady-state model of the plant can be obtained with a low-dimensional system (three membership functions) and a small number of training epochs (10 epochs)..1 summarises the approximation performance .16. Table 8. sliding-pressure operation First.230 Thermalpower plant simulation and control . fuzzy representations were also created for FISU2 and FISU3. it will always be preferred to use a low-dimensional system requiring a small number of training iterations if the obtained approximation accuracy is acceptable. typical membership functions for the sliding-pressure operating policy using three membership functions are plotted in Figure 8. By inspection of these results. only the membership functions for the power and pressure inputs are provided since the membership functions of the drum water level deviation are singletons at L = 0. In each case three membership functions and I0 training epochs were considered appropriate.. the non-linearities are quite smooth and continuous.3 Neurofuzzy feedforward controllers Following the same procedure for FISU 1. This is because the non-linear steady-state behaviour of the plant is benign. 8. The importance of the number of training epochs is illustrated for three.''/s'/ 20 40 60 80 100 Power (MW) 120 140 160 180 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Pressure (kg/cm 2) Figure 8.15 FISU1membershipfunctions.j. For each case... the root squared mean error (RSME) of the output approximation is plotted for training during 20 epochs in Figure 8. Ideally.... Note that the same number of linguistic terms is used for all inputs of the neurofuzzy controller.15. Also. and seven input membership functions.

16 RSME for sliding-pressure operation Table 8. Then.5 2 X 1.Extending plant load-following capabilities 231 o 3rnf o o 5mf ~ . where Ed and Pd are the power output and pressure demand set-points. while the membership functions for the drum water level deviation input are singletons at L = 0.1 Approximation accuracy of neurofuzzy controllers (RSME × 106) Output ulff u2ff u3ff RSME ×106 8. FISU2 and FISU3. Figures 8. respectively.19 show the fuzzy inference surfaces over the power-pressure plane for FISU1. The resultant power and pressure membership functions for FISU2 and FISU3 are very similar to the membership functions for FISU1 presented in Figure 8.6003 of each fuzzy system in generating the corresponding steady-state feedforward control signals throughout the FFPU operating range. .~ 7rnf 2. A graphical representation has the advantage that the contours change very little with an increasing number of membership functions.17-8.5 1 0.5 i I J I h I ~ I C2 l~ 13 O I I 2 4 6 8 10 Epochs 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 8.5579 265. Note that each fuzzy system is graphically represented by a fuzzy inference surface. which is a more intuitive representation than the corresponding knowledge base.2692 24.15.

232 Thermal power plant simulation and control 0.4 14~ Pressure demand (Pd) (Ed) Power demand Figure 8.8 ~ 0.6 0. As presented in section 8.4 Wide-range load-following simulation results Incorporation of the three MISO neurofuzzy controllers described in the previous section within the existing decentralised feedback control system of a FFPU creates a multivariable two-degrees-of-freedom control scheme (Figure 8. 0. It was suggested that the feedforward control components provide the main contribution to the control signals and thus support the wide-range set-point tracking duties of the FFPU.18 FISU2 fuzzy inference surface.4. Meanwhile.8 0. 7.6 0.17 FISU1 fuzzy inference surface.2 14q Pressure demand (Pd) (Ed) Power demand Figure 8. the main purpose of the resultant hybrid feedforward-feedback control scheme is to provide a better distribution of the control actions to enhance the load-following capabilities of a FFPU. the feedback control .4. steam valve control 8.20). fuel valve control 0.

6 0.21 shows the ramp response of the FFPU with the addition of the feedforward control.Extending plant load-following capabilities 233 0. the response of the FFPU may improve significantly.4 0. Performance is .19 FISU3 fuzzy inference surface. it is shown that solely with the introduction of the feedforward control. feedwater control value Ed Pa Ld ~' ~ U2 ¢ ff U3ff +~( £ u3 )~- Figure 8.8 0.2 14~ Pressure demand(Pd) (Ed) Powerdemand Figure 8. keeping the feedback settings. First. which used to carry all the control weight. Demonstration of the benefits of the proposed feedforward-feedback control scheme is carried out through simulation experiments.20 Hybrid feedforward/feedback control scheme components. will now provide a smaller contribution to the control signals. which is necessary to compensate for uncertainties and disturbances in the vicinity of the commanded set-point trajectories. Figure 8.

..2 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 ~ Pressure response 106 ~ 104 1 Steam valve demand 0..... The improved performance of the above extends through the entire FFPU operating region.8 0. 0...22 .2.6 0... but without the disadvantage of possibly becoming unstable for steps in the pressure set-point (Figure 8.3...6.~ 7 . Tracking performance of the power and pressure set-points is as good as previously obtained with the ramp-tuned parameters in Figure 8........8 0...4 -10 -2O 0 e 020 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 f 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Figure 8...8)..6 f ff 0... where power is required to ramp from 80 to 90 M W at 4 MW/min under a sliding-pressure operating policy. even under more demanding operating requirements..8 0.... Figure 8...6 ~' 0....4 0.2 100 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 d 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 ~ 102 Level deviationresponse 20 1 Feedwater valve demand 10 0 -b .4 0......21 Ramp response with feedforward/feedback control better than that shown in Figure 8...5 in section 8.234 Thermal power plant simulation and control 92 9O 86 84 82 8O 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 b Power response 1 Fuel valve demand 0.

.6 0. then from base load to 20 M W at the same rate.4 0..2 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) 500 d 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Level deviationresponse Feedwater valve demand " 0 ..2i 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Pressure response 140 120 100 80 60 0 c 20 1 Steam valve demand 0.......6 0. the maximum allowed by American standards).....4 0.. • 0......~ -10 -20 313 0 e 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) 0 f 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Figure 8.6 0........2 0 ..... Again. . for wide-range cyclic operation under a sliding-pressure operating policy. The control activity of all control signals is excellent. the tracking performance of the power and pressure set-points is very good throughout......8 0.Extending plant load-following capabilities Power response 1 150 100 50 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) e~ 235 Fuel valve demand 0. while the oscillations in the drum water level deviation are within very small bounds.8 -ff 0.. using the hybrid feedforward-feedback control scheme..8 0. The power output is required to ramp from half-load (80 MW) to base load (160 MW) at 8 M W / m i n (5 per cent base load/min..22 Wide-rangecyclic response with feedforward/feedback control shows the response of the FFPU. and finally back to half-load.4 0...

6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.-ff 0.4 0.2 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Figure 8. Certainly.8 0. with a collaboration of the feedback control to compensate for the inaccuracies in the inverse static model implemented by the feedforward control.2 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Feedforward and feedback components of steam valve demand 1 0.8 & 0.6 0.23 shows the contributions of both the feedforward (u lff.6 5" 0. u2ff and u3ff) and Feedforward and feedback components of fuel valve demand 1 0.4 0. Figure 8.2 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Feedforward and feedback components of feedwater valvedemand 1 .8 & 0. the improved manoeuvrability of the FFPU is mainly due to the feedforward control action.236 Thermalpower plant simulation and control These results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed control scheme to enhance the load-following capability of a FFPU in a practical and cost-effective way.2 o -0.2 0 -0.23 Feedforward andfeedback contributions to control signalsfor set-point tracking .

Clearly.24 shows the response of the hybrid feedforward/feedback control scheme when an external disturbance affects the pressure control loop.28) (8. The new role played by the feedback controls is to compensate for the inaccuracies in the inverse model implemented by the MIMO feedforward controller.1 16. steam and feedwater valves (u l. only the feedback controls try to compensate for the disturbance.9 11.5 kg/cm 2 magnitude and 5 s duration is imposed on the pressure measurement. To have a better appreciation of this situation. the control effort of both feedforward and feedback controls is quantified by an approximate measure of the control signal power during the cyclic test of the previous paragraph: Puiff -~ Z (uiff(k))2 k Puifb = Z (Uifb(k))2 k (8.2 0. . Regarding the control system. U2fb and U3fb) controls to form the final control signals to the fuel.35 x 10 .2 the feedback (u lfb. where the ratio of the feedback to the feedforward control effort is also provided.662 1. The power and level responses are affected due to the process interactive dynamics.29) where i = 1.307 2.2 Control effort of feedforward and feedback controls Puff Pulb Pufb/ Puff 237 Control signal Fuel valve 779. that is. and k is the sampling number during all the simulation tests. Results are given in Table 8. with the pressure feedback control being the most aggressive. 3. u2 and u3).50 x 10-2 Steam valve 1263.2.2. the feedforward control actions carry out the set-point tracking duties across the FFPU operating range. These and the previous results demonstrate that the proposed feedforward/feedback control scheme provides a very convenient distribution of the control tasks for setpoint tracking and disturbance rejection. A variation in pressure with the form of a pulse of 0. in all cases the feedforward contribution is larger than the feedback contribution.0416 3.29 x 10-5 Feedwater valve 695. as well as for the effects of external disturbances. which in turn enhances the load-following capabilities of the FFPU. Figure 8.Extending plant load-following capabilities Table 8.

..6 0..f o l l o w i n g capabilities..2 | I i i 0 5'0 100 Time (s) Feedforward and feedback components of feedwater valve demand 200 300 Level deviation response 20 1 I0 0 -10 -20 0 e 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 f 0.._.238 Thermal power plant simulation and control Power response 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 1 Feedforward and feedback components of fuel valve demand 0.. Figure 8...............4 0.....2 0 __. T h e resulting f e e d f o r w a r d / f e e d b a c k control . \ 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 ~)...............24 Feedforwardand feedback contributions to control signals for disturbance rejection 8..4-0.............2 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 ..3 /" ..... ..6 0.'...6 o.8 Summary and conclusions This c h a p t e r p r e s e n t e d the d e s i g n o f a k n o w l e d g e ..~ 0.........4 0.............8 0.... t ..2 o ~0..b a s e d f e e d f o r w a r d controller that e x t e n d s the existing f e e d b a c k control s y s t e m o f a fossil fuel p o w e r unit to e n h a n c e its l o a d ........ • ....2 0 ~).8 E 104 102 100 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 . .....2 b f 50 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Pressure response 106 1 Feedforward and feedback components of steam valve demand 0.....8 0... ...

11. (2). while the existing feedback control compensates for uncertainties and unknown disturbances around the commanded trajectories. The feasibility of the proposed knowledge-based feedforward controller to effectively enhance the loadfollowing capabilities of a fossil fuel power unit was demonstrated through simulation experiments. 1-28 . H. 8. A. 8.: 'A decentralized controller design for a power plant using robust local controllers and functional mapping'. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. M. 1992.: 'Fossil power plant automation: issues and future trends'. Proceedings of the ISA/EPRI Joint Controls and Automation Conference.: 'Modernizing fossil power plant controls'. USA. pp. The fuzzy inference systems are implemented as TSK fuzzy systems. K. The reference feedforward control improves the manoeuvrability of the power unit throughout the range of operation. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks. The Pennsylvania State University. the proposed design procedure can be fully automated for on-site design. and KHEDKAR.. Y.. EPRI CS-4723.. R. the Electrical Research Institute (liE-Mexico). 394-400 BERENJI. 459-466 ARMOR.8). pp. S.: Cycling of fossil plants: the key issue for the next 10 years. Proceedings of the 1992 ISA Conference. Furthermore. pp. and any of the TSK fuzzy systems can be easily programmed into the FFPU control system software as a function that evaluates the fuzzy system output formula (8.10 References AHMED. F.: 'Learning and tuning fuzzy logic controllers through reinforcements'. and the National Council for Science and Technology (Conacyt Mexico). which may be represented by a feedforward neural network. M. and TOUCHTON G.Extending plant load-following capabilities 239 scheme allows a better distribution of the control tasks. Tuning of the fuzzy systems is carried out through a supervised neural learning procedure based on a set of input-output data patterns that can be directly measured at the power plant. 3. USA. The MIMO feedforward controller was designed as a set of MISO fuzzy inference systems that approximate the inverse steady-state behaviour of the power unit across the entire operating range. P. 724-740 DIVAKARUNI.9 Acknowledgements This work was supported in part by NSF under grants INT-9605028 and ECS9705105. 1996. This approach makes it feasible to apply the feedforward controller in an actual plant. These features make the proposed feedforward/feedback control approach an economically competitive option to enhance the load-following capabilities of any computer-controlled power plant. 1992. A. and LEE. 1991. Thanks to Mr Rafael Chfivez and Dr Salvador Gonz~ilez for promoting innovative research and development at liE. 1985 BEN-ABDENNOUR. pp. Proceedings of the 1985 Fossil Plant Cycling Conference.

IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. and LEE.: 'Replacement pressure control and superheater bypass valves permit 93% cyclic load cutback at PG&E's 750-MW units at Moss Landing'.: 'Power system stability and control' (Mc-Graw-Hill. 7. and LEE. 1989. pp. H. and WULFSOHN. K. 227-231 HALGAMUGE.. (3). IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. pp. pp. R. Control Engineering Practice.2nd. J.: 'Power plant coordinated-control with wide-range control-loop interaction compensation'. 1993. 1-11 WANG. X. Fuzzy Sets and Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks. (3). Proceedings of the 15th IFAC World Congress. Barcelona.: 'Neuro-fuzzy identifier of a boiler system'. D.. 1638-1643 TAKAGI. K.: 'NEFCON-1: an X-window based simulator for neural fuzzy controllers'. Proceedings IEEE PES Winter Meeting. Part III: The digital steam turbine system'. Englewood Cliffs. 2000. 301-312 MILLER. R. Orlando... paper A77-079-7. I. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. and LEE. Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent System Applications to Power Systems. 1997) .: 'Neural networks in designing fuzzy systems for real world applications'. 5. 665-685 LANDIS. 1988. 19-23 KUNDUR. 1994) MAFFEZZONI.: 'Boiler-turbine dynamics in power plant control'.. L. and GLESNER.: 'Multiobjective optimal power plant operation through coordinate control with pressure set-point scheduling'.. and Cybernetics.: 'Intelligent hybrid coordinated-control of fossil fuel power units'. Y. 1999. 1977.: 'A course in fuzzy systems and control' (Prentice Hall. 217-221 NAUCK. New York. E. Chicago. 1975. Y. Budapest. O.. pp. Spain. pp. (February). 2002 GHEZELAYAGH. 116-132 URAM. R. and SUGENO. 177-182 GARDUNO-RAMIREZ. 115-122 GARDUNO-RAMIREZ. (3). 1971. June 2001b. pp. 15. USA. 94. 15. pp. (2). pp. 16. 1-12 JANG. IEEE Transactions on Systems. Y. R. 1994. 1985. 23. K. Y. GARDUNO-RAMIREZ. pp. pp. Elektron.. H. S. T. 421-426 GARDUNO-RAMIREZ.: 'Computer control in a combined cycle power plant.: 'Electric energy systems theory: an introduction' (Mc-Graw-Hill. New York.. M. July 21-26. 838-849 ELGERD. 1997. Engineering Intelligent Systems. R. Proceedings of the American Power Conference. (4). Y. K. pp. P. IEEE Transactions on Systems. R. and KRUSE. S... R. K. New York.240 Thermal power plant simulation and control DUNLOP. D. R.: 'Wide-range operation of a power unit via feedforward fuzzy control'. 1994. G.: 'ANFIS: adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system'.: 'The control philosophy for a unit control system for co-ordinated operation of a boiler and turbine'. and LEE. 65. and LEE. 2001a. C. Man.. pp. C. R.: 'Fuzzy identification of systems and its applications to modeling and control'. edn.). K. L. M. Man. D. N. and EWART. (1). pp. (4). and Cybernetics.: 'System requirements for dynamic performance and response of generating units'. and STERUD.

: 'Hybrid feedforward and feedback controller design for nuclear steam generators over wide range operation using a genetic algorithm'. 100-105 .. C. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology. and LEE.: 'Robust wide-range control of steam-electric power plants'. R. pp. M. 1997. and RAY. Y. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion.. (1). (1).Extending plant load-following capabilities 241 WENG. 1997. 74-88 ZHAO.. Y. EDWARDS. K. pp. K. 5. 12. A.

and combustion of pulverised coal in large power station boilers accounts for over 50 per cent of total world coal consumption (ETSU.1. Thompson and K. the technology holding the most promise for future reductions in power plant NOx emissions is the introduction of more sophisticated operation and control systems. the driver who 'thinks ahead' and uses the accelerator (gas) and brake pedals sparingly.1 Emissions from coal-fired power stations Around 55 billion tons of coal are produced annually throughout the world. For existing plant. various pollutants are produced. However. Li 9. The analogy is that between two drivers driving the same car.1 Emission reduction methods in pulverised fuel plant During the coal combustion process.Chapter 9 Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant S. 1997). with one driver who 'thinks ahead' and the other who 'just wants to get there as quickly as possible'. From an emission and economic viewpoint to provide power station operators with models that allow them to 'look ahead' and adjust the various controls accordingly produces a win-win situation. . These restrictions will undoubtedly become more stringent. requires that power plants make significant reductions in pollutant emissions. oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulates. 9. such as the UK Environment Protection Act (1992) and the US Clean Air Act Amendment (1990). The purpose of this chapter is to examine and compare various methods of modelling NOx emissions in order to develop operational and control aids. such as oxides of carbon (COx). Over the same route and similar road conditions both drivers are likely to take about the same length of time to complete the journey. will achieve lower emissions. S02 and NOx can cause acid rain and C02 is the most important greenhouse gas held responsible for climate changes. Current legislation. This makes power stations one of the main contributors to global emissions. especially in NOx emissions. better fuel economy and extends the car's useful life. oxides of sulphur (SOx).

or secondary (or flue gas treatment) technologies. This is one of the reasons why advanced operational and control systems in coal-fired boilers (usually pulverised fuel or pf boilers) is so important. 1994). the introduction of sophisticated operation and control systems would first need a compressible set of system models to capture the boiler dynamics under varying operation conditions (Copado et al. Such systems are extensively used throughout the world. Of particular importance is safety and efficient operation of the various burners. 1997.244 Thermal power plant simulation and control Approximately 99 per cent of fly-ash (particulates entering the flue) can be removed by fitting electrostatic precipitators and over 90 per cent of SO2 with the installation of a flue gas desulphurisation plant. Holmes and Mayes. loss of an individual flame can lead to unburned fuel in the boiler and cause accumulation of a potentially explosive fuel/air mixture. Installation of low-NOx burners and implementation of advanced boiler operation and control systems for NOx emission reduction would normally be classified as combustion modification technologies. 1994). 2001. In general. 1997. burner tilt position mill firing patterns. For example. Holmes and Mayes. Holmes and Mayes. During the combustion process in a coal-fired power plant.1. Irregular mill firing patterns can cause instability in the flame ignition plane and affect the process combustion efficiency. However. ETSU. 9. no practical methods exist for reducing NOx to such a degree. The best way to reduce CO2 emissions is to improve power generation efficiency. rather than employing secondary techniques which are relatively expensive. However any change in boiler parameters cannot be made freely. together these oxides of nitrogen are commonly referred to as NOx. Therefore. 1997.. which achieve reduction of NOx formation by limiting the flame temperature or the availability of oxygen in the flame. nitrogen from the coal and air is converted into nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). the parameters that determine the combustion operations include the following: • • • • primary air to coal ratio secondary air distribution for tangentially fired boilers.2 Operational parameters in p f boilers In pulverised fuel boilers.. ETSU. The methods for reducing NOx emissions in coal-fired power plants can be classified as either primary (or combustion modification) based technologies (Copado et al. new pf power generation plants are installed with low-NOx burners. . Although low-NOx burners are usually sufficient to achieve the required target under current legislation.. 2001. ETSU. steam temperature and boiler performance. leading to increased research into this area (Copado et al. it is often at the expense of other important operational parameters such as incomplete combustion. 2001. NOx reduction by adding a reagent such as ammonia or urea into the flue gas is classified as a secondary technique. 1994).

residence time and temperature-time history of furnace gas. changes in heat transfer rates.1. 1995. The requirements for system models in plant operation and control are that they should be simple enough to compute the optimal solutions (subject to given requirements and constraints). Changes in operational inputs. fluid dynamics and NOx generation chemistry).Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 245 9.4 NOx emission models for operation and control NOx formation in coal-fired power plants is a complex process involving various thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic processes within the combustion chamber and complex NOx formation chemistry (De Soete. yet complex enough to accurately capture (under varying operation conditions) the relationship between operational inputs and NOx output. • Unfortunately. Process conditions such as flame ignition characteristics. etc. etc. coal particle size. The first stage is some form of plant modelling in order to capture the plant dynamics. Lockwood and Romo-Millares. 2001. in most coal-fired power plants. which may be broadly classified as shown in Figure 9. available on-line information for NOx emission modelling is limited.1. For an existing plant. Such models attempt to capture the relationship between the plant's operational inputs and the NOx output. Ferretti and Piroddi. many factors influence the overall NOx emission level. Visona and Stanmore.. In the second stage constrained optimisation is performed in order to deduce the optimal operation inputs for minimising the NOx output without decreasing the combustion efficiency. coal blending. 1992. 1996). 9. 1975.1. air to fuel ratios in the devolatilisation and combustion zones. The resulting threedimensional finite element type models can produce accurate models of the overall White-boxmethods • CFD model Figure 9. These include: • • Fuel-related factors such as coal type. NOx emission reduction using operation and control methods consists of two stages.1 Classification of NOx emission models . 1992. etc.3 Emission reduction using operation and control methods Generally speaking. This is reflected in the types of model available for predicting NOx emission. 2001. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models (Lockwood and Romo-Millares. Since the theoretical basis for CFD models is transparent (based on physical and chemical properties) such modelling methods may be classified as white-box methods. 1996) look in detail at the process behaviour (thermodynamics. These values are then presented to the operator (open-loop mode) as the operational references or used to automatically adjust the system inputs (closed-loop mode). Nimmo et al. Visona and Stanmore. Gormley.

1995. 2000) and identification models such as ARX (AutoRegressive model with eXogenenous input) and NARX (non-linear ARX) (Li and Thompson. In CFD modelling the correlations between NOx level with operating conditions are often acquired using a finite element approach that looks in detail at the process behaviour (thermodynamics.. Li and Thompson. However. for another boiler. T.. fluid dynamics and NOx generation chemistry). are available. r is the residence time. ETSU. 1996. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are also called artificial neural systems. (Fluent. 5 and 6 of AEAT technology (Stopford. Ikonen et al.1) where P is the pressure. There are some one. etc. r. increase efficiency. which are interconnected . such as CFX-4. or the 'reaction' or flame temperature. etc. there is the inevitable loss of detail (both internal detail and input/output relationships) and a requirement for experimental data in order to identify unknown parameters. 2001. and require no a priori knowledge (such as the fluid dynamics.and two-dimensional approaches available (Ferretti and Piroddi. 1996). 2001) that are claimed to produce real-time models suitable for use in operation training and for control testing/design. as well as FLUENT of Fluent Inc. thermal dynamics or chemical reactions) of the NOx formation and destruction process. Different boiler types might however use different variables. A neural network is composed of a large number of simple processing units. Results of CFD modelling are often given the general form: [NOx] = f ( P . 1996. However. Black-box models may include static. CFD modelling is now well established as a design tool for burner and furnace design. CFD models are able to predict NO emissions within 10 per cent. The motivation behind their development is originally to mimic. the cognitive information processing of human brains using the structure and functions of the human central nervous system. T is the temperature. It has been widely applied in the power generation industry to help combustion engineers reduce emissions. ) (9. Also. . at least partially. such models are not easily developed and there is an insatiable demand for more computing power and finer meshes. Stopford and Benim. y may become the fraction of primary air in the combustion zone. They are widely used in industry (Henson and Seborg. The other variables are undefined but might include the effects of evaporation and mixing. 1997.. dynamic and recurrent artificial neural network models (Copado et al. Black-box models are built based on experimental data sets or field operation data sets. called artificial neurons or nodes. Irwin et al. Tmight be the 'stoichiometric' temperature. y . Commercial software packages. and y is the fuel-air ratio. 2002. parallel-distributed processors or connectionist models. 2001a). CFD methods have been successfully applied to various types of boilers. 1999). . So. In general. and select fuels.246 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control combustion process and are widely accepted. Sabharwal et al. for NOx control purposes the loss of input/output information can be critical. For these reasons it is arguable that these one. The documentation claims that given well-characterised operating conditions. etc.. 1994).. white-box CFD models are not suitable for real-time operation.and two-dimensional models should be categorised as grey-box methods. . neurocomputers.

Identification models are widely used in process control. however they cannot capture the dynamics of the system embedded in the data samples. the system under study may exhibit properties that change in an unpredictable manner. A model with good generalisation performance requires less retraining. Alternatively. Among various neural network models. neural networks have been widely used in engineering system modelling to map the relations between system variables. etc. and such models are said to have poor generalisation performance. Also. there exist a variety of neural networks. safety and quality considerations often indicate that the duration of field experiments and the intensity of test-signal perturbation must be kept to a minimum. A typical artificial neural network consists of a set of input nodes that are connected to a set of output nodes through a set of hidden nodes. Static neural networks are used to optimise the plant operational conditions. In general black-box models are simple enough for real-time operation and control. Data-dependent identification models may not be able to nest the 'true' system structure. therefore their prediction capacity cannot be guaranteed. That is. B-spline networks. thus forming a multilayered network. As a universal approximator. such models have to be regularly updated as operation conditions change. etc. Consequently. Identification models such as ARX and NARX are time-domain regression models with linear or non-linear terms.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 247 by links called connections. It is argued that for complex engineering systems all available information should be used rather than solely relying on physical modelling or some data-dependent identification approach. neural network models are trained to capture the relation between current NOx output with past operation input samples. Finally recurrent neural networks use both past inputs and outputs to predict current NOx outputs. The linear and non-linear terms in identification models are functions of past system input variables and output variables. such methods may fail to produce physically consistent models from data that is finite and noise corrupted. for operational plants. dynamic neural network models consider past changes in the input data. and have been widely used for process control. or the underlying mechanism of the system is unknown or such knowledge is incomplete. • . On the down side. The reasons for such a 'pragmatic' approach are that: • For physical modelling. Depending on the type of nodes (activation functions) and the type of links. static neural networks map the relations between current NOx output with current inputs. radial basis function networks. multilayer neural networks. In addition. black-box models cannot in general be used to predict outside the range of the training data.e. and are widely implemented in industry. Kohonen networks. i. These nodes are linked together to perform parallel distributed processing in order to solve a desired computational task. the underlying physical and chemical laws of an engineering system (which are generally formulated as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and ordinary differential equations (ODEs)) can sometimes be too complex to build a simplified system model. and various neural network models have been developed to model the NOx emissions. such as Hopfield networks.

The complex hydrocarbon volatiles will experience thermal cracking into simpler compounds or soot before oxidation. In the current study the main NOx reactions are included (where appropriate) but the other gaseous products of combustion are not. This section attempts an overview of this process based on the work of Gormley (2001 ) and Zhu et al. grey-box methods. as indicated. 9. any comparison of modelling methods for emission control should include representative models from each category. in what form. models for the combustion of volatiles and char are required to predict the oxygen available for the NOx reaction. while the heterogeneous oxidation of char will eventually result in an ash residue. Therefore. Depending on bow much and. . 9. leaving a carbon-rich char particle. various grey-box modelling methods can be categorised. 2002. 2001 b. a priori information is used. the volatile components of the coal will evaporate and diffuse into the gas stream. both volatiles and char will undergo combustion. Ideally. ARX model and NARX model). Li et al. In particular. recurrent neural network model. As the particle heats up. in this chapter. can provide a balanced framework that utilises both a priori knowledge regarding the NOx formation and destruction mechanism as well as a posteriori knowledge derived from the analysis of experimental/field operation data. These will include five black-box models (static neural network model..1 Coal combustion process In the coal combustion process. a three-dimensional CFD model is not suitable for plant operation and control purposes. many important reactions occur between the initial heating of the coal particle and the formation of fly-ash. 1993). the generalisation performance of the resultant models over unseen data is examined. six NOx models will be produced for the same thermal coal-fired power generation plant. unlike white.or black-box methods. For model comparison purposes. physical modelling and system identification form two interacting paths. Tulleken. Li and Thompson. (1999) and their indexed references. Pearson and Pottman. This does not invalidate the work but will introduce the same unmodelled dynamics into all the models.2. In general. and one grey-box model. dynamic neural network model. 2000.248 Thermal power plant simulation and control The pragmatic approach to system modelling uses both a priori and a posteriori information and is referred to as grey-box modelling. However.2 An overview of NOx formation mechanisms The formation and destruction of NOx is inherently linked with the reactions of the other products of coal combustion. Grey-box models are essentially a trade-off between model complexity and model prediction performance (Bohlin. Once ignition temperature is reached. In grey-box approaches. 1991. For these reasons any NOx model should not be developed in isolation.

E / R T ) (9.H20. if volatile combustion occurs at substoichiometric conditions.2 Volatile combustion The coal devolatilisation process can produce several hundred gaseous compounds. and it is mainly composed of carbon and mineral matter with traces of hydrogen.1. H2.2).2. Such a global reaction rate kv is expressed as: kv= A exp(~T)[Fuelff[Oxidant] ~ (9. and is know as devolatilisation. sulphur and oxygen. hydrocarbon gases. 9. E is the activation energy. The simplest and most commonly used devolatilisation models are empirical and use global reactions. CO and CO2.2. and for the generalised single step hydrocarbon CnHm the reaction can be expressed as: C "m m with the generic single reaction rate expressed in (9. a single fuel type is required. hydrocarbon liquids. A wide variety of hydrocarbons may be considered as fuel.3). it will release a gaseous volatile compound.1.3 Char combustion Char is the residual mass after full devolatilisation of coal. eventually forming CO2 and H20. To achieve this. accounting for up to 50 per cent of the total energy released during combustion. However. and A is a constant. 9. Hence the simplest overall reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel is formulated as: (R1) Fuel + O2 ~ CO2 d. The volatile hydrocarbon combustion process is complex.1 Devolatilisation When a raw coal particle is subjected to high temperature. despite forming less that half of the total coal mass.3) where R is the gas constant. E is the activation energy. The . but according to (9. and global reaction kinetics can be used to simplify the modelling. The combustion of volatiles is highly exothermic.2. and A is some constant.1. T is the temperature. Tis the temperature. the carbon to hydrogen ratio of the volatiles is determined and the overall hydrocarbon volatiles can be considered to be composed of 'pseudo-molecules' of CnHm. Most of the compounds will continue to react in the vicinity of the char particles to produce successively lighter gases as the more complex molecules decompose. where the rate equations are of the Arrhenius type: Reaction rate coefficient = A e x p ( .2) where R is the gas constant. provided that sufficient oxygen is available. This is a multistage process. the heavier products (tars) may react to form soot. Volatiles generally are composed of tars.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 249 9. ot and ~ are coefficients. H20.

Nimmo et al. The reaction of oxygen with the char surface ks is related to both external char surface area and the partial pressure of oxygen.2.2. prompt NO and fuel NO. where the gaseous oxygen diffuses into the particle. As indicated in Figure 9. of char particles will vary depending on the speed of devolatilisation.2. Thermal NO results from the reaction of atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen at high temperature.2. or morphology. and depends on various factors. namely thermal NO. and the overall char combustion can be formulated as: ( 1 ) Rchar = q)s~pApPo2 1/ks + 1/kdiff (9. given sufficiently fuel-lean combustion conditions. The variations in coals and their chars make the accurate modelling of all the combustion reactions of any individual coal extremely difficult. whilst fuel NO results when nitrogen compounds present in the fuel are released and react with oxygen.2. during fossil fuel combustion. a global modelling approach is widely used. Ap is the particle surface area. thermal. Oxidation produces both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. fuel NO is the major contribution to NOx emission. 9. Lockwood and Romo-Millares (1992). 1975). (1994) and their indexed references. the major part of NOx emission has been found to be NO. Based on the work of De Soete (1975). High-temperature combustion causes atmospheric oxygen and . (1995). The rate coefficient takes the form of a first-order Arrhenius equation. ~p is the particle area factor to account for irregularity and internal surface burning. 9. ash content and structure of the raw coal. Visona and Stanmore (1996) and Williams et al. However. According to De Soete (! 975).250 Thermal power plant simulation and control physical structure.2 Overview of NOx formation process Although NOx refers to all oxides of nitrogen.1). these three NOx mechanisms may be summarised as follows. prompt and fuel NOx are formed during different combustion processes and in different combustion zones.1 Thermal NO formation Thermal NO formation can be modelled by the 'extended Zeldovich' mechanism (De Soete. as formulated in (9. there are three main sources of NO in combustion. CO may also be formed by the reduction of CO2 by the surface carbon of the char. Oxygen may react at the char surface or diffuse through the pores before reacting with the particles. and kdiff is the reaction rate of char particles with oxygen diffusing through the pores. all carbon and CO will be oxidised to CO2. Char oxidation is a heterogeneous (solid/gas phase) reaction. Therefore.4) where ~0s is the stoichiometric factor with 1 for CO2 and 2 for CO. Po2 is the oxygen partial pressure at the char surface. prompt NO is formed by the reaction of nitrogen with hydrogen-derived radicals in the fuel-rich zone of combustion. The reaction is much slower than the volatile combustion. and is absorbed and reacts on the char surface. with some of the fuel NO being released from the devolitisation of the fuel and some from the oxidation of the char. The simplified NOx formation process associated with the combustion process of coal is briefly described in Figure 9. In coal-fired power plant.

The principal reactions are: (R3) N2 + O .i [NO]/(k2[O] q... The reaction rate coefficients (kl.. k . ..Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 251 Fuel NO x .2k~ [ N 2 ] [ O 2 ] dt 1 + k ...... E is the activation energy. Char N2 Prompt Ash NOx Thermal NOx Devolatilisation ~..... k3.k~ ~.6) where k = (kl/k-1)(kz/k-2) is the equilibrium constant for the reaction between N2 and Oz..Volatilecombustion ~ Char combustion Figure 9.2 Simplified NOx formation processes nitrogen to react forming nitrogen oxide..[NO]2/k[O2][N2] .5) where i = 1.. The value for [O] and [OH] may be obtained from the predicted concentration of major species using the partial equilibrium assumption...-. and ct. 3.... the rate of thermal NO formation can be expressed as: d[NO]T . T is the temperature. the .02 ~ k_ 2 k3 NO + O (R5) N + OH ¢ = ~ NO + H k_ 3 (for a fuel-rich mixture)..l .~ N? Fuel NO x / .k3[OH]) (9..... For example.NO + N k_ I (R4) N -4./~ are constants. 2.- 1 .. Hence. k-3) for the forward reactions and the corresponding backward reactions are generally expressed in the Arrhenius form: kior-i =otexp(E/RT) or kior_i =otT~ exp(E/RT) (9.. R is the gas constant.. k2. k-2.

in fuel-rich conditions of some low NOx burners.. Recognising the importance of HCN as a precursor to the subsequent nitrogen compound intermediates. f -. n is the number of carbon atoms per molecule for the different hydrocarbon fuel types. Apt is the pre-exponential factor having the value of 6. and constitutes 70-90 per cent of the total NO (Lockwood and Romo-Millares. and vary between 0 and 1. c~ and 13 are reaction order constants for oxygen and fuel. Additionally.4. Visona and Stanmore. respectively.56.2 Prompt NO formation Prompt NO is formed by the reactions of N2 with fuel-derived radicals such as CH and CH2 in regions near the flame zone of a hydrocarbon fuel.C4 O3. depending on the rate of consumption of fuel and oxidiser.2. linearly dependent on oxygen atom availability and is associated with a long residence time.252 Thermal power plant simulation and control concentration of the oxygen atom is obtained from the partial equilibrium of oxygen dissociation: (R6) ½Oz ¢~ O. The above analysis shows that the thermal NOx formation rate is highly dependent on the temperature.2. where Cl-C4 are constants with values of 0. the proportion of prompt NO in the total NO formation may be greater. 1992.2. Fuel NO is formed from the homogeneous oxidisation of nitrogen constitutes released during devolitisation or from the heterogeneous oxidisation of nitrogen compounds in the char after devolitisation.C269 + C3 (92 . respectively. T Y represents the non-Arrhenius behaviour of the equation at conditions where the maximum flame temperature is exceptionally high or low. and the activation energy Ea = 303 kJ/mol. which react to form NO and N2.7) where f is a correction factor applicable for all aliphatic alkane hydrocarbon fuels. De Soete (1975) correlated the rate of NO formation and decay with a pair of . 9. 32 and 12. For an air to fuel ratio of 0.2. It is believed that the main gas species containing nitrogen produced during coal evolution are HCN and NH3.57 + C1 n -.3 Fuel NO formation Fuel NO is the main source of NOx emissions in fossil fuel combustion. Once the fuel nitrogen is converted to HCN it rapidly decays to form various NH compounds (NHi). 23. Nimmo et al. 1996): d[NO]p _ f T ×A p r [ O 2 ] ~ [N2][Fuel]¢~ exp(Ea/RT) dt (9.75-1.0819.4 × 106(RT/P) c~+l where P represents the pressure. 1995. A global kinetic mechanism can be used to predict the prompt NO emission (Visona and Stanmore. the concentration of prompt NO in fuel-rich zones can be significant. 1996).2. 9. Although its overall contribution can be small relative to the formation of total NO (less than 5 per cent). and tO is the equivalence ratio.

. The furnace of this boiler is separated into two sides.2). Chemical equilibrium considerations indicate that for temperatures greater than 1500 K the ratio of NO2 : NO is close to zero in the flame. Damper settings on each side of the boiler tend to be ganged together. vz(t). coal mill.2. The two reaction rates are included in the transport equations for HCN and NO and form the basis for the fuel NO post-processor. 9. the reaction rate will generally resemble that of (9. separator and pf pipework to supply fuel to the burners.1 Plant description The 500 MWe power generation unit studied is installed with a low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS).8) where X is the mole fraction of the chemical species. by a wall.2. and are used as model inputs: 1.3. There are five coal mills in the coal delivery system. The fuel flow (feeder speed) to each of the mills can be measured. 9.3 0 . 0 0 0 / T ) kg/m 3 s (9. For this unit the following variables are identified to be related with NOx formation and emission. 9.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 253 competitive parallel reactions. The coal delivery system for each unit comprises four subsystems: coal feeder. each first order in HCN. The burners are provided with over-fire air. v3(t). v4(t).3 NOx emission models for a 500 MW power generation unit Various models have been developed to model NOx emissions in a 500 MW power generation unit. 7 0 0 / T ) kg/m 3 s e dt HCN---~NO d[N2]dt NO~N2 =3 × IOI2pXcNX~o e x p ( .3 3 . namely the A and B sides. v5(t). Each side has four burners per level and there are five levels of burners with each level linked to one of the five mills. These models are grouped together for comparison purposes. and a proportion of the air in the combustion chamber is offset from the walls. There are no valid formulae for the production of NO2 from NO. However. which allows the calculation of NO formation for a pulverised coal flame. O. which represent the pool of nitrogen-containing species: d[NO]f ----101°pXcNX~2x p ( . OH and HO2 in the flame. However. significant NO2 concentrations have been measured in turbulent-diffusion flames near the combustion zone. Speed of the conveyor belt feeding the coal for each of the five mills (rpm): vl (t). Each mill feeds eight burners on a level (four on the A side and four on the B side). and b is the order of reaction for molecular oxygen which is a function of oxygen concentration.4 NO2 formation Formation and destruction of NO2 is believed to occur via the reaction of NO with 02.

among which one set (training period with 7000 samples) is used for training. the difference between the ranges of NOx values in the training period and test period 3 is more significant and therefore test period 3 data has been used later in the article to compare graphically the errors produced by each of the modelling techniques. which indicates the overall coal feed. u3(t) = v3(t). u4(t) = v4(t). which preheats the pf coal. and are introduced: U l 0 ( t ) = ~J~--~5-1 ull (t) = Y~=6 uj (t) which indicates the overall oxygen level. u8(t) = 01(t). different operators may use different burner combinations. Also the number of burners in use depends on the electrical load. The sample data is segmented into four data sets. u6(t) = O21 (t). another two dependent input variables uj(t). Finally the temperature of the air. In particular. the training data is unlikely to cover all operational conditions. and power plants normally use different coal sources. However during the period of study. 022 (t). us(t) = vs(t). u9(t) = 02(t) (9. 9. Burner tilt position. with NOx emission and the various inputs sampled every minute. That is in each period the range of data used is calculated (maximum value minus minimum value) and divided by the range calculated for the training period. the coal type did not change and is therefore not reflected in the models. This gives nine independent input variables: Ul(t) = Vl(t). in test period 3 the range of measured NOx values is approximately one and a half times greater than that used in training.1 and 9. All these factors will be treated as model noise/disturbances. and therefore not used for training in any form. 02(t). For example. all the other data sets (termed test period 1. in addition. Therefore. will also have an impact on overall NOx emission levels. 3. Tables 9.9) In addition to the above nine inputs. the coal type strongly affects the overall NOx emission. Data covering three weeks' field operation is available. Obviously the training period does not cover all the operating conditions found in the validation data. relative to horizontal): 01 (t).254 2. uz(t) = vz(t). A and B side of the furnace (degree. Thermal power plant simulation and control 02 in A and B sides of the furnace that are measured at the economiser (percentage in wet): O~j (t). since the samples used for training are limited. 2 and 3) are used for validation. For example.1 shows variations in the validation data relative to the training data. uv(t) = O22(t). Other factors affect NOx emission.2 Neural network models Although it has been proved that neural networks may approximate a wide range of non-linear systems to arbitrary closeness given a sufficient number of nodes and a single hidden layer. a neural network with a fixed number of hidden nodes does not necessarily nest the true structure of the real system and. it is possible that an ANN model will produce biased solutions for . Table 9.2 show the variation in the data over the four time periods. possibly leading to unexpected excursions of overall NOx levels.3.

0000 1.1357 0.0018 0. and the other focuses on the training process.4816 0.4410 0.1092 -0.0372 -0.9826 0.1989 -0.0639 0.0249 -0.5463 0.9213 0.0175 0.2578 0.1457 1.9175 1. a feedforward dynamic neural network model which introduces dynamics by considering the past changes in the input data.0000 1.0000 1.9887 1.0395 0. .0727 -0. operation input samples. In this chapter we choose the methods used by Li and Thompson (2000) to generate the model structure.9093 0. One is to achieve better generalisation performance through network configuration.0248 0.2304 -0. which maps the relation between current NOx output with current inputs.0595 0.8218 0.0000 1. As indicated earlier.5140 0.2167 0.9282 0. i.1069 0.0096 0.5756 0.0000 1.1745 1.e.7667 0.0749 -0. This method also provides good generalisation performance.0430 -0. there are three types of multilayer perceptron (MLP) models that can be constructed. i.3095 Training period NOx Vl(t) vz(t) v3(t) v4(t) v5(t) O21 (t) O22 (t) 01(t) 02(t) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 unseen data. To combat this problem two general approaches are available.9576 0.2076 0.0099 -0.3848 0.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant Table 9.0000 1.0000 1.2000 0.0063 0.0000 255 Training period NOx v 1(t) v2(t) v3(t) v4(t) v5(t) 02] (t) 1.7020 0.1701 Test period 3 0.9727 0.0000 022 (t) 01 (t) 02(t) Table 9.9955 1.0682 -0.e.0000 0.0000 1.0310 -0. finally.7419 1.1 Variations in data ranges Test period 1 Test period 2 1.0169 -0.0000 1.1691 -0. or more.2552 0.0000 1.9527 1.2 Variation in data averages Test period 1 Test period 2 -0.9516 0.0810 -0.9329 Test period 3 1. a static neural network.2513 0. and. a recurrent neural network that uses both past inputs and outputs to predict current NOx outputs.0058 -0. neural network models are trained to capture the relation between current NOx output with two.

. N) is the modelling prediction (MP) error. . if the measured output data had been used the performance measures for all models except the static neural network model. 11.11) . Note. or Oi~oi(t) + 8 ( t ) (9. All these network models were trained using the same technique by Li and Thompson (2000) and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method found in the Matlab ® Neural Network Toolbox is used as a basic training algorithm.4 (page 263) indicate the long-term prediction performance of the models on unseen data. N ) is the NOx emission. . y(t . 9. whereas the recurrent neural network model uses 20 hidden nodes.000 samples taken from the plant operation data file.4% Models based on the above three networks have been developed for the 500 MWe power generation unit.j=l. ny . 2 .2 .3 Model type Static ANN Dynamic forward ANN Recurrent ANN Prediction performance of three A N N models Number of hidden nodes Performance (MP) 30 30 20 23. ei (i = l.256 Thermal power plant simulation and control Table 9. . .10) where N is the number of samples. 2 . Soderstrom and Stoica.3. . .8% 12. . the performance averaged over all the unseen data is defined as n P = / y~N1e2 (9.3 lists the prediction performance of various ANN models. . The number of hidden nodes in the static and dynamic neural network model is 30. . . . 1989). Model structure selection decides which terms are to be included in the model.. . . In order to ensure that the various comparisons are fair. Consider an ARX model that includes all possible terms: P y(t) = Z i=1 ~pi(t) = uj(t-k). which uses no past output values as inputs. those models requiring past output data only use predicted data after the first few samples. . Table 9.7% 14.. 1987. and yi (i = 1. . would be much improved. k=l.k).3 Linear ARX model Development of a linear ARX (AutoRegressive model with eXogenous input) model is a two-stage process: namely. 2 .3 and 9... The training data set consists of 7.2 k = 1. model structure selection and parameter identification (Ljung. nj. In this table. That is Tables 9.

uj (j = 1. y(2) . . . 2 .15). . . . The loss function is defined: . Obviously not all of the 48 terms in (9. . . i=1. and also y T y = 1. . 11) are defined in (9. ~*q+l ( ~ . and e(t) is a white noise series. j = 1. p. ¢Pq+l. . equation (9.g. . p). . ~0i : [¢Pi(l). 2 . i. p.2 . e(N)].12) are normalised. 11. Furthermore.14) may be rewritten as: Eq+l(~q+l) = Eq(~q) (yT~(qq+l))2 (~(q+l). ~ + 1) q ~o~q j o. .-E ( O ) = . p (qaT~(q+l) ~ ~. .13). if a new term.. . ny = 4.. . Also some terms will have little to contribute to model accuracy.13) Suppose that all regressors in (9. If N samples are used for identification. According to (9. . . . Then. Since K q K q = Kq then (9.. . i = (q + 1). its contribution to the loss function will depend solely on the value . . . E o = I . p.q ~(oi)=¢pi. . .11) becomes: Y =q~O+S where yT = [y(1). . . e. . . . . . . is added into the regression model.15) i = (q + 2) . .11) are required since linear dependency among the terms exists. K g q + l = Kq -KO = I N x N . . wT (9.q j ~. . . (q + 2) . nj = 4. . S T = [e(1). . ¢P2.12) i=1.~T~(q+l) .14) (9. the minimal loss function can be computed recursively (Li and Thompson. . let ~ i ) = Kq~oi. y(N)]. .2 .q (9. . ~Op]T.E q ( ~ q ) = (yTKqcPq+I)2 T ~O KqCPq+l q+l (9. 2001a): Eq+l(Oq+l) -. E(2) . by minimising (9. . . . T qWq+l~q+l K T q T ~O KqCPq+l q+l EO = 1 where ~ q is the estimated parameter vector with q terms in the model. y(t) is the NOx emission.(i) = ~ i ) _ "ri q 1 ~(q+l)..~. ¢pTcpi=I (i = 1. . .2 . ~I~T = [~01.9).Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 257 where p is the total number of possible terms. ¢pi (2) .e. ~0i(N)] T.

1987. .k)) 2.b3z -2 + b4z-4)u5(t) + b5z-4u6(t) + b6z-3u8(t) q. nj. . 1990. In this chapter. ~Oi(t) = I ( u j ( t -. . 11. at each step only the term satisfying Max (yT~(qi))2 i c {unselected terms} ~Pi (~. j = l . ll.4) and bi (i = 0. 3. 1. In NOx emission NARX models.(i) ' ~ q j ~q will be selected. and the final prediction error (FPE) criterion (Ljung. The final linear ARX model for NOx emission takes the following form: y ( t ) ( l + alz -1 q. . ny .3.e.~. k=l. where ~ q + l ) is the previously reformulated regressor as indicated in (9. . .18) [y(t . .15). and N is the number of samples. only first and second-order terms are considered and the non-linear ARX model takes the form: P y(t) = Z Oi~oi(t) + E(t) i=l uj(t .(b7z -1 + b8z-4)u9(t) + (b9z -2 + bloz-4)UlO(t) + e(t) (9. . Soderstrom and Stoica. . The model selection process in this chapter will be performed in a stepwise forward way. .2 k: .a3z -3 -q. . .258 Thermal power plant simulation and control of (Y T ~q(q+l) ) 2 / ( ~ q(q+l) ) T ~q(q-I-l) . 1. or (9. This process continues until FPEq starts to increase (instead of decreasing). . such as the F-test.16) where Eq (~q) is the minimal loss function with q terms.17) where z -1 is the time lag.k). There are various criteria to compare and select appropriate model structure. 1989.(i) ~T~. .2 k=l.a4z -4) = bo q. Harber and Unbehauen. 9. Henson and Seborg. i. ~ is some positive integer normally chosen to be 2.k ) . . ai (i = 1. Akaike's information criterion (AIC). or . the following simple criterion is used: FPEq = Eq((gq) [I + ~ ] (9.4 NARX model NARX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive model with eXogeneous input) / NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Average model with eXogeneous input) models have been widely used in non-linear dynamic system modelling (Chen and Billings. j = l .2 . . . . 2 . nj. 2. . 1996).blz-lu3(t) + (b2z -1 -k. . . . 11) are model parameters. 1989).a2z -2 q. 2 . . .

. Again.ky).bl5z-3(u3(t)) 2 q. b) assumes that the underlying mechanisms of the system to be modelled are either too complex or only partially known.(b7z -1 + b8z-2)u5(t) + b9z-4u6(t) + bloz-3u8(t) -k-bllz-lu9(t) -t-bl2z-4ulo(t) + bl3z-4(Ul(t)) 2 q. .d .bl6z-l(u5(t)) 2 + bl7z-n(u6(t)) 2 + bl8z -1 (UlO(t)) 2 + E(t) (9. c) or oscillatory behaviour might . 0 is the parameter. and ai (i = 1. . 4) and bi (i = 0. not all of the 92 terms will be included in the NARX model and a model selection procedure is required. q)i (t) denotes fundamental elements (FEs) and their derived terms. Fundamental grey-box modelling (Li and Thompson. nj = 4. 2 . 1.9). uj(t .19) where z -1 is the time lag.20) where ¢o(t) = 1 ~oi(t) = ~oi(y(t -.3. For engineering systems where a priori fundamental knowledge exists it is possible to extract basic information in the form of simple expressions. . 3. For example. and ky and kuj are input and output time delays.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 259 where uj (j = 1. . ny = 4 . One of the essential concepts in fundamental grey-box modelling is that of the fundamental element. 11.5 Grey-box modelling In the grey-box approach. 9.bl4z-l(u2(t)) 2 q. . . . 2 . . i = 1. p and y and uj (j = 1. 18) are model parameters. 11) are defined in (9. j = 1. . . 2001 a. reaction rates will be of the form exp(x. m) are the output and inputs. The model structure selection procedure is identical to that used with the linear ARX model. . . . For this reason the model structure of the fundamental grey-box model considered here is that of a Hammerstein model having the following form: P y(t) = y ~ Oiq)i (t) + ~(t) i=0 (9.a4z -4) = bo + (blz -1 + b2z-3)Ul (t) + (b3z -2 + b4z-4)u2(t) nc b5z-lu3(t) + b6z-3u4(t) -q. .18) is 92. There are many shades of grey depending on the mix. y is the NOx emission. physical modelling and system identification form two interacting paths. . 2. . using the previous argument.kuj)). Using the same data set for identification the final NARX model takes the form y(t)(1 + alz -1 + a2z -2 + a3z -3 -k. and therefore the total number of candidate terms p in (9. . E(t) is a white noise series.2 . . .

ro ess l| . x) .] (a posterior) -System identification .. . determination ct ~ " ' I : u '. . . These simple functions acquired from the fundamental a priori system knowledge are associated with system behaviour. The underlying motivation can also be formulated as follows. e --~ Validation or I falsification I I I Competition modelling module Figure 9.h---z T II iYi ! i . . c) may also undergo mutation and become cos(x. hence the name fundamental grey-box modelling. . . . . .. .. ... the value of the parameters in vector c can be different in different situations.. . Such FEs may appear in the system model in a variety of forms. . and ci (i = 1. . . and can also undergo change (mutation).. . . .. . ~_. .. J ' If possible n Structure i Ill. .. For example in the function sin(x. qgm(Cm.. . c). .. At this model construction stage experimental or on-line operational data are required. . Once the FEs are collected. .. .. .. the proposed modelling technique involves a search for the fundamental elements of the system. The framework of such a grey-box modelling method is illustrated in Figure 9. . .. . . and then constructing the system model using appropriate combinations of these FEs.260 Thermal power plant simulation and control take the form sin(x. . . . . Physical modelling (a priori) .. X) .21) where x is the variable vector. That is f ( x ) may be approximated by functions that are related to f ( x ) . . . . . . .. c). . . for which x is a vector of variables and c is a vector of parameters... c).. ... ~Om(Cm. a system model which reflects the dynamics of the system may be produced by appropriately combining these FEs. etc. x)) (9. ~-] Data i Experiment ~ collection ~ !'1 design ] i'1 and ] i" .. 2 . . . . . . . . . i ] analysis ] I 'L. . l" . . Therefore.. .. . and ~01(Cl. . i t i . . m) are parameters in those FEs. . .. .3 Fundamental grey-box modelling framework . .. . . while sin(x. . Suppose a non-linear unknown function f ( x ) has the following form: f ( x ) -~ f(g01(Cl.x) are fundamental elements that are mutually linearly independent... . ... .- PDEs+ODEs ~_~ Fundamental elements . .. r --i . Identifyingfundamental elements module .. .. .3.. . : : iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii St r ~" ]I' • * estimationParameter. .

Those FEs and their derived terms constitute a term pool. If a priori information regarding an engineering system exists (based for example on first principle laws and chemical reactions). Remarks: 1. . Step 5. Derived terms are used to reflect couplings among system variables and should be based on the mechanism governing the system behaviour. It is possible that some of these FEs will be strongly correlated with each other. .~oi (ci. and only the parameters in the functions differ. 9. and ~r indicates a small number.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 261 as follows: f(x) = f(g01(Cl. may have to be determined from experimental data. Parameters in the FEs. In this case. x) . x o -1. Step 2. Some of the FE functions may be of the same type. . the derived model partially resembles a neural network where the activation functions in the hidden layers are all of the same type and only the weights and bias are different. .22) is how to identify the fundamental elements and their particular form.22) bi (qgi (ci. One issue in (9.f i x ) . Step 4. Use plant data together with the term pool to establish a suitable linear-in-parameter model (generalised polynomial model) through model structure selection and parameter identification. Validate the model.5. 3.3. From these equations select a set of fundamental elements in which each element describes a basic relationship between system variables. x o ) ) where b i = f'(x)/qg~(ci. f (x) IX=X0+ ~ i=1 qgm(Cm. Construct a set of derived terms that are the production of two or more FEs. these can be used to produce FEs. if unknown a priori. Typically these will consist of a set of PDEs and ODEs. However.1 Fundamental grey-box modelling procedures Step 1. FEs are the simplest form of expressions. The following remarks on selecting FEs are made. Establish the fundamental mechanisms of the system. Therefore to determine which FEs should be used to construct the model requires a posteriori information (typically obtained through an identification method which includes model structure selection and parameter identification). Step 3 (optional).X)lx=xo. 2. it should be pointed out that the FEs are derived from a priori information regarding the system mechanism. . X)) (9.

4. j = 1. Besides the 17 fundamental elements. i = 1. 2. . . Therefore there is a combination problem. the first approach is used to construct the fundamental grey-box model. In general the coal feeds are associated with the total energy released in the furnace. 11 i = 12. 5. Perform two distinct but sequential processes. 3. In this chapter. where c i (i = 1. 3. The oxygen concentrations are associated with the thermal and temporal NOx formation. . . How to select the model structure. Coal feeds are also associated with the concentration of fuel nitrogen in fuel NOx formation. 11}. . only the term in the term pool that contributes most to decreasing the cost function is selected. j 6 { 1 . That is. j ( = k . (9. and then the model structure selection procedure (identical to that used with the linear ARX and NARX models) is used to construct the model. 14 . 2. FEs are selected based on the NOx formation mechanism as described in equations (9. The burner tilt positions affect the shape of the fireball in the furnace. . . First identify the parameters in the FEs and the derived terms and then select the model structure. Therefore. and the correlation between terms can be strong.6)-(9. . 4.24) . (The term pool can be very large. With respect to the first approach. 2 . 17. 2 . 10) are coefficients. 2001).8). . In deriving the grey-box model for the NOx emissions. k 6 { 1 . 17}. For each iteration in the step-wise forward model construction process.23) Fi = e (ci/(uj(t)+bj)). the following FEs are formulated: Fi = ( u i ( t ) ) ci. . . (9. and hence the average temperature in the furnace. . . How to identify the unknown parameters in the FEs and their derived terms.) Two general approaches can be used to resolve the above problems: 1.262 Thermal power plant simulation and control Two technical problems stand out: 1. . . various analytical methods might be applied. the parameters in the FEs and their derived terms are first identified. 2 . . The second approach lends itself to the use of genetic algorithms (Peng et al. the following 121 derived terms can be constructed: Di =(Fj)Cp(Fk) cq. 17) and bj (j = 1. 2 . Perform an integrated process in order to identify the model structure and the parameters in the FEs and derived terms. .. 10.2. 2. . . 5. . and are therefore associated with the temporal and thermal NOx formation.

2 * The numberof termsexcludesthe DC term and noise term. Also.3) + a4y(t . The NOx formation mechanism has been identified.1 11. while Figures 9. As with all the models. Using the same 7.b7z-l F3(t)F14(t) + bsz-a F4(t)Flo(t) + b9z-3Fg(t)Flv(t) + bloz-3F7(t) + e(t).2) + a3y(t .8 shows the prediction errors for all six models when applied to the unseen data of test period 3. and various model types have been introduced.4) = bo + blz -1F2(t)Flo(t) + bzz -1F2(t)Fl3(t) + b3z -1Fll (t)Flv(t) + b4z-4F2(t)Fl7(t) + bsz-3F4(t)Flo(t)e(t) + b6z-lF3(t)F9(t) q.3 10. 9. Because the data points are close together the prediction values appear as a thick smooth line whereas the actual values appear more erratic. say.1) + a 2 y ( t .000 samples in the training period for model identification. In particular six types of model have been produced to estimate the NOx emission of a 500MWe power generation unit. Figure 9. Note that in these figures 1440 samples is equivalent to one day of operational data. NOx emission modelling for plant operation and control has been studied.4 show the .4 shows the prediction performance of various linear and non-linear NOx emission models.4 shows the prediction performance of the grey-box model for the training period.3 and 9.25) Table 9. Tables 9. the grey-box model takes the following form: y(t) + aly(t . (9. the ARX model this would only be true for this time period. if the ARX approach used measured output data (rather than past predictions) to produce the prediction at the next sample then even over this time period the ARX model would appear better than the static ANN. Figure 9.7 cover three distinct periods of unseen data.5-9. Although this figure suggests that the static ANN is better than.4 Model type Linear ARX model NARX model Grey-box model 263 Prediction performance of three analytical models Number of terms* 15 22 14 Performance (MP) 17.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant Table 9. after the first few sample points only input information (and predicted NOx values if required) is used.4 Conclusions In this chapter.

264 Thermal power plant simulation and control Model prediction and NO x emission 15o i'i'l 'til 1 ~~ I t ' .-q d Z -100 -150 I I 5 O0 1000 1500 Sample 2000 2500 3000 Figure 9. -' .4 Grey-boxmodel performance (training period) Model prediction and NO x emission 200 150 100 50 0 -50 I i i Thick line-model prediction Dotted line-NO x emission I !l'i. . " 0 'ill i ii ~~l"li.~ • ! ..5 Grey-boxmodel performance (test period 1) . .. [ 100 [- Thick line-modelprediction Dotted line NO x emission 5o.H ' I z°-50k ''' "I!' [11~ --150 I I I 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Sample 5000 6000 7000 Figure 9.~. .' 'I' .I. i~" [ 1~ .r. ~ .i' ~'.

-100 -150 I I 1000 2000 Sample 3000 4000 Figure 9.NO x emission I I I I i~ 50 d z o e~ o -50 " "" t I 'rf' .7 Grey-boxmodel performance (test period 3) .Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant Model prediction and NO~ emission 265 I I 10o ]Thick line-model prediction Dotted line.6 Grey-boxmodel performance (test period 2) Model prediction and NO x emission 150 100 50 0 -50 "~ -100 ~-150 -200 -250 -300 -350 0 I I Thick line.NO x emission I I I 1000 2000 Sample 3000 4000 5000 Figure 9.model prediction Dotted line.

8 Prediction errors for different model structures (test period 3) overall performance of the six models when predicting NOx emissions over different periods of time and different operation conditions. From these results it can be seen that: • • A static neural network gives the worst overall performance. but they do have some physical meaning that can be interpreted by the operators. though widely used in industry. .266 Thermal power plant simulation and control Static ANN Dynamic forward ANN Recurrent ANN ARX NARX Figure 9. and in general have better generalisation performance. Once these models have been obtained on-line or off-line. A fundamental grey-box model has the best overall prediction performance. Neural network and identification models are easier and quicker to build. and each type of model has its particular advantages and disadvantages. and more frequent retraining is required. • • • It is unlikely that in plant operation and control only one type of model will be required. the best recurrent neural network does not necessarily produce a better overall performance than a dynamic feedforward ANN model. their generalisation performances are not as good as grey-box models. but lack physical meaning. they will then be used either in an advisory system to support the human operator on such aspects as task analysis. A non-linear ARX model is better than a dynamic ANN model in general. A linear ARX model is better than a static neural network model in general. Therefore the frequency of retraining is reduced. condition monitoring. grey-box models take a little longer to build. However. In comparison. Introducing input dynamics (dynamic feedforward ANN model) gives improved overall prediction performance.

ETSU. Tokyo. Portugal. 1990. Fluent Inc.: 'Representations of nonlinear systems: the NARMAX model'. E. vols. San Francisco. and MAYES. K. 465-471 FLUENT INC.5 Acknowledgements Acknowledgement is made to the British Coal Utilisation Research Association (BCURA) and the UK Department of Trade and Industry for a grant in aid of this research. T.: 'Progress report on the development of a generic NOx control intelligent system (GNOCIS)'.: 'Fluent user's manual. The Combustion Institute. NH. C.. International Journal of Control. ETSU. pp. H. The Queen's University of Belfast. L.a survey on input-output approaches'. and operation optimisation. A. Coal R & D Program. R.: 'Boiler efficiency and NOx optimisation through advanced monitoring and control of local combustion conditions'. 2001 HARBER. G.: 'Modelling coal fired power station NOx emissions'. 9. 15th Symposium (International) on Combustion. 1996) GORMLEY. M.: 'Structure identification of nonlinear dynamic systems . S. 26. 2001. pp. 1989.6 References BOHLIN. U. Sixth International Conference on Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment. Project Profile 103. Harwell.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 267 fault detection and isolation. and UNBEHAUEN. 1. pp. and KORTELA. 1093-1102 ETSU COAL R&D PROGRAMME: 'Technology status report: NOx control for pulverised coal-fired power plant'. S. pp.. 903-908 DE SOETE. 10131032 COPADO.. (3)..: 'Nonlinear process control' (Prentice-Hall.: 'Overall reaction rates of NO and N2 formation from fuel nitrogen'. and SEBORG. G. 1997 FERRETTI.. 2001. 49. or in boiler advanced control systems.. 651-667 HENSON. A. and BILLINGS. E. NAJIM. L. 9. and not necessarily those of BCURA or the Department of Trade and Industry. 9-12 July. Automatica..: 'Interactive system identification: prospects and pitfalls' (Springer: Berlin. Porto. W. 1996) HOLMES. but the views expressed are those of the authors. IFAC 13th World Congress. 123. 1-4' (Lebanon. PhD thesis. ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. release 4.4. D. Upper Saddle River. pp. and PIRODDI.: 'Estimation of NOx emissions in thermal power plants using neural networks'. K. 1991) CHEN. et al. 1975. 1994 IKONEN. A. G.. Japan.: 'Modelling of NOx emissions based on a fuzzy logic neural network'. 1996.. pp. 61-66 .

: 'NOx emission models for operation and control of power generation boilers'.. 4-7 Sept. 6th International Conference on Technologies and Combustion for A Clean Environment. Y. pp. 69.. RICHARDSON.. and PENG. 1994. pp. pp. 'Modelling of coal combustion in low-NOx p. pp. 2001 b. 881-887 SABHARWAL. 65. J. flames'. 351-374 STOPFORD.. July 2002 LJUNG. E. S. 1755-1762 . K. S.. 144-152 NIMMO. 3648-3653 LI. Proceedings of the European Control Conference.. 29. and HAMPARTSOUMIAN. UKACC International Conference on Control. Oporto.. 4. and ROMO-MILLARES.: 'System identification' (Prentice Hall. and THOMPSON.: 'Gray-box identification of block-oriented nonlinear models'. P. Journal of Process Control.: 'Fundamental grey-box modelling'.. S. 1995) LI. P. Oporto.: 'System identification: theory for the user' (Prentice Hall. P. JONES. Beijing SODERSTROM. W.: 'The effect of fuel-nitrogen functionality on the formation of NO. physical modeling applied to a xylene splitter'. J. 6th International Conference on Technologies and Combustion for A Clean Environment.: 'GA based software for power generation plant NOx emission modelling'.: 'The predictions of coal/char combustion rate using an artificial neural network approach'. Portugal. 285-308 VISONA. J.: '3-D modelling of NOx formation in a 275 MW utility boiler'. S. E. C. K.. R.. K. A..: 'Mathematical modelling of fuel-NO emissions from PF burners'. POURKASHANIAN. and SEBORG. and NORMAN. and THOMPSON. J. Portugal.. 1995. 1992. P. A. 73. Exeter. and THOMPSON.. G. pp. Journal of the Institute of Energy. Barcelona. Automatica. and STANMORE. London. 2001a. WARWICK. K. 889-895 LI. and STOICA. 9-12 July. N: 517-523.: 'A case study of fundamental grey-box modelling'. R.: 'Developing a NOx emission model for a coal-fired power generation plant using artificial neural networks'. A. Short Run Press. J. Fuel. J.. L. Journal of the Institute of Energy. (10). 1999. pp. pp.: AEA Technology Report AEAIntec-1788.268 Thermal power plant simulation and control IRWIN. 170-177 PEARSON R. 3-7 Sept. 2001.. DUAN. WILLIAMS. 301-315 PENG.. B. and THOMAS. pp. and HUNT K. and POTTMANN. J. A. 1993. 2002.. E: 'Grey-box modelling and identification using physical knowledge and Bayesian techniques'. J. M. Fuel. Cambridge. pp.. K. SVRCEK. J.: 'Hybrid neural net. Q. T. M. 1996. Journal of Institute of Energy. 2.. (7). Oporto.. 2000.. Applied Mathematical Modelling. W.. A. K. S. Preprints of 14th IFAC World congress. E C. M. 1987) LOCKWOOD. 68. W. G. 1994 TULLEKEN. and THOMPSON. 68-79 WILLIAMS.. P. BYSH. and BENIM. 78. 1006-1018 ZHU.. HCN and NH3 in practical liquid-fuel flames'. K. 15th IFAC World Congress on Automatic Control.: 'Neural network applications in control' (The Institution of Electrical Engineers. Englewood Cliffs. H.. C.2. 1989) STOPFORD. and THOMPSON. D. 1999. M..: 'Recent applications of CFD modelling in the power generation and combustion industries'. LI.f. A. Portugal.. pp. 2000 LI. S. 26. pp. K.

the model is tuned so as to compensate for the unavoidable inaccuracies that depend on the hypotheses and assumptions introduced in the first phase. many works on grey-box identification techniques are available that deal with linear models (Tulleken. Such methods evaluate models of differing structure and complexity from a statistical point of view so as to select one that is acceptable in terms of a given criterion. In the first phase. 1995). b. identification. Parisini I0. a model is built that is as consistent as possible with the physical reality of the various components of the process under examination. the on-line adaptation of the model remains in general rather difficult. Grey-box modelling allows one to account for different levels of knowledge regarding a plant. In any case. The main topics are modelling.Chapter 10 Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line A. Neural networks may be used .I Introduction Increasing attention to safety and the need for reduction of energy production costs motivate the research into methodologies that enable one to provide long-term monitoring and early detection of faults and abnormal process behaviour in power plants. our approach is substantially different from the aforementioned and may be split into two phases.. and design of estimators that may be used to diagnose faults in the plant. this allows one to take into account different levels of component knowledge. 1994 a. This chapter focuses on analytical redundancy techniques that can be conveniently employed to detect failures in the heater line of a 320 MW power plant. A few investigations have focused on non-linear systems and proposed multiple-hypotheses statistical identification techniques (Bohlin. P Coletta and T. 1993. 1993) and hence are unsuitable for modelling real complex physical processes. In the literature. Alessanclri. Bohlin and Graebe. In the second phase. Modelling errors are due to both uncertain parameters and unknown subsystems of the plant. Gawthrop et al. As will be explained later on. regarded as a testbed.

270 Thermal power plant simulation and control to model those parts of the system that are completely unknown. (1997). for instance. Therefore. is quite demanding in terms of computation requirements with many state variables and performs poorly in the considered case. 1997. However. . Process and measurement noise statistics are not required for this method as estimation is obtained by minimising a cost function (in general. Spall and Criston. which is well known and the most widely employed in industrial applications for state estimation. The problem is solved by constraining the estimation functions to take on given structures in which a certain number of parameters have to be optimised. non-quadratic) defined on a sliding window composed of a finite number of time stages. 1970. the on-line simulation and tuning of such a complex dynamic model may not be feasible in some power plant automation systems. This estimator. Anderson and Moore. A possible solution is the neural approach presented by Alessandri et al. 1994). Among various possible solutions. a non-linear state estimation scheme could be more appropriate. Further complications arise when the underlying physical process is described by numerous state variables. to estimate the above state variables. This identification turns out to be quite difficult for systems with a large number of state variables. It is worth mentioning the popular extended Kalman filter (EKF) (see. 1979). standard stochastic models do not usually match real world settings. In this context. strong non-linearities. Jazwinski. according to a generalised least squares approach. Thus. Parisini. Jazwinski. 1997. a method based on stochastic approximation has been chosen (Spall. Thus. Anderson and Moore. identification. 1974. 1970. In addition. 1997). 1974. however. at the same time. the problem is reduced to the identification of both uncertain parameters and the weights of the neural networks (Alessandri and Parisini. it is possible to predict on-line the system behaviour by feeding such a model with the current input signals. as appears in many fields of engineering and applied sciences. Gelb. among others. it is preferable to apply an identification procedure that does not rely on computation of gradients and higher-order derivatives. as will be clarified later by means of simulation results. 1979). 1992. This procedure has been followed. for an introduction. Gelb. a method is required which introduces low on-line computation effort but. it is preferable for the method to be easily tunable. by Parisini (1997). Among the possible alternatives. Once a dynamic model of the plant has been designed and tuned. Finally. In this way. The contents include the results of previous work (Alessandri and Parisini. Estimation for non-linear systems is difficult and most commonly used techniques are difficult to apply (see. multilayer feedforward neural networks have been chosen for their approximating properties. for which the statistics of the random disturbances are often unknown. due to the presence of numerous. does not rely on disturbance statistics. This chapter provides a summary of the experiences gained in modelling. and estimation for power plant fault diagnostics. it could be possible to monitor internal state variables that are important for the purpose of fault diagnosis.

3. (2) no-return valve.2. Thus. and design. 10. the considered 320 MW power plant is described.3 illustrates the control components in each heater. (10) drain valve. Finally.2.2.3 is devoted to the modelling of the main faults and malfunctions.4.e. The power plant is located at Piombino. More specifically. The feedwater provided by the feed pump flows through the four heaters. Qc. Finally. in the boiler. followed by a description of a single heater. (7) bypass feedwater valve. Italy and. a technique that improves the plant efficiency. (3) heater steam valve.1 Description of the high-pressure heater line The high-pressure heater line is depicted in Figure 10. in particular. its approximation. the simulation results are reported in section 10. and section 10. Figure 10.1).4 then provides a general description of the above-mentioned neural estimation method outlining successive steps regarding the structure of the optimal estimator.1 the high-pressure heater line is described. i. (4) drain valve. the available sensors are shown in Figure 10. (5) condenser high-drain valve. After leaving the turbine.. 10. one of the two electronically controlled feedwater high-pressure heater lines is considered (see Figure 10. but mainly because it is necessary to condense the steam coming from the turbine at the same temperature and at the same pressure values as those at the beginning of the process.2 Description of power plant application In this section. in the boiler is reduced. . In the standard thermodynamic cycle the heat exchanged with the cold source.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 271 Alessandri et al. A complete overview of the power plant is given in section 10.3.2 (see Parisini. 2002). (9) safety valve. Section 10. to condense the steam is lost. This occurs not only because of the intrinsic losses in the turbine. the regeneration process consists in using a part of the heat to increase the temperature of the water that flows into the boiler. In addition to the heater line.2 presents some components of the control system which are used to regulate the condensate levels inside the heaters. Figure 10. numbered as follows: (1) steam tap valve. (8) incondensable component valve. In section 10. QH. the required heat input. 1997 for details).5. the superheated steam exchanges heat with the feedwater and then condenses. These lines are devoted to the regeneration process. and in the pump.2. the thermodynamic cycle implies that the energy produced by the boiler to transform the water from the liquid phase into the aeriform phase is not completely used in the turbine. Concluding remarks are included in section 10. and goes into the boiler. grey-box modelling and identification are considered and an optimisation method based on stochastic approximation is described.2: in section 10. (6) feedwater inlet-outlet valve.

272 Thermal power plant simulation and control Hot / source To c nu e the o s m r O H • f . The most important are the enthalpy. The final model can then be built on the basis of the four single heaters that make up the high-pressure line (see Figure 10. which relate the pressures. temperatures. . Each heater in turn influences the state of the previous upstream heater via the flow rate of the output drain. . "l Condenser I ~ 8--J~t Qc Figure 10. the state of each heater is influenced by the upstream heater via the variables defining the pressure in the cavity. Other variables assumed to be proportional to the unit load include the steam pressure and enthalpy in the various turbine stages and the pressure in the drain expansion tank. saturation. . . and subcooling states. and the flow of the feedwater going into the first heater. it makes use of steam tables. Obviously. and the flow rate of the feedwater. the specific enthalpies of the output drain flow. In the next section.2). For instance. and the positions of the feedforward draining valve. . . Clearly. the specific enthalpies. the pressures. Some variables of the global model are assumed to be proportional to the unit load of the power plant. . . the pressure. enthalpies and specific volumes in the superheating. the model is very complex and strongly non-linear. . . a set of state equations can be derived for each heater.1 Scheme of the regeneration process Assuming a model of the heater and associated controllers. of the . actuators and sensors. we shall describe the model of a single heater in more detail. .

. .ii:i:iiii Figure 10..3 Control components of a single heater .or To the condenser ~ 4~_ I "1 ..~ Tothebni.To the bypass line Feedwater flow Drain flow (!~ Level sensors O Duplicate level sensors (~ Pressure sensors .2 The high-pressure heater line Bleeding 1 I)4 :Y"'"" 8 i i Feedwater Zl i !4 9 3 6 -: .To the other high pressure heat exchange line . v Drain expansion tank . . .Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 2 7 3 Turbine /x "x D2. ~ 1 To the degasifier D ~ _ -7(-' I I I ~?q~ ~ . .- (~) Flow sensors Modulating actuator On/Off actuator . ....- .. I ") I 0 k.. . Turbine spillover flow (~) Temperature sensors Figure 10.

of the actuators and of the controller elements. Three different areas are considered in the cavity: A: desuperheating area. the main modelling effort concerns the heaters. where the superheated steam cools down until it reaches the saturated steam condition through heat exchange with the feedwater flowing in the tube-bundle. as can be seen in the alternative paths shown in Figure 10. B: condensing area. where the condensed steam and the drain coming from the downstream heaters undergo a process of heat exchange with the feedwater. divided into halves by a vertical septum. Clearly. as the other parts are very simple to represent. 10. I --1 I Drain output bled input A I --[2:>mEz>- Feedwaterinput "-'1- ~ Feedwateroutput A Desuperheatingarea B Condensingarea C Subcoolingarea (~) Temperaturesensor Q LevelSensor Figure 10.2.4) consists of a vertical-axis cylindrical cavity. including a N-shaped tube-bundle where the feedwater flows. the condensed steam can bypass the heaters. where the saturated steam condenses (vapour-liquid transition).2 The model o f a single heater Each heater (see Figure 10. However.2.274 Thermal power plant simulation and control sensors.4 A heater with sensors and output drain regulator . Under normal conditions. a drain valve conveys the resulting liquid to the upstream heater. C: subcooling area. under special operating conditions. whereas.

In the following. and loss of pressure in the tube-bundles due to metal friction. Pdet: pressure in the drain expansion tank (atm). x3: specific enthalpy of the output drain (kJ/kg). -uniform physical properties of the tube-bundle metal. we have made the following assumptions: -negligible heat exchange between the cavity and the external environment. -negligible exchanges of energy and mass.. xs: specific enthalpy of feedwater in the condensing area (kJ/kg).Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 275 in the first heater. we have analysed: (i) the behaviour of the fluid inside the cavity by using the equations for the conservation of the mass of drain water. . with the heat exchange magnitude dependent on the condensing and subcooling areas. Moreover. and C). and for the conservation of the energy of subcooled water.uniform enthalpy distribution inside each area (A. -negligible longitudinal heat conduction in both the pipe metal and the fluid. In particular. we will refer to the state variables xl : liquid level in the heater (mm). so it is possible to complete the thermal cycle. -uniform pressure distribution inside the cavity. drainage and condensation areas. due to surface phenomena at the interface between the condensing and subcooling areas. From the above assumptions. The equations describing each heater have been derived from the mass. -the heat-exchange surface between the cavity fluid and the tube-bundle is fixed in the desuperheating area. B. a set of non-linear equations can be derived to define the thermodynamic behaviour in each heater (Barabino et al. The input variables are: Pprev" pressure in the previous heater (atm). x6: specific enthalpy of feedwater in the subcooling area (kJ/kg). x2: pressure in the cavity of the heater (atm). energy and momentum conservation laws. and (ii) the behaviour of the fluid in the tube-bundle by heat exchange in the desuperheating. the following assumptions about the feedwater have been made: -feedwater is in the liquid state and in a subcooling condition. the pressure is equal to the input pressure in the heater. L: load required by the electric network (MW). for the conservation of the mass of water and steam. 1993). Regarding the fluid inside the cavity. -constant fluid pressure in the tube-bundle. -negligible density variations inside the subcooling area. the condensed steam flows to the condenser. x4: specific enthalpy of the output feedwater (kJ/kg). . Sp: percentage of steam spillover from the turbine.

thermal coefficients (pipe-metal specific heat. Parisini. 69l (x3): temperature of the output drain. Derivation of the dynamic equation for x l. Wtur(X2. the remaining quantities. x4. Wodr(X2. desuperheating area). Qf(xl. 1997). hfw: specific enthalpy of the input feedwater (kJ/kg). Wfw: feedwater flow (m3/s). Podr(X3): density of the output drain. QB(xl. x4. Psst(X2): density of the saturated steam. m me(X5): mass of water and equivalent metal per unit. x11.1) where mw = PodrAhXl. L. x2. Widr: drain water flow (m3/s). number of tubes in the tube-bundle. x5. h sst): heat exchange in the desuperheating area. are briefly introduced as follows: Wcon(X1. Xll. Wfw): condensate steam flow. inside and outside pipe diameters. x3): mass of liquid in the heater. etc. 1995. x2. LB (xl): height of the condensing area. 692(x4): temperature of the output feedwater. x2. x3. hidr: specific enthalpy of the drain water flow (kJ/kg). xs. Pprev.Wev dt (10. pipe length. including constant parameters and functions of the state variables. steam thermal exchange coefficient.276 Thermal power plant simulation and control htur: specific enthalpy of the steam from the turbine (kJ/kg). pipe-metal thermal conductivity. water thermal exchange coefficient). x4. Ol (off-set). the mass in the draining area is The equation for the conservation of dmw = Widr -[. Wev(Xl. edet): output drain flow.Wcon -. LA (height of the desuperheating area). h tur.. Sp): steam flow from the turbine. A more detailed description of the functions of the state variables as well as the values of the constants Ah (cavity area not including the pipes). time constants of the actuators and sensors. we outline the model derivation highlighting the physical principles and the main assumptions that have been introduced. hsw (x2): specific enthalpy of the saturated water. In the following. Q A (Wtur. x3): evaporated water flow. This equation follows from the assumption of uniform density of the water (equal to the output drain) and neglecting variation over time. and the gains of the regulators can be found in (Gugliemi et al. The models of the heaters have an identical structure and differ only in constants such as geometric coefficients (tank height. mw(xl. inside tank diameter. Vh (cavity volume not including the pipes). Moreover. Wfw): heat exchange in the condensing area. hsst (x2): specific enthalpy of the saturated steam.Wodr -. Wfw): heat exchange in the subcooling area. x2. .

we obtain dpSStdt -.P o d r A h dt (10. dx2 Qc (10.x3) + Vw--~d--T . mw and steam.~ .Wtur -1. in the cavity: d(mw + ms) -.Wodr -. Then.+ VmePmeCme d~T- . and assuming that the steam density equals the saturated steam density.Psst)-'~'-J dxl ] Using the fact that dpsst dpsst dx2 dt dx2 dt the dynamic equation for x2 may be obtained. and specific heat of the metal.Wodr. Derivation of the dynamic equation for X3. The cavity volume Vw = AhXl. respectively. we have QtA = QA + VmePmeCmedome d~-and dmf dx4 dome dt = m m e Z A . Conservation of energy is applied to heat exchange in the desuperheating area: dmf = Wfw(X5 . Vme. Pme.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 277 Derivation of the dynamic equation for X2. we have alms dt dxl Wtur + Widr -. volume. so obtaining mw dx3 = Widr(hidr -.Ah(Podr -.Vh --1AhXl [ Wtur -'F Widr -.Wev(hsst . and after algebraic manipulation. neglecting the output-drain density variation over time. Differentiating with respect to the time.Wodr -.x3) .4) dt where mf and Q~ denote the mass of feedwater and the heat exchange of feedwater in the desuperheating area. Since mass conservation applies to the mass of water.hodr) + Wcon(hsw .Widr -.Q~ (10. Cme as temperature. dt Again. when the input drain is saturated. Now conservation of energy is applied to the subcooled fluid.3) from which the dynamics of x3 follow by setting hidr equal to the specific enthalpy of the saturated water at the pressure x2. This equation models the heat exchange in the desuperheating area. density. Derivation of the dynamic equation for x4. respectively.x4) q.AhXl )Psst. ms. following standard thermodynamic arguments for the heat exchange in the metal of the tube-bundle and denoting Ome. we have ms = (Vh -.2) - As the steam volume can be obtained from the total volume by subtracting the volume of the drain water.

Qc dx4 dt dx5 dt dx6 dt Wfw(X5 .x3) + AhXl--~.6) Wtur q. heat exchange in the draining area can be modelled.9) (10. we can assume the pressure of the desuperheated steam and the transformation from superheated into saturated steam to be punctiform. Derivation of the dynamic equationfor xs.Wodr .-. so we can write QA = Wtur(htur .x4) -~. As for xs.1) (lO.od)(eedx' -. where hsst is the bleeding enthalpy. Analogous to the derivation for x4.5) where Pe is the external circumference of the tubes.AhXl)(dPsst/dx2) 1 mw Widr(hidr -. assuming that.8) (10.11) .x3) (10.x 6 ) + Qc Xlmme dx2 ] (lO.1)-(10. Note that. More specifically.278 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Now. in the desuperheating area.~ ' G d ( 6 9d -.QA LAmme Wfw(X6 .Wodr -.Wev .hsst).OodrA h (10. we can write QB ---. [~)d and 6) d are the temperatures in the drainage area and the metal in this area.QB LBmme Wfw(hfw .X3) + Wcon(hsw . Summing up.x5) -~. specific heat.Psst)Ah(dxl/dt) (Vh -.10) (10. by definition. although that for QB is somewhat more complex. the dynamic equation for x4 can be obtained. from (10. and ~9d is a suitable constant dependent on geometrical and thermal quantities related to the tubes. Derivation of the dynamic equation for x 6. respectively.5) we can write the equations that describe the nonlinear dynamics of a single heater: dxl dt dx2 dt dx3 dt Widr + Wcon .(Podr -.Widr -. the temperature of the feedwater coincides with that of the metal. like thermal resistance and conductance. leading to the derivation of a similar relation to QB for Qc.7) -Wev(hsst . heat exchange in the condensing area is modelled. and so on.

and that may be caused. the condensates are completely drained and the pressure in the line is raised. we also describe in some detail the 'physical' modelling of the fault (in the other cases. while the plant follows the cycle of electric-power generation. (2) a regulator loop will close the drainage valves in heater 3 (these valves keep the level at the set-point value). that is. In the following. in the context of the general model previously developed.2. after checking that no water is contained in any part of the feed-heater cavity. Moreover.2. in the case of a plant malfunction. the malfunction has no consequences that can be interpreted immediately: in the feed heater where the burst tube occurred and in the upstream ones. Moreover. As long as the control system does not succeed in compensating for the variation in the rate of flow. This allows us to stress once again the importance of developing an accurate model of the complex system and minimising simplifying hypotheses. In the following paragraphs. This increase will soon be compensated for by the regulation system through a positive variation in the opening of the drainage valve in heater 2 and a possible opening of the valve in the drainage expansion tank. they are of notable interest. moreover.3. For such a check. if the burst of a tube occurs in heater 3. This complex procedure points out the importance of diagnostics that allow the on-line detection of such malfunctions. such behaviour may involve measure variations that are comparable with those recorded during normal functioning. the water coming from the feed pump is made to circulate in the tube-bundle.3 Fault and malfunction modelling In the following. it is necessary to remove the line from the thermal cycle. The most visible effects of this fault concerns the levels and pressures inside the feed heaters. at present. According to technicians expert in power plants. the main malfunctions that may occur in a line of high-pressure heaters are described and examples of the related dynamics are given. we assume that the feedwater reaches the draining area. 10. as they involve significant operational effects. a smaller amount of steam will condense. thus reducing the steam bled from the turbine (the pressure and the amount of steam are regulated through the fall in pressure between the turbine stage and the heater). The decrease will activate the system that controls the level of the drum: this system will request a higher rate of flow from the feed pumps located at the rear of the line of high-pressure heaters. Therefore. For example.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 279 10. such a modelling phase is straightforward). the considered faults are the most frequent ones. if the level moves too far from the set-point value. For example. the three kinds of faults under concern are discussed from a physical viewpoint and. the reduction in flow through feed heater 4 will decrease the capability of the feedwater to cool the steam bled from the turbine. whereas in the downstream heaters.1 Tube bursting inside a high-pressure feed heater This malfunction causes the feedwater to flow into the external jacket. for example. the opposite occurs for pressure. in order to ascertain a leak in the tube-bundle (see the discussion below). with two main consequences: (1) it will cause the internal pressure to rise. by . the levels tend to rise. the levels tend to fall. an immediate increase in the level in this component follows. Therefore. the system will decrease the rate of flow of the water in heater 4 before the water reaches the boiler.

Xleak)Wleak and hence Xleak -hleak -.280 Thermal power plant simulation and control a variation in the load on the turbine.hsw where hleak coincides with x6. as follows: Wleak m_ Y V ~ f w -. If we denote Wfw~nand Wfwout as the input and output flows of the heater where the leaking tube occurred. In particular. we can describe the liquid level dynamics inside the heater as dxl dt Widr + Wcon -. i. the flow Wleak can be calculated by considering the fall in water pressure while passing from the bundle into the cavity. becomes saturated. Under the assumption that the burst of the tube occurred in the condensation area so that all the fluid coming out of the tube bundle flows in the drainage area.Wodr -. the multiplicative factor g defines the ratio of fluid coming out of the tube bundle versus the percentage of fluid flowing in the tube-bundle before reaching the fault point. If we assume that the fluid. from the mass conservation equation we can describe the dynamics of the pressure inside . the enthalpy of the feedwater in the subcooled area. As the tube bursts inside the heater. This makes the task of a diagnostic instrument particularly difficult. we can write Wfwin m_ Wfwout + Wleak where Wleak denotes the flow of the fluid coming out of the tube-bundle.12) where Pfw is the pressure of the feedwater at the input of the tube-bundle (this pressure is assumed to be approximately equal to the pressure at the fault point) and x2 is the pressure inside the heater.Wev PodrAh WlWak PodrAh where WleWak the flow of the water from the tube-bundle.x2 (10. we can immediately notice that the flow of the feedwater is not constant along the tube-bundle. It is worth noting that the detection of a malfunction is not associated with a decrease in the rate of flow of the feedwater. the flow WleWakcan be calculated as follows: Wl~ak ~---(1 . For a given fall in pressure. In order to model the system behaviour when the burst of a tube occurs inside a feed beater. is once it has left the tube-bundle. as such a decrease is rapidly compensated for by the control system of the drum.e.hsw hsst . it is necessary to act directly on the equations that describe the dynamics of the system. Taking into account the term describing the fluid coming out of the tube-bundle.

AhXl)(dpsst/dx2) (Vh -. we can derive the equations for the enthalpies of the feedwater in the drainage area and in the condensation area. until the pump system is able to restore the feedwater flow.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 281 the heater as dx2 dt Wleak = Wtur + Widr -. More specifically. a feedwater leak in the tube-bundle of a heater causes a decrease in the levels of the downstream heaters and an increase in the faulty heater and those upstream. under the same operating conditions.Wodr -.01.(Podr -. The draining valve linking heater 2 then opens. the feedwater flow toward heater 4 decreases due to the leak. y = 0.AhXl)(dpsst/dx2) The enthalpy of the water coming out of the heater includes the contribution from the water exiting the tube bundle and flowing into the drainage area dx3 dt 1 F /Widr(hidr -. taking into account that the flow in the tube-bundle is no longer Wfw. as the effect of a fault in heater 1 propagates much less than the corresponding leak in heater 3. the pressure in heater 4 rises and the steam spillover falls.Wleak)(X6 -. Thus the cooling capabilities of heater 4 are reduced.05. At the same time. This difference arises from the position of the two heaters in the high-pressure line. in turn.12): y = 0 implies the absence of leaks. consistent with the above discussion.Wleak. 2 / = 0.x3) mw - - I dx2 +AhXl ~ where w w 7 Q c + Wleak • (hleak -. as indicated in Figure 10.05 results in a quite different behaviour in heaters 1 and 3. three different leak speeds were simulated: y = 0. after an initial transient due to the initialisation of the simulation. For example in Figure 10.03. means an increase in the leakage flow. with an increase in the condensate level of heater 2 and.x5) + QB LBmme The above modifications were inserted in the plant model and some simulations of the considered plant malfunction have been performed. as does the condensate level.Wleak)(X5 -.x3) . SO that dx4 dt dx5 dt (Wfw .Psst)Ah(dXl/dt) + (Vh -.Wev(hsst . In particular. but is Wfw . in heater 1.X3) J /hleak hlea = {[hsw kw if Xleak ~ 0 if Xleak > O. To sum up. note that a feedwater leak in the tube-bundle of heater 3 causes a fast increase in condensate level.5c.5.X4) + QA LAmme (Wfw . respectively. so an increase in y. It is worth noting that a similar malfunction due to a leakage with Y = 0. Finally. . consider again equation (10.x3) + Wcon(hsw .

(b) heater 2 with y = 0.5 Condensate levels o f heaters 1...4 I I -69.05..282 Thermal power plant simulation and control -66 .66.5 -70 -70.5 -- Heater 1 Heater2 Heater 3 Heater 4 --.- ~9.5 "~ c... g -68 2 -68..5 -67 -67. .2 .. . E E -69..01. 3 and 4 due to a plant malfunction is (a) heater 1 with y = 0..) -69. (c) heater 3 with y = 0.5 -71 0 20 40 60 8L0 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 O -69 ~9 - Heater 1 Heater2 Heater 3 Heater 4 --~59.6 t....03 . 2...2 b I i i i i i i i 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 Figure 10..8 -70 -70.04 and (d) heater 4 with y = 0.

..5 . ..'~ = -69..03 (continued) ..~ ....5 -71 0 20 40 IJ ~ ""-.5 -68 E --- Heater2 Heater 3 Heater 4 .5 "/! -69 • i. 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 -67 Heater 1 -67. _--_ V i I 60 80 Time (s) 100' 120 140 160 Figure I0.5 -70 -70... (b) heater 2 with y = 0.. .... . \ Heater 1 Heater2 Heater 3 Heater 4 I' r \" \. ...5 Condensate levels of heaters 1.'~ ~67. 2. and (d) heater 4 with y = 0.5 -69 o 283 I1..5 o -70 -70.5 -67 .01.. 3 and 4 due to a plant malfunction in (a) heater 1 with )/ = 0..5 -71 0 20 40 i i~ -- ~ ' .05.~ -68 -68.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line -66 -66. I'/L/-'-~: .05. g ~ -68. (c) heater 3 with y = 0. i -69. 1 ---.

e. in that the control of each heater is based just on the level measure. and completely closed. If. observe that when the draining fault from heater 4 towards heater 3 occurs. 10. a loss of liquid occurs and the condensate level of heater 3 falls instead of rising like in the other simulation runs of Figure 10. simulated system behaviour will not differ from before. let us assume that the level in heater 3 is . the actuator position will be very close to the steady-state one.6a and b. or the degasser. the level was below the set-point value. the condenser. this means that. The controller will utilise a relative level measure. Like the previous malfunction. In this case. the actuator position will be such as to make the level rise. specified for each heater on the basis of optimal performance .e. as in Figure 10. giving rise to the action of the regulator.2. Then. which occurs when the actuator no longer responds to the control signals sent by the regulator.6. due to the feedforward action of the regulator. In order to better understand the problem above. the malfunction of a level sensor is very significant. or between a heater and the recovery cavity. too.095 m for the subcooling area. i. the level measured with the reference to the nominal value.2 This type of malfunction may affect one of the valves that regulates the drainage flow between two heaters. the role of the drainage outflow will remain constant and equal to the rate just before the position block (the pressure in the cavity.284 Thermal power plant simulation and control Fault or m a l f u n c t i o n o f a valve 10. if the actuator is blocked after the transients have occurred. But this rise will continue even after the level has risen above the set-point value. which stabilises around the desired value.e. i.6b). Figure 10. As a consequence.6d shows how the condensate levels of the heaters vary when a locked position of D4 is simulated. the level of heater 3 decreases until it becomes lower than its set-point value. thus decreasing the level inside this heater. as soon as the level falls below the set-point value. the effects of the block will show themselves slowly and.3. As a consequence. Consistent with the above general discussion.2. over a non-negligible time interval. at that instant. the level of heater 4 increases after temporarily falling beneath the set-point value.6b shows the effect of a position block on the drainage valve of heater 2 (i.6c shows what happens when the valve D3 breaks in open position.3 Malfunction of a sensor A sensor malfunction may affect the level sensors as well as the temperature. Moreover. Figure 10. In particular. the drainage expansion tank.3.2). from the instant at which the fault occurred. and involves other quantities. A typical valve malfunction is a position block or jamming. Let us now describe the simulations of such faults in heaters 3 and 4. completely open. under such conditions. one will notice a ramp with a positive slope in the measure of the level in heater 2 (see Figure 10. as. the malfunction of a valve affects the levels and pressures inside the heaters. The regulator feedforward action will open the drainage valve in heater 3. the actuators oscillate with little overshoot as compared with the largest variations. in the drainage expansion tank and in heater 2 being the same). In practice. Note that.7 0 mm versus the nominal height of 4. D2 in Figure 10. the feedback regulator will control the valve in such a way as to bring the level back to the value desired. pressure or flow sensors. Figure 10. The position of the actuator may be locked in three different ways: in the same position as when the fault happens.

6 8 . 2.7 0 mm and given as reference error to the PI controller. (b) D2. Therefore. we can write e = y _ y d . and e the input error to the PI block.5 • - - -68 •~ . 3 and 4 due to a locked position of actuators: (a) El. This measurement is subtracted from the value . if the relative error was . If y is the relative level measure of the sensor. thus decreasing the level in the heater. -66 pSSSJsjs -67 .. (c) D3 and (d) D4 considerations. if the sensor had introduced (due to a malfunction) a measure affected by an . However. the PI regulator will see a positive input error equal to + 5 mm. 5 O 69 -69.5 a 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 -64 - Heater 1 Heater2 Heater 3 Heater 4 -65 --.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 285 -67 -- Heater 1 Heater2 Heater 3 -67. yd the level desired. • - .6 Condensate levels of heaters 1..6 5 mm./ 68 ~ -69 -70 I I l I I 0 b 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 Figure 10.5 -70 -70.. and will tend to open the valve.

. Heater 1 Heater 2 Heater 3 Heater 4 -20 E E -40 -60 -80 ... .286 Thermal power plant simulation and control .-/ f- _ -100 \ / -120 / 0 d 20 ' 4 'o 6b 80 ' Time (s) 100 ' 1~ 0 140 ' 160 ' Figure 10. .. (c) D3 and (d) D4 (continued) .. . Heater Heater Heater Heater 1 2 3 4 -200 0 C i 20 10 i0 i i i t 40 8 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 20 °o. 3 and 4 due to a locked position of actuators: (a) El.1 0 0 I -- - \ -150 I • -....\ \ ~ ]. 2.6 Condensate levels of heaters 1.. (b) D2. . ~" .. • o 0 .

Thus a sensor malfunction stresses the action of the regulators.7 0 mm. in this situation. If e is the offset introduced by the malfunction we have e = (y + e) yd = y _ (yd _ ~. and .(--70) = --5 mm.9 0 mm.7. both threshold signals and the decision logic need proper adjustments to reduce false alarms. Then it is easy enough to fix thresholds and design a decision logic for fault recognition. of . where is the relative measure affected by the offset.yd = --75 -. what happened is equivalent to the operation of changing the set-point by + 1 0 mm. the presentation of the identification method will be initially non-specific and only later on will it be specialised to the considered power plant. Warning signals. . the regulator would have closed the valve. Clearly. can then be generated after comparison with threshold levels. which can be easily obtained by applying standard techniques for numerical discretisation of continuous-time systems. 90 mm. the plant technicians can predict typical system behaviour for the various kinds of faults. The simulation results suggest that it is possible to detect the occurrence of plant faults by properly processing the measured signals. The complexity of the decision logic depends on the number of faults to be detected and on the experience in plant operation. In practice. Accordingly.2. Moreover.3 0 mm. The behaviour of the condensate levels and other measurable state variables. Remark 1. appear strongly correlated with the kind of fault acting on the system. 60 mm. . This task will be accomplished by means of an identification method based on stochastic approximation. The model described in this section can be used to generate the outputs of the measurable variables and to compare them with the outputs of the plant affected by the fault. Of course. which will be the subject of the next section. for example.) Therefore.3 Grey-box modelling and identification of a power plant In this section. thus increasing the level in the heater up to a relative position of . As to the simulation of sensor faults.7 0 mm and e = 0. It is worth noting again that this type of fault is entirely equivalent to a variation (of equal magnitude but opposite in sign) in the level set-point. until steady-state conditions are reached. 10. for the sake of clarity. . we will consider the problem of refining the non-linear model of a plant like that presented in section 10. such as the pressure of each heater. We will refer to a discretetime representation of the above-described model. Moreover. additive errors on the measures provided by the level sensors were simulated: the errors were set at 30 mm. it is important to construct the model as accurately as possible. the system evolves as if the relative value desired were not equal to yd but to (yd _ e). as depicted in Figure 10. the PI regulator would have received the input difference e = ~ .6 0 mm.10 mm versus the actual relative level.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 287 offset. ~ = .

2...t I I ~ t~ g -75 ~ -- Heater 1 H e a t e r 2 -80 -85 o ."'"---Z \ -120 / I / -140 0 - ~ ...2 0 mm on the level sensor of heater 2.. Heater 3 Heater 4 ~" / ~ " o 4o -80 i). " ~ . (b) an additive fault of +60 mm on the level sensor of heater 3 ....288 Thermal power plant simulation and control -60 -65 -70 E t I . . . . 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 Figure 10. 3 and 4 due to (a) an additive fault of .Heater 2 - . 7 Condensate levels of heaters 1.- . t. Heater 3 Heater 4 -90 -95 -100 0 I i i L i J 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 0 I -20 • \ -Heater 1 .

. for a given initial state and a given time instant t. . . Xt A_~COI(. . consistent with the grey-box approach. the large variations in the plant over time may give rise to non-negligible errors in some model subsystems.3. we consider two main types of uncertainty affecting the model: (i) uncertainties in the mathematical structure and (ii) uncertainties in parameter values. we define the following cost function t j t ( y l . . we obtain the following approximate model to be identified: : /~t+l = f(Yct. the above model generally includes a significant number of simplifying hypotheses regarding the mathematical structures of individual blocks and the values of particular parameters. The identification problem can be stated as the following parametric-functional optimisation problem. in order to identify the model (10. NOW. j = 1. Such techniques would allow the development of a more accurate model that might be simulated in parallel with the plant. . Therefore. . j = 1. O) (10.14). More specifically.~M). and Yt represents the vector of measurable variables.14) [ ~. when large complex plants are considered.. M. the vector # contains all the unknown mathematical and physical parameters. #) : y~ i=t-N IlYi -. despite the intrinsic complexity of the plant.Yi II2 (10. ut represents the input vector.13) where xt represents the state vector. with obvious advantages for supervision tasks. . . M. O) where f and/~ implicitly depend on yJ(YcJ). The uncertainties in the mathematical structure can be represented by using a set of unknown functions y J ( f c J ) . and $:J is the part of the state vector corresponding to the j-th section. . it would be useful to employ techniques that make it possible to reduce modelling errors. .Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 10. ut. . . . Thus. Unfortunately. . In many cases. . where M represents the number of subsystems characterised by a partially/totally unknown structure. Ut) E : I yt = h ( x t ) (10. yM.15) where N is the size of the time window and P is a given positive definite matrix. . = h(~.1 A general approach to grey-box identification o f a plant 289 Consider a discrete global model of a plant whose dynamics can be described by the following equations: Xt+l : f ( x t . As far as (ii) is concerned.~]. .

find the optimal functions y 1°. Actually./3~.. the vector w = col(w j. in the next section. the exact . exhibit powerful approximating capabilities (Barron.u . .~J. and. . such that the cost function (10./3) f~ : 1~. we have chosen non-linear approximators based on feedforward neural networks. 10. . find the optimal value of the parameter/3°. Clearly. Accordingly. At time t. above all.290 Thermal power plant simulation and control Problem 1. . = h(~. j = 1. . In particular. .2 A solution method via the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm The data samples provided by the available sensors and of the other accessible signals of the plant may be used for the on-line estimation of the vector/3. we require the following approximate parametric model to be identified: [-~t+l 7 f ( x t . . . we present an algorithm to solve it in an approximate way. y M° and the optimal parameter set 0 °. As a result. . Problem 1 entails the solution of non-linear functional optimisation problems. . .16) Jt(~): Hence. such that the cost (10.15) is minimised for every possible set of measures Yt-N. Yt" Problem 1 has been reduced to the parametric optimisation Problem 2. the functions ). . the cost function takes on the form (10. for the aforesaid reasons. . where ~J is the input/output mapping of a multilayer feedforward neural network and w j is a vector of parameters to be selected. ut. as these approximators are computationally easy to handle. 1993). .3.17) Problem 2. . Among various possible approaches. This can be done by applying a descent algorithm. At time t. . wj).17) is minimised for every possible set of measures Y t . j = 1. if 13 ~ col(w. 0) is the total parameter vector. j (~J) are approximated by parametrised functions of the form ~J (. . M) represents the weight vectors of all the neural networks approximating the unknown functional parts of the model. the general assumptions under which Problem 1 has been stated prevent us from solving it in an analytical way. However. and. Yt. A Now. . Our approach consists of assigning the unknown functions defined in Problem 1 for which a certain number of parameters have to be determined in order to minimise cost. . M. . we have the following Z i=t-N IlYi--YiII2P (lO.

the most significant features of this algorithm will be summarised for the reader's convenience (see Figure 10. Spall and Cristion. instead of standard finite difference stochastic approximation (FDSA) techniques. instead of the 2p perturbations necessary for the computation of the approximation to g~ (p = dim(fl)).. 1994). 1994).8 Scheme of the tuning algorithm gradient of the expected cost cannot be computed. which represents a common characteristic of neural network training. respectively. is motivated by the fact that only two perturbations are needed. the l-th component of gk(/~k-1) is given by ?(+) gkl(flk-1) -~k+N ^(-) -. The algorithm can be written as flk=flk-l--akGk.. Analogous stochastic convergence properties are however maintained. 1992. In the following. given the large number of parameters to be estimated. k=0. GO = 0 (10.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 291 Figure 10.8).CkAkotk and ~1 + ck AkOtk.18) where Gk is a smoothed approximation to gk (ilk) ix V# k E (Jk+N) of the form Gg = pkGk-I + (1 - Pk)gk(flk-1).Jk+N 2ck Akl ^(-) ^(+) (10.20) where Jk+N and Jk+N are two observations corresponding to the parameter perturbations [Jk -. and hence a stochastic approximation approach has to be followed.. We chose the smoothed simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (Spall and Cristion. (10.1 . The use of the smoothed SPSA algorithm. . 1992. Akt are suitable random variables k and {Ck} is a sequence of positive scalars that satisfy some regularity conditions (Spall.19) where gk is the so-called simultaneous perturbation approximation to gk (see Spall. More specifically. for the original definition of the unsmoothed simultaneous perturbation technique). The fundamental computational advantage is of basic importance.

3.292 Thermal power plant simulation and control Grey-box modelling and identification of the high-pressure heater line 10.2 in order to reduce the aforesaid uncertainty during the plant operation.9 Scheme of the global grey-box model . it would be very useful to employ the technique presented in section 10. Hence two main types of uncertainty affecting the developed model are considered: 1. For example. Uncertainties in parameter values. This assumption may turn out to be very simplistic. Other approximations about the mathematical structure are inherent in the use of steam tables and in the various transformation functions. In this respect. consider the global scheme in Figure 10. we have used thermodynamic constants and geometrical parameters that are not known with precision and that 2. but that do not affect the generality of the proposed methodology. Therefore. For example. the quantities related to the other parts of the power plant have been assumed to be proportional to unit load. In many cases.3.9. the large variations plant behaviour over time may give rise to non-negligible errors in some model subsystems that cannot be accessed by the available sensors. The former are effectively black-box models. Uncertainties in the mathematical structure.9. we refer to completely unknown and approximately known structures. In Figure 10. l xl yr I Matrix • ym I XS xS X1 Block with known structure and known parameters I ~ ~. d* . while the latter are made of known and unknown subblocks. Such a scheme includes sections that are specific for the plant model considered.3 The complex model described in section 10.~1 Block with approximately known structure Block with uncertain paramete~ Unknown block Figure 10.2 includes a large number of simplifying hypotheses about both the mathematical structures of some blocks and the values of different parameters. as previously stressed. This classification framework is very useful in the application considered here and may also have general applicability.

the steam tables and enthalpy-temperature conversion have been modelled by means of neural networks. Regulator block: anti-wind-up action and control saturation. which have to be estimated on the basis of the measures provided by the available sensors of the plant: (i) parameters of the model parts whose mathematical structures are assumed to be accurate enough.16). The list of the above non-linearities for each block include as follows: Input block: load saturation.g. A one obtains a model like (10. we have developed an analogous model whose parameters had yet to be tuned. thermal capacities of the various metals used. However. The simulator on which the global model (including the neural networks) has been implemented can be connected to the FIP (Fieldbus Internet Protocol) automation system of the power plant (Alessandri and Parisini. 1997). etc. inaccessible model parts can be estimated to a reasonable accuracy by the proposed tuning method only via simulation.2. thus allowing one to measure even the inaccessible internal model pans. As clearly stated in section 10. the heights in the desuperheating areas have been estimated as unknown parameters. We aimed to ascertain if the proposed methodology makes it possible to tune the model parameters and if the internal parts are estimated correctly. In parallel. which make it necessary to use the tuning algorithm presented in sections 10. the model includes several non-linearities placed in the different blocks depicted in Figure 10. where x = col(x/. Elaboration block: square-root functions in the output feedwater sections. x s) represents the state A vector (dim(x) = 71). Transformation block: steam tables and square-root functions in the output feedwater sections. x A. the components of the vector 0). For the actuators. the actuators. By replacing all the parts affected by uncertain functioning with neural networks. we used neural networks with two input units. Furthermore. Such a simulated model has then been regarded as a real system. Therefore.9. together with their approximate values based on the expertise of plant technicians.1.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 293 may vary during the plant operation (e. More specifically.). w is the total vector of the synaptic weights of all the neural networks.3. two distinct types of quantities have been identified. Sensors block: water level saturation. yr) represents the vector of the measurable variables (dim(y) = 34). y = col(y m. and 0 is the vector of the unknown mathematical and physical parameters. In addition. (1995) list the parameters (i. we have developed an emulator of the physical model validated against the real plant.e.3.1 and 10. four hidden units and one . Gugliemi et al.3. This allows the on-line tuning of the model parameters. pipe diameters. Actuators block: rate limiters and saturation. and (ii) synaptic weights of the neural networks that describe the model parts whose mathematical structures are very approximate.

Moreover.1 and P = 0. The effectiveness of the method can be seen in Figures 10.7 .1 x I . i 200 100 150 Iterationstep 200 0 50 100 150 Iterationstep Figure 10.294 Thermal power plant simulation and control output unit. for the steam table.5 distributed. As to the cost function (10.10 and 10.5 2 0 50 3 2. we chose experimentally N ----.10 Estimation of the heights of the desuperheating areas .O04/k 0"602.11. for the table of the enthalpy-temperature conversion.5 1 Heater 1 j f Heater 2 2. 15 hidden units and four output units.5 1 f 50 100 150 Iterationstep Heater 3 200 # 50 100 150 Iterationstep Heater 4 200 3. I . . satisfactory convergence of the parameters to their true constant values were obtained after only 250 iteration steps. we chose ak = 0. For the parameters of the smoothed SPSA algorithm.5/k°'6°3. 20 hidden units and 10 output units. the height in the desuperheating areas for the four heaters. 6 / k 0"101. ck = 0 . .10 gives the behaviour of four estimated parameters. where I is the identity matrix. the scalars Otk were suitably chosen according to the magnitude of the a priori estimated values of the corresponding parameters.e. we used neural networks with 10 input units.9 2. i.17). so guaranteeing the fulfilment of the main regularity assumptions made by Spall and Cristion (1994).5 2 ~'~ 1.12 shows a comparison between the actual behaviour of the 2. Figure 10. Figure 10.8 2. As can be seen. Figure 10. and Pk = 0.5 3 2. We assumed the perturbations Aki to be Bernoulli -4-0. we used neural networks with eight input units.11 shows the norm of the error in the state variables between the 'real' simulated plant and the model approximation.5 2 1. for all four heaters.

10. the on-line simulation and tuning of such a complex dynamic model may not be feasible in some power plant automation systems.1 Problem statement We refer to the state estimation methodology presented by Alessandri et al. .Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line f i i i i 295 5. Let us consider the discrete-time system Xt+l : f ( x t .000 iteration steps. here we focus on the problem of estimating the state variables for a single heater (Alessandri et al. However.4. ~t). (10. In this respect. after 1. As a concluding remark.5 e@ 4. 2002). Therefore.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Iteration step 700 x__ 80 9 0 1000 Figure 10..11 Behaviour of the estimation error during the learning procedure water level in the condensing area and the estimated value in heater 1. (1997).21) . . t = 0.4 A general approach to receding-horizon estimation for non-linear systems This section presents an approach to estimation that is well suited to the plant described in section 10. 10. Specifically. .2. it is important to emphasise that an accurate non-linear model like the one developed so far could be very helpful to monitor on-line state variables that are significant in terms of fault diagnosis. a technique which can provide such estimates would be very useful. in the next section. Ut. 1 . a moving-horizon estimation algorithm will be presented.

specific enthalpy of output feedwater in heater 1 (b). temperature of output feedwater in heater 2 (c).12 Comparison between the predicted (dashed line) and true (continuous line) behaviour of the condensate level in heater 1 (a). and spillover temperature in heater 4 (d) .296 Thermal power plant simulation and control -lO -20 E E -30 -40 e~ -50 -60 -70 -80 o \ i i i i 0 10 15 Time (s) 20 25 30 786 785 784 783 ~ 782 ~ 781 780 779 778 0 ' 5 i i i i 10 b 15 Time (s) 20 25 30 Figure 10.

12 5 10 15 Time (s) 20 25 30 Comparison between the predicted (dashed line) and true (continuous line) behaviour of the condensate level in heater 1 (a).Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 297 200 180 160 140 o~120 i 100 I I I/11//////"/ I J /! / / I 5 ~ 8o 60 40 20 0 0 1'0 15 ' Time (s) 2~0 25 ' 30 450 400 350 3OO o // 77 / 250 ~200 150 100 50 I I I I L i o d Figure 10. and spillover temperature in heater 4 (d) (continued) . temperature of output feedwater in heater 2 (c). specific enthalpy of output feedwater in heater 1 (b).

and ~i determined at the instant t. Ut-1. and of the 'prediction' i ' t .t-1. " " . ~P(Z). . Note that.u + ' ._N+l. of the controls Ut-N .. and I/t are defined on suitable probability spaces. Y t . respectively. Yt..N . we introduce the following general estimation cost. qgl(Z). ~O(Z). Y t + I ' U t . Ut) and generate the new estimates 3gi°. ~o.lli-l. To this end. (10.298 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control where xt E X C 1~ n is the state vector (the initial state x0 6 X0 C 1R is unknown).[Xit--f(Jgi-l... . . and in the magnitudes of the measurement and process noise. A ^o Yt. t]. ~ . . The random vectors x0. in the observation model.i'. ~t. and 11it are the estimates of xi. .= x i=t-N t t ¢P[IIYi-h(. . the estimator has a finite memory. .~i--l. 1997). . .. up to this time instant.t+l . All these functions are assumed to be sufficiently smooth (class C 3) enabling application of the proposed method (Alessandri et al. which can be regarded as a non-quadratic generalisation of the classical least squares loss function t s. X(Z). :78 = X0.t.U = Xt-N. We assume the statistics of these random noises to be unknown. . t=N.23) where N > 1 is the number of measurements made within a 'sliding window' [t . respectively. with X(0) = ~p(0) = ~0i(0) = ~(0) = ~Pl (0) = 0. in the state equation model. Ut-1). equivalently. .N . the state esti^o N mates Xit are computed on the basis of I t .24) where 2~_ N = X t _ N . N + 1 state estimates have been computed. ~it. . we can refer to the new information vector I N 1 = col (.ffit. and this leads us to take the classical least squares approach.. and :tit. The same mechanism is used at the successive stages.. $.t)} i=t-N+l + E i=t-N ~ r l ( ~it ) . Ut-N . but only YCt_N+I. . . t is retained for the next estimates.~t_U. . . and ~Pl(z) are increasing functions for z _> 0. o t = N. it)H] +Z i=t-N t-I E v. Consequently. the model estimates are based on recent data. t _ 1 denotes the prediction o f x t _ N. t = 0.N-i : -~0 denotes an a priori prediction. .i. . . or. At the time instant t. ~01. N + 1 .N + I . on the basis of the measures Y t . Y t . and ~t 6 ~ C ~q the random noise vector. n t/t E U C ]1~ is the control vector. . When the measures Yt+l and ut become available. 1 . (10.22) where Yt E Y C II~p is the observation vector and 1/t 6 H C ~[~r is the random measurement noise vector. ..N+I . The functions X. Of course. our approach has to be statistical. Let us define the information vector I N A col(. The estimation procedure performs as follows.. . The m state vector is observed through the noisy measurement equation Yt = h ( x t . and ~1 have to be regarded as penalty functions by which we express our beliefs in the prediction -~t-N. / / t ) .N. (10. . Moreover.

.13.N . simplified structures of these estimation functions.N+2 .2 A m e t h o d to f i n d approximate solutions ^o ^o ^o Deriving analytically the solution for Problem 3 is. t] are simply given by X i + l . we want to determine the optimal functions ait (. P r o b l e m 3. ~ i t ) . . . .N is depicted in Figure 10. Of course.N . . Such functions have to be derived off-line and stored in the estimator's memory so as to generate the optimal estimates almost instantly. i = t -.t .t At any stage t = N. an almost impossible task. ~it. find the optimal estimation functions t-1 . and cit (. t ~i Nt.). J' ~ °it = b Ott~: '. More specifically.13 Structure of the neural estimator A possible way to determine the optimal estimates consists in solving on-line. The estimators characterised by this computation property will be called 'estimation functions' throughout the chapter. . Instead we shall resort to an approximation technique that consists in assigning . . N + 1 . we have to solve the following. this approach entails a heavy on-line computational load. where a different approach is proposed.).4. The minimisations are linked sequentially by the optimal predictions -o ^o ^o t ~ t = a to. + l i Xt_ N = f(Xt_N_l. Instead of the optimal vectors J i t . Clearly. . .t_ 1. which may turn out to be unacceptable. and ~it. ^o Xt-N. the other optimal state estimation functions within the window [t . .). . The resulting estimation scheme for the neural estimator at t ---. t .N .23) under constraints (10. . and ~it constitute the optimal solution. t. where the vectors ui are omitted for the sake of simplicity. Y i. as pointed out by Alessandri et al. u i ). (2002). Yi).I. ~it. ~t-N-l.toi t . 10. . t = f ( x i t . lgi. . bit (. x oo = f ¢ O C XO. ~ i°t.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 299 X0 [--'7"1 Xl Yl A XO~~/A ' ~ tll x~(~ T XN ~N-l ?IN ~ YN | I "~ICN~_~ ~N Figure 10. a non-linear programming problem of which (for the specific information vector I N acquired at time t) -tit. respectively. i ---. . "''' ^o t . that minimise cost (10.I .i =t-N.N . Alessandri et al. U t .l. andllit = c°t(x°t. which determine the values ° f xit. in general. at any temporal stage. (2002).21). . we have not addressed these functions in Problem 3. and qit. For this reason.t-1).N. t=N+I.

Yi. bit(xit.l . . t t 10b. lOta N . y~. In the approximate estimation functions. wCt).21). In the former situation..t.. N ÷ 2 . we constrain the estimation functions to take on fixed structures of the form u~-l). llOb. t. (10. i = t-. y~V. Find the vector W°N that minimises the expected cost E N x o .. if the statistics are known. . . io.N . we may distinguish between two situations: (1) optimisation at stage N. . in such functions the predictions 2 t .e. .U in general differ from the optimal ones i t _ N . ""' t- 1 (10..25). Actually.24)). (10. .27) ~iit : c ( i i t .. .25). and (2) optimisation at stages t = N + 1.t(It N ). the cost _ t. and wCt. UOV-1). Y t . t : ~ l ( l N . .. t ' llOt .u o N-1 Ju(Wu. it_N. (10.14). . To sum up. i = t . We .l. at stage N._N. Then we can go on and consider stages t = N + 1.26) (10.l as random variables uniformly distributed on U N and compute the average of JN with respect to them. to an unconstrained non-linear programming problem that can be solved by some descent algorithm. we may also interpret u~v . .l . where wt = col(lOt_N. since we have to eliminate the dependence of the optimal value of WN on the control vector u N . :20.N ' Ut-IN ). a parameter vector WN has been computed (somewhat arbitrarily). measures and controls) that become available. . As to the optimisation of the approximate estimation functions.27) into (10.27). t ) (10.. Wbit.25) ~it = [~(iit.N .X. ' "''' . at stage N. i = t . Y it l ' + Uit . it may be reasonable to regard them as random variables uniformly distributed on the compact sets from which they take their values.N . y o . .. since we have assumed the statistics of the primitive random variables to be unknown. then we have iN A col(i. Then it is possible to compute the expected value of the cost JN(WN. are the a vectors of the parameters to be optimised. due to the introduction of the fixed-structure estimation functions (10. Consequently.27) have turned out to be available. one can take a correct average).. uN-1) and to minimise this expected cost with respect to YON (of course. Clearly.25). . t where Wt_u. the information vector I ~ replaces I ~ (see (10. where the estimation functions can be improved on the basis of the data (i. More specifically. Yi+I.300 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control o o ^o t and given structures to the estimation functions at_N... tt Off-line initialisation (OFI) procedure. ci°t ('¢ci°t. t. OFI and ONT procedures can be defined (Figure 10. i t .26) and (10. In the same way.N .26) and (10. hence the estimation process may begin. and the (provisional) estimators of the form (10. i = t .' A function takes on the form Jt(wt.. t . Problem 3 has been approximated. a certain number of parameters must be determined in order to minimise the estimation cost.23). ~ t-1 = Y t . .I ' w/bt). N ÷ 2 . (10.26) and (10. t c t lIJ c ). . Yi)" In such structures.N ' Ut-N)" If we now substitute (10.N .N .

N .u o N N-I JN[ION(k). u N. y N .3. (1990). u~v (k)] instead of the gradient expression appearing in (10. 1 .Yo .4.~(0) o 0 ~ N t y~(|). . y ~ (k).xo.ION(k)--ot(k)VwuJN[iON(k).28). in Polyak and Tsypkin (1973) and Benveniste et al. for example. (10. yI~. . For our problem. Some of these conditions are related to the decreasing behaviour required for the step-size or(k) (in the example given in section 10.28) where ot is a positive constant step-size and k denotes the iteration step of the descent procedure. This leads us to compute the 'realisation' VwN JN[WN(k).29) where the sequence {xo(k).l ( k ) ] .29) belongs to the class of 'stochastic approximation' algorithms. } is generated randomly on the basis of the above-mentioned uniform probability density functions. k : 0 . in lieu of (10. ff NO-I(1) N t Pattern Y t . we are unable to express E xo. . The other conditions ION(k+1) ~. . x0(k). 1. The probabilistic algorithm (10. k = 0. cl.xo. c2 > 0.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 301 Patterns y N(0). . R e m a r k 2.uN-1]. . Then. the gradient algorithm can be written as follows l O N ( k + l ) : iON(k)--OtVWN E N N-I X o .U o JN[ION(k). we consider the updating algorithm k = 0. 1. u~v . this will enable us to introduce the concept of 'stochastic approximation' in a straightforward way). yU(k). which satisfies such conditions). . (10. . . y o .14 The OFI and ONT procedures focus our attention here on gradient algorithms mainly for their simplicity (as we shall see. Sufficient conditions for the convergence of these algorithms can be found.28). However. we take (k) = Cl/(C2 + k). due to the general statement of the problem. Ut N 0 N t OFI procedure 01 N N+ 1 t-N ONT procedure t~ Figure 10. . u N-' ] in explicit form. u U . J:0(k). yU(k).I (k).

30) where £Ct-u = f ( ~ C t .l ) .N . since we shall choose feedforward neural networks for the structures of the estimation functions (10.e. Back-propagation may be used to train the neural networks.14). Among various possible non-linear approximators. It is worth noting that the approximate method proposed for the solution of Problem 4 is aligned with the requirement (stated in Remark 2) of performing off-line as many computations as possible so as to minimise the on-line computational load. It is well known that on-line gradient-based techniques are extensively used for parameter identification. U t . N + 1. the reader is referred to Alessandri et al. 1994). when the sliding window is moved to stages N ÷ 1.25). (see Figure 10. update the weight vector by one step o f the algorithm lot+l = 10t -. For neural network weights to be tuned. which have been established for the updating algorithms presented by Srinivasan et al.1 t . N + 2 . In general.29) gives rise to a tuning procedure when the on-line estimation process begins. (1994). Ut--N)' ^ t = N.N . we are not able to give convergence results for the ONT procedure. we have chosen multilayer feedforward neural networks thanks to their very interesting approximation properties. . A discussion on this issue is beyond the scope of the present chapter. 1997 for details). . . instead. However. t-1 Y t . . t .302 Thermal power plant simulation and control are related to the shape of the cost surface.N and Ut_1N a r e not generated randomly. as it is easy to show that the use of multilayer networks leads to a multimodality of the cost surface that consists of the presence of a large number of global minima.N . On-line tuning (ONT) procedure.27). they are generated by the stochastic and control environment at each stage. t = Yco ~ Xo.29). Due to the very general framework within which Problem 3 has been stated. (10.N . such conditions are 'local' and may be unneccessary in the present situation. . this is not too severe a drawback for algorithm (10. . N + 1.I . . ~ t . The OFI procedure is implemented before the estimation process begins.l . For any t > N. As to local minima (Finnof. f C t .1 . There is also an interesting theoretical result reported by Finnof (1994). . a large amount of experimental results shows that they are seldom encountered. where it is claimed that algorithm (10..o l t V w t J t ( l o t . N ÷ 2 . (1997) and to the bibliography therein. . The updating algorithm (10. as our cost surfaces will always be multimodal. . (10. convergence results are available.26) and (10. i.29) is persistently perturbed by a Gaussian diffusion that makes it unlikely that the algorithm will get stuck in local minima having small and shallow basins of attraction. to find the values for initialisations of the gradients of the cost function in the OFI and ONT procedures (Alessandri et al. The tuning procedure differs from the initialisation t tone in the fact that the training vectors Y t . . that is.N . R e m a r k 3.

Sp. 1. However.t = htur q.0. 1087. 1.0.e. 5.t = 38.t = /3prey + f i t . htur. was developed by a first-order Euler approximation with a sampling time At = 0. and hfw = 1074. Yst. Y9t).Af(0.0. 0.0.2. i.0.4. where 7.e. 1386. for practical reasons.97 atm.f2t.0.0 × 10 -8. 3. fttur = 3367. L t = L -~. 1./3de t = 8. P0. . _Pprev.0. 1. 0. 1. 1. Sp = 100 per cent. Wfw. Indeed. i.1).6 kJ/kg.9. 10. 1242. i = 7. as compared with the . 20.0).2. and P~ = diag(0. 1.0. 8. L = 320MW.t = ~/fw -+-f6t.0. Px = diag(l.0.7 0 .Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 303 whereas the ONT procedure requires an on-line computation that consists only in the execution of a single step of the algorithm (10.fat.0). The process noise fit (i denotes the component and t is the temporal stage) were given by zero-mean random variables that were added to the steady-state input variables.f5t.30). 291.0) and Eo = diag(1.0.3. Yt = col(Y7t.6.0m3/s. 1979): the structure of Z~ and Eo ensure that/~t and 1/t effectively belong to suitable compact sets.3 Simulation results on state estimation in the power plant fourth heater A discrete state equation of the fourth heater. described in section 10. 1. 4. Widr.0. i.e. 20. 69. 0. It is worth noting that the weight matrices Py. 20.0 × 10 -8. The desired level in the simulation was set at 4.0. 1.0. 10. The stochastic variables were chosen Gaussian for a fair comparison with the EKF (Gelb. 4.1. 1.0.0. ff'fw = 146. 1. 1974.0.t = Sp -}.0..0 a t m .f3t. and hfw.0. We had to respect the fact that the statistics of the noise were unknown.0).t = 0 (since we deal with one of the last heaters.0 x 10 -9.9kJ/kg. 10. .0. 0.0. 1. t = 0. 10. as we shall see.0. P~ ----diag(10. Note also that a neural estimator optimised by the OFI procedure does not seem advisable. 10. The initial state vector x0 was randomly generated according to a Gaussian distribution with mean value co1(4026. 79.0.0. The process and measurement noise were mutually independent Gaussian white sequences with/it ~ A/'(0. 1293. Z~) and I/t ~ . where/Sprev. this does not degrade the behaviour of the neural estimator.23) was taken to be quadratic.5. 9. 0.0).7.01 s. heaters 4 or 8 in Figure 10.0. The cost function (10. 1.0.e. Z~). t i=t-N t i=t-N t-1 ^ i2 i=t--N where N = 18.t = f/fw-'l-f7t.0.0). and 9 are the state vector elements corresponding to the sensors. 1. .0. 8. The three measurement devices assumed linear.0. i. . 2. Training of the neural networks will then be inadequate if the dynamic characteristics of the system 'slow' compared with the width of the window.026 mm. where Z~ = diag(0.0.0. the width of the sliding window has to remain rather small. 249. and P~ were selected as distinct from X~-! and Z~-1. 6. Pdet. 1.0. Py ----diag(1. 10. 1084. Anderson and Moore.0.0). 10./3det q.t ~. 20.3) corresponding to the steady-state value of the state xt and covariance Y~x = diag (1.9. 1. Yit = Xit + T]it.0. 0. 5.

each containing one hidden layer of five units. From the diagrams of the RMS errors. . .304 Thermal power plant simulation and control EKF. . . . . . RMS estimation errors (averaged over 1000 trials) were considered. .29) was run for approximately one million steps). . instead. . . . The fact that the proposed neural estimation 15 :~ 50t / 30 5 0 0 _~. we took cl = 10 -7 and c2 = 100 (algorithm (10. Wodr (x2.--~'~_--__7. . . . . the RMS estimation errors for the first six state variables generated by the neural estimator and by the EKF are plotted. etc. we assumed ot = 10 -9. Due to the complexity of the system under consideration. from a heuristic point of view. . . . .. . x 11). . . . x4. . o 0 10 20 30 10 Time (s) 20 Time (s) 30 0 0 10 20 30 0 0 --10 Time (s) 20 Time (s) 30 Figure 10. . 30 100 ~ 50 ~7 5o 005 j:0 0 . . for the ONT procedure. In Figure 10. For the OFI procedure. However. such poor performance is likely to be ascribed to the large number of strong non-linearities present in the model. . Such non-linearities affect some state equation relationships and in functions like Wcon(x l. . . 0 10 20 Time (s) 0 10 20 Time (s) . . it is important to note the divergent behaviour of the EKF. . x2. . . All the approximate estimation functions were implemented by feedforward neural networks. To evaluate the performances of the neural estimator and to make comparisons with the EKF. . it is not easy to provide a theoretical explanation for this divergent behaviour.15 RMS estimation errors for selected state variables (continuous line for the EKE dashed line for the neural estimator) . xs). this does not happen for the neural estimator. .15.

....16 and 10...... True value Neural estimate EKF estimate 5 10 15 T i m e (s) 20 25 30 85 84 . and ( b ) cavity pressure.4040 4030 4020 4010 4000 0 a i i t i i i _ 305 . True value Neural estimate EKF estimate 80 79 78 77 -z 76 75 b ~. 1 15 T i m e (s) 20 25 30 Figure 10...... during the transient from a given initial state vector x0 to the steady-state..17.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 4100 4090 4080 4070 4060 ~" 4050 ~. X l .16 Behaviour of (a ) liquid level.... x 2. the estimates of most important state variables provided by the neural estimator and by the EKF are compared with the actual values. of heater 4 method does not involve any linearisation procedure seems to be the main reason for the better performance of the neural estimator as compared with the EKE Finally.... under .. 83 82 -" 2 . in Figures 10..

20 . . True value Neural estimate EKF estimate 1075 1070 0 5 1() 1'5 Time (s) 20 2'5 30 1100 1095 1090 1085 4t 1080 . 1075 True value Neural estimate EKF estimate 1070 0 5 10 ~ 15 Time (s) ..... x3. the d i v e r g e n t b e h a v i o u r o f the E K F is c o n f i r m e d . .....306 Thermal power plant simulation and control 1100 1095 1090~~ ~. w h e r e a s the neural e s t i m a t e s are v e r y c l o s e to their true values. 25 30 Figure 10...... A s can be seen. of heater 4 the action o f r a n d o m l y c h o s e n stochastic processes.~ 1085 1080 ..... x6.. .....17 Behaviour of(a) output drain specific enthalphy.. and (b)feedwater in subcooling area specific enthalpy.

815-836 ALESSANDRI. and PARISINI.: 'A case study of grey box identification'. and to the learning required for the design of the neural estimator. 1993. 750-757 ALESSANDRI. Man. its identification. A. 1997. R. B.. we have presented a complete overview of various methodologies. pp. T. and Cybernetics Part A: Systems and Humans. The low computational demand and good performance obtained with respect to the EKF suggest that the proposed estimator is well suited to being used in real power plant applications concerning process monitoring and fault detection over the long term. J.: 'Universal approximation bounds for superpositions of a sigmoidal function'. 1994a. 1997. Modelling provides the basis for designing estimators that give estimates of the state variables of the system for the purpose of fault diagnostics. 1979) BARRON. of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing 2002. J.: 'Neural approximations for nonlinear finite-memory state estimation'. (2). 15. 30. B. J. R. pp. IEEE Trans. 27. T. and accurate tool to supervise and predict how the plant performs on-line and to prevent dangerous and undesirable situations. starting with the construction of models of a power plant in normal and faulty conditions and continuing with its tuning by means of on-line grey-box identification. T. which.: 'Derivation of a 'designer's guide' for interactive 'grey box' identification of nonlinear stochastic objects'..: 'Sliding-window neural state estimation in a power plant heater line'.5 Conclusions In this chapter. J.: 'Nonlinear modelling of complex large plants using neural networks and stochastic approximation'. powerful. and ZOPPOLI. It is worth recalling that a lot of work has to be devoted to the construction of a model.. This effort provides a flexible. Int. PARISINI. Int. 930-945 BOHLIN.. The solutions of the problems have been obtained by reducing the original functional optimisation problem to a non-linear programming one. Control. T. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. A. on Systems.: 'Optimal Filtering' (Prentice Hall. as is well known. 275-302 ANDERSON. pp. New York.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 307 10. 1994b 59. R. Int. exhibit excellent approximation properties. 39. 10. O. and MOORE. Both grey-box identification and estimation were based on the combined use of neural network and stochastic approximation. T.6 References ALESSANDRI. 1505-1524 .. of Control. pp. and ZOPPOLI. A. This reduction was made possible by the use of feedforward neural networks. pp. 307-318 BOHLIN.. 67. PARISINI. D. Automatica. A.

97-109 GAWTHROP. R. (5). 213-228 TULLEKEN. B... Ya. 37. 1973. 7. 29. J. 1970) PARISINI. Control Theory and Advanced Technology.308 Thermal power plant simulation and control BOHLIN. T. J. and GRAEBE. J.: 'Applied optimal estimation' (MIT Press.: 'Simulatore integrato: controllo su bus di campo'..: 'Nonlinear adaptive control using neural networks: estimation with a smoothed form of simultaneous perturbation gradient approximation'. and RAO. JEZEK. J. Mass. 285-308 .: 'Adaptive algorithms and stochastic approximation' (Springer-Verlag.: 'Fault diagnosis and neural networks: a power plant application'. and TSYPKIN. 1993. 4.: 'Physically accurate nonlinear models for model-based fault detection: the case of a power plant'. 1995. 139-157 JAZWINSKI. and CRISTION. C. D. P. 1-27 SRINIVASAN. and SROKA. 3. 6. R. 285-295 GELB. 1993.. IFAC Journal of Process Control... 85-91 FINNOF. N.. pp.. S. PRASAD. G. W. M. pp. JONES. A. Int. 9. U. 9. 1992. Statistica Sinica. T.: 'Multivariate stochastic approximation using a simultaneous perturbation gradient approximation'. B. T. W. New York. (10). G. 1974) GUGLIEMI. Neural Computation. Cambridge. 1997. Heidelberg..: 'Stochastic processes and filtering theory' (Academic Press. E: 'Issues in nonlinear stochastic grey box identification'. 377-397 SPALL. IEEE Trans. G. 41.. 1990) BARABINO. pp. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. pp. 1994. A. 1994. J. C. DE MURO. pp. I. M. pp. MI~TIVIER. J. A. P... M.: 'Diffusion approximations for the constant learning rate backpropagation algorithm and resistance to local minima'. 1995. H. H. J. Automatica. Neural Networks. 1994. pp. A. 12. T. 5.: 'Backpropagation through adjoints for the identification of nonlinear dynamic systems using recurrent neural models'.. Z. Control Engineering Practice.. 332-341 SPALL. LAUDATO. pp. 1997 POLYAK. PARISINI. E: 'Grey-box modelling and identification using physical knowledge and Bayesian techniques'. and PRIOURET.: 'Grey-box model identification'. 97-109. and MAINI. Automation and Remote Control.: 'Pseudogradient adaptation and training algorithms'. and ROSSI. pp. J. A. pp.. 1993. Adaptive Control and Signal Processing. 465-490 BENVENISTE.. Automazione e Strumentazione (in Italian).

for example.. Sources range from retail (Song et al. Sebzalli et al. it is said that three-quarters of all companies who attempt data mining projects fail to produce worthwhile results (Matthews. with its full potential never realised. 2001 ).. Data mining is the non-trivial process of identifying valid. Although conceivably containing valuable information. and ultimately understandable patterns in data. Unfortunately. Flynn 11. However.g.. 2000) and to a lesser degree power engineering. to industrial processes (Kresta et al. 1996. for fault analysis in transmission networks (Wehenkel. where data mining has been used. industrial process control (Milne et at.1 Introduction It is estimated that across the world data storage doubles every 18 months (Milne et al.. 1997).. e. 1996). 1996. chemometrics and chemical engineering (MacGregor et al. Applications within diverse areas such as marketing. 1994. in the form of fault detection and diagnosis. the users tend to have well-defined goals and a well-developed knowledge of both the application and the nature of the stored data.Chapter 11 Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation J.. the aims of the data mining . despite being a widely applied technique. is often greater than the reality. with regard to the available data. 1997. potentially useful.. this data is largely archived... Chen and Liao. 1997). Ritchie and D.A. Here. Rayudu et al. where 'rules of thumb' are typically applied. with varying degrees of success. novel. this only proves that the potential of data mining. 1991). 1997). The most successful applications are probably in the fields of scientific research and industrial processes. The emphasis in these applications has been the provision of on-line support systems for operators. Dunia et al. finance and industrial processes have been considered. such as retail product targeting or the rise and fall of share prices. For less scientific environments. 2002). and high-level analysis of system operation and performance for engineers. to the telecommunications industry (Hatonen et at.

acquiring 'good' data for mining is one of the most timeconsuming parts of the process. or the application of process knowledge. Projection to latent structures (PLS) is demonstrated as a viable solution. It should be noted that a large amount of data does not always equate to a large amount of information. 3 x 120 MW and 3 x 200 MW. which were originally . as a result of privatisation of the local industry in 1992. due to the large amount of historical records potentially required. To obtain the best results from any data mining project it is clearly important to investigate data that provides an accurate representation of the problem. selection and preparation of data for subsequent mining applications. near Lame. However. The PLS approach is then extended in section 11. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then applied. but information poor. and using different media ranging from paper to magnetic tape to CD-ROM. Section 11. time spent in this phase will be reflected in the subsequent results. it is now operated by Premier Power plc. isolation and reconstruction of faulty sensors within a power station environment. leading to a lot of company databases being regarded as data rich.5 by incorporating a neural network for the inner mapping to enable modelling of plant behaviour over non-linear conditions. The collation of resources is perhaps the greatest barrier to successful knowledge discovery. It is estimated that up to 80 per cent of the duration of a data mining project may be occupied by data preparation (Mannila.2 presents background information concerning the power station to be analysed.4. and to the detection. The monitoring of unit efficiency and emissions levels. which encompasses the gathering. Originally owned by Northern Ireland Electricity (NIE). some of which have been successfully applied to fault monitoring in chemometrics and chemical process control.310 Thermal power plant simulation and control exercise are often not clearly defined while expectations are overstated (Weiss and Indurkhya. Olaru and Wehenkel. 1999). 11. Within this chapter. 1996). as measures of plant performance. a subsidiary of British Gas plc. Section 11. The power station houses six generating units. However. 1999. is then discussed along with possible analytical approaches in section 11. and related information being stored in a number of different locations. These difficulties can be resolved using feature selection methods such as clustering and principal component analysis. Large stores of data have a number of inherent problems such as missing and corrupted values. Data mining is itself part of an even larger domain known as knowledge discovery in data (KDD). easily understood methods such as data visualisation to complex mathematical techniques based around neural networks and fuzzy logic (Wang. Data mining is a generic term for a wide range of techniques which include intuitive.2 Outline of data mining applications Ballylumford power station is the largest of four power stations in Northern Ireland and is located on the Antrim coast.3 then discusses the difficulties posed by faulty sensors and identifies possible solutions. 1998). it is proposed to outline a range of techniques.

which still generates a significant amount of data which is largely not examined. The advent of distributed control systems also . biases or offsets. pressures and flow rates throughout the plant on a second by second basis. it is often obscured by the sheer volume of data presented on a day to day basis. condenser. capable of providing detailed and interpretable solutions. although variables concerning the turbines. making it difficult to analyse using manual methods. the process operators and engineers must also distinguish between genuine faults. lend themselves to the application of data mining techniques. The DCS is restricted to recording values for the boiler. excepting the investigation of occasional faults.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 311 designed to operate using heavy residual fuel oil (HFO). However.500 sensors record information such as temperatures. etc. This information may help to improve the operation of the plant by identifying variables influencing efficiency and plant performance. etc. data are regularly stored at five minute intervals. however. Problems include 'stuck at' signals. Hence. a closed loop for the steam/water circuit. etc. Despite continuously growing computer storage capabilities. short-term disturbances affecting the process. product quality. It may also be possible to identify warning signals leading to component/system failures. etc. Data concerning operation of Ballylumford power station are available from a number of sources. The frequency of measurement and the distribution of sensors throughout the plant provide a great deal of redundancy within the data. many of the sensor measurements are highly correlated due to a number of parallel paths for the 'steam' and 'gas' circuits. Within a power station environment the above difficulties are clearly evident. after a conversion programme between July 1994 and July 1996 they now fire on either gas or oil. which would help minimise unit down-time. drifting. and/or variations in plant performance arising from changes in operating conditions. Further parameters are recorded manually and irregularly by plant operators. the enormity of the data generated means that it is not realistic to store these data on such a regular basis. 11. approximately 2. These include a wide range of variables recorded from the distributed control system (DCS) for both oil and gas operation on all units. a loss of sensor precision. Maintenance records and operator logs are also available for consultation. while enabling a comparison of different operator shifts and/or comparative performance across the station's three 120MW units and three 200MW units. The data stored from the process. unless specifically requested for test purposes. Against this background. In total. This can be exploited for sensor fault detection and signal replacement among other problems. may be accessed using equipment such as programmable logic controllers scattered around the plant. However.3 Identification of process and sensor faults A relatively common experience with any monitoring system is that of faulty sensors. Fortunately. electrical equipment. combined with the aims for process monitoring and analysis. where the unusual measurements actually reflect plant behaviour. It is suggested that within these records there is potential information regarding factors affecting plant operation.

1 Process analysis techniques With industrial processes. Any variable that crosses either threshold is deemed to be faulty. and other automatic features forming part of the DCS itself. when in fact it never did so (Rubinstein and Mason. becoming ever more sophisticated the possibility of a human operator detecting and coping with operational problems in real-time becomes ever more difficult. or the process itself. when a particular sensor becomes faulty it is desirable to first detect that there is a problem. close switch. a decision is then required. a significant side-effect has been increased accessibility to a range of plant-wide signals. may be required to be taken off-line for further investigation and servicing.30am. which was indicated as being open. was actually stuck closed. and to subsequently apply the collated rules. However. have the opportunity of accessing and analysing vast. this requirement becomes especially important. The task remains to identify normal operating regions and relationships within the historical data. whereby the user defines upper and lower bounds for each signal. the explosion did not take place until 1. reference cases. Although the triggering event was an electrical storm which took place between 7. providing a large historical database for the plant. and plant manoeuvrability.312 Thermalpower plant simulation and control implies that signals are recorded on a regular basis. continuous streams of data. So. open valve. resulted in plant damage which cost £48 million to repair. during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979 an indication was given that the reactor coolant system electromatic relief valve had closed. e. to detect problems with new. Both of these incidents highlight that it is important not merely to indicate on operator displays any demanded actions. It was later discovered that if the operators had known that the debutaniser outlet valve. The plant control systems may well be able to ameliorate the effects of the fault. Milford Haven. The benefits of distributed control systems are clear in terms of improvements in productivity. 11.49am and 8. The degradation in performance or drop in product quality should be considered. thus permitting process operation to continue. in addition to a severe loss of production and injury to 26 people (Bransby. however. . arising not only from physical measurements but also from control loops. on-line data and suggest appropriate courses of action. In 1994 an explosion at the Texaco refinery.3. along with longer term implications for plant life and/or required maintenance. potentially full of correlated and collinear data. then identify the failing signal. but also to ensure that these actions have the anticipated effect. Similarly. 1979). Computer-based solutions do. In the case of a process or actuator fault a slightly different strategy is required. Perhaps the simplest method of detecting faults and other anomalous behaviour is univariate statistical monitoring. Should the signal be used for feedback/feedforward control applications. however. if possible. then the incident could have been averted. and finally to either disable the sensor or reconstruct/substitute the readings. Once the fault has been recognised. Alternatively. etc.23 pm.g. and the associated control and supervisory layers. entire subsystems. and to clarify if data measurements are intemally consistent. 1998). and perhaps identified and diagnosed by the operators.

As a consequence. inclusion of each fault can be time-consuming and require the designer to have a comprehensive knowledge of the application (Yoon and MacGregor. These tend to be 'data driven' rather than 'knowledge driven' and therefore require much less refinement for particular processes. include case-based reasoning (CBR). a sensor may present a faulty value which is actually within the specified range for the sensor. no recognition is taken of the plant's operating status. 2000). during normal operating conditions. normal operation. Should the process to be monitored be well defined and comprise a limited number of variables then model-based approaches may be successfully applied. For example. a large number of historical data patterns is typically not required. However. based on the assumption that the faults are known and have been incorporated into the model. The focus is on the indexing and retrieval of relevant precedents. an operator of a nuclear reactor would wish to be informed if. following a plant trip be would instead prefer to be warned if any control rod was not fully inserted. . Alessandri et al. falling into this broad category. It is fairly straightforward to list different plant operating modes. Data mining techniques offer a convenient alternative.g. e. the most important attributes for the application can be identified and outlying values removed. each of which is described by a set of attributes. a 'stuck at' fault. CBR is particularly useful when the data has complex internal structures. (2003) apply a model-based approach to fault detection of power plant HP feed heaters. Sebzalli and Wang (2001) applied this approach to identification of operational strategies for minimising the impact of product changeover in a chemical refinery process. out of service. shut-down. It is also possible to identify the status of individual plant items. under test. startup transients. The problems with this approach are many. the technique is generally more suited to fault diagnosis rather than plant monitoring. the above problems arise because all variables are treated independently of each other and the validity of one sensor in relation to all other variables is not considered. Potential solutions.g. As an illustration of the difficulties that can arise. 1998). Principal components were initially determined to analyse the process. However. Storage and computation facilities may also be demanding for large case bases. Given a number of data patterns. before fuzzy c-means clustering was applied to distinguish distinct operating regions within the process. cluster analysis or principal component analysis (PCA).Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 313 and an alarm is triggered. Furthermore. and can also enable an expert system to learn from its experience. Case-based reasoning involves the collation of exemplars of past problems. enables faults to be identified. physical or empirical. Alternatively. e. Once a structure has been formed. However. steady-state. amongst others. This inevitably leads to the introduction of multivariate techniques. startup. and the solutions identified by the user from historical data and past experience (Luger and Stubblefield. This may be achieved by calculating a similarity or distance measure. lifting load. clustering aims to discover structure hidden within data. Expressed succinctly. objects are grouped which share a number of similar properties (Olaru and Wehenkel. 1999). A mathematical model. a control rod became fully inserted into the reactor. thus restricting diagnostic and explanation facilities. e. difficulties can be encountered due to a lack of deep knowledge of the domain. In contrast to other data mining techniques.g.

data should generally be normalised prior to processing. a set of n principal components can be obtained. An ordered. For example. therefore. 11. 1996). known as principal components. 1995) and sensor fault detection in a boiler process (Dunia et al. PCA models may be formed by retaining only those components. 1995) can also be conveniently calculated as Y~A_ 1Li ~'i Quality.2 Principal c o m p o n e n t analysis Given a data matrix X (m × n). . q . Modelling of individual faults is not required.t n p T where Pi (n x 1) is the loading. consisting of m samples of n variables. to generate the most parsimonious model. QA -. Johnston (1998) suggests that the principal components selected should explain at least 93 per cent of the variance. . PCA readily lends itself to process monitoring as the developed models are intended to characterise normal operation. The degree of reduction achieved depends on the correlation of the original data set .the greater the correlation the fewer principal components required. the quality of the model (Lewin. A. For a linear system E accounts mainly for process noise.3. reduced set of principal components may then be selected which capture the essential correlations and the majority of the observed variability. which are linearly independent. latent variables. Principal component analysis is scale dependent.. while ti (m x I) is known as the score vector for that particular principal component and determined as ti = X p i • Since typically only the first A principal components are required to explain the majority of the variance in the data. while retaining as much of their variance as possible. such that X = t i p T + t2p T + t3p T + . PCA has been used in a wide range of applications including chemical process control for the monitoring of batches from an industrial polymerisation reactor (MacGregor and Kourti. thereby creating a reduced order model A T+E=ZtipT+E i=1 X=TP where T and P represent the score and loading matrices for the retained principal components and E represents the unexplained variance in the model. although detected deviations in plant behaviour can be investigated in depth if required.Y~i=I .314 Thermal power plant simulation and control The approach adopted here is that of principal component analysis (PCA) which aims to reduce the dimensionality of a set of interrelated variables. Alternatively. A number of methods are available for selecting the required number of principal components. and. and describes the relative importance of individual variables for principal component i. This is achieved by identifying new.

If a degree of correlation is assumed. Clearly. noise. or a plant fault develop. rather than developing a single model. boiler and turbine stages can be readily identified . The performance of the model is determined. multiblock methods can be introduced (Nomikos and MacGregor. then only .3. perhaps physically distinct. by repeating this process for an increasing number of components. So. therefore. subsequently. This leads to a reconstruction error. for one component. There are a number of guidelines available regarding the division of a process for multiblock methods (MacGregor et al. a number of small models could be developed to model related sensors (Lewin.. The first group is removed.1 Multiblock PCA It is not uncommon for a system to have several hundred. of the data covariance matrix. Alternatively. Should a sensor fail. as demonstrated here. 11.2. 1994). for one component. Should the number of components be too high then PRESS will increase due to modelling of noise. an insufficient number of principal components may lead to an inability to distinguish normal residuals from sensor failure. For applications. the second group deleted. and the above process repeated until all groups have been removed once. unlikely to be a perfect match due to variations arising from unmodelled non-linearities. a number of distinct. The reconstructed signal is. perhaps requiring a significant number of components to sufficiently model plant behaviour. however. For reasons of convenience and practicality. if not thousands. gives rise to PRESS. suggested that individual PCA models are developed reflecting these natural boundaries.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 315 for the first A components based upon the eigenvalues. and a PCA model is then trained using the remaining data. ~-i. involving monitoring and reconstruction it is advisable to develop more sophisticated selection methods using techniques based on cross-validation or the unreconstructed variance of the data. etc. and as outlined later in section 11. linking subsystems can be defined. subsections such as the condenser. 1998). sensor reconstruction and substitution will be ineffective. 1994). divided by the size of the removed groups or the number of degrees of freedom. of process sensors. Within many processes. on the removed first group. with the accuracy dependent on the number of principal components employed. The first group is then restored.2. by calculating the sum of squared prediction errors. It is. a sensor can be estimated using the remaining sensor measurements.3. The advantages of multiblock methods become abundantly apparent when fault identification is considered. Examination of the model's unreconstructed variance can also assist in determining the required number of principal components (Dunia and Qin. The summation of the above errors. Applying the cross-validation method of Wold (1978) requires the training data to be split into a user defined number of groups. 1995). but no solid rules are available as process and engineering knowledge are a significant factor. the prediction residual sum of squares.it can be informative and constructive to include some linking 'flow' variables from the inputs and outputs of neighbouring sections. In a thermal power station.3. a minimum value can be observed in the calculated statistic.

h0 is a combination of these terms. methods that can quickly help to identify differences between the actual and reconstructed value of a variable are the squared prediction error (SPE) and Hotelling's T 2 test. )~j.~i)2. a confidence limit. making fault diagnosis that much more straightforward. by reconstruction from the selected number of principal components.2. Two. .2. this new event is not necessarily a fault and may merely be something not accounted for in the training data. is calculated as SPEx = ~ (xi .. . The SPE value. i=1 The SPE should remain low for normal operating conditions. The squared sum of errors for all variables for each data sample. and ca the confidence limit for the 1 .316 Thermal power plant simulation and control the model associated with that particular section of the plant will be affected. xi. However. 1979) which can be determined as (co o ~ = O1 ~ ~1 \ +1+ l/ho 02ho (ho . Conversely. it may be used to determine whether recorded plant measurements are consistent with historical values and neighbouring sensors. known as the Q statistic 32. is available (Jackson and Mudholkar. more efficient. as outlined below: t/ h0= I 20103 302 and Oi = y~ j=A+I i. i = 1. To distinguish between normal and high values of SPE. at least at first. also known as the distance to the model.1 ) | ) 0 i is the sum of the unused eigenvalues to the i-th power. x.2 Quality control methods Once a model for normal operating conditions has been developed. Performed manually this can be a time-consuming task.ot percentile of a Gaussian distribution. A comparison can then be made between the reconstructed value for each variable and the actual measurement.3. a high value of SPE will indicate that the model is not valid for the current observation and that a new event may be occurring. from the model and then comparing it with the actual value.~i.3. attributable to measurement noise and the degree of variation not accounted for by the principal components retained in the model. is obtained by calculating an estimate of each variable. 11.

T 2 is a measure of how far the predicted value is from the multivariate mean and is thus only capable of detecting if the variation in the new data can be explained by the variation in the training data. m m (m . Scores for normal operating conditions should fall within a limited. it may be highlighting that the process is moving to a different. and not a process condition. The plotting of t scores can be combined with the previous methods to distinguish between the two conditions. designed as a multivariate counterpart to the Student's t statistic. This information can be useful as SPE may well not highlight what is essentially extrapolation of the training model. if a new event occurs. Hence. with the replacement value converged. 11. However. which relates the degrees of freedom in the model to the F distribution. to substitute a replacement value. be taken with both SPE and T 2. which has not been included in the training of the normal operating conditions model. Consequently. . Since determination of SPE involves comparing the predicted value with the available measurement for each sensor.. while the iterative nature of the technique is inherently inefficient. known range. Instead. it is insufficient to rely on either SPE or T 2 in isolation. 1947). fault reconstruction could be conveniently achieved by an iterative technique. Additionally.~)T S-1 (x . If £ is the vector of mean values of x. but rather both values should be monitored. Care must. if possible.3.x ) . 1995). as they are unlikely to differentiate between a failing sensor and a fault on the plant. whereby the faulty signal is replaced by the predicted value.n) - n) where a is the selected confidence level. in control. This can result in nuisance values for both T 2 and SPE. false alarms can be largely eliminated by simple filtering.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 317 The T 2 statistic (Hotelling et al. the individual points on the t score plots may be observed drifting away from the normal grouping into a separate cluster. 1997). It should be noted that a rise in the T 2 value does not always indicate a fault. T2. The relative position of these 'fault' clusters can assist in latter diagnosis (Kourti and MacGregor. then T 2 -----(x .2. and adjustment of the associated threshold (Qin et al. the T 2 value will move away from the multivariate mean of the data. is a measure of the variation within normal operating conditions. the next step is to identify which sensor is failing. So when a process fault occurs. The main problem with this approach is that the faulty variable is itself included in the data used for reconstruction. an upper control limit. until the SPE and/or T 2 figures are satisfactory. both indicators are affected by noise on the system and deviation of the measurements from a normal distribution. and.. operating point not included in the training data. As with SPE.3 Fault identification and reconstruction Having confirmed that there is a sensor fault. however. and SPE recalculated. # -- n(m2-1) F~ ( n . and S is the covariance matrix of the model. can be calculated.

the adjusted value. making the faulty sensor unidentifiable. or adjusted. 1995). However. each signal is filtered and compared with a user-defined threshold.3. identification and reconstruction can be achieved by assuming each sensor has failed and estimating a value for that signal from the remaining values. by applying the laws of conservation of mass. the sensor validity index for variable i. Individual faults will be detected using the SPE and T 2 indicators. This situation arises due to a lack of redundancy. Two PCA models were developed for normal operating conditions around generation outputs of 100 and 150 MW. with individual models formed for subsystems consisting of the combustion chamber. If zi. As described earlier. among the measurements. Consequently. The model consists of 14 non-linear differential equations and more than 100 algebraic equations. while a value approaching zero signifies a fault. economiser. The principal components derived for the 150 MW model. and the possibility of false triggering.e. system transients and measurement noise can lead to oscillations in 17i. energy and momentum. A sensor validity index close to unity is indicative of a normal. The t scores are also examined to confirm. A large number of wide-ranging tests were subsequently performed on the actual plant to validate the model's performance. variables. but with xi replaced by zi then r/i. with a value between 0 and 1 regardless of the number of samples. superheaters. that the fault is actually with the plant. i. If the signal is faulty. a significant reduction in SPE before and after reconstruction would be expected. and further clarified using the sensor validity index. The reconstructed. can be seen in Table 11. A failing sensor can be identified when the index falls beneath a threshold. or degrees of freedom. The non-linear boiler-turbine model has been developed using object-oriented principles. gas/oil-fired unit (Lu and Hogg. and Zi is the predicted value of xi. 1996). in-control signal. etc.3 P C A tests a n d results The above methods are now applied to Unit 6 at Ballylumford power station. value then substitutes for the failing sensor. (xj The sensor validity index is determined for each variable.318 Thermal power plant simulation and control Alternatively. 11. alternatively. a number of tests are now applied to a simulation of a 200 MW. although the model is equally capable of identifying faults occurring sequentially. etc. For convenience. It is assumed that a single sensor has failed. it is assumed that xi has a missing value. The above difficulties can be overcome by calculating a sensor validity index (SVI) (Dunia et al. without incorporating xi itself.. and corrective maintenance or other actions should then be scheduled. in certain situations the reduction in SPE can affect all inputs.1 . and the remaining signals are used for reconstruction.- i)2 2 ZT=. can be expressed as 172 = (Zi . similar to those obtained for the 100 MW model. represents the predicted value of xi.

Based on a 95 per cent confidence limit for both tests it can be seen that both tests promptly detect the fault after 30 and l0 minutes. It is also of note that when the reheater pressure signal fails. The simulation was then used to create three types of fault to enable an assessment of the models' monitoring and predictive capabilities. with a defined threshold of 0. the PRESS statistic was determined for each model order. This identifies it as being inconsistent with the rest of the signals and therefore most likely to contain a fault. A positive drift is now introduced into the main steam pressure signal.0051 along with their percentage contribution to the variance and cumulative variance explained.48 96.91 99.75. The reheater outlet pressure signal can now be readily identified as being in error.19 0. a bias of 0.0049 0. Given that the model was to be applied to on-line sensor reconstruction it was essential that the predictive performance was examined and that the model was not overfitted to the training data. As the fault is with the sensor.1 Principal components for 150 MW model Principal component Eigenvalue Percentage variance explained Cumulative percentage variance explained 82.0061 0.0211 0.1. the biased sensor is replaced by the adjusted measurement. First.1.08 0.3.17 3. not the process. Instead. The plant is operated at an approximate load of 100 MW.48 14. Since the faulty signal is being fed back for control there is. as shown in Figure 11. as can be viewed in Figure 11.1 per cent was introduced into the reheater outlet pressure signal after approximately 5 hours of operation while generating at approximately 150 MW.2a and 2b respectively. which is regulated within the plant by a PI controller operating on the fuel flow.96 PRESS 1 2 3 4 5 0. Subsequently. the associated indices for the remaining sensors rise towards unity.3-0.0938 0.5460 0.0619 0. minimal impact on the measured value.84 99.05 0.65 99. it forms an input to an on-line. accentuating identification of the biased sensor. observing that the pressure signal is . The corresponding SPE and T 2 plots for the same time period are shown in Figures I 1. advisory efficiency monitoring system on the plant. Figure 11. paradoxically.0003 82. and thus invalid measurements may unduly influence operator actions.6. with the associated index for this signal falling to a value in the range 0.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 319 Table 11. Although this signal is not directly utilised for control purposes. the controller. Having detected that there is a problem. as can be seen in Figure 11. resulting in two principal components being considered sufficient for both operating points.2c shows the variation in the sensor validity index for each variable over the period in question.0005 0.0069 0.

The SPE plot of Figure 11. with the fault being detected after 50 and 30 minutes. so that the faulty sensor now indicates the correct value.! :: " :. although still straightforward.320 Thermal power plant simulation and control 24.4a and 4b again depict the SPE and T 2 measures. as time progresses with the increasing sensor drift not corrected. and it is now more challenging. Figures 11. Examination of the t scores for the first two principal components. Figure 11.62 0 2 4 6 Time (hr) 8 ~ 10 12 14 Figure 1 I. :': (~' ":'. corresponds to the normal operating region. the efficiency of the HP turbine was reduced by 2 per cent after approximately 6 hours.5. However. . For the final test.3 confirms that the pressure falls as a result of the fault.i ~:[": i"'.reheater outlet pressure drifting upwards. Figure 11.6a then shows that the control limit is exceeded 5 minutes after the fault is introduced. The associated confidence limits were recalculated for operation at the lower operating point. illustrating the relatively severe nature of the disturbance introduced. Unlike Figure 11. in the top left of the graph. respectively.66 24. The actual activity of the steam pressure can be reconstructed by the model and Figure 11. and a problem with the main steam pressure sensor is quickly confirmed. to identify the failing sensor. decreases the fuel flow.64 Reconstructed signal 24. the effects of this fault are more significant across the plant. with knock-on effects for many of the sensors around the plant. the main steam pressure is being progressively reduced. From comparison with the training data. to the boiler. while the presence of region B.6b.4c illustrates the validity index for each sensor. the variation in other sensors becomes more noteworthy. " 24. reveals that there are now two operating regions. In actuality.7 . region A. Normalised values for all the process signals are plotted in Figure 11. 1 Biased and reconstructed signals . while generating 150 MW.72 Sensor bias 24.2c. and associated air flow.68 ij::k ~ 24.

. .sensor bias. . . . 20 0 2 4 Time (hr) 8 10 1 14 b Figure 11.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation J i 321 X t~ _ ~ 9 5 % limit 1 a 0 '2 '4 '6 Time (hr) '8 1'0 .2 14 100 80 60 7. . . . . 40 95% limit . . . . .2 a b Squared prediction error. . . . .sensor bias. T 2 t e s t .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16 18 Time(hr) Figure 11.8 ~ 167.65 0 .75 167. 6 .7 167.85 Sensor drift v 167.6 0. 4 .sensor bias 167. 8 .3 Drifting and reconstructed signal . 12 .8 SVllimit 0. lO .main steam pressure . 14 .2 i i i i i J 0 c 2 4 6 Time (hr) 8 10 12 14 Figure 11.322 Thermal power plant simulation and control 1 _ _ 0.4 0. 2 .2 (c) sensor validity index .

. . . . .5 reveals that the HP turbine outlet temperature and the reheater inlet and outlet temperatures are unusually high for the problem period indicating the most appropriate area for further investigation. . 20 i i i i i i i i 2 b 4 6 8 Time (hr) 10 12 14 16 18 Figure 11. Reconstruction of the signal is therefore inappropriate. . . .4 a b Squared prediction error. . . Further examination of Figure 11. . . . .Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 323 X 0 a 100 i i i i i i L i 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (hr) 12 14 16 18 80 60 40 95% limit . . . . . .sensor drift. .sensor drift. . . . . in the bottom fight region of the graph. . indicates that there is a physical problem with the plant. T 2 t e s t . .

~ 0.8 SVI limit 0.6 .9 0.reduction in H P turbine efficiency .2 o Z 0 -0.sensor drift 0.4 e. 2 0...324 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control 0.4 (c ) sensor validity index .5 Normalised process signals .5 i i i i i i i i 0 c 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Time (hr) Figure 11.2 0 2 4 6 Time (hr) i i i 8 10 12 14 Figure 11.6 0.7 0.

325 95% limit . . . .4 Process monitoring and optimisation As outlined in section 11.6 0. tl versus t2 scores plot .reduction in HP turbine efficiency. . ..reduction in HP turbine efficiency 11. . .Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 8 7 6 5 x. . 0. . . . .2 + + + -0.4 . namely heavy residual fuel oil and gas. . Although initially designed for oil operation alone. .8 Figure 11. .6 a b Squared prediction e r r o r . .2 0. . . . 0.3 -0. . 3 2 1 0 a i i i i i i 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (hr) 0. . . . . . Ballylumford power station operates on two types of fuel.4 tl . . 0. .2. . the plant is now predominantly operated with gas for economic and .2 .1 +~+ ~_ -0.1 ~+t+¥~ + -0. . . .4 0 .

due to infrequent sampling. operators regularly practice switching between gas and oil supplies. contributing to the end result. Issues such as clogging of the condensers with shells. leading to a wide range of operating conditions and exposure to plant non-linearities and interactions between control loops. subject to financial penalties if exceeded. as compared with gas operation. Superficially. daily cyclic variations of the local sea (cooling water) temperature due to tide movements. Not surprisingly. in particular. Attemperator spraying is also operated differently for the two fuels: for gas operation. etc.326 Thermal power plant simulation and control environmental reasons. plays a large part in the control of a power plant it would not be surprising that a lack of familiarity with operating the plant on oil can lead to optimal levels for unit efficiency and emissions levels not being as easily achieved.1 Monitoring and analysis techniques With power generation becoming an increasingly competitive marketplace it is important that individual units endeavour to operate at their maximum possible efficiency while meeting contractual load obligations and monitoring emissions levels. twigs. this information can then be used to develop a 'best case' model for monitoring purposes. From available records it is possible to investigate periods of operation identified by the operators as being representative of plant performance. Environmental regulations require emissions levels to be monitored and maintained under acceptable limits. and off-line analysis. A lack of good historical data. are common to both types of operation. However. Considering that the experience and knowledge of senior operators.4. though. In practice. particularly following unit overhaul and cleaning operations. However. 1996) it is often deemed desirable to develop on-line monitoring systems which project values for the emissions from other process variables. Solutions using linear analytical techniques such as clustering (see discussion for PCA). the gas supply is under an interruptible contract. which are expensive. Load cycling operation of generation plant is increasingly common. something which is not readily or easily passed on to others. In a power plant the emissions from HFO operation are of particular interest. Consequently. It is further recognised that problems may occur at the gas pressure reducing station or further upstream. it is a multidimensional problem with factors such as calorific value of the fuel. etc. (1997) apply this method to an industrial boiler with the aim of modelling NOx emissions. resulting in a differing heat distribution and more reheater spraying. Qin et al. the flame ball is higher up and further back in the furnace. Both factors may require the plant to be operated using oil on occasion. configuration of burners. Conventional methods for emissions monitoring employ analytical sensors. association . Potentially. Due to the associated expense and high level of maintenance associated with these methods (Mandel. which may be slow and infrequent. cleanliness of heat exchanger tubes. unit efficiency depends on the power output of a generating unit with increased efficiencies being achieved close to maximum continuous rating. the implications of soot are clearly much more significant for oil operation. 11. using two different fuels requires subtle changes in control strategies by the operators. potentially makes this task more challenging.

1991). This procedure is then enhanced. although correlation-based techniques. as demonstrated using principal component analysis. user selected. 11.. while each individual rule may be evident in itself. which may be measured irregularly or not as frequently as the X block. regression. representing m samples of r dependent product quality measurements. The application of association rules is also somewhat limited in that it assumes that all the data is categorical. decision rules. Given a relational database. 1985). requires the user to have a sufficient understanding of the underlying process. Linear representations could be obtained for the X and Y blocks separately. to be fitted to the data set. What should result is a concise. and performance monitoring and fault detection of both a fluidised bed reactor and extractive distillation column (Kresta et al. For example. Model selection. based on past process outputs and appropriate.4. chemical engineering and process control applications such as calibration in chemical analysis (Geladi and Kowalski. Similarly. an X block (m × n) representing m samples of n independent process variables measured frequently. and a Y block (m × r). 1998). PLS then aims to provide an estimate of Y using the X data. dependency modelling or projection to latent structures (PLS) may be proposed. to provide a relationship between the process variables and the product quality variables. multivariate linear regression technique more suitable for the analysis and modelling of noisy and highly correlated data than MLR (Otto and Wegscheider. Association rules is a summarisation technique describing the nature and frequency of relationships between data entities. and then fuzzify these results to create a set of association rules describing different operating conditions for three products. Sebzalli and Wang (2001) first use PCA to analyse a refinery fluid catalytic cracking process. through linear regression. PLS makes use of techniques previously applied in PCA to reduce the dimensionality of data and create latent variables representing a system. multiple linear regression (MLR) attempts to establish a linear relationship between a block of independent data and a block of dependent data. readily understood rule base. inputs. for example. Alternatively. If T . etc. by forming a least squares solution (Draper and Smith. and hence numerical data needs to be grouped or fuzzified into categories before use.2 Projection to latent structures Projection to latent structures. however. 1986b). However. One common and limiting problem which arises with MLR is that of collinearity within the data. statistical regression methods enable a linear model. can assist in determining model structure from available data. all associations of the form if {set of values} then {set of values} are mined using methods such as decision trees. A model is developed which attempts to explain the variation in the process that is most predictive of the product quality variables. it can be difficult to visualise the system as a whole. PLS has been successfully applied in a range of chemometrics. PLS requires two blocks of data. also known as partial least squares (PLS). is a robust.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 327 rules.

W. Methods similar to those employed for PCA can also be applied here. in this instance the emphasis is on selecting sufficient principal components to explain the majority of variance that is most predictive of the Y variables. but may well be highly predictive of the output variables Y. X=TpT +E Y =UQTq-F with the residual matrices E and F sufficiently small.328 Thermal power plant simulation and control and U represent the score matrices for the X and Y blocks. A simpler. since the principal components for each block are calculated separately. However. rather than the X variables. The NIPALS algorithm determines the principal components in sequence. so that slightly rotated principal components are obtained. The resulting model. is to develop distinct PLS models for each Y variable. then. in order to obtain orthogonal X block scores it is necessary to introduce a weighting matrix. variation of the X block may be discarded when it appears insignificant towards the reconstruction of X. The above outer relations can be linked by a linear relationship. namely T and U: U:BT where B is a diagonal matrix. based on T. for the required number of principal components. as outlined by Geladi and Kowalski (1986a). is not optimal. respectively and P and Q are the associated loadings. Consequently. and indeed more informative approach. however. so after each iteration the data blocks are reduced as follows. Consequently. Having obtained the PLS model it then remains to determine the required number of principal components.( b i t i ) q T where Ei and Fi are the residuals after the i-th iteration (component). B. applying the non-linear iterative partial least squares (NIPALS) algorithm. the t and u vector scores for each component can be interchanged. More constructively. However. Ei+l : Ei - tip T : Eo = X " Fo= Y Fi+l = F i . between the score matrices of the X and Y block. . although it is possible to consider multiple variables in the Y block the resulting PLS model achieved will be a compromise between the requirements of the different quality variables. such that X= TpT+E Y:~IQT +F where t] is the estimate of the score U.

1994). operation was within this range.24 10.24 12.1323 0.4.89 PRESS 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.3 PLS tests and results PLS models were created using plant data gathered over the period of two weeks for a phase 1.. and their associated quality measures are summarised in Tables 11.3 PLS SOx emissions model Number of components Percentage X variance unexplained 38. Examination of the PRESS statistic for the normalised quality variables suggests that three principal components are required in both cases. For the efficiency model Table 11.86 6.12 17.95 PRESS 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.85 5.3.21 26.0946 0.0931 0.33 14. Although the unit went through several load cycles during this period.0882 0.57 4.56 8.61 5.1113 0.0832 0.65 Percentage Y variance unexplained 26.0973 Table 11.0899 0.2 PLS efficiency model Number of components Percentage X variance unexplained 34.0876 . 11.78 6.66 9. Distinct models were created for each Y variable.20 3.13 6.19 14.120 MW unit which was being operated for that period on oil. the model was specifically trained for operation in the range 100-120 MW as the majority of the unit's current.2196 0. The same benefits carry forward in terms of simpler fault detection and more interpretable models for large systems (MacGregor et al.0651 0.64 17. in a similar manner to that discussed for PCA.2 and 11. two quality variables were selected. and expected future.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 329 Again. namely unit thermal efficiency and SOx emissions.57 8.64 11. For the purposes of further analysis.44 Percentage ¥ variance unexplained 32.2548 0.03 7.48 22. multiblock PLS methods are also available.

Figure 11. but previously unseen by the model. for the SOx model. etc.8 illustrates the performance of the SOx model using data from the same two-week period. for both efficiency and SOx models. This is a measure of how individual variables affect the quality variable Y. Although a hybrid model could be formed for both fuels. The PLS target is seen to closely follow the actual emissions monitored on the plant. and 83 per cent of the X variance. It is of some interest to examine how each variable contributes to the percentage X unexplained variance for the first component of each model. Having developed two PLS models it now remains to investigate their monitoring capabilities on the plant. Therefore. In particular. show the percentage explained variance of the X data block. boiler flue gas oxygen (18) is significant for SOx.7a and 7b. It should be noted that the above models are intended for oil operation alone.330 Thermal power plant simulation and control this is sufficient to explain 92 per cent of the variance in Y. along with the model's estimated efficiency. being significant for both models. Superimposed on the graph is the PLS estimate of the plant's efficiency. It is. for example. however. but this shall not be demonstrated here. unit output (1). There are many similarities between the bar charts with. Figure 11. These results highlight the most important variables to be monitored/adjusted when attempting to achieve different goals of operation. significant deviation between the model and plant outputs would be considered indicative of a problem within the plant requiring further investigation. and it can be seen that there is a clear distinction between the two characteristics. The unit was then switched on again towards the end of the same month. HP turbine exhaust temperature (29). if the same logic as above is followed. Examination of how the tl score is formed from the measured variables should reveal which section(s) of the plant is unduly impacting on overall operation. three principal components were capable of explaining 91 per cent of the Y variance. are much more significant for the efficiency model.9 shows the actual efficiency deviation during a subsequent period when the plant was again running on oil. The contributions from condenser cooling water outlet temperatures A (22) and B (23). during which maintenance of the condensers was carried out in the form of removing debris from the pipework. region A represents the training data while region B represents this later period. etc. of greater interest to highlight differences between the two charts. If the scores of the efficiency model for the first two components are now examined. and condensate temperature (24) are unusually high for this period. primary steam flow (2). Similarly. therefore. Having now successively trained a model. Figures 11. Figure l l. the graph reveals that the tl score has significantly increased for the new period. From examination of the operator logs for this unit it is known that on the following day the unit was switched off for a number of days. while still explaining 87 per cent of the variance in the X block. then it would be clearly more informative to create distinct models for both gas and oil operation. while variables such as final outlet steam temperature A (8) and B (9). In passing it is noted that the models could be used for fault reconstruction as described for PCA. The thermal efficiency for this period. Figure 11. economiser feed inlet temperature (7). can .10a.10b plots the deviation from normal operation of the contribution to the tl score for each PLS variable.

=. except for the time period of approximately 4 .efficiency model.6 hours. 60 50 331 5 > 40 30 20 10 0 o 5 10 15 PLS variable 20 25 30 100 90 80 70 60 50 5 > 40 30 20 10 0 b 0 5 l0 15 PLS variable 20 25 30 Figure I1.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation lOO 90 80 70 .7 a b Bar chart. bar chart . During this time plant output was reduced to around 80 MW.SOx emissions model be viewed in Figure 11. Experience shows that attempting to train the PLS model over a wider operating range would result in a generally poor .11. A higher efficiency is now being achieved which is comparable with the PLS model. an operating point for which the model was not previously trained.

8 1 i i i PLS target efficiency i I 2 4 6 Time (hr) 8 10 12 Figure 11.4 -0. Instead.9 PLS target efficiency for oil operation fit being achieved over the entire regime. so that the full significance of cooling water (sea) temperature variability.2 -0. the model operates well over the intended range.8 Predictive performance of PLS SOx model 0. amongst other . as can be seen.332 Thermal power plant simulation and control 40 E o 20 J -~ o o d -20 0'3 Actual SOx PLS target SOx ] ~40 i i i i i i i 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (hr) 6 8 Figure 11.2 0 = o 7- -0. for an acceptable number of components. It should also be noted that the PLS model was trained using a two-week period of data alone.6 ~0.4 0.

nl-.i.~+* + + ~++ + ++ + -1 2 ++ + + i i i 32 0 2 tl 4 24 e~ •o 2 ~ 8 e~ o "r" r..10 a b PLS variable tl versus t2 scores p l o t . -1 b Figure 11... an array of linear models could be developed for the entire operating range..Data mining f o r performance monitoring and optimisation 3 + 333 . will not have been experienced...nn..) .. More wide-ranging training data would be required.. Ul-n.condenser fouling factors. or as outlined in the next section a neural PLS structure could be created. .---n-. contribution to tl score . To cope with the apparent non-linearities revealed above.g .condenser fouling.

methods to represent the non-linearities directly (Tan and Mavrovouniotis. all processes are inherently non-linear. introducing modifications to the relationship between the X and Y blocks in PLS (Baffi et al.334 Thermal power plant simulation and control 0.P L S target e f f i c i e n c y . but may actually contain significant information about the nonlinearities. and can also be of benefit where there are only a limited number of observations for the quality measurements. 1992) or applying neural network. operate well over a limited range. 6 . 1995). however. fuzzy logic. 2000. When applying linear PLS to a non-linear problem the minor latent variables cannot always be discarded... both PCA and PLS.. 4 . More advanced methods have also been proposed including non-linear extensions to PCA (Li et al. 1999a. . monitoring or analysing the system of interest. etc. 8 . Recognition of the non-linearities can be achieved using intuitive methods..5 0 o i i ". 2 . with power generation being no exception. Holcomb and Morari. i. .. since they may not only describe noise or negligible variance/covariance structures in the data. 10 Figure 11. . The resulting PLS model may then require too many components to be practicable for the purpose it was intended. which apply non-linear transformations to the original variables or create an array of linear models spanning the whole operating range. T i m e (hr) .5 -1. Ku et al. . It has been shown in the previous sections. ..e. that while linear models.. 1995).5 Non-linear PLS modelling Projection to latent structures (PLS) has already been shown to be a powerful regression technique for problems where the data is noisy and highly correlated.11 Predictive performance of PLS efficiency model 11. A c t u a l e f f i c i e n c y -2 0 .5 .~ ~o. for example.

. although neural network approaches are generally seen to be more capable of providing an accurate representation of the relationship for each component. Instead.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 335 Transformation of the original variables using non-linear functions can be introduced prior to a linear regression technique such as PCA or PLS. Selecting a Gaussian function as the basis function means that each neuron can be viewed as approximating a small region of the model surface neighbouring its centre. while the dimensions of the model will be reduced (one or two components are normally sufficient). however. a standard RBF network consists of a single-layer feedforward architecture. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks are popular for many applications. In this case a radial basis function (RBF) network has been selected over other approaches. etc. The remaining weights then appear as linear terms. then a variety of neural structures can be arbitrarily applied. Each basis function is centred at some point in the input space and its output is a function of the distance of the inputs to the centre. the input matrix is extended by including non-linear combinations of the original variables e. with the neurons in the hidden layer generating a set of basis functions which are then combined by a linear output neuron. the error-based updating approach of Baffi . Using techniques such as k means clustering. spline networks can require arbitrary selection of spline parameters. Initial approaches used a second-order polynomial to 'curve fit' the relationship between the latent variables (Wold et al. and can be conveniently determined using least squares techniques. sin(x2 + x3). 1989). By contrast. and may require a relatively high number of splines to model the relationship. (1989) originally proposed replacing the diagonal B matrix to describe the inner relationship with a neural network their method did not update the weighting matrix W. which can make the resulting outputs from the data mining exercise difficult to interpret. the dependency between latent variables is not as transparent as in linear methods (Sebzalli and Wang. 2001). etc. This is rarely true in practice. and/or a priori experience. Although Wold et al. However. without modifying the input and output variables. Similarly. Such an approach is acceptable if the inner mapping is only slightly non-linear. requiring conjugate gradient and Hessian-based methods to avoid difficulties arising from local minima. The main problem with this approach is the assumption that the original set of variables are themselves independent (Wold et al. This is a relatively simple approach that does not require the NIPALS algorithm in PLS to be modified. but training is a non-linear optimisation problem. Since the purpose of the neural network is merely to capture the non-linearity between t and u. etc. required to intelligently select suitable non-linear transformations that will sufficiently reflect the underlying non-linear relationships within the plant. or singular value decomposition (SVD) approaches if the data are ill-conditioned. 1989). An alternative and more structured approach is to modify the NIPALS algorithm in PLS by introducing a non-linear function which relates the output scores u to the input scores t. x~.. the number and positioning of basis function centres and widths can be carefully chosen. Process knowledge and experience is.g. For generality.

Both RBF models were subsequently tested on previously unseen data to ensure that overparameterisation of the model had not occurred. dominant component the RBF network provides a smooth and good approximation to the underlying non-linearities. using one component.12a-d illustrates the scores scatter plots for the first four components. This is a common problem using neural networks as they have the ability to provide such an accurate representation of the system. The efficiency model required seven neurons for the first component. for a further time period.90 13. that even the system noise is incorporated. however.30 15.l 0 12. The relatively high unexplained X variance for the RBF model. even after four components. Selection of centres and training of the RBF networks was performed using the Matlab neural network toolbox.43 53. the operating range was extended to encompass 30-120 MW. Figure l l. Particularly.4.13a illustrates the predictive performance of the RBF-PLS model.50 19.99 0. and 99 per cent of the variance in the Y data.336 Thermal power plant simulation and control et al. 1997). For comparison a linear model was trained and tested using the same data as the neural PLS model.84 45. is not of concern.5. Figure 11.78 7. whereupon the non-linear mapping can be approximated by a Taylor series expansion. It is assumed that the model between the latent variables is continuous and differentiable with respect to W. In this case.13b shows that the predictive Table 11. Finally.4 Number of components RBF-PLS efficiency model RBF Percentage X variance unexplained PercentageY variance unexplained 0.62 0. leading to poor generalisation capabilities (Doherty et al. and three neurons for subsequent components.48 -Linear PercentageX variance unexplained 45. 11.20 11. Figure 11. (1999b) is applied.40 36..10 -- . as the primary purpose of the PLS model is to explain the variability of the Y variables. for the first.P L S tests and results RBF-PLS models were subsequently trained using both efficiency and SOx emissions as quality Y variables.1 R B F . as shown in Table 11.71 1 2 3 4 5 55.96 51. using data from the same period of HFO operation.89 PercentageY variance unexplained 21.64 0. The NIPALS algorithm is subsequently modified to perform updating of the weights at each iteration of the algorithm.40 9. This resulted in a model where the first component explained 45 per cent of the variance on the X data.

leading to deficiencies in the capabilities of the linear model.04 t2 0 0.2 0 02 t! 0. . for a five component model.2 x x x x x x x x x x x x x xx ~ × x x x x x x 0 x x x-~ ~' x x x xX x xx x x x x x x x~ x ~ x ~).08 Figure 11. the system non-linearity has been captured in the lower components.12 a b Scores scatter plot -first RBF-PLS component.4 x x 0.4 J x × ~0.2 x ~)'50. scores scatter plot .second RBF-PLS component performance.4 indicates that five parameters explain 92 per cent of the variance in Y. is significantly inferior to the RBF version.12 b 4 I I i I ~).04 0.08 ~). Even though Table 11.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 337 x x x x xXX× x x x x 0 x xX × x x x x x ~x x × x x x x x x × x x 1 -2 43.

01 -0.005 t4 0 0.08 t3 0.04 0 0.6 Discussion and conclusions The availability of vast amounts of data from various application domains has been noted. it is possible to exploit this historical information.015 d -0.4 0.4 0.2 x I I a -0.0l Figure 11.2 I I I I -0.f o u r t h RBF-PLS component 11. ~ x × x x x x x.2 x x × ~ .04 0. scores scatter plot . in many cases for commercial . while the minimal use to which it is often put is also observed.08 -0. Instead.third RBF-PLS component.338 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control 0.0cx~ x x x x x x 0 x ~ x x xx x x x x x x~ xX x x x x×× x××X x x x × x x x x x 0.Cx xx x xX x x x × x x x ~ x x x x × x ~x x x x x x x x x × x xx x ~x x ~x x x x x x xX x ~ x x -0.12 c d scores scatter plot ..005 0.2 x x x x ~ x x x x xxX× × :.

. b predictive performance of linear PLS efficiency model advantage. A range of pre-processing techniques is available.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 339 o ~9 -1 -2 . Difficulties often associated with historical data are the quality and ease of accessibility..1 J 3 6 Time (hr) 9 12 15 x 1 1 1 e~ o ' -1 ii... Once data has been gathered it is essential to highlight incomplete and faulty records.RBF-PLS efficiencL_ms£_~J . / 2 3 6 Time (hr) 9 12 15 Figure 11.13 a Predictive performance of RBF-PLS efficiency model. using data mining techniques. and . leaving 'cleaned up' data which are representative of the process to be modelled. exacerbated by the quantities stored over lengthy periods of time. Actual efficiency ] .

340 Thermal power plant simulation and control includes feature selection methods to reduce the dimensions of the data and clustering to identify. PLS could be successfully employed for fault identification and sensor reconstruction. but the advantages of PCA are then largely lost. Since the objective of mining techniques is to take advantage of existing data. PCA models were created for limited operating ranges and their ability to detect. Nonlinear extensions to PCA making use of 'principal curves' and/or neural networks have been proposed. outliers. by tracking t score plots. hardware and instrumentation costs incurred should be minimal. Likewise. an informed selection of data mining techniques can then be performed. The application considered here was that of process monitoring at Ballylumford power station. Before initiating a data mining exercise a clear outline of project objectives should be drawn up. A model of the plant under normal operating conditions was created. was being applied to a nonlinear process. rather than focusing on particular quality/performance measures. Similar techniques to that investigated above could have been applied but PCA attempts to explain all the observed variability in available data. were discussed. is thus removed. Each approach has different characteristics which must be considered in relation to the project aims. 'black box' techniques based around neural networks. and subsequently remove. gathered from monitoring equipment already in use throughout the plant. as required in model-based approaches. Establishing reference plant behaviour is not always straightforward and deviation from target can arise from a myriad of causes. operators could monitor how close to optimum the plant was performing. After consideration of a number of possible solutions. Monitoring of plant operating performance. Furthermore. Through access . Model performance was acceptable for the investigated scenarios. sensor problems. and observing how individual plant signals contribute to the PLS scores it was demonstrated that the nature of any discrepancies in plant performance can be pinpointed to particular items of plant. a linear technique. Distinct models were developed to model both unit efficiency and SOx emissions. The need for representing specific faults. and in particular measures such as thermal efficiency. a number of data mining techniques were considered. can be greatly assisted through the availability of extensive historical records. although it is recognised that PCA. Consideration must also be given as to whether the results are required to be qualitative/quantitative in nature and whether linguistic/numerical descriptions are appropriate. There are many techniques available ranging from transparent methods such as association rules to more advanced. by running these models in parallel with the actual plant. With sufficient principal components it should be possible to model the non-linear plant behaviour. Subsequently. with a minimal number of principal components. which focuses on identifying unusual deviations. A range of potential tasks was identified and the suitability of various data mining techniques was assessed. Again. but care needs to he taken that the transparency offered by PCA is not lost. Faults arising both with the plant and with instrumentation were first investigated. As well as influencing the nature of the data selected for the study. NOx and SOx emissions. principal component analysis (PCA) was selected. and PLS was selected as being the most appropriate. and ultimately correct.

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Initially after privatisation a Pool system was introduced in which generation companies competed on price and availability to supply the Pool. Local and global environmental concerns are resulting in increased regulation and the tightening of emission limits requires improved combustion control. Fricker and G. Under NETA the delivery of power. drawing on the authors' experience of how their company responded to these challenges. energy and other ancillary services is subject to complex contractual obligations and monitoring procedures. in 2001 New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) were introduced which rely on contracts being struck between generators and consumers and a complicated balancing market is used to ensure supply meets demand at all times. The effect of NETA on power generators is that there is now an even greater emphasis on plant availability and flexibility. To be able to continue to achieve better performance. The applications described have been built on commercially available software packages unless otherwise stated. in addition to the continuing requirement to minimise costs. All these factors have resulted in a major shift in what is expected from power station operations staff.Chapter 12 Advanced plant management systems A. . Oluwande 12. the role of the operator has moved from an equipment controller to a plant manager who has to balance competing demands to achieve optimal performance. The rest of this chapter will describe the various measures that can be taken to improve power plant management in a competitive market. improve the technical controllability and flexibility of the plant and meet the commercial requirements imposed. it has become necessary for utilities to put in place advanced plant management systems.1 Plant management in a deregulated electricity market The privatisation and deregulation of the UK electricity industry has profoundly changed the way power plants need to be controlled and managed. In particular. such as environmental constraints and contractual obligations. However.

then the supervisory control layer determines the best operational means for the control system to achieve this through the manipulation of the set-points for the individual modulating controllers on the plant. By this it is meant that if the main business driver is efficiency for example. cost of penalty for failing to meet output. delivery of contracted output (be it electrical power or ancillary services) and keeping within environmental emission limits for NOx. As an example. Usually there tends to be more than one commercial driver for the plant.346 Thermalpower plant simulation and control 12. • • optimising ancillary services frequency response payments by ensuring a generator can match performance to contract requirements. Given the multiplicity of the business/commercial drivers for plant management.2 Supervisory control An important element in the architecture of an advanced plant management system is the requirement for a supervisory control layer above the primary control system of the plant. It is an essential element if the plant is to achieve generation demands accurately and consistently.2. SOx. Integrated load control (ILC) is a new load control system specifically developed to meet the requirements of UK generators. minimisation of plant damage. 12.e. with the solution based on the determination of set-points that minimise the cost of operation. The main purpose of this supervisory layer is to provide optimisation of the operation of the plant via its control system. which typically is a distributed control system (DCS). but this will probably be at the expense of efficiency and may restrict the plant output if the increased air flow were to lead to constraints on the boiler fans. one of the requirements for the supervisory control layer would be the arbitration between the various drivers and the derivation of optimal set-points for the controllers which tend to be a compromise that tries to balance between these drivers.1 Integrated load control Load control is a key component in a station's process control system. It provides a system that integrates and coordinates the plant controls with key business systems. Two example supervisory controllers that have been developed and are in use on power plants are: • • integrated load control (ILC) multivariable steam control (MVC). improving marginal plant generating opportunities by offering a high-quality frequency response capability. what will be required in order to arrive at an optimised (compromise) solution will be to know the cost of the output. i. In this situation. a means of reducing NOx emissions is by increasing the air flow through the boiler. in addition to maximisation of production efficiency there might be the requirements for operational flexibility. and the cost of complying with emissions requirements. etc. It provides automatic control of generator-set output and coordinates the required response of the boiler and turbine control loops. . and also to provide the bridge between the commercial or business drivers and the plant's operation.

2 shows the measured system frequency and the target value of 50 Hz. Figure 12. It has also been integrated with Integrated Load Management (ILM)/Electronic Despatch and Logging (EDL) (see section 12.2 Multivariable steam control Traditionally. energy and plant constraints to be controlled by both governor and fuel. To compensate for the error between the target value and the measured system frequency. C. The upper plot shows the effect of this frequency error on both the desired load and the measured load output (note these two values are indistinguishable in the plot). The plots below show typical results in terms of load changing and frequency regulation using ILC.AG MW '. showing measured and desired values • achieving a consistent high-quality service in meeting grid operator requirements that will help avoid disputes or penalties and will enhance company reputation. and pressure control regulated by firing (a mode of operation commonly referred to as boilerfollowing-turbine). The edge ILC provides is in its coordinated turbine and boiler control structures which enable load.. Given that most large coal-fired power generating units were . requires the desired load to 'mirror' the measured frequency. 400 4O Figure 12. the superheater outlet steam temperature and the boiler master pressure have always had independent PID controllers on them. ILC provides a generator with a strategic load control system to consistently meet current requirements and also allowing it to adapt efficiently to new requirements as grid system rules and operating practice continue to mature. The lower plot of Figure 12.2.AG MW 5O0 480 460 440 .1 Load change with ILC.1 shows a load change from 550 MW to 420 MW where the measured value (MV) follows the desired value (DV) almost exactly.Advanced plant management systems 347 Load MV & DV 600 60{ 580 520 • 04-AG0046. the superheater (S/H) steam temperature control being regulated using attemperators or spray valves.3 04-AG0044.4) to allow automatic transfer (with veto) of instructions and contract parameters. 12.

.AG 50. . 1991.2 Frequency regulation with I L C originally run as base-load plants. ~ . and can cause swings in both temperature and pressure. © 580 550 o 55 . coordinated control of both steam temperature and pressure is required (Rossiter et al..8 o Hz r-- t:-: r. ~ ~. this concept was very effective as the plant had stable firing and consequently stable operation. especially the larger coal-fired generating units.99 MW o. a multivariable model-based predictive controller (MBPC) has been developed and implemented at key coal-fired stations.AG 50 © © I 49. At the supervisory level there is a cost function used to .18 MW 04-AG0044. This is because firing.2 • 04-AG0017. Vasudeva. have had to operate more flexibly over a range of load conditions.o. in order to remain competitive.2 5(~. In our organisation. also has considerable influence on temperature.9 149.348 Thermal p o w e r p l a n t simulation and control Load MV & DV 650 65) • 04-AG0046. The introduction of competition at all levels in the UK electricity market has meant that most fossil-fired plants. To minimise swings in temperature which can cause plant damage due to creep and thermal fatigue.013 Hz S"x~ '~-r" © 04-AG0039.AG 595.AG 595.) ~ . 1991. The performance of conventional (PID) controllers in minimising the impact of these excursions is limited. there is a greater requirement for firing changes which perturb the whole plant.o. 1994.. though used to control pressure. especially for plants that are required to operate flexibly over their full load range. With flexible generation. r-- t-- r-- 6-: r-- r-- ~ /z ~ Frequency & target 50. 1999). Large temperature excursions are known to be a major contributor to plant life reduction through increased stress and creep life damage on boilers. Perez et al.8 o 4). Oluwande and Boucher.- 6z 6z r-- t-- r-- Figure 12.

Significant performance improvements have been achieved through the application of this multivariable model-based predictive control (MBPC) technology.... 1999). ...3 shows the results for a generating unit where a multivariable steam temperature and pressure controller has been installed.600 349 600 ~ .. . . with the effect of the large load changes on the parameters being significantly reduced under multivariable control.Unit load .. A S/H O/L Tmp C S/H O/L Tmp D S/H O/L Tmp "~400 540 300 520 Pressure . . The plot shows the generating unit being put through a series of load changes and the performance of the four S/H steam temperature controllers and the master pressure are depicted under multivariable MBPC.3 MVC steam temperature and pressure control determine the controller actions required from both the firing and the attemperation. Figure 12. .. The calculated required controller actions are then sent to the lower-level firing and attemperation control loops for implementation. The introduction of multivariable control of steam temperature and pressure control was the consequence of the need to have improved coordinated control of these parameters as firing which is used to regulate steam pressure also has a strong influence on the steam temperature which is regulated by attemperators.A vS/H O/L Pr 560 ~ . J - ~[ 200 100 12:00 PM I I 1:00 PM I I 2:00 PM I I 3:00 PM I I 4:00 PM 500 Time Figure 12.Advanced plant management systems 700 -Unit load .. this is based on minimising the impact of firing changes on the steam temperatures whilst still achieving tight master pressure control. The performance of the controllers under MBPC was significantly better than under single-input.... ~500 0 580 Temperature . single-output (SISO) temperature and pressure controllers (Oluwande and Boucher.

Ideally the CCR should be equipped such that it provides a single. for data and information flow around the plant. Though different suppliers might provide different plant components. i. the need for multiple control rooms. and to try to ensure that the central control room (CCR) is where most if not all of the plant control is operated. the long-term limitations and suboptimal operation of such control systems far outweigh the short-term cost gains in going for such islands of automation. • Whilst these principles are easier to follow for new plants.3. sometimes with different alarm systems and limited data flow between the various subsystems.e. they tend not to be involved in the design and development of the control systems for power stations. This then results in the provision from different suppliers of plant subsystems with their individual control systems. as far as possible. it is essential that all of the different control and operating systems on the plant are integrated. integrated control facility for all of the plant (note that plant here refers to a steam train unit consisting of boiler and steam turbine for PF-fired plants. The VDUs must have access to all plant areas and should not be segregated by plant areas. they are more difficult to achieve on existing plants except through refurbishments. We recommend that to ensure the opportunity for plant management systems and the benefits that these will bring.3 System integration and HMI issues To facilitate the development of the plant management system. and the boiler or heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with its own control system. the water treatment plant the same. One then ends up in the control room with various VDUs which are subsystem based. system and plant developers need to follow these principles: • To eliminate. the steam turbine will come with its own controllers and visual display units (VDUs). The different systems should be integrated with the DCDAS such that to the operator in the CCR they are indistinguishable from systems implemented within the DCDAS.350 Thermalpower plant simulation and control 12. or gas turbines. heat recovery steam generators and steam turbines for a combined cycle plant).1 Avoidance of islands of automation Although most power plant control engineers appreciate the need for an integrated operating and control system. In our view. In our experience the two ways of bringing about integration is through having an integrated human-machine interface (HMI) and the integration of the flow of data and information across the various plant systems through the establishment of a real-time database. In our own organisation the . 12. the plant owner/developer needs to ensure as much as possible that there is only one plantwide integrated distributed control and data acquisition system (DCDAS). The project developers and project managers are more concerned with building a station as economically as possible and this tends to encourage the selection of the least cost option in terms of equipment supplied. since we wish to avoid many 'islands of automation' on the plant.

The control room operator has plant-wide communication and control via the APMS soft desk facility. whilst this is true. Typically. without APMS. It is also desirable . It also included the integration of new and legacy control systems and implementation of added value applications (AVAs).2 Advanced Plant Management System APMS has enabled us to provide our plant operators with an integrated HMI from which they can control the plant and have access to all plant data through a real-time database. The development of APMS was based on a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) package RTAP with an open systems approach permitting integration of third-party packages. This is described in the following section. The purpose of the new soft desk (Lichnowski and Dicken. 2001) is to provide a single integrated user interface for all the plant and commercial data needed for operational decision-making as well as carrying out control actions. With APMS. allowing all the firing to be managed by the operator within one integrated user interface. An additional advantage of separating the top-level database and HMI from the lower-level control systems is that it enables future changes to the plant and control systems to be carried out with the minimum of disruption. The gas burner management system required a completely new control system and. The real-time database is interfaced to an operational information system (data archiving system). this would normally have required a separate HMI with its own set of VDUs.4 Performance monitoring In section 12. The strength of a plant-wide real-time database can be further exploited through the development of added value applications that implement new advanced technologies targeted at delivering commercial optimisation. replacing the traditional hardwired control desk (which was sometimes supplemented with VDUs connected to specific software systems). all interfaced to a uniform operator soft desk. 12.3. the existing schematics and control panels were modified to include gas firing. enabling users to inspect and analyse real plant data.2 we stated that the supervisory controllers help provide the bridge between the commercial/business drivers and the primary controllers.000 data points and resides on dual-redundant servers. At the heart of APMS lies a real-time database interfaced to all the plant data acquisition and control modules and relevant subsystems. As an example. the database comprises 20.4 shows a typical APMS control desk. Figure 12. the direction of information is 'downwards' into the plant. 12. the units at one coal-fired station were converted so that they could burn gas in addition to coal.Advanced plant management systems 351 route we took in refurbishing our existing coal-fired plants based on these principles resulted in the development of the Advanced Plant Management System (APMS).

OIS is a set of business and operational applications that have been built on the tools available within PI to create standard menu layouts. These can be in the form of trends or graphics. OIS pulls together data from many sources within the company and . At the core of OIS is the PI archive which stores the data fed from the control system. reports or spreadsheets. In our organisation this has led to the development of systems for monitoring: • • • plant monitoring using OIS .4.352 Thermal power plant simulation and control Figure 12. displays and reports for all the Innogy sites.operational information system commercial monitoring using E D L . The applications use the PI functions to return data in a format that the user wants. 12.Electronic Despatch and Logging. and ILM Integrated Load Management systems alarm analysis tool.1 Operational information system The long-term performance of the plant is monitored using the operational information system (OIS) which is based on the PI (Plant Information) commercial software package.4 APMS control desk to have information flowing 'upwards' from the plant to the rest of the organisation and for use in monitoring of the plant performance and the achievement of business goals for example.

4. including those at remote locations such as the corporate head offices. It also acquires real-time data from the plant itself (via the metering system). Achieving it requires a concise interpretation of the instruction and an understanding of the compliance monitoring criteria. and graphically displays any discrepancies. problem alarms could be due to either a plant problem or an incorrect set-up of the alarm definition. 12. The integration of these activities ensures an unambiguous record of the despatch instruction and provides accuracy for the plant control strategy. The system acquires the current despatch instruction from the EDL and at any given moment calculates exactly what a generating unit should be producing and profiles the load into the future. Instructions to despatch the plant are sent electronically via the company's IT infrastructure directly to a display on the control room desk. 12.4 Alarm Analysis Tool The Alarm Analysis Tool (aAt) has been designed to perform analysis on alarm logs produced by APMS and other process control systems.e. The information is logged for future comparison and analysis and sent to the Integrated Load Management system for input to the process control system.e. boiler or turbine specialists. i. The operator accepts or rejects the instruction. NETA requires accurate delivery of the contracted energy over each half-hour period.4. Part of what the tool does is to do a frequency analysis on alarms logged and results in the production of a table and graph displaying the total number of times each individual alarm occurs. To assist the operator an Integrated Load Management (ILM) system has been developed to display the target and to monitor the performance of the plant in accordance with the rules. etc. ILM monitors this situation and provides information for both the operator and the control system on the generation required to achieve the targets. 12.2 Electronic Despatch and Logging In the control room the Electronic Despatch and Logging (EDL) system provides the vital direct link between the grid operator and the production process. whilst regular occurrence of high alarm activity could be identifying an opportunity for improved control or need for more automation. The information derived is useful for the identification of maintenance issues. The aAt allows users to analyse the performance of their alarm system highlighting problem alarms or times of high alarm activity. The arrival of new instructions generates an audible signal and the message is automatically checked for accuracy and consistency with the previously declared parameters.Advanced plant management systems 353 is able to distribute information through tools to the different end-users. .4. i.3 Integrated Load Management Compliance with despatch instructions through the timely and accurate delivery of energy and power is an essential task for both the control room operator and process control system.

To be successful. It would therefore appear that. these requirements cannot be considered in isolation.g. the modelling has been successful. emission limits). To date we have not been able to produce a model of the combustion process that has been accurate over a long enough period. so far no applications have been deployed using this technology. particularly in NOx reduction software systems. for various reasons. This product provides a complete real-time programming environment including object orientation. real-time expert system technology and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were both demonstrated to provide potential opportunities. efficiency losses) within a set of constraints (e. SCADA and database products. there are many reports of ANNs being successfully used for combustion modelling. However. G2 has been used to develop most of the applications described in this section. under certain conditions at least.354 Thermal power plant simulation and control 12. applications must supply appropriate information to operational staff at the right time and in the right format. In general. These include providing flexible operation. In the authors' experience the most common cause of unsuccessful applications is not technical inadequacies but 'soft' issues of human interaction.5. This problem is particularly difficult if the applications produce unsolicited information and advice to the operator. It was hoped to be able to use an ANN model to predict combustion efficiency and emission levels from a set of input plant measurements and control settings.2 Integrated application framework The objective for a suite of added value applications (AVAs) is to provide applications to assist the operator in the full range of his/her responsibilities.5 12.1 Added value applications AVA technologies Shortly after privatisation a research project was started to determine the type of assistance plant operators would need in a competitive market and whether there were opportunities for exploiting new software technologies.5. Although artificial neural networks appeared to offer the opportunity for modelling complicated non-linear systems such as the combustion process. As a result of this work. operators do not use them. 12.g. Such a model could then be used to optimise the control settings to minimise some cost function (e. The real-time expert system product chosen to develop applications was Gensym's G2. For instance. meeting contracts and staying within environmental limits. integrated graphical interface and interfaces to a wide range of control. In most control and SCADA systems (including APMS) the user interface provides no mechanism for displaying unsolicited information or requests apart from the alarm list (which would be inappropriate in many cases). a change in the control settings intended to improve efficiency might have a detrimental effect on plant damage and/or emissions. avoiding plant damage. rule base. . There are many examples of new applications being installed that are unsuccessful since. improving efficiency. It is therefore essential to involve operational staff at all stages of application development. Another potential problem with several AVAs running concurrently is how to provide an integrated user interface.

A hierarchy of generic plant classes has been developed that determine the operational states of individual components. IAF 'schedulers' can be used to schedule calculations on real-time data obtained from the common repository. say. to produce a single integrated system where applications can co-exist and work together as a single entity. a coal mill. the application creates a suitable type of communication object. The plant states can take symbolic values such as starting-up. By using a separate server a large suite of applications can be run without overloading the APMS servers and the security of the APMS servers is improved (i. the text. At one extreme. The operational state of the plant object is then inferred from these data.g. Thus if. rather than just as a collection of individual modules. The extent to which G2 is used as the application development environment will vary according to the requirements of the application. subsystems and systems. closed. priority. configures it (e. tools.Advanced plant management systems 355 In Innogy. etc.5. Instead. etc. IAF consists of a set of standard objects. This module contains the interfaces to all external systems and also all the plant objects that use external data to derive information such as plant states and validated values.g. IAF uses G2 to provide the underlying programming environment for integrating AVAs. at the other extreme. This means that one application can control another (e. IAF will then control how the message is displayed and provide links back to the originating application. etc. in the case of a valve. Actions such as activating and deactivating applications can be done either manually (through the user interface) or programmatically through the application program interface (API). for instance. block its advice. if required.) and despatches it to the IAF communications handler. the application does not display this directly on the screen since it may obscure some other important information. These calculations can be implemented either as G2 procedures or as external C / C + + programs called via a bridge (or a combination of both). The results of these calculations should then be interpreted within G2 before being written back to the repository and/or presented to the operator (either through the IAF user interface or through the control system user interface). schedule the execution and return the results of an application developed in C + ÷ . . in the case of. partially open. Each object has one or more attributes that obtain real-time data via an appropriate interface. in-service. or values such as open. activate and deactivate it.3 Plant object module Applications that operate within IAF normally obtain real-time data from a single G2 module.). the whole application could be developed in G2 whilst.e. etc. rogue AVAs cannot cause APMS to crash). templates and guidelines to enable a suite of applications to run in a coordinated manner. The IAF can run on the main APMS servers but it is preferable for it to run on a separate AVA server. an application has some advice to be brought to the operator's attention. G2 could simply supply the data. period to display. 12. these problems have been overcome by the development of an integrated application framework (IAF).

the startup times vary from under an hour to several hours. delays or deviations from the plan to occur • automate specific sets of tasks to achieve greater consistency. However.5. Starting up a power plant requires a sequence of operations to be performed to bring auxiliary plant into service and to warm the boiler along a profile that matches thermal constraints of construction materials. Depending on the temperature of the boiler. the plant state and the time required for each activity. . The system monitors real-time plant data from the process control system to determine the plant state and the time various activities will require. This enables information to be exchanged between applications and also provides a standard method for writing data back into external systems (e.g. site-specific subclasses can be developed that contain extra attributes and formulas for determining the states of certain specific plant items at that site. The overall objectives of SMS are to: • • • • standardise on best operational procedures for startup provide a specific startup plan and schedule for the current plant conditions monitor the plant in real time to provide information on the progress compared with the plan and advise on the next activities to be carried out provide procedure-specific alarms. The plant object module also provides the repository for public data generated by other applications. However. the unit should always synchronise within a 4-5 minute window of the instructed time. If necessary. a schedule of activities and the total time required to synchronise the unit is calculated for the prevailing plant conditions. it is these values that are subsequently used in other applications. This information is displayed graphically to the user via an 'activity network'. The Startup Management System (SMS) has therefore been developed to achieve reliable startups at minimum total costs. Traditionally. control set-points). reduced operator workload and reduced plant damage. 12. Having determined the plant states and other validated data. the startup of a coal-fired unit has been performed manually using the built-up expertise of well-skilled operators. This module also processes raw data to produce other types of validated data and derived values that are required for input to applications. hot-start) and their dependencies.356 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Whenever possible more than one data value is used for inferring the plant state in order to improve reliability.g. Optimising the process requires a careful balance between minimising the startup energy costs and limiting plant damage.4 Startup Management System This G2 application assists the operator to bring the plant from a shut-down condition up to synchronising the electrical generator to the National Grid. SMS contains information about the activities within a particular type of startup (e. information and advice to reduce the likelihood of uneconomic plant damage. analysis of the startup methodology revealed significant variances in the techniques employed and the times allowed. By combining the information about the startup procedure.

there are facilities in SMS for developing sophisticated 'plant managers' that replicate the type of decision-making and actions that would otherwise have to be made by operators. At most sites a 'drainage manager' has been implemented to control the boiler drain valves to achieve 'progressive drainage' during startup. Monitors can be incorporated into the system to check that key plant parameters stay within prescribed limits during specific periods of the startup. and provides warnings if they are not. The rate of progress through the startup is compared to the plan and indicated to the operator. However.Advanced plant management systems 357 Figure 12. The plant manager would control the plant by initiating control sequences and/or providing set-points for lower-level controllers. have a recovery strategy for if the plant were to fail. The final stage in developing SMS for a particular station is to start automating some of the tasks.operator's screen During the startup. SMS displays to the operator the relevant part of the startup plan and indicates the recommended next activity. where appropriate. The drainage manager . when to start it and. functions for estimating the time until completion. This automation can simply take the form of automatically starting control sequences at the correct time. Each activity contains a set of rules for determining the state of the activity and. The system monitors activities to ensure that they are only carried out when the correct conditions are met. the relevant plant manager would need to determine which item to start. Figure 12.5.5 Startup Management System . Thus if an activity involved starting one of several similar plant items. ideally.

giving the operators greater predictability and consistency in achieving synchronisation times. . since it is the total boiler losses that need to be minimised and not just one component at the expense of another. It is important that all boiler losses are calculated and displayed. If losses exceed certain thresholds. The operator still has important strategic decisions to make and has to manage unplanned incidents. COL is available as a G2 application within the integrated application framework for use by operators. Under these circumstances the rules for managing the drain valves need to ensure that no water is admitted into hot headers. he/she is now much better supported in terms of understanding the options and implications.5. For example.e. it can be used as the starting point for other more specific performance monitoring systems. In the G2 version the information is displayed to the operator in tabular and graphical form and the areas where the largest losses are occurring is highlighted. COL can initiate alarms in APMS.358 Thermalpower plant simulation and control waits until the steam temperature in a boiler section matches the temperatures of the outlet headers before admitting steam into the headers by opening drain valves. It is also available as an OIS application that can be accessed by any authorised staff. The drainage manager can also automatically adjust target conditions and ramp rates within certain limits to attempt to achieve synchronisation on time while limiting plant damage.5 Cost of Losses The Cost of Losses (COL) application calculates the efficiency of all the major systems within a power plant at regular intervals and compares them with target values. 12. However. However. Figure 12. In practice. However. The timing of the valve opening and their subsequent closing and/or modulation is critical to achieving smooth increases in temperature and pressure and to minimise thermal stresses. A substantial amount of intelligence often needs to be built into the drainage manager to cope with the wide range of circumstances that may arise.6a and b. Differences between the actual and target values (i. The drainage manager could also advise the operator if a change in firing could improve the situation. the application of the Startup Management System has considerably reduced the variability of the startup process. One example of the type of problem that can arise is the situation where one boiler section still contains condensate and is therefore at saturation temperature while a down-stream section has boiled off its condensate and its tube temperatures are increasing rapidly because there is no steam flow. it may be better to allow the drainage to move on to the next boiler section before the ideal temperature match is achieved in order to protect down-stream tubes from over heating. in one power station. The Cost of Losses application is a general-purpose application that needs to be configured for a particular plant. the heat losses) are expressed as costs per hour. the costs associated specifically with combustion losses due to non-optimal firing conditions are evaluated and displayed to the operator.

5. . as are the rules regarding the allowable number of exceedances. The rules governing how the data is processed are quite complicated.6 Costof losses 12. daily and monthly averages and how the information must be reported. In the UK.6 Particulate emission monitoring system The level of particulate emissions from power plant must be continuously monitored and controlled to stay within specified limits. the Environmental Agency specifies the way in which the emission measurements must be processed to provide hourly. In order to ensure compliance with particulate limits.Advanced plant management systems 359 Figure 12. two emissions monitoring applications have been developed: (1) an on-line system for operational use and (2) an off-line system for retrospective data analysis and producing reports for the Environmental Agency.

5. compared with the allowances. (3) the allowable plant limits and (4) plant-specific advice for dealing with detected problems. etc. 12. Plant management systems provide a supervisory layer above the control system where all the relevant plant. it is treated as true and triggers an evaluation to determine the most likely underlying cause(s) and recommended actions and alerts the operator. The initial system is applicable to on-load operation but will be expanded later to cover all operational modes (e. off-load. This information is essential for operational decision-making and should mean there are no surprises at the end of the reporting periods. diagnoses possible causes and provides recommended actions. However. a site-specific module needs to be produced that contains configuration information needed to specify (1) the plant components present. startup. The off-line system downloads data from the OIS data archive into a spreadsheet where it is processed by Visual Basic (VBA) macros and the resulting data is stored in a database. 12. (2) the input measurements available. The information can be displayed graphically and reports can be generated suitable for submission to the Environmental Agency. contractual and commercial information resides in order to optimise plant operation. feed system and steam turbine.360 Thermalpower plant simulation and control The on-line system has been developed in G2 and provides real-time information on the particulate emissions processed in the form specified by the Environmental Agency. all relevant information is available in graphical form so that the operator can see how the problem has developed and can monitor the effects of any remedial actions carried out. The system includes the water/steam circuit of drum-type boilers and generator stator water circuit.). The rules used for problem identification and diagnosis have been created in G2 using graphical function blocks that can deal with either discrete or 'fuzzy' logic. These belief values are then used as evidence to indicate if specific problems are present or not. If the belief value for a problem exceeds a certain threshold. The core of the system has been made as generic as possible. together with the number of exceedances that have occurred over the previous 12 month period. It provides information on the performance during the current hour.6 Conclusions This chapter has described how the move into a competitive electricity generation market has changed the way power plant has to be operated and the need for operational support systems to assist the operator. In addition. . Input measurements are first converted into belief values for specific symptoms. 7 Chemical Diagnostic Expert System The Chemical Diagnostic Expert System (ChemEx) provides on-line monitoring of chemical conditions in water/steam circuits and presents operational advice. The system is designed to avoid unnecessary corrosion damage on the internal surfaces of the boiler.g. for each site. The system identifies actual or developing problems. day and month.

12. In many other cases it is currently still the operator that has to make the final decisions.: 'Power plant operation and maintenance cost reduction through control system improvements'.: 'Application of generalised predictive control to a boiler turbine unit for electricity generation'. J. 1999 PEREZ. 259-272 OLUWANDE. R. contractual and commercial information integrated human-machine interface a framework for running a suite of applications in a coordinated manner. C. K.M. J. UK..: 'Power generation: the advanced control desk'. pp.. J.. M. 1994 ROSSITER.: 'Adaptive predictive control in a thermal power station'. CATEDIANO. and BOUCHER. and DICKEN. L. 747-752. pp. In order to achieve the full benefits of an advanced plant management system.Advanced plant management systems 361 This optimisation often involves finding the best compromise between various (sometimes conflicting) requirements. 1991 VASUDEVA. B. 59-67. J. 73-84.S. (2)..M. Power Engineering Journal. 1991 . and SANCHEZ. 3rd IEEE Conference on Control Applications.. some of the underpinning requirements are: • • • • openness in the underlying process control system real-time database containing all relevant plant. Proceedings lEE Part D.. KOUVARITAKIS. In some cases the optimisation can be performed within a supervisory control system. 5.7 References LICHNOWSKI. Karlsruhe. G. CEREZO. Germany. and BRANSBY. R. in NOYES. J. A. but with the help of suitable support systems.. ECC '99. Glasgow. employing techniques such as model-based predictive control.A. PEREZ. 138. and DUNNETT. E. These support systems may simply present the operator with all the relevant information from a variety of sources in a suitable (usually graphical) form. (1). (Eds. 2001) pp. pp.): 'People in control: human factors in control room design' (lEE Control Engineering Series 60. Other applications go further by analysing this information using 'intelligent' technologies such as expert systems to provide recommended actions or even to directly provide set-points for the control system.: 'Implementation of a multi-variable modelbased predictive controller for superheater steam temperature and pressure control on a large coal-fired power plant'.

Part 4 The future .

This is because a global first-principles (or physical) model can provide an accurate prediction of system behaviour in non-linear operating regions and facilitate inferential estimation of important unmeasured plant variables. normal working of a power plant is severely affected by the occurrence of a range of system disturbances. The control performance of these loops is adversely affected by inter-loop interactions. This control strategy should coordinate the activities of various subsystems of a thermal power plant to achieve optimal performance during large load changes and system disturbances by minimising the adverse effects of plant-wide interactions. Such a control strategy can very effectively be implemented by making effective use of the tremendous potential for synergy of a physical model with model-based predictive control (MBPC) techniques (Maciejowski. In addition. Some common disturbances are changes in active burner configuration.1 Introduction In today's privatised power industry. such . Prasad 13. 2002). A thermal power plant is a highly coupled large-scale multivariable dynamic system. and variations in condenser vacuum.Chapter 13 Physical model-based coordinated power plant control G. a thermal power plant capable of making faster adjustments in power output in response to the system demand has significant competitive advantages. It is normally controlled by multiloop PI/PID controllers. In order to minimise the influence of both plant-wide interactions and disturbances so as to ensure a higher rate of load change without violating thermal constraints. heat-exchanger tube fouling. Such a plant may often be required to operate in a load-cycling or two-shifting manner resulting in non-linear changes in plant variables. the disturbances in one part of the plant can have a significant effect on the rest of the plant as well. a coordinated control strategy is required. Being a highly coupled system.

several proposals for physical model-based coordinated control of thermal power plant have been made in the literature. Model-based plant control was first proposed more than forty years ago in the paper by Chien et al. Section 13. 13. the results obtained with a coordinated control scheme using optimal control theory were not very encouraging. Recognising the aforementioned potential for gaining substantial advantage by the use of physical models. constraint handling and set-point following. A model simulating the dominant static and dynamic characteristics of the plant has been used for the purpose of analysis. Other notable early works are those of Nicholson (1964. McDonald and Kwanti (1973) later proposed applying an optimal controller combined with a complete state estimator (incorporating the estimation of exogenous disturbances to allow steady-state optimal regulation) to a drum boiler power plant.2 A review of physical model-based thermal power plant control approaches Using optimal control theory.3 gives brief details of this plant simulation. This helps to reject the effect of disturbances extremely quickly (Prasad et al. Nevertheless commonly available industrial power plant simulators can be employed for relatively fast development of a reduced-order generic model. It is based on a detailed non-linear plant .4.. This is based on the simulation results obtained by running the plant simulation under severe but realistic operating conditions. As the plant models used in these early studies could not provide an adequate characterisation of a typical power boiler. Such critical variables. there have been several attempts to apply physical model-based control to a power boiler. A physical model also facilitates on-line estimation of the main plant parameters that are affected during system disturbances.366 Thermal power plant simulation and control as metal temperature.3. The concluding discussion is finally presented in section 13. A formulation of a non-linear physical model-based predictive control (NPMPC) approach for application to power plant simulation is described in section 13. Using the example of the 200 MW oil-fired Ballylumford thermal power plant.5 discusses the effectiveness of the physical model-based predictive control approach in disturbance rejection. an analysis of the dynamics of boiler-turbine operation is presented in section 13. Section 13. Additionally with a global physical model. however. (1958). can explicitly be constrained to vary in the most profitable range by on-line constrained optimisation under an MBPC strategy. 1967) and Anderson (1969). Building a physical plant representation is. 1966.3 also includes discussion of the main system disturbances and constraints that have a significant influence on the economics of power plant control. Section 13. a very time-consuming and expensive task.6. which sufficiently describes the dominant dynamic and static characteristics of a power plant. it is possible to account for dynamic interactions more favourably using a predictive control strategy. that are critical to the life of the plant components. 2000). accounting for plant-wide interactions. along with inputs and outputs. These are briefly discussed in the next section.

(1997) have proposed a life-extending control strategy for fossil fuel power plants. before updating the high-level optimal coordinator. Ordys and Kock.. 1993) in a combined-cycle power plant. The GPC solution for each low-level subprocess is independently found. It makes use of optimal regulator theory recognising the limitation of an imperfect model and produces integral type action which guarantees zero steady-state errors. It assumes a hierarchical control structure in which the multivariable optimal regulator acts as a set-point controller at a higher level with 4.. and allowable structural damage. Cori and Maffezzoni (1984) combined linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) design with conventional control expedients to provide a practical optimal regulator and evaluated it on a real plant by a direct digital control system. Kallappa et al. some parameters of which had been estimated by field tests. Katebi and Johnson (1997) propose the application of a decentralised predictive control scheme based on a state space implementation of generalised predictive control (GPC) (Ordys and Clarke. including thermomechanical fatigue and plastic deformation. based on induced L2-norm techniques.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 367 model.4 s sampling period. They make use of a two-level decentralised Kalman filter to locally estimate the states of each of the subprocesses of a power plant. Prasad et al. The feedforward control policy is synthesised via non-linear off-line optimisation of a multi-objective cost function of dynamic performance and service life. They report improved performance from this two-level optimising control strategy. under the constraints of actuator saturation. A linear robust feedback control law that is superimposed on the feedforward sequence is synthesised. and had a number of practical advantages and improved robustness against plant parameter variation. 2002) for improved control of a thermal power plant. with 2. The feedforward sequence is based on a 1 s sampling time. this control policy is shown to be capable of ramping up the plant power at a rate of 10 per cent of the full load per minute. operational limitations. Ordys and Kock (1999) present a comparison of control performance obtained with a linear state space model-based GPC and dynamic . This was an experimental application of optimal control to a drum boiler power plant. The regulator included feedforward and integral control. When implemented in a plant simulation. 1997. In another related notable work. Prasad et al. mainly on the grounds that it optimally accounts for adverse effects of system-wide interactions.1 s sampling time. Its objective is to achieve a trade-off between structural durability and dynamic performance. Model reduction was applied to get a simplified control structure. maintain their traditional decoupled structure.8 s sampling period. They used a physically based mathematical model. 1999. The paper focuses on structural durability of the main steam header under load-following to illustrate how the life extending control of fossil fuel power plants can be achieved via feedforwardffeedback. while the lower-level local feedback loops. In recent years several researchers have proposed model predictive control strategies based on a physical plant model (Katebi and Johnson. A two-level optimisation strategy then decomposes the global GPC problem into manageable subproblems. The feedback sequence is based on 0. Based on a linear physical plant model. while maintaining the plant performance and satisfying the damage constraints. 2000.

specially in tightly constrained cases. (2000.1.368 Thermal power plant simulation and control performance predictive controller (DPC) applied in a gas turbine power plant simulation. To account for the effect of sustained system disturbances. Successive linearisation and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) are used to obtain a linear state space model as a basis for a constrained long-range predictive controller design. a secondary superheater (SH). (2000. The PL TGv I FGR I ' Figure 13. the main steam pressure is maintained at 164 bar by manipulating the fuel flow valve (FFV) and accordingly the air flow damper (AFD) to maintain an optimal air-fuel ratio. and a radiant-type platen superheater (PL) for superheating the saturated steam of the drum (DR) to 540 °C. They report relatively improved performance of their DPC algorithm in dealing with cross-couplings. this chapter discusses the effectiveness of a physical model-based coordinated control strategy by evaluating its control performance under severe operating conditions involving large load changes and commonly occurring significantly large system disturbances. Here. Adopting the approach taken by Prasad et al. Adopting a different predictive control approach.3. 2002) present a non-linear physical model-based predictive control (NPMPC) strategy for effective handling of plant-wide interactions and system disturbances. 13. the NPMPC strategy models a selected set of plant parameters as stochastic variables. The plant uses three-stage superheaters: a convection-type primary superheater (PH).1 Control problems of a thermal power plant Simulation of a 200 M W thermal power plant A simplified schematic diagram of the 200 MW Ballylumford power plant is shown in Figure 13. Prasad et al. This stochastic disturbance model in combination with the physical plant model is used by the NPMPC algorithm for prediction purposes.3 13.1 Simplified schematic of Ballylumford power plant . 2002). The chapter also discusses how constraint handling of MPC helps in preventing thermal constraint violation while ensuring the highest possible rate of load change.

Prasad. through which flue gases from the economiser exit are injected into the furnace hopper. 1997). Multiloop PID controllers. There is also an attemperator (ATr) for reheat steam temperature control. but this is used sparingly.1 and 13. are also implemented to control all the important plant outputs. The main steam temperature is controlled by inter-stage attemperators: a first-stage attemperator (AT1) in the in-coming steam to the PL and a second-stage attemperator (AT2) in the in-coming steam to the SH.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 369 superheated main steam flow to the HP turbine is controlled by a turbine governor valve (TGV). nine inputs. describing mainly the boilerturbine dynamics of the Ballylumford power plant for the top 60 per cent of the load range. There is also a reheater (RH) for reheating the exhaust steam from the HP turbine back to 540 °C. It has 14 states.2). The model consists of 14 first-order non-linear differential equations and more than 100 algebraic equations. A simulation of the above plant has been created in Matlab/Simulink ® using a physical model (Lu et al. 1995. similar to those in the actual power plant. and 16 outputs (Tables 13. The reheat steam enters the IP/LP turbine through an intercept valve (ICV).1 Input (u) Simulation inputs and outputs Output (y) Drum water level (mm) Drum steam pressure (MPa) Main steam flow (kg/s) Primary superheater outlet steam temperature (°C) Platen superheater inlet steam temperature (°C) Platen superheater outlet steam temperature (°C) Secondary superheater inlet steam temperature (°C) Secondary superheater outlet steam temperature (°C) Main steam valve pressure (MPa) Governing stage outlet steam temperature (°C) Total heat flow in steam cycle (MW) HP turbine power output (MW) Reheater inlet steam temperature (°C) Reheater outlet steam temperature (°C) IP turbine inlet steam pressure (MPa) IP/LP turbine output (MW) Feedwater flow (kg/s) First stage attemperator spray flow (kg/s) Second stage attemperator spray flow (kg/s) Reheater attemperator spray flow (kg/s) Fuel flow (kg/s) Air flow (kg/s) Flue gas recirculation flow (kg/s) Goveming valve area (unity) Intercepting valve area (unity) .. Normalised random sequences are added to the outputs to simulate measurement Table 13. Control of reheater temperature is normally achieved by manipulating the flue gas recirculation (FGR) damper.

• • • 13. as the large volume of steam gives the low-pressure turbine a considerable lag. The effect of condenser dynamics is also excluded. of the radiation and the convection heat transfer from the flue gases .3. or both.2 Analysis of boiler-turbine operation The heat transfer in a power plant boiler takes place through radiation and convection modes.2 Simulation state variables State variables (x p) Outlet enthalpy of economiser (kJ/kg) Mean temperature of economiser metal wall (°C) Outlet pressure of drum (MPa) Volume of saturated water in evaporation system (m3) Mean temperature of riser metal wall (°C) Outlet enthalpy of primary superheater (kJ/kg) Mean temperature of primary superheater metal wall (°C) Outlet enthalpy of platen superheater (kJ/kg) Mean temperature of platen superheater metal wall (°C) Outlet enthalpy of secondary superheater (kJ/kg) Mean temperature of secondary superheater metal wall (°C) Outlet enthalpy of reheater (kJ/kg) Mean temperature of reheater metal wall (°C) Inlet pressure of high-pressure turbine (MPa) noise.370 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Table 13. secondary superheater and reheater tubes takes place due to either. The superheating of steam in the platen superheater. The following general assumptions and considerations are made in the model formulation: • The effect of feedheater dynamics is omitted. The air and gas dynamics are neglected as the time constants involved are much smaller in comparison to other process lags. The effects of all of the working media (water and steam) and metal walls are separately considered. It is however considered for link pipes between the high-pressure turbine and intermediatepressure turbine. The compressibility of steam in the boiler subsystems is ignored because velocities in those subsystems are very small in comparison to sonic velocity. It is this process which has a major influence on the steam pressure and the water level in the drum. Evaporation in the water-wall tubes is mainly due to heat radiation from the translucent flame surface in the furnace. as it makes an insignificant contribution to overall system dynamics. as it avoids using inaccurate effective metal coefficients and improves the model accuracy.

However. which influence the incoming steam temperature. i. but although quite small it certainly has some effect on steam pressure and water level in the boiler drum. Heat transfer through radiation is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature of the flame surface.3 Economics of plant operation For higher thermodynamic steam cycle efficiency. Within the allowed metallurgical limits. Flue gas recirculation (FGR) is mainly used for controlling the temperature of steam coming out of the reheater. 1992). This results in changes in the final superheat and reheat steam temperatures. main steam pressure and steam flow. resulting in less heat transfer through radiation. There are two main modes of plant operation: constant steam pressure and variable steam pressure. as steam pressure and steam flow change. As a result. In any case. as excess air pushes the flame surface further upward in the furnace and it also reduces the average flame temperature. metallurgical constraints on the boiler and turbine components limit the maximum temperature and pressure of the steam. It also depends on the air-fuel ratio. FGR is a process in which flue gases from a point after the economiser in the rear pass of the boiler are taken out and reinjected into the base of the furnace. there is a strong interaction between the three variables. This reduces the average temperature of the flame surface. the plant should operate with maximum possible main steam temperature. the governor valve opening responds to changes in power demand by varying steam flow to the turbine for the desired shaft power. Based on this brief analysis. 13.e. In variable pressure operation. governor valve opening. it is clear that steam production in the boiler is a highly interactive and multivariable process. This causes the flue gases to maintain a greater quantity of combustion heat. before it enters the HP turbine. As mentioned earlier.3. the drum water level is affected leading to compensatory adjustments in feedwater flow. In constant steam pressure operation. So the final steam temperature coming out of these heat exchanger tubes will depend on the temperature and flow rate of the flue gases and the incoming temperature and flow rate of steam passing through the tubes themselves. for example. pressure and temperature differences within particular components . So. the rate of convection heat transfer to the superheater tubes and reheater tubes is altered. Attemperator sprays. The position and the area of the flame surface depends upon the active burner sequence.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 371 coming from the furnace. The FGR also influences the radiation process. stresses caused due to the rate of change in both temperature. This depends upon the relative position and exposure of the particular heat exchanger tubes. The convection heat transfer to the superheater and reheater tubes from the flue gases is proportional to temperature and flow rate of flue gases coming out of the boiler fumace. it is the combination of both the changes in steam pressure as well as governor valve opening. are normally used to control the final superheated steam temperature. steam flow also has a strong influence on steam temperature dynamics. as well as main steam pressure and reheat steam temperature (Rogers and Mayhew.

372 Thermal power plant simulation and control further constrain plant dynamics. Reduced thermal stress within the turbine results from a reduced temperature drop in the first stage wheel in this mode.5 per cent of full load per minute in the plant simulation while the plant was controlled using multiloop . as part of the steam never passes through the HP turbine. etc. Now. The final temperature is controlled by spraying water into the steam by attemperators. since steam generated by evaporation of spray water does not pass through these tubes. obtained as a steady-state result from the plant simulation run. Initially the boiler is overtired by a considerable amount in order to make up for the rather slow response of the drum pressure. Violation of these constraints severely impairs the life of the plant components and sometimes even leads to emergency situations. This is accomplished first by manipulating the FGR. causes overheating of the superheater tubes preceding the attemperators. Thus for economical operation it is not only important to maintain the rated main steam temperature and reheat temperature within extremely close limits.2 to 164 bar over the load range 80 to 200 MW. Then as the drum pressure starts to reach its desired value. In the variablepressure mode of operation. strongly influence dynamic performance. the pressure upstream of the turbine valves is held constant over the entire load range. the temperature of reheat steam supplied to the IP turbine is also maintained close to the rated value. The governor valves open quickly to provide the initial load response by taking advantage of boiler-stored energy. they impose very important constraints on plant control. The use of spray water causes loss of steam cycle efficiency. This is shown in Figure 13. to achieve the highest rate of load change. Assume that the load demand ramps up. During the time the boiler is being overtired. servomotors of turbine valves. but also that spray water should be minimised.2. Load control is achieved by modulating the turbine valves. The actuators driving important control variables such as recirculating gas dampers. the amount of overfiring is decreased. The spray water also causes loss of exergetic efficiency of the superheated steam due to heat transfer through a very high temperature difference. As in the above case. and if the reheat temperature is still rising beyond the recommended limit. in the variable-pressure mode of plant operation. there is a very fast rise in steam temperatures initially. the generated power was ramped up at 2. The main steam pressure was linearly varied from 87. The temperature of the steam delivered to the turbine is maintained within close limits of rated main steam temperature at the stop valve outlet. the turbine valves return to their initial positions. As a result. It also causes loss of exergetic efficiency of the reheat steam. As the drum pressure starts to increase. In the constant-pressure mode of operation. to achieve the optimum temperature conditions in the turbine. it is then controlled by spraying water through the attemperator. the boiler pressure is allowed to vary as a linear function of load. Excessive attemperation. In order to demonstrate the control complexity of the large load change in variable-pressure mode. however. consider the boiler dynamics in the case of a sudden load change. The fuel flow increases very rapidly at the beginning of the load change to supply the desired increase in steam flow and also to build up the boiler pressure. due to severe non-linearities and intrinsic rate limits.

. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . 440 I 420 // " / 100 I 110 I " I I I I I I I ~ 90 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 I I I I I I I I I I .5 0 I I I I 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 -~ "--. ~ ~-100 90 180 110 120 Variable . . . 130 Power pressure -7 140 output i 150 (MW) Constant ~ 160 pressure ' 1 170 -- . .. . . . . Thus this mode of operation severely limits the unit's ability to change the load rapidly (ramp rate no larger than 3-5 per cent/min. "'-. . I.J. . •~ ~ -m = loo ~ i . This thus necessitates a controller which can optimally control the steam pressure following a ramp trajectory with a slope of not more than a certain fixed pressure rise rate. . . utilising the boiler-stored energy and causing a small dip in the steam pressure. In this case there is much less .2 Load variations in constant-pressure and variable-pressure modes PI controllers. . . . . . . . . . the governor valves open to allow additional steam flow.. . .~" ~ 300 200 ~ 90 I 100 400 I 110 I 120 I 130 I 140 I 150 I 160 I 170 J 180 I 190 i~ . .. . . .. . However the variation in the first-stage steam temperature is relatively small.. . ... .. .- "4 ~ .. . . . I . . . . Figure 13. . o . . . as it is necessary to change the saturation temperature of the boiler water circuitry (Lansing. . . .Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 1. . . . . . . so as to avoid excessive overfiring. . .. . 460 r . This causes the fuel flow to increase to meet the additional demand of steam flow.3 and clearly demonstrate how poorly PI controllers perform in regulating the main steam temperature and reheat steam temperature during the ramping up of the load. . ~ 373 ~ ~' 480 ~ . .L . . . . . . . . . . The simulation results are shown in Figure 13. . . . . . .. . . 1975). . When the load demand ramps up in a constant-pressure mode of plant operation... . . . . . . . .. . :-180 190 . . of full load). . . ~ . .- 0. . . . . . .

It should be noted that although attaining constrained optimal control performance is extremely difficult it may be possible.3 shows that the same PI controller gives relatively good performance in regulating the main steam temperature and reheat steam temperature during the ramping up of load in constant-pressure mode. . . 20 30 40 50 60 "~-!.~-L?¢ "v~ V 4 olJ 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 10 20 30 40 50 60 ~ ~501 / ~ 13o[/ '2ol/ . The main objective.Constant pressure . 50 60 ~" ~ ~ 11 10 9 ~ ~ 540 = ~ 535 ~ 8 7 0 10 20 30 40 Time (min) 50 60 0 V. 1987). 0 10 . . . however. t 0 545 ~ vV_ 10 . by better tuning of the multiloop PI controllers. Occurrence of these disturbances thus results in greater plant-model mismatch. as the boiler drum pressure is not significantly affected. As a result. 10 Variable pressure . . 20 30 40 Time (min) 50 60 Figure 13.3 Controlperformance of multiloop PI controllers during "ramping up of load demand overfiring. to improve upon the control performance shown.40i/ 540 ~ --- . 30 . resulting in higher thermal stress in the turbine.4 Plant disturbances Plant dynamics change significantly during major system disturbances. . . Speed of disturbance . in constant steam pressure mode. Figure 13.'t ~ 48oL\ -. with much less attemperation spray water flow to control the steam temperatures.374 Thermalpower plant simulation and control 490 ~ " ' ' ~ 160[/' I I ~ 4~o[ / W ~. . However. k . 13.3. 40 .3. the rated main steam and reheat steam temperature cannot be maintained at loads below a typical value of 60 per cent MCR (Dieck Assad et al. this mode of operation results in greater change in the first-stage steam temperature as well as a higher temperature difference between the reheat steam and main steam. 20 .. here is to show the relative difference in control performances between the two operating modes using PI controllers with the same control parameters. .~ 46o L. . .

the main parameters affected due to the above disturbances are: • • • • • • radiation heat transfer coefficient between the evaporator (water-wall) tube metal and the flame surface convection heat transfer coefficients between heat exchanger tube metal and flue gases convection heat transfer coefficients between steam/water and heat exchanger tube metal efficiencies of the HP. However. similar to the lower-level controllers normally employed in a thermal power plant in a multiloop control structure. air leakage and tube fouling problems in feedheaters due to tube blocking/fouling. it is possible to identify the main plant model parameters affected by commonly occurring major system disturbances.4 Applying a physical model-based predictive control strategy A non-linear physical model-based predictive controller (NPMPC) applied in a hierarchical structure to a thermal power plant simulation and developed under the Matlab/Simulink ® environment is shown in Figure 13.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 375 rejection is one of the most important properties determining the capability of a control technique. These disturbances alter the system parameters used in plant modelling. The main steam temperature and pressure and the reheat steam temperature are controlled directly by NPMPC.4. The drum level and power output are controlled through a two-level control structure. Here the drum-level PI controller helps stabilise the unstable drum-level dynamics and the power output PI controller facilitates manipulation of the governor valve at a much higher speed independent of the higher-level NPMPC controller for faster rejection of high-frequency . taking full advantage of the knowledge within the complete physical plant model. The fundamental sources of major system disturbances (or changes in system response) in a thermal power plant are: • • • • • heat transfer disturbances in the furnace heat exchanger tube fouling/blockages deterioration in efficiencies of turbine cylinders changes in condenser characteristics due to cooling water temperature variation. In a lumped parameter model. A velocity-type discrete PI implementation is adopted. The system disturbances can thus be very effectively modelled as stochastic variations in a subset of the model parameters mentioned above. IP and LP cylinders condenser vacuum quantity of bled steam and efficiency of heat transfer. 13. The set-points for the drum level PI controller and the power output PI controller are manipulated by the higher-level NPMPC.

the main objectives of the plant-wide coordinated control . 13. 2000.4 Hierarchical control strategy disturbances due to imbalances in demand and supply of electric power (Prasad et al..1 Main control objectives As discussed in the previous section.4. Assuming a fixed air-fuel ratio. Prasad..- Main steam temperature Fuel flow Power output FGR Power I setpoint Governor valve Reheat steam temperature Power output PI controller Main steam flow Figure 13. 2002).376 Thermalpower plant simulation and control flow Feedwater Dmmlevel Drum level PI controller Level set-point Main steam pressure 1st stage spray Platen S/H temperature 2nd stage spray Reheat spray flow . An optimum air-fuel ratio is maintained to ensure better combustion quality and to minimise environmental impact. a thermal power plant is required to supply electric power with optimum efficiency. The steam separator should work at a specified value of water level in the drum. The best trade-off between steam-cycle efficiency and plant life (Prasad et al. 1997) results in prescribing certain fixed values along with a recommended range of variation to the main steam pressure and temperature and to the reheat steam temperature.

Ud) and y = g ( x p.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 377 problem are therefore to optimally control the following output variables.2 Algorithmic details The algorithmic formulation of the control strategy can be summarised by the block diagram shown in Figure 13.1) . x p. the above outputs will be controlled by the higher-level NPMPC controller by manipulating the following input variables: ul (t) ~ drum level set-point u2(t) ~ first stage spray flow u3(t) =A second stage spray flow u(t) = u4(t) = RH spray flow `5 us(t) = fuel flow `5 u6(t) ~ flue gas recirculation flow u7(t) ='5 power set-point For reasons of thermal efficiency.4. Assume that a plant model is expressed by the following non-linear state space equations: JfP = f ( x p.5 °C and the flue gas recirculation control alone is unable to regulate.5. These reconstructed or estimated states are then used by the higher-level NPMPC controller to compute set-points for lower-level controllers. It consists of a non-linear physical model-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) for reconstruction of the process states. U. Ud) (13. The controller would also be required to account for frequently occurring disturbances that may have a significant effect on the plant dynamics and the closed-loop plant response as discussed in the previous section. yl (t) ~ drum level y2(t) ~ main steam pressure y(t) = y3(t) ~ main steam temperature y4(t) ~ power output Y5(t ) ~ reheat steam temperature As shown in Figure 13.e. the reheat spray flow u4 (t) should not be used until the reheat steam temperature starts rising beyond the recommended maximum limit.4. A set of directly manipulated input variables is also computed by the NPMPC controller. U. x d. and the unmeasured disturbance states. U f. 540 + 5. 13. u a. i. The disturbance states x d are associated with a set of model parameters (Table 13. U f.3) which are assumed to have stochastic variation to account for commonly occurring system disturbances. required for estimating the unmeasured disturbance inputs. The non-linear physical model used in the NPMPC is obtained by combining a physical plant model with an appropriate disturbance model as discussed next.

1a) . manipulated inputs. k. For discrete controller design. u. u f u d k.378 Thermal power plant simulation and control Set-points(Yr) Feedforward inp Disturbances Figure 13. respectively. ud_l) P f and Yk g(x p uk. u.5 Table 13.3 Symbol kwww O/ww Otsh Otrh Otwpl t~wsh ~wrh Pcond Non-linear physical model-based control (NPMBC) algorithm Selected model parameters Model parameter (x d) Radiation heat transfer coefficient for water-wall Convection heat transfer coefficient between water-wall tubes and saturated water Convection heat transfer coefficient between secondary superheater tubes and steam Convection heat transfer coefficient between reheater tubes and steam Convection heat transfer coefficient between flue gases and platen superheater tubes Convection heat transfer coefficient between flue gases and secondary superheater tubes Convection heat transfer coefficient between flue gases and reheater tubes Condenser vacuum where xP. u f and u d can be assumed to be constants between sampling instants.Uk_l.1) can hence be expressed as: X p = Fts (Xk_l. and the unmeasured disturbance inputs. the known feedforward inputs. A discrete version of the model equations (13.Uk_l. u f u d denote vectors of process states. k) (13.

.xd d Xk.Uf-l. it is important to ensure that the selected model parameters provide additional degrees of freedom in estimating the controlled outputs in steady-state. uA. To the linear system equations. m-step ahead prediction of outputs can be derived as: m m Yk+mlk : C(A)mXkIfk + ~ c(a)m-J BAuk+j-1 + Z c(a)m-J Bfu[+J -1 j=l m j=l + y ~ C(A)m-JFok + DAUk+m + Dfui+m + 990k.BAUk+i "q-Bfui+i d. A set of linear discrete state space equations is then created using standard iinearisation (Taylor and Antoniotti. p Uf f and U d . Based on these considerations. u A. and disturbance states.(XP_l . However.3 was selected.l~k-l.5) where x is a composite state vector and F0k and ~ k are linearisation constants or offsets for states and outputs respectively. j=l (13. Using an EKF the optimal estimates of the process states.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 379 where Ft.5). xk) + vk J= 1) ][I0] + P d (13.3) w _l+ w _l (13.U k _ 1 . 2000). a state space representation of a pair of velocity-type discrete PI controllers is then added in series to account for the lower-level controllers. a discrete version of the model equation (13. d Uk_ 1 -The unmeasured system disturbances can be taken into account by assuming an integrating zero-mean white noise type variation in a few selected model parameters affected by major system disturbances.1 a) for one sample interval ts with the initial condition of Xk_ 1 and constant inputs of u = uk-1.6) . x d. are obtained. uk-1.1 ) can then be expressed as follows: [Xp] Lx fts( k-l. From equation (13. respectively. The unmeasured disturbances u d can thus be represented by: xd d d Xk_ 1 ~ Wk_ l and u d ----xd (13. u~_ l.2) where w d is a zero-mean Gaussian white noise sequence with a covariance of Qo. xP. and linearisation and discretisation processes is given by Prasad et al.1 f d Yk = g( xp. a set of eight model parameters listed in Table 13.4) where vA and w p are vectors of zero-mean Gaussian white noise sequences with covariances of R v and QP..tPOkI f f (13. ud_l) denotes the terminal state vector obtained by integrating the ordinary differential equation (ODE) in equation (13. 1992) and discretisation techniques. Taking into account the possibility of additive process and measurement noise. A detailed mathematical formulation of the EKF estimator.r0k/ Yk+ilk Cxk+ilk + DAUk+i + D Uk+i q. After further algebraic manipulation (Prasad et al. (2000). the following linear equations for the combined system are obtained: Xk+i+llk : Axk+ilk q.

I G T AY(Yr -. G is the step response matrix and Yf+ilt~ is the/-step-ahead predicted output vector keeping u fixed at uk-1. the controller performance index is formed as MinJk = [ ~ (Yk+jlk -.Yrk+j) [j=l + E((AUk+j-I)TAjAUk+j-I) j=l subject to: } (13.Yf) (13.7a-13. Aj and Aj are the finite output prediction horizon.4. the number of projected control moves or control horizon. AU = [AUk AUk+I . for j = 1 to M AXmin < AXk+jlk < AXmax.'. M. for j = 1 to N AUmin ~< AUk+j-I ~ AUmax. the unmeasured disturbances are assumed to act only at the outputs in the state space GPC derivation . the unconstrained solution of the optimisation problem is A U = (GT AYG + A u ) .380 Thermal power plant simulation and control Assuming unity dead-time and k as the present time interval. Also.8) whereY . f f T .7e) using a quadratic programming (qp) routine available in Matlab. 13.7a) (13. p-predicted outputs can be written in standard GPC format (Ordys and Clarke.7) Umin < Uk+j-I < Umax. for j = 1 to N Y u where N. Using equation (13. the weighting matrix for prioritising controller action among multiple outputs.7d) (13. AUk+M_I] T.3 Relationship with original state space GPC Based on the original input-output or transfer function form. for j = 1 to M Ymin < Yk+jlk < Ymax. respectively.7c) (13. After substituting (I 3.Yrk+j) TAY j(Yk+jtk -.9) where Yr is a vector of set-point trajectories defined as Yr = [Yrk+l Yrk+2 "'" Yrk+N]" The constrained solution is obtained by solving on-line the constrained optimisation problem (13. . .7e) Xmin < Xk+jlk < Xmax.7). and the weighting matrix to penalise incremental changes in controls.6). Yk+NIk]T' Yf [Yf+llg Yk+21k "'" Yk+NIk] .7b) (13. 1993) as Y = Yf + G A U (13. [Yk+llk Yk+21k .8) into (13. for j = 1 to N (13.

two commonly occurring system disturbances were applied simultaneously.llOk_ 1 Yk = g( xp. This means that the disturbance states.11) (13.2) and (13. as already demonstrated for the typical case of a large load transition in section 13. N=20. it is one of the most .. The 10 s sampling period for NPMPC was selected based on the fastest dominant dynamics of the plant (Prasad et al. Along with disturbance injection.U[_I d d P ) -b lOk_ 1 (13.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 381 (Ordys and Clarke. 2000).5 Simulation results In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the hierarchical NPMPC control strategy. do not correspond to plant parameter states having stochastic variation. State space GPC can also be implemented using the state estimates obtained from EKF and the model in equations (13.3.3-13. as per worst-case performance testing practice in Ballylumford power plant. The heat transfer process in the furnace was disturbed on the boiler side.1 F u r n a c e disturbances u n d e r varying c o n d e n s e r v a c u u m In order to verify the low-frequency disturbance rejection capability of the hierarchical control structure. No comparison is made with multiloop PI controllers. The turbine side was disturbed by applying random step changes in the condenser vacuum.12). 2002). Test results are discussed and analysed in the following subsections.5. In fact. the plant simulation was run under a set of severe but realistic operating conditions. A detailed discussion about the selection of parameters for the predictive controller and EKF estimator can be found in Prasad et al. as in the NPMPC above.10) (13. This form is described as state estimation-based GPC (SEGPC) in later simulation results. 13. u [) + x d + vk. Ay=I. 1993). The following parameters were used as a default set in all the tests. as control performance is far too poor under severe operating conditions. 13. The mechanical power obtained from the LP turbine is directly affected by changes in the turbine back-pressure or condenser vacuum. M= 10.1I. Additionally they do not provide corrections to process states. uk. Au=0. (2000. The sampling periods were 10 s for NPMPC and 1 s for PI controllers. For comparison purposes.10-13.4) will therefore change to: Xp : d Fts(XP_I. The non-linear model representation in equations (13. test results were also obtained with a conventional but comparable state estimation-based generalised predictive control (SEGPC) method designed under similar conditions. a 4-40 MW step change in the load-demand set-point was also applied. x d.12) X k : X k _ 1 nt.Uk-I. xP.

The estimated condenser vacuum is compared with its true value in Figure 13. both the NPMPC-based and SEGPC-based control strategies were applied with active amplitude and rate constraints on the manipulated variables. typical values of the input rate constraints were: Aumax = [9. and the formation of scale inside the heat exchanger tubes. The first stage spray flow was intentionally blocked by setting its maximum amplitude to zero.5 0.0] T and AUmin : -AUmax. to avoid unnecessary use of reheat spray flow.5 °C. . This is because the value returned by the estimator has been adjusted to recognize other plant model mismatches. which are quite often adjusted by plant operators for various operational reasons.6c. random step changes in the condenser vacuum were made in the range 25-70 mbar. One obvious reason for the better performance of the NPMPC strategy is the deliberate consideration of the radiation heat transfer coefficient and condenser vacuum as stochastic disturbances. The condenser vacuum changes as a result of air leakage.6a-f. there is an immediate change in the power output in response to a change in the condenser vacuum. such as a power plant boiler. very slow. even if the spray flow is partially or fully blocked in one of the stages due to some mechanical problems such as tube leakage or valve failure. Similarly.6c. the particular constraint placed on the reheat spray flow can easily be satisfied by on-line optimisation. In order to simulate furnace disturbances.6a. 4-10 per cent random step changes in the radiation heat transfer coefficient were applied as shown in Figure 13. In order to verify these possibilities. comparatively. Being a highly coupled system.0 0. A comparison between the estimated radiation heat transfer coefficient and its true value is shown in Figure 13.6a-d. As seen in Figures 13. The estimation of the condenser vacuum is however not as good as that of the radiation heat transfer coefficient. the NPMPC-based hierarchical controller rejects the disturbances very quickly. The main steam temperature is normally controlled by spray water flows in two stages. and thus the radiation heat transfer. the rest of the plant outputs also experience significant fluctuations. As seen in Figure 13.5 3.6a.0 0. Another important feature of this control problem is that there are seven manipulated variables and only five controlled variables. while ensuring that the reheat steam temperature is controlled optimally. which demonstrates excellent tracking performance. Disturbance rejection by SEGPC is. the position of the flame surface. In a multiple burner furnace.382 Thermal power plant simulation and control important plant parameters determining the efficiency of a thermal power unit.0 10. the step changes have quite a significant impact on all the controlled variables. As is evident from the results in Figures 13.0 0. In order to simulate a situation of varying condenser vacuum. is dependent on the configuration of the set of active burners. which facilitates their on-line estimation. Based on plant data. Therefore. thus providing two extra degrees of freedom. Higher deviations from the set-points are observed in all the controlled variables with the SEGPC-based strategy. Such a provision facilitates control of the main steam temperature. its maximum amplitude was forced to stay at zero until the flue gas recirculation was fully cut off and reheat steam temperature starts rising beyond 545. variations in cooling water temperature.

I I ~___]~_. 5 10 ~.. .. .... i .. . I I I I I 45 50 15 20 25 T i m e (min) 30 35 40 .........~ 80 70 60 50 ~ ~ 4o 3o 20 ~. . . -.... .. i .. . i I I i i i i 383 200 ~ 190 ~ - ~8o~ 170 160 150 ) _ I I ". ... .8o~ 140 [- ~ .... 220 . power output tracking in the presence of furnace disturbances under varying condenser vacuum.... Constrained S E G P C Constrained N P M P C . ~ 200 ' ....--....... . ....6 a b Estimation of condenser vacuum during furnace disturbances.5 ~ 0 i 5 i 10 J 15 i 20 I 25 Time (min) 31 0 l 35 L 40 I 45 50 .Physical model-based coordinated power plant control i ] . .'~ 0... o~' ' ".. ..9 .. ..~ 0. ....... . i i I ~ 0 1i5 i 20 25 T i m e (min) 30 35 40 45 50 . / ~° F 140 / I ~.. . t 5 '. Constrained SEGPC - - Constrained NPMPC Figure 13. ~ _~ . Estimated i - F True i r . I I I I ] I I I I 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ~" 220 ~ " ...... ' ' ' ' ' ' ~ ". . ~r L l l j I i i I 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ~.... .

6 3. ... ~ t 30 i ... . .. - i True ... . . .8 I I i J i I I I I I 0 ~0 15 20 25 Time (min) 30 35 40 45 50 . ...i . . -:-'. .. . "\ I : "5-~ ~ 162 [0 1. ~ "'"~\ .4 3. ~ 10 9 0 5 10 15 20 25 i 30 I 35 40 45 50 .~..= a ~..d~k ~ .~. 544 ~ 542 Estimated i ...s._. __ ~ . . . .... . . . ... . . I i = ~ 540 . . . .. 10 I 15 [ 20 i 25 i 35 I 40 I 45 i 50 12 ~. .. .. . . . .. i i .. .-... . . Constrained SEGPC Constrained NPMPC 30 35 40 45 50 Figure 13.6 c d main steam pressure variation in the presence of furnace disturbances under varying condenser vacuum. 538 ~ 536 8 J ~'1 I I I I I I 0 5 i0 1~5 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ~ 6 ~ 2 0 8 6 4 0 r 5 1~0 1~5 J 20 i J 25 i J 30 i I 35 i ~ 40 i r 45 5O i i ! = 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (rain) . _._ . .. . . ...2 I Constrained SEGPC I i Constrained NPMPC I I i 8x ~ =4" ~ ~ 3 2.. .384 Thermal power plant simulation and control 166t 165 [164 [ u~ ' .... .. main steam temperature variation in the presence of furnace disturbances under varying condenser vacuum. ..k. .. . . ~ . ..... . . . . ... . ~ ~ ~ 3. . ~ ~ . . . . .

. . ...-. 45 .6 e f reheat steam temperature variation in the presence of furnace disturbances under varying condenser vacuum..... :--' ' ' "~:--"~----" ~ .. .. 50 Time (rain) . drum level variation in the presence offurnace disturbances under varying condenser vacuum . ~ .. . 30 35 40 _ 45 .... ' ' _ -50 0 100 t ~ ' ll0 ' ll5 ' I i I I I I 20 ' 25 ' 30 35 ' 40 ' 45 ' 50 ~ -50 I I I -I000 1~ n ~'--"*~-_ 5 i .. ....... Constrained SEGPC .. . 40 . ...Physical model-based coordinated power plant control ~g 385 55o / 540 " ". ' ' 535 0 ~ 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 . .. . 50 ........i~ 10 i 15 i 20 I 25 I 3'0 i 35 I 40 i 45 I 50 i °oL 0 5 . .. 10 15 20 25 Time (rain) - 30 - 35 .¢ O" 0 5 1'0 1'5 ~ 20 ' 25 ' 30 f 35 ' 40 ' 45 50 ~2 30 -" ": ' _.i I i Constrained NPMPC i i i ~ 50 I . .--.... ~S ~ "~ ....... .... Constrained SEGPC Constrained NPMPC Figure 13. . ' " . ._j ~"-- 21! 0 5 10 15 20 25 ........ ' ... ......

7c.2 Variable-pressure operation Assuming a linear rise or fall in the main steam pressure with load. increased thermal stresses are caused by a higher rate of change in the tube metal temperatures. if possible.6 °C/min was applied as a rate constraint on the secondary superheater tube metal temperature.3. This is shown in Figure 13. 13.7a-e for the constrained and unconstrained cases. The resulting large variation in the main steam and reheat steam temperatures and limits the maximum allowed rate of load change. Although this has resulted in larger set-point deviations. .3. This clearly shows the effectiveness and strong advantages of the rate constraints applied to the heat exchanger metal tube temperatures. As shown in Figure 13. Furthermore. during both the constrained and unconstrained cases. set-point following is so sharp that it is difficult to differentiate between the actual main steam pressure and the set-point.6e. 0. The rate of rise in generated power output is also reduced. It is therefore more appropriate to apply rate constraints directly to the metal temperature of a heat exchanger rather than to the steam temperature. In order to observe the effect of state constraints exclusively. defined as a state variable in Table 13. 5 per cent MCR/min) and proportionally the main steam pressure set-point was varied between 164 and 112.6d. the control performance is far better than that obtained with a multiloop PI controller under variable-pressure operation mode at a much lower rate of rise in the load (2. Two sets of results are shown in Figures 13. the variable-pressure operation involves large changes in drum pressure or saturated steam pressure. during the constrained case. It is to be noted that the control performance is significantly different during the periods of negative and positive load transitions because of substantially different initial operating conditions. the load demand set-point was varied between 200 and 120MW at a rate of 10MW/min (i.7b. a trapezoidal load demand signal was applied to test the performance of the controller under variablepressure operation. the input constraints were relaxed slightly in comparison to the test of the previous subsection.e. it has however reduced the rate of rise of metal temperatures of the superheater tubes.7a. However. As seen in Figure 13. as seen in Figure 13. It is also to be noted that with both constrained and unconstrained approaches.2. as shown in Figure 13. However.386 Thermal power plant simulation and control As seen in Figure 13.5 per cent MCR/min). as seen in Figure 13. It thus becomes a challenging control problem to achieve a larger rate of load change while ensuring that the thermal stresses in the heat exchanger tubes are within allowed limits. as shown in section 13. The metal temperatures of the heat exchanger tubes depend upon the temperatures of the superheat or reheat steam inside the tubes.7a. the on-line optimisation has obtained excellent main steam temperature control even when the first stage spray flow was completely blocked. As discussed in subsection 13. The first stage spray was not blocked in the current test. the rate of change in main steam temperature is slowed down. A typical value of 0.3.8 bar (i. reheat spray flow was completely avoided. leading to significant overfiring or underfiring in the furnace.e.5.64 bar/min).7d.

..8o 16o V 0 10 ~ 12o ~-~ o. ... .8 t . . ... .. J ~. . . .- 10 20 40 50 60 Unconstrained NPMPC Figure 13. .... ... . ..160 P E ~ 150 140 Unconstrained NPMPC \ \ \ ~ "~ 13o 120 110 0 11 10 9 \ \ \\ I 20 I 30 / / / I 40 / / 1 I 50 60 tL 8 7 I I I I 0 30 Time (min) . .._.s- .. ". . ..7 ~ 0"6 I 20 30 40 50 60 ~ ~ x ~'..=-' 18or ~ 160~ ". Constrained NPMPC . . . .. . . ~]~ O ~ o lo i 20 ~o ~o ~o 60 Time (min) . .... . ~ - 14o~ 120 p i i" ....7 a b Power output control during variable-pressure operation..... . . . . . . ... ... ... . .. . . . Constrained NPMPC ... main steam pressure control during variable-pressure operation. ~ 0. \~N.~" I 0 200[~ 0 40 50 60 . ... . . . . . . I 20 30 J L ...... .. . .. .I.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 387 200/ ' ' ' :. ...

.....//' / 3'o I 40 510 60 ~o~o~ 515 = 510 505 / l0 20 310 Time (rain) ..............388 Thermal power plant simulation and control 538 i i • ~ t~ - 536 534 532 530 520 ~ ll0 210 ///... Constrained NPMPC - Unconstrained NPMPC Figure 13... ....~ -r- ~ 500 40 50 60 Unconstrained NPMPC 545 = ~ 540 535 I I [ I ~' I 10 8 20 30 40 50 60 0 L I 0 8 10 I 20 I 30 i 40 i 50 i 60 0 L 0 10 20 30 Time (min) - 40 50 60 ....7 c d variation in superheat and reheat metal temperature during variable-pressure operation. main steam temperature control during variable-pressure operation. Constrained NPMPC - t.....

7 reheat steam temperature control during variable-pressure operation 13. Also.0 40 I 50 I 60 i = 0• 0 20 30 40 50 60 ~ ... Since the lower-level controllers can act independently of the speed of response of higherlevel controllers.. It is however difficult to ensure this with multiloop PI/PID controllers.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 389 545 -... Formulation of such an approach for application to a 200 MW oil-fired thermal power plant has been discussed.- Unconstrained NPMPC Figure 13.... plant operation is adversely affected by multiloop interactions and commonly occurring system disturbances. a thermal power unit should operate with maximum possible thermodynamic efficiency and have the ability to make changes in the generated power at the fastest possible rate..6 Discussion and conclusions In order to ensure competitiveness in the deregulated power market..2 40 30 ~ 20 f i~''.. Making full and effective use of the information about system dynamics present in a physical power plant model.. Constrained N P M P C . The combination of a stochastic disturbance model along with a .... The lower-level PI loops have also been used to stabilise the unstable plant dynamics arising due to the presence of a natural integrator in the form of drum level. suggests a non-linear physical model-based predictive control (NPMPC) strategy can be designed that can optimally account for plant-wide interactions and system disturbances and facilitate the running of the plant at the best possible efficiency without violating thermal constraints. o 10 20 310 40 50 60 e Time (min) .~ v-. The ability to make a faster rate of change in generated power is limited by thermal constraints on the boiler-turbine components. there are sufficient degrees of freedom for handling both fast and slow acting disturbances..¢' ~ 540 535 1~0 2'0 . The NPMPC strategy is applied in a two-level hierarchical control structure.

The NPMPC algorithm applies successive linearisation and an EKF for state reconstruction to obtain a linear state space model of the plant. Some of the most common disturbances are changes in active burner configuration. Use of a physical state space plant model facilitated application of constraints on state variables in addition to input and output variables. As it is now very common for thermal power plants to operate as peak-load plants in a cycling or two-shifting manner. making effective use of the detailed information regarding the plant condition. With the unconstrained NPMPC strategy. taking in and out of service of cooling water pumps to maintain the condenser vacuum. these units quite often undergo large set-point changes involving large load transitions. Also these tests clearly demonstrated the excellent performance of the control structure in eliminating the adverse effect of plant-wide interactions through set-point manoeuvring of the local controllers. while the condenser vacuum fluctuated in a random fashion on the turbine side. random changes in radiation heat flow were introduced in the boiler. Successful steam temperature regulation during variable-pressure operation is a very difficult task for any control strategy due to the complex pressure and temperature dynamics in a natural circulation boiler. Furthermore both the power output and main steam pressure followed the scheduled ramp changes in their set-points with very high precision. enables control performance to be significantly improved during such severe conditions. readily available through the physical plant model. much superior control performance was obtained with the proposed control strategy in comparison to the SEGPC-based hierarchical control strategy designed under similar conditions. The linear model and a quadratic programming routine were then used to design a long-range predictive controller. the simulation tests conducted under multiple disturbances demonstrated the feasibility of implementing such a control strategy on a real plant even when plant model parameters are not accurately known or are time varying. Metal temperatures of heat exchanger tubes were modelled as state variables in the plant simulation.390 Thermal power plant simulation and control non-linear plant model and models of local controllers was used by the higher-level NPMPC controller for prediction purposes. and switching on/off coal mills in the case of coal-fired power plant. 1999. For verifying the effectiveness of disturbance rejection capabilities. Several types of disturbances invariably accompany such load transitions and degrade the plant performance quite considerably. .. no significant overshoot or undershoot was observed in both the main and reheat steam temperatures even during variable-pressure operation mode. This would provide an opportunity to push the set-points for steam temperatures and pressure much closer to their physical constraints (Prasad et al. As shown in the simulation results. This made it possible to demonstrate through simulation tests that constraints needed to be applied on the metal temperatures rather than the steam temperature. The rate constraint on the superheater tube metal temperature clearly demonstrated the strong advantage of the control strategy in facilitating higher rates of load change in the variable-pressure mode of operation. This was done when the load-demand set-point was going through step changes of -4-40MW (20 per cent MCR) following a square-wave pattern. During such severe operating conditions. In addition to evaluating the disturbance rejection properties.

Hogg. and LEE. state reconstruction and on-line quadratic optimisation during each control sample. pp. For instance. C.7 Acknowledgements A substantial part of the work presented in this chapter was carried out while the author was working in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at The Queen's University of Belfast under the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) grant No. Prof. G.which are central to predictive control to have increased by a factor of 106 (Maciejowski. It can therefore be concluded that the time is ripe for developing and implementing a physical model-based coordinated control strategy that makes a real difference to the operational performance of today's thermal power plants.. 13. while their prices have steadily dropped. could in principle allow the speed of solution of convex optimisation problems .8 References ANDERSON.. there has been a spectacular rise in the operating speed of modern computers. The author is grateful to EPSRC for supporting the research work.: 'Dynamic control of a power boiler'. 80. E. Fortunately. Transactions ASME.W.I. should such a model not be available an appropriate low-order model could be developed using parameters obtained from plant design data and a minimal set of experiments. 116. 1809-1819 . 1969. 1257-1268 CHIEN. Roos et al. LING. it has been estimated that during the last ten years the increase in processing power. 1958.. as it involves successive linearisation. A. He also acknowledges the help obtained from the grant holders Prof. B. the NPMPC strategy requires a significantly large computational effort. K. 2003) resulting in a significant gain in thermal efficiency without adversely affecting the life of the plant.H. The availability of a differential.: 'Dynamic analysis of a boiler'. Additionally. discretisation. the tremendous potential for synergy between a physical model and the predictive control approach holds great promise for further research to find new and more effective ways of making use of the wealth of information about plant conditions present in a physical model in the development of a coordinated control system for thermal power plant. ERGIN. It would therefore require an appropriately fast computing system for its field implementation in a thermal power plant. However. E. The complete model could then be fine tuned during a suitably designed validation process. algebraic physical model is essential for the implementation of the proposed NPMPC strategy. 1997).L. Irwin and Dr.. 13. In particular. Swidenbank while working at the University. It is thus a very realistic proposition to implement such a computationally intensive predictive control strategy in a power plant. J. 2002.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 391 Moelbak and Mortensen.W. GR/L24021. together with the improvements in optimisation algorithms. Proceedings oflEE. pp.

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pp.: 'Linearization algorithms and heuristics for CACE'.. California. and MAYHEW. Proceedings CACSD'92. Y. J.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 393 ROGERS. March 17-19.. 1992. 1997) TAYLOR. 156-164 . Napa. and ANTONIOTTI.: 'Engineering thermodynamics work and heat transfer' (Longman. TERLAKY.J. M.. Chichester. J.H. C. Harlow.an interior point approach' (Wiley. T.E: 'Theory and algorithms for linear optimisation .. and VIAL. A. 1992) ROOS.

monopoly environment with an obligation to serve. the electricity produced from any individual plant may be sold to Independent System Operators (ISOs). In this new business environment. Focus has switched from achieving maximum performance of all generating plants to obtaining the maximum possible return on plant investments. 2000). Emphasis will be placed on minimising the number and duration of forced and planned outages. In contrast to a regulated monopoly situation in which another company-owned plant is most likely to pick up the load when a unit goes down in a competitive market. Spot prices can change daily as electricity demand and availability fluctuate. asset managers will be trying to identify the best markets to serve and the most profitable operating modes for each plant. whether the outage is planned or unplanned. retail companies and others. that load could now be supplied by a competitor. the electricity generating business is transitioning from a cost-plus. Figure 14.Chapter 14 Management and integration of power plant operations A. In order to maintain a competitive edge in such a market. Generating companies seek to maximise on-line generation at such times.E Armor 14.1 Introduction As we begin a new century. it is an inopportune time for units to be out of service.1 shows a typical summer spike for the month of August 1999. The result is a . to a competitive environment for the sale of its product. distribution companies. These sales may be a result of a daily auction to obtain the lowest-priced electricity or the result of short-term or long-term contracts with an intermediate party or the ultimate end-user (Armor and Wolk. Plant operators need to meet the demands of its identified market and to improve the performance of the plant to allow it to compete for more profitable sales. marketers. power brokers. Ownership of generation assets is being decoupled from the ownership of transmission and distribution assets. direct wholesale customers. At such times the availability of fast-start peaking power is an opportunity to generate profits over a period of a few hours or a few days. Conversely.

1 Electricity price spike loss of total rather than incremental revenue. then niche opportunities for new generation were filled by the growing . The availability of peaking capacity at times of high spot market costs for electricity is of increasing importance in taking advantage of a volatile market and has led to a demand for units suitable for cycling and fast startups.2 Age and reliability of plants During the late 1970s and early 1980s. Though the premise of looming power shortages was flawed. So it was with the power industry in the 1980s. a seeming inevitability surfaced.. In a technologically advanced society. The electric power industry in the US appeared unable to replace old fossil-fired units fast enough to avoid power shortages. It may. largely for economic not technical reasons. First demand-side management emerged. This concern led utilities to seek ways to extend the operating lifetimes of fossil units beyond the generally accepted 30-40 year design life and an early utility conference was held. Estimates suggested a high probability of power curtailments for the year 2000. 150 . A severe reduction in new power plant construction below historic levels occurred. caused by scaled-back nuclear plant programmes and as interest rates and environmental control costs soared.. Retirement of generating capacity at US stations is expected to be roughly 200 units or 12. be more important in the competitive environment to maximise availability only during peak demand periods (Metcalfe et al.396 Thermal power plant simulation and control Dow Jones Index: weighted average price for firm on-peak electricity..000 MW. August 1999.~ loo ~ 5o Figure 14. solutions arise to fill needs. for example.1 Economic life is the issue The issue now is one of economic life optimisation and of prudent investment in fossil plant assets. 14. 1997). the resultant surge of interest in life assessment technologies and diagnostic monitoring of equipment was exactly fight for a rapidly changing industry. through 2010 according to the US Energy Information Administration. PJM market 250 200 . 14. approaching 100 per cent in parts of the southern United States. by fewer new fossil plants.2.

short-schedule supply option and the major turbine vendors rapidly shifted their development focus from the Rankine to the Brayton cycle. the combustion turbine reemerged as a low-cost. Concurrently.2 suggests. relying on systematic approaches to component inspections and analyses. currently over $100/ton. as Figure 14. reliable operation for older plants. valuable additions that will permit plants to operate in compliance for many more years. which translates to 2. the vast majority of these units will continue to operate for many years. There seems little doubt that carbon-lean fuels such as natural gas will continue to substitute for those high in carbon. And as with all business decisions. More precisely. Both SO2 and NOx have been decreasing overall nationally since the mid-1980s. where most current control activities are focused.Management and integration of power plant operations 397 independent power industry. and the trend is likely to continue. The maintenance and upgrade of these units remains the number one concern of the US generation business. leading to today's overwhelming reliance on gas for new generating units. As for the 400-plus GW of installed fossil-steam generation in the US. Typically a 450 MW coalfired plant will emit 75 tons of SO2 per day without a scrubber and perhaps 8 tons per day with a 90 per cent flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) system in place. This strategy can range from increased maintenance to full repowering of the unit. owners seek to understand the consequences of operating aging turbine generators and boilers under new operating scenarios such as cycling duty. a difference that can be measured in terms of the market for SO2 credits. but in the meantime the bulk of US generation will come from the installed fossil-steam capacity (largely coal-fired). despite increasing electricity production. emits about half of this amount due to the higher plant efficiency and lower carbon content of natural gas. perhaps none is greater than preparing units for meeting environmental limits at minimum cost. A combined cycle gas plant. The good news is that the latest life estimation technology can ensure safe.2 The environmental challenge Of all the hurdles facing owners of generating plants. fossil plants have become business assets to be carefully invested in for maximum return. In fact SO2 emissions are down nearly 40 per cent and NOx has decreased 20 per cent since 1980. And for NOx.000 tons/day at a plant efficiency of 38 per cent. while electricity use increased 35 per cent over the same period. though less economic units will have lower capacity factors.000 MW. for comparison. and deeper understanding of the behaviour of power plant materials under operating pressures. temperatures and load cycles. Such emissions are certainly of concern when potential future carbon taxes are factored in. questions of risk became important. The focus has now shifted to the selection of the correct plant investment strategy for these older plants. Carbon intensity here is expressed in terms of carbon per ton of oil equivalent. With unit profitability as the issue.450 tons of carbon. . the same plant might emit 10-35 tons per day. the above plant emits about 9.2. As for carbon dioxide. NOx control options range from burner optimisation to the use of selective catalytic reduction. In the US about 150 SO2 scrubbers have been installed on more than 70. 14.

.. . = 0.25 1.0 C o a l : 1..77 31.3 The current reliability of fossil power plants The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) 1999 Generation Availability Data System (GADS) Report covers the period 1995-1999 (NERC....5 1900 I I I I [ I I I I I I I I I 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 Figure 14.26 34... . .. .24 84. ..56 3. ....87 3. . per cent I 83.64 84.... .2 Reducing carbon intensity Table14....41 10. ..43 Availability factor.... . ..398 Thermal power plant simulation and control 1. . ..9 ... .. ....... . .. . .1 .... .. 1. Wood = 1. ... .. .20 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Key: 1 Equivalent availability factor = (available hours ..1. . average size 300 MW Equivalent availability factor.6 0..03 9...99 3.. .~.. years 30.. . .... . 2000).33 32.. ... averaged about 84 per cent with .. The equivalent availability factor (EAF). . . per cent 2 85... ... .. . .. . ~ . all unit sizes.. . .......61 85.27 33. ... a measure of how the plant is utilised over the year. The rate of increase averaged almost one year per year..3 . .. the age of the average fossil steam plant during this period was about 32 years.77 Scheduled outage factor.37 Forced outage factor. .77 84. . .. . As indicated in Table 14. o ~. . .79 9...92 3....18 84. .1 NERC GADS 1995-1999fossil steam plant availability data.2... ..8_4___ _ 0. . .. 1534 units. . .. . ..8 o 0........14 9..08 ~ 0.. .. per cent 3 10..88 Year Average unit age.. . 9j _7 9_. per cent 4 3..... .64 87... . indicating the installation of very little new capacity. .2 ~" 1. ...7 .10 86.derated available hours) x 100 %/period hours 2 Availability factor = available hours x 100 %/period hours 3 Scheduled outage factor = scheduled outage hours x 100 %/period hours 4 Forced outage factor = forced outage hours x 100 %/period hours 14.94 86..... all fuels.

95 34. which occur on average every 2. blades. For example.9 per cent.73 41. safety.89 7.23 1. Figure 14.79 83.04 153. casings. 14.28 3.11 4. balance of plant and generator.20 27.44 42. The availability statistics for specific plant major equipment and for nonequipment issues are listed in Table 14. such as repowering. bearings and valves. Plant thermal efficiency however has suffered due to worsening coals.00 7.11 22. including dimensional measurements and more detailed non-destructive evaluation (NDE) data.Management and integration of power plant operations Table 14.14 4.2 have a significantly smaller impact. turbine disassembly for maintenance requires a planned maintenance schedule that includes careful inspection of rotors. The other systems and issues listed in Table 14.4 Subsystem outages The availability impacts of 25 plant subsystems and components are listed in Table 14.88 34.42 10. It is interesting that the scheduled outage factor (SOF) of 9-10 per cent is about 2.23 0. It is followed in importance by the steam turbine.94 8.2 in rank order.5 times the forced outage factor (FOF) of about 3. .2. NERC GADS 1995-1999 fossil steam plant data.3.37 39.3 in rank order.01 0. Over the last ten years availability has been generally increasing in spite of ageing units and more demanding duty.28 5. and environmental issues Personnel errors Performance shutdowns 158. all unit sizes.80 0.90 Plant system and other causes of losses Boiler Steam turbine Balance of plant Generator Pollution control External impacts Regulatory. But this will change.20 244.70 6.37 the availability factor (AF) about 2. will be seized by power producers seeking a competitive edge. These typically require outages of about one month to complete.5 points higher.2 399 Plant system availability ranking.5 and 5 years respectively.01 38. additional environmental control equipment and the natural effects of aging. By far the most significant are the availability losses for boiler and turbine overhaul. all fuels. as opportunities to improve fuel utilisation. Lay-down space is useful but often limited in older stations.40 1. average size ~300 MW Forced outages average hours/unit-year Forced deratings average equivalent hours/unit-year Forced and scheduled outages and deratings average equivalent hours/unit-year 633. By far the largest contributor to loss in availability is the boiler.

24 0.556 175.617 8.811 17. First reheater leaks 7.055 4. Turbine control valves 18. Generator rotor windings 11.23 1.024 3. Pulveriser mills 24. Stator windings. Economiser leaks 13.415 83.101 63.555 30. Boiler overhaul 2.99 0.329 11.28 0. for a large unit could yield more than $1 million annual profit for the owner and many units have scope for much greater improvement than this.64 0. Air heater (regenerative) 16.536 2.913 10.118 3.191 16. Opacity . Main transformer 15.19 0. Second superheater leaks 8.430 1.651 5.35 2. Burners 20.323 2.17 0.407 21. Major turbine overhaul 3.950 17.961 13.599 11.04 0. Additional opportunities exist in the area of extending the operational life of components and reducing the frequency of replacement.844 2.625 3. Furnace wall leaks 5. Boiler.644 3.456 10.156 1.717 1.24 0.719 18.37 0. Electrostatic precipitator problems 17.761 9. Other miscellaneous steam turbine problems 22. average size 300 MW Average unavailable MWh per unit-year 52.962 95.49 0.34 0. Boiler water condition 155.977 206. 1534 units.294 2. NERC GADS 1995-1999fossil steam plant data.903 98.415 0. and 14.577 2.54 These three tables (14.02 0.30 0.64 0.03 1.97 0.181 Average MWh per outage Number of outages per unit-year Subsystem/component 1. . Other boiler tube leaks 19.2.80 0.948 2. Boiler inspections 4. Even a one per cent improvement in availability.535 3.3 Subsystem~component availability rankings . 14. bushings and terminals 25. Major generator overhaul 23.3) suggest that major opportunities exist to improve the availabilities of many plants through reductions in the frequency and duration of scheduled downtime.414 2.810 3.142 7.683 14. High-pressure heater tube leaks 21. all fuels. Feedwater pump 9. miscellaneous 6.19 0.34 0.108 3.177 4.877 6.02 1.502 14.400 Thermal power plant simulation and control Table 14.33 0. resulting in 3-4 days each year of additional power generation. all unit sizes.407 2.1.628 5. First superheater leaks 10.079 2.246 156. Turbine inspection 12.951 2.fossil steam units 14.30 0.

It may though take significant efforts to make these plants competitive.3 Steam turbine disassembly 14. is one of several power stations that have changed hands in the fast-moving California market. competitive challenges and equipment life are not entirely predictable.4. fuel costs. .1960s. An important plant for Northern California.Management and integration of power plant operations 401 Figure 14. environmental needs. Pervasive in this environment is the drive to improve plant asset value. seeking opportunities and making decisions to improve corporate value. Reasoned judgments need to be made about the retention or purchase of power plants. the new owners have made strategic decisions regarding capital and O&M investments to increase profitability. so that the generating units provide a steady and reliable cash flow for the owner. The legacy of high fixed costs will almost certainly not be a stumbling block to plant profitability. The gas-fired Moss Landing plant. and indeed could be changing on time scales ranging from hours to weeks or months. strategic realignment of the fleet. generating companies are reviewing the value of their fossil plants. compared with a production (O&M) expense of perhaps 2. renegotiated fuel contracts. Such decisions must be made in a business climate where revenues. a streamlined operating staff and a guaranteed market for the electricity. A typical fossil plant is now 30 years old and cost perhaps $400/kW to build in the mid.3 Improving asset management Asset management is essentially the practice of using resources to create maximum corporate value. In this burgeoning competitive market for electricity. These decisions should be guided by the goals of the business and of the key stakeholders.40 c/kWh.45 c/kWh. Fixed charges on this plant may be about 0. requiring upgrade/repowering investment. Figure 14. which is the essence of a business manager's job. Each business manager must make decisions on how to use company resources. and tactical deployment of capital and O&M resources.

The 290 GW of coal-fired plants. for example. the I0 lowest-production-cost fossil plants in the United States are all coal-fired. have much higher capacity factors 65 per cent on average in 1998 . Though this data is a snapshot of one month in 1999. Currently. at a time when fossil plants now average 30 years in age. it is useful to look at some marks of excellence for fossil power plants. In a competitive group of plants in one region of the United States. the MWh production cost (includes fuel and O&M cost) of the plant is a key parameter in any assessment of 'worth' and one that is continually monitored by the generation operator. Quite surprisingly. 14. and to achieve a high capacity factor.4 Moss Landing power plant The fact of the matter is that some of the more than 2. This implies more usage of coal-fired units and thus more profits to the owner.000 fossil-fired units in the United States are better equipped than others to make it in a deregulated free market.5. as previously indicated in Table 14. The main reason for this is the base cost of generation. Availability is certainly one of these. And since roughly 77 per cent .than the 140 GW of oil/gas-fired plants that operate on average at 30 per cent capacity factor. these plants compete at the margin and the ability to realise a profit.1.1 Marks of excellence for fossil power plants In assessing what it takes to be successful in today's generation business. (RDI) data from FERC submissions). the average equivalent availability factor of US fossil plants is at a 10-year high of over 84 per cent. according to Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) data. is often based on incremental price advantages in the spot market (Resource Data International Inc. Figure 14.402 Thermal power plant simulation and control Figure 14.3.

a figure that few. Even so. 1999 100 9080o . Capacity factor is an important parameter to maximise if a generating company is to earn a return on its investment and stay profitable. A second mark of excellence is plant operating cost. less than 0. hydrogen damage and overheating. plant capacity factor is another indicator of success . leading to high wall temperatures and stresses.5 billion a year from boiler tube failures.5 Competitiveplant data of the industry's entire fossil fleet was built before the year 1975. 1996). Increased utilisation of plants minimises wear and tear due to cycling and improves heat rate. gas-fired plants have the lowest non-fuel O&M costs. Third. fly-ash erosion. in the southwestern US. these older units are increasingly burdened with newly installed pollution control equipment and have baseload heat rates often 20-30 per cent higher than plants of more modem vintage. most are coal-fired. but the prime causes remain the same: corrosion fatigue.Management and integration of power plant operations 403 The lowest productioncost coal-firedplants in one US geographicalregion. monitor. including capacityfactors and fuel costs. it is hard to ignore the impact of the most pervasive of all fossil plant problems . . after significant reductions had been obtained in the previous five years. "~ 40 oo o = o o o. 3020100 • Fuel cost $/MWh o Capacityfactor.~ 60 ~ 50 ~. the equivalent availability related to boiler tube failures has levelled out at about 2. and the resultant unit unavailability on average is 3 per cent. coal-fired plants are likely to match.boiler tube failures. There are more than 30 failure mechanisms. ways to detect. The earlier improvements were the result of increased knowledge of tube failure mechanisms and increased management attention to tube failure reduction programmes.a measure of how valuable a plant is compared to other competing plants in the regional market. For example. In looking at availability.~ ~ 70 ¢7. if any. and ultimately avoid the problem are definitively known and could be followed by all generation companies (Dooley and McNaughton.6. In the last five years. although. However. % ! Lowest productioncost coal plants | Figure 14.8 per cent.20 c/kWh. the industry as a whole still suffers losses of more than $1. FERC data for the month of April. the wellknown 'fishmouth' high-temperature creep blowout usually stems from progressively accumulating intemal deposits and loss of wall thickness. Figure 14. repair. mine-mouth plants in the upper Midwest. Of the top 20 units in this category.

3 The fuel options The US electric power industry burns about $30 billion worth of fossil fuels each year. opportunities are constantly being sought to modify or change fuels at marginally economic plants. Poorly sited plants or plants inadequately designed for low-cost fuels. low-cost western coals. so that there was little incentive from a profit standpoint to reduce those costs. PRB coals have lower heating value. sulphur and ash.404 Thermal power plant simulation and control Figure 14. a bitumen-in-water emulsion produced only from the Orinoco Basin in Venezuela. There should be a short-term tactical plan for fuels. Orimulsion.. but higher moisture content and finer size. particularly heat rate/fuel cost effects (Corio et al.3.3. 14. new methodologies permit generating companies to focus on the profitable operation of each plant.6 14. will likely be non-competitive. cost of fuel was often a pass-through charge to the customer. This fuel is relatively high in sulphur and vanadium. Low fuel cost in itself may not be enough . The impact of the new competitive environment on fuel cost issues has resulted in the following conclusions: • • • • • Fuel cost recovery and customer retention are no longer guaranteed. often from Powder River Basin (PRB) deposits in Montana and Wyoming. Trade-offs will constantly take place between fuel costs and O&M costs. as well as a long-term strategy.having the lowest regional fuel cost may be the only winning strategy. A mix of 10-20 per cent gas with coal in a boiler designed for coal firing. accounting for 70-80 per cent of the operating costs of fossil-fired plants. In response to the current competitive environment. Power plants • • . Compared with eastern bituminous coals.2 Typicalboiler tube failure The impact of fuel selection and fuel cost In the regulated environment. 1996). As a result. New fuels or fuel mixes in use are: • A mix of eastern high-sulphurcoal with low-sulphur.

equipment repair and replacement and decreased unit reliability/availability. size. Petroleum coke.000 and is a function of unit type. 14. Figure 14.Management and integration of power plant operations 405 that use this fuel will need to add scrubbers.. fuel. dealing with the stresses imposed on the system from changes in temperature levels and the rate at which temperatures change was identified as the greatest challenge. a byproduct of refining.4 The impacts of cycling on power plant performance The increasingly competitive market for electricity means many units must now follow very short-term market variations in addition to local load variation.4 Impact of unit cycling operation Increased revenue achieved from: Reduced startup time Rapid load change rate More starts and stops Increased costs may include: Increased maintenance Reduced plant life Reduced reliability .load following. and on/off (two-shift) operation. Long-term cycling problems include excessive wear and tear. pressure and design features (Lefton et al. Table 14. Such cycling operation is divided into three types . The short-term issues are higher heat rates and higher O&M expenses. The cost of a single stop/start cycle could range between $15. Added attention must also be paid to corrosion issues. the major issue for cycling service is increased stress on turbine components resulting from rapid changes in temperatures. and corrosion protection are also required to assure high availability and performance. Changes in instrumentation. The fuel purchase contract guarantees that have been offered are aimed at making Orimulsion cost competitive with oil and coal. 1997). A survey of 48 utilities that converted 215 units to cycling duty indicated that a wide variety of changes was implemented or planned to avoid potential problems.4 (EPRI.8. whose cost is currently low but whose sulphur content is high. it is likely that there will be increasing volatility in spot prices and downward pressure on fuel prices as competition heats up.7. low load operation down to 15 per cent of maximum continuous rating (MCR). In the future. For fossil-fired boilers.000 and $500. • A key conclusion is that it is vital for a power plant to optimise fuel choices. Cycling changes that may be needed are specific to the plant involved. The negative impacts of cycling on the plant though must be measured against the potential increases in revenue that can result from cycling operation. It may become necessary for a plant to make fundamental fuel switches to remain competitive in the battle to keep costs down and retain customers. water induction and the threat of increased solid particle Table 14. 1993). operating procedures. Figure 14. For turbines.

.. 7 The major problems in cycling fossil boilers Y 600 500 .'.-.~ __.I rq H t::.. .N.. 400 ~= 300 o 200 1oo o . . cycling leads to mechanical issues resulting from centrifugal and thermal stresses developed during frequent starts and stops. . wedges and retaining rings. removal of copper dusting in rotors and perhaps upgrading of insulation. Finally for generators.4 4.8 The major problems in cycling turbines erosion (SPE) damage. Resolution might require modification of the rotor windings. Figure 14. .i] H ~ .:. Figure 14.o-#Y @ .v ~ ~ .'~ Figure 14. .. .~ 350 / / / -~ 300 2so 200 150 o }~'...~.. *6 100 50 Z 0 ~ H K~. .:.B.9.406 Thermal power plant simulation and control .

Such approaches as maintenance process management. clearly stress components more than baseload operation and modifications to equipment and operating procedures may be necessary.9 The major problems in cycling generators More frequent startups and shut-downs and the temperature changes that result. and training and people skills. organisation and work culture. The degree to which each subelement is addressed greatly depends on how the plant is to be deployed. a living program for updating the bases. best-in-class benchmarking. This includes streamlined reliability-centred maintenance analysis. approaches to predictive maintenance can be extensive (for a key plant). ensuring that the selected approach is complete for the plant in question. Maintenance bases: the rationale for why maintenance tasks are performed.5 I m p r o v i n g m a i n t e n a n c e approaches Better maintenance practices have become an essential part of the strategy for competitiveness. It has five elements that have been found helpful as a 'check-off' list. maintenance indicators. For example.10 (Armor and Wolk. 2000).Management and integration of power plant operations 407 100~ ~ 806040- ! I i~TiiiTili7 iiiii~iiiiii : i J !i~iTi~iiiii~!i ~ z 20o 1 I [ Figure 14. root-cause . a predictive maintenance process. streamlined reliability-centred maintenance (SRCM) and root-cause failure analysis are often keys to invigorating a plant's maintenance staff. A useful model that describes the complete maintenance process is shown in Figure 14. or non-existent for a seldom used asset. The elements are: Maintenance management: business goals. 14. plant reliability and performance management.

predictive maintenance (PDM. corrective maintenance (CM. equipment design changes that avoid maintenance work). outage management and CMMS. • Work control: planning (estimating resource requirements). scheduling (when to do maintenance).10 Maintenance model analysis. close out. proactive maintenance (PAM. condition-based tasks). materials management. Work identification: preventive maintenance (PM. time-based tasks). E Figure 14. fixing failed equipment) work order generation. design changes). post maintenance testing. • . Work execution: the actualwork execution. and the computerised maintenance management system (CMMS).408 Thermal power plant simulation and control E e. and proactive maintenance (PAM.

infrared thermography offers rapid payback by uncovering electrical connection degradation. and condenser fouling monitors. boiler casing and ductwork leaks.11 Best-in-class maintenance . and steam trap anomalies. Work at EPRI's Monitoring and Diagnostic Center has shown that one utility achieved savings of more than $2 million a year through deployment of such on-line devices as turbine blade and bearing monitors. A useful first step in assessing plant maintenance is to judge how the current plant approach ranks with the best-in-class. The radii of the 'web' Work identification (daily-running ~ 0 g / "4"l¢OO#erOeot & Best practices WOrkculture----------~/ Figure 14. New enthusiasm is being kindled by the opportunity to detect damage using the latest sensor technology. boiler tube and feedwater heater leak detectors.Management and integration of power plant operations 409 One element of SRCM is a reasoned procedure for scheduling predictive maintenance. A 'spider-diagram' of the type shown in Figure 14.11 provides some guidance as to where to put the effort. For example. allowing judgements to be made as to how the current process stacks up.

The workstation contains sophisticated software including thermalhydraulic models used to compare measured and optimal performance. processdata :------.12. and examine operational changes on plant performance (EPRI.12 Morgantown performance monitoring system .6 Power plant networks: redefining information flow Networks are the key to managing the flood of data from monitoring and diagnostics applications. A data highway is used to interconnect sensor data. Morgantown Unit 2. and a single large performance computer as shown in Figure 14. Twenty-four on-line and periodic diagnostic technologies comprising over 2. 14. 1991a). Dispatch J Performance data highway Plant Performance control maintenance computer workstationController Field process sensors Engineer display console Operator display console Figure 14. 1989). display consoles. with distance measured against a 'best practices' scale. Performance monitoring workstation at Morgantown Nineteen advanced monitoring devices together with other process instruments on the 650MW Mirant.410 Thermal power plant simulation and control relate to particular measures of performance. One element. and Analoguecontrol/ . processing it into information. diagnostic and performance monitoring technologies have been integrated into networks for improved operations in major plant demonstration projects. over gateways from the distributed control system. Data is drawn directly onto the highway. Recently. however. all successful programmes appear to have in common is a work culture where the plant staff are all pulling together to make process excellence an imperative.300 monitoring points are integrated through a computer-data highway network at Eddystone. are analysed by the performance monitoring workstation (PWM) to determine plant heat rate on-line. Monitoring and diagnostic network at Eddystone Demonstration and integration of diagnostic monitors and the development of predictive maintenance practices is the focus of this work at Exelon's Eddystone station (EPRI. 1997). and presenting it in appropriate formats through all levels of the utility (Armor and Weiss. determine component degradation.

. The next step in integration: the Roxboro demonstration Recent work at Carolina Power and Light's Roxboro plant. on-line advisory systems and advanced controls are combined at the NRG E1 Segundo Power Plant in California. A step toward integration: The E1 Segundo demonstration Integrated diagnostic and performance monitoring. .~ . has demonstrated the application of state-of-the-art automation technologies to improve heat rate and unit maneuverability throughout the load range.13 Eddystone diagnostic monitoring network from networked monitoring computers with their own dedicated data acquisitions as shown in Figure 14. 1991b). 1990). The goal here is to create a single display window on all plant operations and on the current state of major equipment conditions.14. Figure 14. This was achieved through full utilisation of the power of a distributed control system. over a 10 year period of operation. The savings relate to operational costs associated with reduced failures and improved plant productivity. ~COh]ghOwl dyta I% -I rv rr Fielddata vr rr I I I--I Data storageand retrieval I I"l I DoAnScl/:r Fielddata rrr Figure 14. Monitoring data ~ highway ~ conso [11 II Control /~ Host computer o so es console~ ~ . Total savings for this project have been estimated at $67 million (EPRI.13. Units 3 and 4. expert systems. consisting of four 500 MW units. and information management functions into a plant-wide automation system .Management and integration of power plant operations 411 Field data ( . on-line testing. diagnostics. . and integration of monitoring. This project is unique in that it has required an industry control system supplier to integrate distinct diagnostic monitoring systems from various vendors and expert systems with the control system (EPRI. The control and diagnostic retrofit is a step towards fully integrating monitoring technologies with distributed digital control systems. and to reduce forced outages and O&M costs.

1 A cultural change for operators When fossil plants are equipped with a digital control system (DCS). These CRTs provide . equipment condition. and emissions considerations.412 Thermal power plant simulation and control m coHp sutter I ~ console f~~Monitoring and 1 Control console ~ _ ~ r olh i ~ N d TTT Fielddata Figure 14. The plant-wide information system.15. the primary DCS operator interface then becomes the CRT and keyboard. 14.14 The El Segundo control and diagnostic retrofit Hostcomputer [ " com Figure 14. Figure 14.15 Roxboro plant-wide information system based on EPRI's Utility Communications Architecture. such that the four units can be optimally dispatched based on heat rate.6. is linked remotely.

Yet the traditional utility business strategy has focused largely on minimising costs and revenue requirements and on meeting the 'obligation to serve'. transmission systems. the additional revenues to be gained by incremental investments of either capital or O&M. and other value measures. capacity. etc. However. increasingly burdened with emission control equipment. and its tangible assets: power plants. competition and mergers. problem resolution.7 Conclusions Today's electric generating company business climate is unlike any previously seen by the long-term regulated industry. generating companies carefully follow key parameters for a given generating unit. are capital investments to be utilised and managed to the maximum benefit to stockholders and consumers. and the unit's contribution to corporate profits on the basis of energy. Display application tools and techniques are being developed that expand the view into the process and enable the operator to rapidly comprehend a large volume of data in order to make responsive decisions. their value to the company. imposing an additional heat rate penalty. In fact. Now generating companies are taking a fresh look at power plants. . Businesses exist to create added value from all assets . and startup activities that were traditionally performed by the operator. 14. A plant manager must focus his/her efforts on two imperatives: (1) 'survival' and (2) 'profit'.. land.tangible assets as well as information and personnel expertise.Management and integration of power plant operations 413 the operator with an extensive amount of information. with a large number of operating displays and an ever growing quantity of data. The assets at risk are older generating units. there is a strong need for enhanced plant information management technologies to avoid information overload. It is probably fair to say that these terms have not been the dominant driving forces of electric utilities in the years preceding deregulation. The electric power industry is no exception. the revenues to be made by the unit at current and projected capacity factors. control actions. though. money-making generating unit. Such old units. and ways to prudently invest in these capital assets so as to improve bottom-line profitability. The real issue is operating cost. performance evaluation. and emissions management. so it has been easy to overlook the intrinsic value of such assets as generating plants and how investment in these assets might be optimised from an overall company viewpoint. As a result. As DCS advanced control strategies and automated expert systems are implemented in generating stations. the DCS is now performing many of the routine information logging. and tools are being developed to aid the operator with process management. such as the precise cost of generating each kWh. Concurrently there is a change in the role of the control room operator. They have base-load heat rates typically 20-30 per cent higher than plants of more modern vintage and often far from being base loaded. are unlikely to be faced with large stranded capital investments. A small improvement in O&M can make the difference between a stranded cost and a viable. there is now an opportunity to place emphasis on process management and continuous training improvements.

McINTYRE. L. the human in charge is less cognisant of the physical principles behind plant operation.R. and WOLK. 1996'. EPRI TR-114910. R. 171-182 ARMOR. D. and BOYD. BLANCO. P.E. March 1997 METCALFE. A.. and WEISS. EPRI Innovator IN. in ARMOR.E. et al..A.100124.. A. 14. Palo Alto. C. 1997.: 'Using fossil power plants in cycling mode: real costs and management responses'..R.: 'Applying the competitive market business equation to power generation economics and markets'. and LANDY. and McNAUGHTON. S. The successful companies of the future will be those that embrace techniques at the cutting edge of the present 'information age'. will be an essential growth activity for most forward-looking companies. G. BELLUCCI. pp. as power plant controls and information networks become more complex. and BROSKE.): 'Proceedings: managing fossil generating assets in the emerging competitive marketplace. 5-13 DOOLEY.W.. December 1991 a EPRI: 'SCE integrates controls and diagnostics to improve operation of E1 Segundo Units 3 and 4'. (Eds. EPRI Innovator IN-100145. June 1990 EPRI: 'Plant monitoring network brings savings through predictive maintenance'.M. LEFTON. M. California. (Eds. Electric Power Research Institute.414 Thermal power plant simulation and control Finally. expert systems or intelligent tutors. the implication being that as we move to more computer-controlled operation of power plants.8. This is an undesirable situation that could lead to poor decisions in emergency situations. EPRI Report TR-105261. E. California. EPRI Report TR-106529.): 'Proceedings: managing fossil generating assets in the emerging competitive marketplace: 1996'. GS-6868'. R.B. 21.F. via simulators. W.. 1996 EPRI: 'MARK I performance monitoring products. J.1 References Asset management ARMOR. DELAIN.E.. J. March 1997 .. D. September 1989 EPRI: 'Preliminary guidelines for integrated controls and monitoring for fossil fuel plants. Proceedings: 1996 Heat Rate Improvement Conference. June 2000 CORIO..: 'Productivity improvement handbook for fossil steam power plants: second edition'. EPRI Report CS-7219. pp. A.A.: 'Advanced control for power plant profitability'. A. additional training of operators and engineers will be necessary.A. and BROSKE. So training. BLANCO. M. D. M.H.. in ARMOR. EPRI report TR-107844.: 'Scheduling outages to maximize corporate and customer value'. Annual Reviews in Control. May 1996. EPRI report TR-1078444. REES. Palo Alto.R.A.8 14. December 1991b EPRI: Cycling of fossil fueled power plants. September 1993. One concern that has often been expressed is that automation is a bar to understanding.. Electric Power Research Institute.: 'Boiler tube failures: theory and practice'. GS/EL-5658'.

R. Proceedings of the 1996 EPRI Fossil plant maintenance conference. pp.106753. and MAGUIRE. Proceedings of the EPRI Fossil plant maintenance conference.9.: 'Pilot application of streamlined reliability centered maintenance at TU Electric's fossil power plants'. EPRI report TR-106753.: 'Managing plant assets for profitability'. G. WOYSHNER. EPRI report TR-106503. R. R. June 2000. 'Proceedings of the 1996 EPRI Fossil plant maintenance conference.106753.H.E. September 1995 14. BLANCO. A. J. July 2000 14.E.. R.R. February 1997. pp. July 1996. 2nd edn.H. and BROSKE. M. American Power Conference. September 1997 EPRI: 'Streamlined reliability-centered maintenance at PG&E's Moss Landing plant'.: 'Proceedings: managing fossil generating assets in the emerging competitive marketplace conference 1996'. J. EPRI report TR-101706. and TOUCHTON. T. and COLSER. ED.L. A. EPRI report TR-114910. July 1996 EPRI: 'NDE guidelines for fossil power plants'. EPRI report TR. volumes 1 and 2'.A.J.: 'Benchmarking: the foundation for performance improvement'.S. IL. 5-1-5-12 BOZGO. 1996. EPRI report TR-106753.. Chicago. EPRI report TR. July 1996.9 Bibliography 14. 2-I-2-13 14.: 'Beyond reliability to profitability'. A. December 1992 . EPRI report GS-6727.. July 1996. 18-1-18-18 ARMOR. and MITCHELL..104550 FOGARTY.H. 3-1-3-9 EPRI: 'Positioning for competition: the changing role of utility fuels'.9. Report.. MUELLER.: 'Fossil plant self assessment'. EPRI report TR. W.3 Productivity improvement tools ARMOR. EPRI: 'Automated predictive maintenance implementation'.Management and integration of power plant operations 415 North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC): '1995-1999 generation availability data system (GADS)'. 1991 EPRI: 'Condition assessment guidelines for fossil fuel power plant components'. March 1997 BOND. C.A.E. B.108450.S. and WOLK. March 1990 EPRI: 'Database integration services. Proceedings of the 1996 EPRI Fossil plant maintenance conference.105582. EPRI report TR..A. MILLER.9.. EPRI report TR-107844. pp.1 Asset management ARMOR. EPRI report TR. and DONG. D.: 'Productivity improvement handbook for fossil steam power plants'. H. pp.2 Maintenance ABBOT.. April 29-May 1.

December 1992 EPRI: 'Power plant modification evaluations using the EPRI PMOS model'. EPRI report TR-101715. EPRI report TR-102083. March 1993 . EPRI report TR-102922. EPRI report RP2923-13. Proceedings of the EPRI Heat rate Improvement conference. May 1994 EPRI: 'The DYNAMICS model for measuring dynamic operating benefits'. July 1993 EPRI: 'Reference manual for on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion'. June 1989 EPRI: 'Utility experience with the EPRI plant monitoring workstation'. EPRI report TR-104928. EPRI Report TR-102098. November 1990 EPRI: 'Managing life cycle costs'.416 Thermal power plant simulation and control EPRI: 'Fossil plant instrumentation and monitoring'. 1992. 1993 EPRI: 'MARK 1 performance monitoring products'. EPRI report GS-6401. EPRI report AP105443. August 1995 EPRI: 'High reliability condenser application study'. January 1996 EPRI: 'Life optimization for fossil fuel power plants'. EPRI Report TR-102308. EPRI report TR. EPRI report GS-7064. November 1993 EPRI: 'Life cycle cost management.100901. September 1989 EPRI: 'Plant monitoring workstation'. EPRI Heat rate improvement conference 1991. EPRI Report AP-101840. July 1992 EPRI: 'HEATRT heat rate improvement advisor'. workbooks and software'. EPRI report GS/EL-5648. March 1995 EPRI: 'Roxboro automation project interim report'.

367 adaptive control 94. 114 adaptive control 110-11. 396.243 actuator dynamic performance 372 saturation 293.Index acid rain 11. 117-27 automatic voltage regulator 112-13 availability of 399-400 excitation control 102 hybrid simulation 113-14 load cycling problems 406-7 local model network control 108-10. 347 deactivation of 195-6 thermal efficiency 195. neural network model. modelling of 43 air-fuel ratio 244-6. mechanisms 403 s e e also component model. 148 s e e a l s o parameter estimation adaptive neurofuzzy inference system 221-2. on-line 269 model scheduling 333 structure selection 189. 101 alternator excitation control 110-11.347 ARMAX model 103. 117-27 steam temperature control 147-9 supervision of 111-12. 353 integration of 350 alternator 2. power plant 345. 402-3 factors affecting 399-400 steam temperature control 132 availability factor 399 back propagation. 403. once-through boiler . 256-8. principal component analysis. 245-6. 371 excess air 7. 188 ARX model 188. 105 operational protection 112 rotor angle stability 118 availability. state-space model boiler availability of 399--400 load cycling problems 397. 289 validation of 189. 252. 405-6 maintenance overhaul 399 stability of 132 tube failure. life. 348. algorithm 226. 292 adaptation. 224 advisory system: s e e operator advisory system air preheater. drum boiler. steam temperature / pressure automatic voltage regulator 103. physical-based modelling. 287. projection to latent structures. 254 s e e a l s o grey-box modelling. 302 base-load plant 6. 117-27 modelling of 19 power system stabiliser 110 s e e a l s o life ancillary services 345. UK electricity market 10 black-box modelling 188. 249 alarm system 92. 181-3.407 BETTA. 246-7 altemator excitation control 103-4. 110-11 NOx emissions modelling 256-8 asset management 401-5 association rules 326-7 attemperator 133. 48 stoichiometric 7. 326. 371-2 s e e a l s o flue gas recycling.

249-50 C02.243 carbon tax 397 greenhouse gas 11 modelling of 49-50. gas turbine modelling 48-9 combustion control 6-7 excess air 7. 149 case-based reasoning 313 cavitation. 313 k means 335 CO. 402 load cycling 403 carbon taxes 397 CARIMA model 171-2 Carnot cycle 3 cascade control 136. 63 Hardgrove grindability index 83-4. 249-50 reduction of 244 co-ordinated plant control: s e e supervisory plant control coal calorific value 81. 68 startup/shutdown 91. intergovernmental panel (UN) 13 s e e a l s o renewable energy clustering analysis 310. 351 operational parameters 244 s e e a l s o emissions competition.243 modelling of 49-50. 262 low-NOx burners 244. 94 combined cycle gas turbine Brayton cycle 5. 64-71 separator 64. water 360 Clean Air Act (US) 243 climate change. 43 drum 33-5. power system: s e e deregulation component model. 86-90 load line 82 mass/mass 82-4. 48 fly ash 244.418 Index boiler following control 6. valve 35 chemical control. 56 fan 43 feedwater heater 46. 252 capacity factor 397. 69.397 configuration 5. LQ / predictive 90-1 optimal grinding 94-7 pf flow measurement 64. 74. controllers 142 burner management system 7 multiple fuels 351 burners CFD design 246 configuration of 254. 11. during transients 84 explosion of 82 mill table 64. 28-33 . emissions 7. 354 multiple fuels 326. power plant air preheater 43 coal mill 43. 326 coruer-firing 244. 86--90 multiple mills 81 multivariable. heat recovery steam generator combustion chamber. 155-6 vertical spindle mill 64-6 s e e a l s o pulverised fuel coal mill control 80-1 dynamic response 7. 274-8 furnace 39-42. 248 modelling of 49-50. 92 carbon intensity 397-8 fuel combustion 248-50 hardness 71 world reserves of 11 coal mill boiler stability 132. 69 mill wear 70-1. 155-7 choking 63. 397 bumpless switching. 93 classifier zone 64. 347-8 boiler stored energy 6. 84-90 runback 83. 49-50 header 36-7 heat exchanger 20-2. 81. 182. 162 control hierarchy 164-7 emissions of 397 modelling of 163-4 popularity of 397 predictive control 187. 185 load-frequency control 207-9 Brayton cycle 5. 92-3 model validation 71-9 modelling of 43. 161 s e e a l s o gas turbine. 68 coal hardness 71 control and advisory system 92-7 emissions. 367 supervisory control 168-76 thermal efficiency 1. emissions 11.132. 64-71 combustion chamber 48-9 compressor 46-7 condenser 46 control valve / damper 35-6.

supervisory plant control 186-7 CCGT supervisory control 169-76 physical model-based predictive control 375-89 convection. multi-loop 136.410-11 data management 9. 181-4 interaction. 366. 56. 382 modelling of 46 control hierarchy: s e e multi-loop plant control. 391.395 competitiveness. supervisory plant control control strategy commissioning of 158. 206. boiler 132. operator advisory system diffusion. 42. minimum variance control. power system 10-11. 368-9 control hierarchy 209-13 knowledge-based plant control 221-38 open-loop behaviour 207-8 physical model-based predictive control 375-89 Rankine cycle 1. modelling package 19. 207. 21-3. 80. 205 NETA 10. 401-2 dynamic stability. 374-5 feedforward control 137. 181 modelling of 2 5 ~ s e e a l s o heat exchanger efficiency. 194. 353 s e e a l s o availability. 345 acid rain 11. 159 load-following requirement 179-80. 382. operator advisory system controlled reference value. 52. 409 cooling water temperature 326. 239 decoupling. feedforward control. 43 data mining 309-10 deaerator 24. 368 level control 7. 365. 397 s e e a l s o CO. 346 s e e a l s o operator advisory system distributed generation 180 disturbances 134. 215. PI(D) control. 218-9 modelling 140. 183. 145. 311 islands of automation 350 modelling of 50-1 supervisory plant control 63. 382 drum 3. 345. 370 modelling of 33-5. 375 drum boiler configuration 3--4. 188 economiser 3. supervisory plant control 186-7 evaporator steam temperature control 142-7 once-through boiler.243. 414 s e e a l s o alarm system. loop 5. 171 separation efficiency 34 stability 220. 365 saturation 292-3 s e e a l s o adaptive control. predictive control control action correction. SOx damper.Index 419 pump 37-9 subsystem model compressor. 18-19 s e e a l s o once-through boiler Dymola. 177. power plant 389. maintenance . modelling of 35q5. heat transfer 21 distributed control and data acquisition system 350 distributed control system advantages of 13. power plant information overload 412-13 islands of automation 350 operator training 354. 237. load-following. 370-1 see also diagnostic system: s e e fault analysis. 179. CO2. 164-5 monitoring 326. control of 189-99 control room. thermal: s e e thermal efficiency Electricity Act (UK) 10 electrostatic precipitator 244 emissions. LQG control. NOx. 179. stack 2. 153. neurofuzzy control.243 combined cycle gas turbine 397 electrostatic precipitator 244 modelling of coal-fired plant 253-63 gas turbine 48-50. 359-60 NOx advisory system 266-7 NOx formation 248-53 reduction of 244-5. heat transfer 6. 377-9 rejection 136. 11. 45 decision rules 327 decision trees 327 demand side management 396 deregulation. modelling of 46-7 computational fluid dynamics 245 burner / furnace design 246 condenser 3 air leakage / tube fouling 375.412-13 configuration 8. 395.

182 control of 134-6 LQG feedforward control 137-47 event logging 353.409 fouling 375 grey-box modelling 287-95 modelling of 46.420 Index Energy Policy Act (US) l0 Environment Protection Act (UK) 243 environmental regulation 205. voltage measurement 114-16 frequency decoupling. 313. 295. 367 steam temperature control 135. 140-1. 218-19. 329 see also availability. 326. 329 diagnosis of 270. 272-3 drum / once-through boiler 4. 314 statistical-based 313-14 feedwater heater. 219-20 knowledge-based plant control 221-38 once-through boiler 134-6. 307.184 fuel calorific value 81. 181. 274-8 sensor / valve. 183-4 drum boiler 207-13. 397 flue gas recycling 183. 381-9 see also steam temperature / pressure flue gas temperature. 309 coal mill advisory system 92-7 detection of 311-13. 369. 49-50 pressure control 39 . real-time 354-5 see also operator advisory system extended Kalman filter 379 state estimation 270. control loop 179. 307. 12 forced outage factor 398-9 fouling. fossil fuels 11 see also combustion control furnace CFD design 246 modelling of 39-42. 396. 382 Fourier algorithm. 216. alternator 102 expert system 313. 195-7 physical model-based predictive control 377. 48 excitation control. 158 feedwater heater 8 configuration 271-4 control of 272-3 fault detection 270. heat exchanger 375. 143-7 flue gas pyrometry 153-7 feedwater control 164. 239. 410 fault detection model-based 287. principal component analysis feedback control advantages of 216. 354 predictive maintenance 409-10 principal component analysis 313-25 projection to latent structures 327.206. 382 load-following capability 182. 133.244.359-60 excess air 7. 369. 243 see also emissions equivalence ration 252 equivalent availability factor 398 estimation function 299-300 European Commission 11-12 evaporator 3. 287. 172. 92. 218-19 see also control strategy feedforward control 213-15 advantages of 135. PFBC 2. 153. 371-2 ID/FD 7 modelling of 43 fault analysis 269. 143. 409 fieldbus internet protocol 293 flame ignition 245 flue gas desulphurisation 11. malfunction 282-7 state estimation 295-307 steam bleeding 279 tube leaks 279-83. 345 legislation 10. modelling of 279-87 NOx emissions monitoring 267. measurement of 153-5 fluid properties air 28 flue gas 28 steam 27 fluidised bed combustion. 367 failure analysis 407 fan flue gas recycling 183. 218-19 commissioning of 239 disturbance rejection 137. 371-2 control action correction 190. 315-16. 327. operator advisory system FD fan 7 modelling of 43 feature selection 310 see also clustering analysis. 326 carbon intensity 397-8 selection of 404-5 world reserves. 41i coal mill advisory system 92-7 G2.

physical-based modelling H ~ control 185. 221-4 knowledge-based system coal mill advisory system 92-7 s e e a l s o expert system knowledge discovery in data 310 Kyoto protocol 11 least squares. 28-33 feedwater heater 46. mechanisms 6. local model network. 326. 206 header 358 modelling of 36-7 heat exchanger fouling 375.243. 403 load cycling 397 reduction of 132. expert system 354-5 s e e a l s o expert system gain scheduling 137. power plant 179. 5. 292 s e e a l s o black-box modelling. 382 metal temperature 369-71. steam temperature / pressure heat recovery steam generator 1.326 tube failure.397 modelling of 25. 12 interaction. 397 grey-box modelling 245-6. algorithm: s e e parameter estimation Levenberg-Marquardt. modelling package 18. 42. 151. 376. 348. 397 input-output modelling: s e e black-box modelling integrated gasification combined cycle 2. IGCC 2. 138. 229-30 non-linear modelling 334 steam temperature control 152-3 G2. 400.289. 32.386. 287-91 advantages of 248. 274-8 soot blowing 132. mechanisms 403 s e e a l s o attemperator. 390 modelling of 20-2. 164-5. 206 gPROMS. 205 creep 348 estimation of 397 extension of 367. 192 bumpless switching 142 gas turbine 163 combustion chamber 48-9 compressor 46-7 emissions 48-50. 269 fundamental element 259 HP feedwater heater modelling 292-5 NOx emissions modelling 259-63 structure selection 256-8. control loops: s e e multi-loop plant control intergovernmental panel on climate change (UN) 13 islands of automation 350 k means clustering 335 s e e a l s o clustering Kalman filter 139-40 pf flow estimation 84-5 state estimation 92 s e e a l s o extended Kalman filter knowledge-based plant control 218. algorithm 256 life.Index 421 fuzzy logic 360 coal mill fault diagnosis 93-4 controller design 206 data mining 310 knowledge-based plant control 221-38 local model network 102 membership function 225. 365 boiler problems 405-6 capacity factor 403 . 371-2 s e e also thermal stress load cycling alternator problems 406-7 boiler dynamics 207-9. 12 generalised minimum variance control: s e e minimum variance control generalised predictive control: s e e predictive control generation availability data system 398 generator: s e e alternator genetic algorithms 262 controller design 185. 163 heat transfer. 46-9 gasification. 370-1 burner configuration 382 hierarchical supervisory control s e e supervisory plant control Hotelling's T 2 statistic 316-7 human machine interface 9. 188 greenhouse gases 11. 21-3. 350-1 s e e a l s o operator advisory system ID fan 7 modelling of 43 independent power producer 10.

206. 354 overfitting 294-5.422 Index load cycling ( c o n t i n u e d ) life. 179. 86-90 membership function. generalised 109-10 alternator excitation control 117-27 model-based predictive control: s e e predictive control Modelica. 210-11. coal mill 90-1 LQG control 138-41. coal mill 82-4. multi-loop plant control. 411 s e e also life. impact of 405-7 non-destructive evaluation 399 predictive maintenance 407-8. 335 recurrent network 247. fault analysis.390 s e e also maintenance. operation 365.353 neural network model 101. algorithm 356 multilayer perceptron 255. 370-1 loop decoupling 136. submodels 54 s e e also object-oriented modelling modelling: s e e black-box modelling. 255 spline 247. 117-27 controller design 108-10 model identification 102-3 low-NOx burner 244. of submodels 25-7 distributed heat transfer terminal 21 heat transfer terminal 22 hybrid system 51 mechanical terminal 23 thermo-hydraulic and heat transfer terminal 22 thermo-hydraulic terminal 19 type definition 19 validation. 236. network 255. 367 knowledge-based plant control 228-38 limiting factors 142. 335 static network 247. UK electricity market 10. 255 HP feedwater heater modelling 290-302 Levenberg-Marquardt. 179. plant 397 turbine problems 405-6 two-shifting.335 neurofuzzy control 221-38 non-linear modelling 269. 365.246-7 data mining 310 dynamic network 247. 313 NOx emissions 245.367 evaporator steam temperature control 142-7 maintenance. 334 NOx emissions modelling 253-6. physical-based modelling monitoring. fuzzy logic 225. 266-7 operator interaction 354 principal component analysis 314-18 projection to latent structures 327-9 univariate / multivariate analysis 312-13 s e e also alarm system. 219. grey-box modelling. 137-8 supervisory plant control 184-5. 367. 205 feedforward control 213-15. operator advisory system multi-loop plant control boiler dynamics 207-9. 386 steam temperature control 132. load cycling load-frequency control 207-9.371-4. 348-9 sliding pressure operation 212-17. 336 radial basis function 102. 347-9. 252 LQ control. 229-30 minimum variance control. 410 s e e also availability mass/mass control. 345. 255 . 370-4 physical model-based predictive control 386-9 ramping rate 235. 410-12 association rules 326-7 clustering analysis 310. power system 179-80. plant performance 351-3. 209 boiler stability 132 deregulation. 181-4 loop interaction 5. 347-8 load line. 247. coal mill 82 local model network alternator excitation control 103-10. thermal stress load-following 205.213-17. 372-3 s e e also supervisory plant control multilayer perceptron. 335 multiple linear regression 327 NARMAX model 258 NARX model 246-7 NOx emissions modelling 258-9 non-destructive evaluation 399 NETA. modelling language 18 aggregation. 365 load-following capability 205-6. power plant 407-10 availability factor 398 corrosion 360 load cycling.

210-11 PTx steam temperature control 149-51 sliding pressure operation 21 0-17. 66-7. UK electricity market 10. excitation 111-12. 347. Modelica. 23 once-through boiler configuration 4. 375-7 formulation of 377-80 PI. 262 NO2. 365 parameter tuning 90. 253 North American Electric Reliability Council 398 NOx. 335 NO. onqine 101. 254-6. 248-50 grey-box modelling 248. formation 11. 191 observability of 106-7 predictive control advantages of 185-6. 351-3. 210-17. 355 distributed parameter models 18. 302 parameter estimation neurofuzzy control 221 controller design 224-8 feedforward control 222--4. state estimation partial least squares: s e e projection to latent structures petroleum coke 405 physical-based modelling aggregation of submodels 25-7. power plant information overload 412-13 new technology 354 training of 414 operator advisory system 309. 191 structure selection 189. 72. 143. 253 factors affecting 244-5. 118. 367 CCGT supervisory control 168-76 O&M. 259-63 neural network modelling 246-7. 348 loop control 13. 164-5. 230-8 membership function 229-30 NIPALS algorithm 328.Index 423 training of 226.244 fuel 250.359-60 . plant information 352 PI(D) control load-following capability 205-6.244. 111-12 s e e a l s o Kalman filter.225-6 PRBS. 136-7.243-4 (N)ARX modelling 247. algorithm 111. 345 power system stabiliser 110 PRBS. 143. 66-7. 189-90 control. 372-3 s e e also multi-loop plant control plant-wide control: s e e supervisory plant control pool.243 advisory system 245. 190 evaporator control 134-8 feedwater control 134-5. 20-1 lumped parameter models 18. component model. 254-6. 256-9 acid rain 11. excitation lll-12. 133. 118. 183 Rankine cycle 1. 410-12 acceptance of 354 coal mill fault diagnosis 92-7 emissions monitoring 266-7. 354 s e e a l s o environmental regulation see also performance monitoring 358 unit startup 356-8 water chemical control 360 optimal control 366-7 orimulsion 404-5 over-fire air 253 ozone 11 parameter estimation 72. 397 formation of 244. 346 flue gas treatment 244. 252-3 prompt 250. 11. 397 destruction of 248. emissions 7. 181 superheater control 4. 292-3 validation of 53-6 s e e also black-box modelling. unit profitability 401. grey-box modelling. 147 thermal efficiency 4 s e e a l s o drum boiler operator. frequency decoupling 183-4 control action correction 184-5. 289. formation 11. 262 thermal 250-2. 250-3 fuel combustion 49-50. 18-19. 355 open problems 56-7 parameter estimation 55. 252.413 object-oriented modelling 18. 252.253-4. 266-7 CFD modelling 245-6 combustion modification 244. subsystem model physical model-based predictive control 366-8. 256-8 subspace model identification 189 supervision. 76-7 object-oriented 18. 101 coal mill modelling 72 least squares. 53 dynamic decoupling 52-3 fault representation 279 model scheduling 26-7.

369.244 self-tuning control: see adaptive control sensor fault detection 311-12 feedwater heater. 159 UN targets 13 saturation. network 102. 190. 371-2 metal temperature.424 Index predictive control (continued) coal mill control. 329-34.397 receding horizon state estimation 295-303 recursive least squares 147 supervision of 11 l . mechanisms 403 see also flue gas recycling. statistic 315. 94. state estimation 370. 370-1 burner configuration 382 Rankine cycle 1. multivafiable 90-1 constraints. 168. 18-19. 164 numerical integration 52 validation of 53-6. 386 steam temperature control 7. 183. 243 flow measurement 81 Kalman filter 84-90 pump. 152-3. 71-9 see also gPROMS. 375-80. 21-2. 246 coal mill performance 81-2 temperature / pressure of 70-1 principal component analysis fault detection 317-25 feature selection 310 model selection 314-15 multiblock 315-16 non-linear transformation 335 principal component 314 principal curve 340 t scores 314. 377-80 multivariable steam control 347-9 parameter sensitivity 194-9 physical model-based control 365. 375-89 state estimation-based 380-1 superheater temperature control 147-9 PRESS. 293 modelling environment 18. 159 validity index 318 value reconstruction 316-18. 330 sensor fusion 159 simulation.354 scheduled outage factor 398-9 secondary air 81. 228-9 boiler stored energy 6 gain scheduling 151 . 335 radiation. heat transfer 6. 311 see also distributed control system projection to latent structures model selection 327-8 monitoring and optimisation 310. 5. 377 thermal efficiency 371-2 tube failure. heat exchanger.367 SCADA 251. 181. 207 control action correction 190. actuator 293. inclusion of 185. power plant database management 57 dynamic decoupling 52-3 hybrid emulation 113-14. physical-based modelling singular value decomposition 335 sliding pressure control 212. 317.I 2. 195-7 flue gas recycling 183. 365 feedforward control 206 formulation of 147-8. modelling of 37-9 pyrometry.329 pressurised fluidised bed combustion 2. 320 see also projection to latent structures principal curve 340 procedural rule. 221-3 programmable logic controller 8. 336-9 multiblock 329 non-linear RBF 3 3 4 ~ non-linear transformation 335 see also principal component analysis PTx control. Dymola. steam temperature / pressure reliability. 12 primary air 64. 118 regression analysis 327 reheater 3. malfunction 284-7 soft 92. object-oriented modelling. power plant availability factor 398 subsystem outages 399-400 renewable energy 12. Modelica. 42. superheater temperature 149-52 Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (US) 10 pulverised fuel 7. 372. fuzzy logic 102. flue gas temperature 154 load-following capability 158 steam temperature control 155-7 quadratic programming 380 radial basis function.

312 knowledge-based plant control 216-20 load-following capability 205-6. electricity 395 startup / shutdown. 158. 191 subsystem model. 391 steam turbine 3 impulse stage 44-5 load cycling problems 405-6 maintenance overhaul 399 modelling of 23. control of 3. 46-50. network 247.Index 425 thermal stress. 183 physical model-based predictive control 375-81 plant life 132 superheater control 136-7. 195-7 flue gas temperature 153-7 fuzzy temperature control 152-4 GPC temperature control 147-9 metal temperature. 151. 28-43. 11. 366 coal mill advisory system 92-7 HP feedwater heater modelling 295-307 physical model-based predictive control 379.132. 386 multivariable temperature control 347-9 PTx temperature control 149-52 steam temperature control 7. 386 unit startup 182 soft desk 351 soft sensor 92. 147-58 thermal efficiency 132.243 flue gas desulphurisation 11. 335 spot price.243. 137 metal temperature control of 375. UN world summit 13 s e e a l s o renewable energy synchronisation. 397 PLS modelling of 329-32 s e e a l s o environmental regulation spline. 13. 372. 114. 301 stoichiometric air-fuel ratio 7. 183. 7. 249 subcritical boiler: s e e drum boiler subspace model identification 189. 372 thermal efficiency 132. 292 steam temperature / pressure. 163 s e e also component model supercritical boiler: s e e once-through boiler superheater 3. power plant advisory system 356-8 coal mill 91. alternator 356 system identification: s e e black-box modelling.390 state estimation 370. models . 367. multi-loop plant control. 375-80. emissions 7. state estimation 370. heat exchanger. 209-10.326 SOx. 191 steam quality 33 steam tables 27. 391 tube failure. mechanisms 403 s e e a l s o attemperator. 346 s e e a l s o distributed control system. 195-6 evaporator control 134-47 knowledge-based plant control 221-8 load-following 132.206 controlled reference value 186-7 disadvantages of 180. 163 condensate cycle 23-4. steam temperature / pressure supervisory plant control 2.272. operator advisory system sustainable development. generalised predictive control 380-1 state-space model physical model-based predictive control 376-81 subspace model identification 189. reduction of 372. 136-7. parameter estimation t scores 314. 94.244. 45-6 gas turbine 25. 375-80. 346 acid rain 11. 183. 155-6 state estimation 270. 159 soot blowing 132. 43-5. 381-9 state estimation based. 43-5. 163 reaction stage 44 s e e a l s o life stochastic approximation 270 HP feedwater heater modelling 290-1.346 CCGT predictive control 168-76 control action correction 186-8 control strategies 184-5. 164 steam turbine 23. 317. 386 model-based predictive control 347-9 once-through boiler 4. 367 control action correction 190. 63. 133. 320. 158. power plant boiler 19. 133 control action correction 190. 330 testing and validation. 348-9 multivariable steam control 347-9 physical model-based predictive control 375-81 plant management system 351 thermal efficiency 2.

412 United Nations. 399 modelling / monitoring 163. 371. models (continued) design data 54 open-loop / closed-loop tests 55-6 thermal efficiency combined cycle gas turbine 5 factors affecting 158. mechanisms 403 turbine following control 182. 371 sliding pressure operation 372. 136. 330.391 see also monitoring thermal stress 179. 348 load following 132. infrared 409 Three Mile Island. 358-9 once-through boiler 4 sliding pressure operation 6 supervisory control 2. 326. 209-11 base-load plant 6 two-shifting. renewable energy targets 13 valve cavitation 35 modelling of 35-6 VME hardware 117 volatile organic compound 11 voltage measurement Fourier algorithm 114-16 harmonic interference 114 RMS technique 115 white-box modelling 245 see also physical-based modelling . 386 unit startup / shutdown 358. 185. operation: see load cycling unit dispatch 353. 382. incident 312 training simulator 414 tramp air 7 transputer 117 tube failure.405-7 thermography. 346 temperature control 132.426 Index testing and validation.

List of abbreviations AF ANN API APMS ARMAX ARX ASME AVA AVR BETTA BMS CARIMA CBR CCGT CCR CEGB CFD COL DCDAS DCS DMA EAF EC EDL EKF EPRI FB FERC FF FFPU FGD GHG availability factor artificial neural network application program interface advanced plant management system AutoRegressive Moving Average model with eXogenous input AutoRegressive model with eXogenous input American Society of Mechanical Engineers added value application automatic voltage regulator British-wide Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements burner management system controlled auto-regressive integrating moving-average case-based reasoning combined cycle gas turbine central control room Central Electricity Generating Board computational fluid dynamics cost of losses distributed control and data acquisition system distributed control system direct memory access equivalent availability factor European Commission electronic dispatch and logging extended Kalman filter Electric Power Research Institute feedback Federal Energy Regulatory Commission feedforward fossil fuel power unit flue gas desulphurisation greenhouse gas .

xviii List of abbreviations generalised minimum variance generalised predictive control HMI human-machine interface HP high-pressure HRSG heat recovery steam generator HSC hierarchical supervisory control IAF integrated application framework ICOAS intelligent control and advisory system IGCC integrated gasification combined cycle ILC integrated load control ILM integrated load management IOAS intelligent operator advisory system IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPP independent power producer ISA Instrumentation. Systems and Automation Society KBOSS knowledge-based operator support system LMN local model network LP low-pressure LPC lumped parameter components LQ linear quadratic LQG linear quadratic Gaussian LQR linear quadratic regulator LS least squares MBPC model-based predictive controller MCR maximum continuous rating MIMO multi-input multi-output MISO multi-input single-output MLP multilayer perceptron MLR multiple linear regression MVC multivariable steam control NARMAX Non-linear AutoRegressive Moving Average model with eXogenous input NARX Non-linear AutoRegressive model with eXogenous input NDE non-destructive evaluation NETA New Electricity Trading Arrangements NIPALS non-linear iterative partial least squares NPMPC non-linear physical model-based predictive control OIS operational information system OOM object-oriented modelling OSC one-side components PCA principal component analysis pf pulverised fuel PFBC pressurised fluidised bed combustion PLC programmable logic controller GMV GPC .

List of abbreviations PLS PRBS PRESS RBF RLS RMS RSME SCADA SEGPC SISO SMS TSC UV VOC projection to latent structures pseudo-random binary sequence predicted residual sum of squares radial basis function recursive least squares root mean square root squared mean error supervisory control and data acquisition state estimation-based generalised predictive control single-input single-output startup management system two-side components ultraviolet volatile organic compound xix .

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