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Golding Bird

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Golding Bird
Golding Bird (9 December 1814 – 27 October 1854) was a British medical doctor and a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London. He became a great authority on kidney diseases, and in 1844 published a comprehensive paper on urinary deposits. He was also notable for his work in the collateral sciences (related nonmedical sciences), especially in the medical uses of electricity and in electrochemistry. From 1836, he lectured at Guy's Hospital, London, a well-known teaching hospital usually referred to simply as Guy's, and published a popular textbook on science for medical students. Having developed an interest in chemistry while still a child, largely through self-study, Bird was far enough advanced to deliver lectures to his fellow pupils at school. He later applied this knowledge to medicine and did much research on the chemistry of urine and of kidney stones. In 1842, he was the first to describe oxaluria, a condition which leads to the formation of a particular kind of stone.

Golding Bird, 1840

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Bird was innovative in the field of the medical use of electricity, designing much of his own equipment. In his time, electrical treatment had acquired a bad name in the medical profession through its widespread use by quack practitioners. Bird made efforts to oppose this quackery, and was instrumental in bringing medical electrotherapy into the mainstream. He was quick to adopt new instruments of all kinds; he invented the single-cell Daniell cell in 1837 and made important discoveries in electrometallurgy with it. He was not only innovative in the electrical field, but he also designed a flexible stethoscope, and in 1840 published the first description of such an instrument. A devout Christian, Bird believed Bible study and prayer were just as important to medical students as their academic studies. He endeavoured to promote Christianity among medical students and encouraged other professionals to do likewise. To this end, Bird was responsible for the founding of the Christian Medical Association, although it did not become active until after his death. Bird had lifelong poor health and died at the age of 39.

Life and career
Bird was born in Downham Market, Norfolk, England, on 9 December 1814. His father (also named Golding Bird) had been an officer in the Inland Revenue in Ireland, and his mother, Marrianne, was Irish. He was precocious and ambitious,[2] but childhood rheumatic fever and endocarditis left him with poor posture and lifelong frail health. He received a classical education when he was sent with his brother Frederic to stay with a clergyman in Wallingford, where he developed a lifelong habit of self-study. From the age of 12, he was educated in London, at a private school that did not promote science and provided only a classical education. Bird, who seems to have been far ahead of his teachers in science, gave lectures in chemistry and botany to his fellow pupils. He had four younger siblings, of whom his brother Frederic also became a physician and published on botany.[3][4] In 1829, when he was 14, Bird left school to serve an apprenticeship with the apothecary William Pretty in Burton Crescent, London. He completed it in 1833 and was licensed to practise by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries at Apothecaries' Hall in 1836. He received this licence without examination because of the reputation he had gained as a student at Guy's, the London teaching hospital where he had become a medical student in 1832 while still working at his apprenticeship. At Guy's he was influenced by Thomas Addison, who recognised his talents early on.

Golding Bird Bird was an ambitious and very capable student. Early in his career he became a Fellow of the Senior Physical Society, for which a thesis was required. He received prizes for medicine, obstetrics, and ophthalmic surgery at Guy's and the silver medal for botany at Apothecaries' Hall. Around 1839 to 1840, he worked on breast disease at Guy's as an assistant to Sir Astley Cooper.[5] Bird graduated from the University of St Andrews with an MD in 1838 and an MA in 1840 while continuing to work in London. St Andrews required no residence or examination for the MD, Bird obtained his degree by submitting testimonials from qualified colleagues, which was common practice at the time. Once qualified in 1838, at the age of 23, he entered general practice with a surgery at 44 Seymour Street, Euston Square, London, but was unsuccessful at first because of his youth. In the same year, however, he became physician to the Finsbury Dispensary, a post he held for five years. By 1842, he had an income of £1000 a year from his private practice. Adjusted for inflation, this amounts to a spending power of about £76000 now.[6] At the end of his career, his income was just under £6000. He became a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians in 1840, and a fellow in 1845.[7] Bird lectured on natural philosophy, medical botany and urinary pathology from 1836 to 1853 at Guy's. He lectured on materia medica at Guy's from 1843 to 1853 and at the Royal College of Physicians from 1847 to 1849. He also lectured at the Aldersgate School of Medicine. Throughout his career, he published extensively, not only on medical matters, but also on electrical science and chemistry.[8] Bird became the first head of the electricity and galvanism department at Guy's in 1836, under the supervision of Addison, since Bird did not graduate until 1838. In 1843, he was appointed assistant physician at Guy's, a position for which he had lobbied hard, and in October that year he was put in charge of the children's outpatients ward. Like his electrotherapy patients, the children were largely poor relief cases who could not afford to pay for medical treatment and were much used for the training of medical students. It was generally accepted at this time that poor relief cases could be used for experimental treatment, and their permission was not required. Bird published in the hospital journal a series of reports on childhood diseases, based on case studies from this work.[9][10] Marrying Mary Ann Brett in 1842, Bird moved from his family home at Wilmington Square, Clerkenwell, to 19 Myddleton Square. They had two daughters and three sons, the second of whom, Cuthbert Hilton Golding-Bird (1848–1939), became a notable surgeon.[1] Bird was a Fellow of the Linnaean Society (elected 1836), the Geological Society (elected 1836) and the Royal Society (elected 1846).[11] He joined the Pathological Society of London (which eventually merged into the Royal Society of Medicine) when it was formed in 1846.[12] He also belonged to the London Electrical Society founded by William Sturgeon and others. This body was very unlike the elite scholarly institutions; it was more like a craft guild with a penchant for spectacular demonstrations. Nevertheless, it had some notable members, and new machines and apparatus were regularly discussed and demonstrated.[13] Bird was also a Freemason from 1841 and was the Worshipful Master of the St Paul's lodge in 1850. He left the Freemasons in 1853.[14][15] Bird was vain, with a tendency to self-promotion, and his driving ambition occasionally led him into conflict with others. He was involved in a number of very public disputes in contemporary medical journals, including the dispute with the Pulvermacher Company and a dispute over the development of the stethoscope. However, he was said to give his patients his undivided attention and a complete commitment to their welfare. He was a fine speaker, a good lecturer and an eloquent debater.[16] Diagnosed with heart disease by his brother in 1848 or 1849, Bird was forced to stop work. By 1850, however, he was again working as hard as ever and had extended his practice so much that he needed to move to a larger house in Russell Square. But in 1851, acute rheumatism led Bird to take an extended holiday with his wife in Tenby, where he pursued investigations in botany, marine fauna and cave life as pastimes. These long summer breaks were repeated in 1852 and 1853 at Torquay and Tenby. Even on holiday, his fame caused him to receive many requests for consultations. In 1853, he purchased an estate, St Cuthbert, for his retirement in Tunbridge Wells, but it needed some work, and he could not leave London until June 1854. Meanwhile, he continued to see patients, but only in his house, despite seriously deteriorating health. He died on 27 October 1854 at St Cuthbert from a urinary tract infection and

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[17] He is buried in Woodbury Park Cemetery. especially physics. Taking the view that existing texts were too mathematical for medical students. a textbook on physics for medical students. The prize was instituted in 1887 and was still being awarded in 1983. Alfred Salter (1897). His early death at 39 may have been due to a combination of lifelong frail health and overwork. chemical analysis was rarely used in medical diagnosis – there was even hostility to the idea in some quarters. and botany (because botany is a rich source of drugs and poisons).[26] Although the book is primarily about human anatomy. Prout felt it necessary to reply to the challenge. a Golding Bird Gold Medal and Scholarship was also awarded for obstetrics and gynaecology. when he commented on a paper on the copper sulphate test for arsenic poisoning.[24] Its structure was finally identified only in 1975. Bird followed this tradition and was particularly influenced by the work of William Prout. but was convinced it was a new chemical and gave it the name purpurine. Among the notable recipients of the medal were Nathaniel Ham (1896). Mary instituted the Golding Bird Gold Medal and Scholarship for sanitary science. In 1843. Russell Brock (1926). Brett to the Pupils' Physical Society. Prout had said (in 1819) that the pink sediment in urine was due to the presence of ammonium purpurate. The book proved popular and remained in print for 30 years. and D.[22] Bird did not limit himself to challenging his future brother-in-law. In 1834. he failed. Most of the work in this area at that time was carried out by researchers associated with Guy's. later named the Golding Bird Gold Medal and Scholarship for bacteriology. although it is no longer a current prize.[19] 3 Collateral sciences The Golding Bird Gold Medal for sanitary science The collateral sciences are those sciences that have an important role in medicine but do not form part of medicine themselves. and the book was published in 1840. in which they argued against some work by Prout.[21] claiming the test was inconclusive because precipitates other than copper arsenite can produce the same green colour. Bird tried to identify the pink compound. however. John Beale (1945).[23] This name did not stick. an expert in chemical physiology.[25] Around 1839. Though Bird was still only a student and Prout held great authority. From 1934 onwards. Bird avoided such material in favour of clear explanations.Golding Bird suffering from kidney stones.[20] By the time Golding Bird was a medical student at Guy's.[28] . Bird and Brett published a paper on the analysis of blood serum and urine. but Bird's tests failed to verify this. H. and the compound became known as uroerythrin from the work of Franz Simon. An early example dates from 1832. delivered by his future brother-in-law R. chemistry. Astley Cooper asked him to contribute to his book on breast disease. Bird criticised the test's positive result when a green precipitate is formed. Tunbridge Wells. which Bird himself knew to be destroying him. for which Bird carried out an analysis of dog and porpoise milk. which was awarded annually at Guy's teaching hospital. Until the end of the first half of the 19th century. Bird wrote a piece on the chemistry of milk. Bird became well known for his knowledge of chemistry. Bernard Amos (circa 1947–1951). although some of its mathematical shortcomings were made good in the fourth edition by Charles Brooke. recognising Bird's abilities in chemistry.[18] After his death. the hospital already had a tradition of studying physics and chemistry as they related to medicine. Bird published his own Elements of Natural Philosophy. it includes a chapter on comparative anatomy covering several species.[27] Also in 1839.

were used with one of the electrochemical cells to deliver an electric shock. the frog's leg was almost completely severed from its body. but continued to divide his apparatus into electrical machines. the electric moxa. Also part of the standard equipment were induction coils which. and Bird was recommending them in his lectures. Bird realised this. The galvanic equipment available to Bird included electrochemical cells such Friction electrostatic generators: cylinder (left) and disc (right) designs. so much so that Guy's was parodied for its use of electricity in the New Frankenstein satirical magazine. the only criticism levelled by Bird was that the cheaper machines could only deliver an alternating current. Bird was put in charge of the newly formed department of electricity and galvanism under the supervision of Addison. The electromagnetic galvanometer was available at the time. A supply of frogs was usually on hand. while the simpler construction [30] of the cylinder makes it easier to operate.[31] By 1849. for instance. a to Bird.[32][33] The required direction of current depended on the direction in which electric current was thought to flow in nerves in the human or animal body. However. the flow was taken to be from the centre towards the muscles at the extremities. For sensory nerves. but it was possible to store small amounts of static electricity in Leyden jars for later use. such as some forms of chorea. to heal skin ulcers. Electromagnetic machines. a unidirectional current of a particular polarity was often needed. At Guy's. leaving only the sciatic nerve connected. particularly when treating a problem with nerves. and the positive electrode would be applied to the extremity. which delivered a high current at low voltage. variant of which Bird devised himself. In the experiment. . so artificial electrical stimulation needed to be in the same direction. According as the voltaic pile and the Daniell cell. While this was not the first hospital to employ electrotherapy. have neither of these drawbacks. on the other hand. Bird also used his invention. but frogs' legs were still used by Bird because of their much greater sensitivity to small currents. requiring the machine to have split rings or similar mechanisms. Previous hospital uses had either been short-lived or based on the whim of a single surgeon. electrical muscle stimulation and electric shock therapy. together with an interrupter circuit. electrostatic generators required a great deal of skill and attention to keep them working successfully. and galvanic apparatus. Galvanic cells suffered from the inconvenience of having to deal with the electrolyte acids in the surgery and the possibility of spillages.Golding Bird 4 Electricity In 1836. For motor functions. it was still considered very experimental. which (according to him) delivered a high voltage at low current. the treatment was part of the hospital system and became well-known to the public. These machines had to be hand-turned during treatment. Bird used both electrochemical and electrostatic machines (and later also electromagnetic induction machines) to treat a very wide range of conditions. For medical use. Electrical equipment It was already clear from the work of Michael Faraday that electricity and galvanism were essentially the same.[29] In his electrotherapy. the disc design has a greater power output. as they were used in the frog galvanoscope. the opposite applied: flow was from the extremity to the centre. generators based on Faraday's law of induction had become advanced enough to replace both types of machines. Bird considered alternating current machines suitable for cases of amenorrhœa. This principle was demonstrated by Bird in an experiment with a living frog. The electrical (as opposed to galvanic) machines then available were friction-operated electrostatic generators consisting of a rotating glass disc or cylinder on which silk flaps were allowed to drag as the glass rotated. Treatments included peripheral nerve stimulation. such as John Birch at St Thomas' Hospital.

Paralysed bladder function in young girls was attributed to the now archaic condition of hysteria. Bird describes many experiments with a similar aim on human sensory organs. bringing on menstruation where this had failed (amenorrhoea). this arrangement remained a cheaper option than electromagnetic generators for some time. One was the electric bath.[37] Bird's interrupter had the medically disadvantageous feature that current was supplied in opposite directions during the make and break operations. Bird produced a unidirectional interrupter using a mechanism now called split rings. Although the treatment worked. usually near the spine. in that it caused the bladder to empty.Golding Bird and electric current was then applied from the body to the leg. It was treated with the application of a strong electric current between the sacrum and the pubis. In his lectures. a supposed disease of women. It was also possible to deliver electric shocks from the charge stored in a Leyden jar. Reversing the current. Bird wished to free his hands to apply the electricity more exactly to the required part of the patient. causing sparks to be produced between the electrode and the patient. of an electrostatic machine. The third class of treatment was electric shock therapy.[35] Bird designed his own interrupter circuit for delivering shocks to patients from a voltaic cell through an induction coil. and hysteria. It had previously been successfully used to treat some forms of asthma. usually the positive one. Electrodes of various shapes were available for different medical purposes and places of application on the body. This consisted of bringing a negative electrode close to the patient. Previously. which consisted of sitting the patient on an insulated stool with glass legs and connecting the patient to one electrode.[34] for instance. His interrupter worked automatically by magnetic induction at a reasonably fast rate. in which an electric shock was delivered from a galvanic battery (later electromagnetic generators) via an induction coil to greatly increase the voltage. produced no movement of the muscle. In one experiment by Grapengiesser. the aim is to make the frequency as high as possible. The ear connected to the positive terminal hears a louder sound than that connected to the negative. some forms of paralysis (although the treatment was of no use where nerves had been physically damaged). Treatment was applied in several sessions of around five minutes. The second class of treatment could be performed while the patient was in the electric bath. 1862 Electric stimulation treatment was used to treat nervous disorders where the nervous system was unable to stimulate a required glandular secretion or muscle activity. the more frequently an electric shock is delivered to the patient.[36] The faster the interrupter switches. opiate overdose (since it kept the patient awake). Bird suspected in many cases it did so more through fear and pain than any therapeutic property of electricity. the interrupter had been a mechanical device requiring the physician to turn a cog wheel or employ an assistant to do so. Treatment often required the current to be supplied in one specified direction only. This design suffered from the disadvantage that automatic operation was lost and the interrupter had once again to be hand-cranked. electric current is passed through the subject's head from ear to ear. causing a sound to be hallucinated. however.[36][38] Treatments Three classes of electrotherapy were in use. Bird used his apparatus to treat Sydenham's chorea (St Vitus's dance) and other forms of spasm. The patient's skin became charged as if he or she were in a "bath of electricity". often blistering the skin. Convulsions of the leg were seen when the muscle was stimulated. merely croaks of pain from the frog.[40] . but this was a much weaker shock. Nevertheless.[39] 5 Electrotherapeutic treatment to stimulate facial muscles.

regardless of its effectiveness. such as cautery or even burning charcoal. The sore had previously been created by much more painful means. and the first publication (in 1837) describing the work of the electrifying unit was authored by Addison. but it suggested to Bird that the electric moxa might be used for treating obstinate leg ulcers. Electricity was generated by electrolytic action with body fluids. and fraudulent practitioners were widespread. Addison held great authority. whereas Bird at this stage was unknown. Pulvermacher that became known as Pulvermacher's chain. The electric moxa. The blister under the silver electrode healed. The moxa improved the situation by enabling sufferers to be treated as outpatients. Thomas Wells later discovered that it was unnecessary to damage the skin under the zinc plate. Bird was given a sample of this machine in 1851 and was impressed enough to give Pulvermacher a testimonial stating that the machine was a useful source of electricity. although Bird is clearly. not Bird. however. and rightly. two decades earlier in France. to which the two electrodes were then connected and held in place for a few days. while the zinc electrode was applied a few inches away to a place where the upper layer of skin had been cut away. Bird. Bird's design was based on a modification of an existing instrument for the local electrical treatment of hemiplegia. brought the treatment into wider use in the medical profession. This was a common complaint among the working classes in Bird's time. and consisted of a silver electrode and a zinc electrode connected by copper wire. The name is a reference to the acupuncture technique of moxibustion and was probably influenced by the introduction of electroacupuncture. He convinced an initially sceptical Addison of its merits. continued to stand by the treatment when properly administered. The technique was successfully applied by others on Bird's recommendation. the machine 6 Pulvermacher's chain . with Addison's support. In this way. Quack practitioners claimed the treatment as a cure for almost anything. Its popularity led to many inappropriate treatments. and hospitals could not admit the majority of cases for treatment. in which the needles are augmented by an electric current. together with the increasing ease of using the machines as the technology progressed. and made large sums of money from it.[44] The main market for this device was the very quack practitioners that Bird so detested. In 1847 he brought the subject fully into the realm of materia medica when he delivered the annual lecture to the Royal College of Physicians on this subject. in one case exposing railway telegraph operators who were claiming to be medical electricians. He spoke out tirelessly against the numerous quack practitioners. was not intended for acupuncture. L. Bird thought that it could be used by physicians as a portable device. but often was not favoured by physicians except as a last resort. The whole apparatus was then bandaged in place as before. Electrically. He merely moistened the skin with vinegar before applying the zinc electrode.Golding Bird Electric shock treatment had become fashionable among the public. but it did actually work as a generator. credited by Addison. however.[42] The healing of the blister under the silver electrode was of no importance for a counter-irritation procedure. It was used to produce a suppurating sore on the skin of the patient to treat some conditions of inflammation and congestion by the technique of counter-irritation. Two small blisters were produced on the skin.[43] Pulvermacher controversy There was some controversy over Bird's endorsement of a machine invented by one I. His work. although they had no medical training at all. Having the paper authored by Addison did a great deal to gain acceptability in a still suspicious medical fraternity.[32][41] Electric moxa Bird invented the electric moxa in 1843. The silver electrode of the moxa was applied to the ulcer to be healed. Bird was largely responsible for the rehabilitation of electrical treatment among medical practitioners. but the one under the zinc electrode produced the required suppurating sore. Bird's 1841 paper in Guy's Hospital Reports contained an impressively long list of successful case studies.

[48] The formation of copper plates on the cathode was noticed in the Daniell cell shortly after its invention in 1836. showing that this was entirely due to fluid flows caused by the strong electric field. an arrangement described as two half-cells. potassium and ammonium respectively. Originally.[47] Bird also studied the properties of albumen under electrolysis. but was constructed differently.[50] Bird's experiments with his cell were important for the new discipline of electrometallurgy. So surprising was this result that it was at first disbelieved by electrochemical researchers. T. including Faraday. Not only chlorides were used. and Bird stated in his defence that the testimonial was only ever intended as a letter of introduction to physicians in Edinburgh. a common material used in hospitals for setting bone fractures.[45] Naively. He was particularly interested in the possibility of detecting low levels of heavy metal poisons with this technique. Bird constructed his own version of the Daniell cell. nor did he carry out any work in metallurgy as such. producing amalgams of each of these. Bird's cell was the basis for the later development of the porous pot cell. He was interested in electrolysis and repeated the experiments of Antoine César Becquerel. He succeeded in coating a mercury cathode with sodium. Each winding was connected to the next dowel by means of metal hooks and eyes. Bird's experiments sometimes get him credit for being the founder of the industrial field of electrometallurgy. although it was never suggested that Bird benefited financially. finding that the albumen coagulated at the anode because hydrochloric acid was produced there. the patient's body would provide a conductive path across each cell. while preventing the solutions from mixing. Brande that high electric current caused coagulation at the cathode also. Bird began a thorough investigation of this phenomenon in the following year. pioneered by Davy. without any contact with the metal electrodes. Bird appears to have expected Pulvermacher not to use this testimonial in his advertising. the Daniell cell held the two solutions (copper sulphate and zinc sulphate) in two separate but linked containers. Plaster of Paris allows ions to cross the barrier. invented in 1839 by John Dancer. and Bird's invention was the first of this kind. This arrangement is an example of a single-cell Daniell cell. The novel feature of Bird's cell was that the two solutions were in the same vessel. thus preventing the device from building up a medically useful voltage at its terminals.[49] In 1837. but only on metal electrodes. Bird also criticised Pulvermacher's claim that the chain could be wrapped around an affected limb for medical treatment. It consisted of a number of wooden dowels. Although the flexible nature of its design lent itself to wrapping. Deposition of copper and other metals had previously been noted. Some of Bird's contemporaries with interests in electrometallurgy wished to bestow the credit on Bird in order to discredit the commercial claims of their rivals. each with a bifilar winding of copper and zinc coils.Golding Bird worked like a voltaic pile. Bird was particularly upset that Pulvermacher's company had used quotations from Bird's publications about the benefits of electrical treatment and misrepresented them as describing benefits of Pulvermacher's product. Bird suffered some criticism for unprofessional behaviour. Using solutions of sodium chloride. On breaking apart the plaster it was found that veins of copper were formed running right through it. Being porous. aluminium and silicon were obtained from the salts and oxides of these elements. which also provided the electrical connection. An unforeseen result was the deposition of copper on and within the plaster. According to Bird. beryllium. He corrected an earlier erroneous conclusion by W. However.[50][51] .[46] 7 Electrochemistry Bird used his position as head of the department of electricity and galvanism to further his research efforts and to aid him in teaching his students. When Pulvermacher's company did so. The electrolyte was provided by soaking the dowels in vinegar. Bird himself never made practical use of this discovery. potassium chloride and ammonium chloride. Bird said that it would be next to useless in this configuration. Edmund Davy and others to extract metals in this way. but kept separate by a barrier of Plaster of Paris.

Also in 1839. carbon dioxide) rather than carbon monoxide. The animals all survived. Bird found that large amounts of arsenic were in the birds' drinking water. concluded that the poison involved was carbonic acid (that is. reporting on tests he conducted of the effects on sparrows of poisoning by carbonaceous fumes. Bird also confirmed by experiment that the arsenic became airborne when the candles were burnt. later to become famous for his public health investigations. However. which he found to have recently been greatly increased by the manufacturers. In a subsequent clarification. if such a connection existed. Bird's part in the candle investigation was to analyse the arsenic content of the candles.[52] 8 Chemistry Arsenic poisoning In 1837 Bird took part in an investigation of the dangers posed by the arsenic content of cheap candles. Bird made it clear that any stove burning carbonaceous fuel was dangerous if it did not have a chimney or other means of ventilation. and this was how it was ingested. No arsenic was found on the feathers. The new process involved injecting arsenic into the blood vessels of the corpse. steady currents. just where the sleeping Trickey's head would rest) and that "deleterious vapour" from the coffins in the vaults had risen into the church. it made electrochemistry an important subject to study for biological reasons. who was expecting him to give favourable reports of the new stove's performance. The investigators exposed various species of animal and bird to the candles in controlled conditions.[53] Carbon monoxide poisoning Although it had been known how to prepare carbon monoxide since 1776. He knew that the currents in both were of the same order. Until then.[54][55] Bird read a paper to the Senior Physical Society in 1839. These were stearin candles with white arsenic added. To Bird. Among the unscientific claims made at the inquest by Harper and Joyce were that carbonic gas would rise to the ceiling (in fact it is heavier than air and. which made them burn more brightly than ordinary candles. and was led by John Snow. The experiments of Bird and others convinced him that it was harmful in its own right. Bird published a comprehensive paper in Guy's Hospital . After the inquest Joyce threatened to sue a journal which continued to criticise the stove for its lack of ventilation.Golding Bird Bird thought there was a connection between the functioning of the nervous system and the processes seen in electrolysis at very low. Snow found that the arsenic became airborne as a result of chemical reactions with the decomposing corpse. Trickey had only been placed in the church in the first place at the suggestion of Harper. the makers of the stove. Cornhill. The investigation was conducted by the Westminster Medical Society. However. according to Bird. but the birds died. indicating that poisoning was not caused by breathing airborne arsenic.) Bird also presented the paper at the Westminster Medical School. indicating that this was the route taken by the poison. The combination of cheapness and brightness made them popular. Bird investigated the bird deaths and analysed the bodies. Bird himself started to suffer ill effects while collecting air samples from the floor near the stove. This paper was of some importance and resulted in Bird giving his views to the British Association in the same year. Harper and Joyce. finding small amounts of arsenic. but he still did not subscribe to Bird's view that it was an active poison. would lie in a layer close to the floor. however. who convinced the jury to decide that death was caused by apoplexy. Snow had previously investigated arsenic poisoning when he and several fellow students were taken badly ill after he introduced a new process for preserving cadavers at the suggestion of lecturer Hunter Lane. a nightwatchman who had spent all night by a new type of charcoal burning stove in St Michael. since arsenic in the air would be expected to adhere to the feathers. where Snow took a special interest in it. Both Bird and Snow gave evidence to the inquest supporting poisoning by carbonic acid. and that "impure air" was only a contributing factor. A coroner's inquest into the death in 1838 of James Trickey. Snow and many others had believed that carbonic acid acted merely by excluding oxygen. it was not at first recognised that carbon monoxide poisoning was the mechanism of death and injury from stoves burning carbonaceous fuels. (He acted as a secretary to the chemical section of the British Association in Birmingham. a student society of Westminster Hospital. produced a string of their own expert witnesses. In fact.

because it turned black on contact with air. Bird devotes much space to the identification of chemicals in urine by microscopic examination of the appearance of crystals in it. and excessive inorganic salts causing sediment on which the stone could nucleate.[56][57] Urology Bird did a great deal of research in urology. This work occupied a large proportion of his effort. Bird identified many species of stone. Casts were first discovered by Henry Bence Jones. and soon became a recognised expert. The epitome of this kind of thinking was the concept of the vital force. hospital and well known there. but was connected with the crystals formed in normal urine. and especially how the appearance changes with disease. he sent it to Prout for analysis. His work followed on from. on the right. a new way of thinking started to take shape. but to some other agent. new constituent of kidney stones. Urinary Deposits became a standard text on the subject. He considered the chemistry of the nuclei to be the most important aspect of stone formation. Nevertheless. In his great work Urinary Deposits. especially among younger physicians. Prout discovered a new substance himself in 1822. Bird knew that alkaline urine encouraged phosphate precipitation and the consequent encrustation and stone formation. Bird became the first to describe oxaluria. For the first time. There are several others.[60] This is the second most common cause of kidney stones. it became possible to identify specific chemical reactions with specific organs of the body. sometimes called Bird's disease. Marcet was also a physician at Uric acid crystals drawn by Bird. a constituent of urine which he named melanic acid. after an experiment by Snow showed that stale urine became alkaline when fresh urine was slowly dripped into it. the first being uric acid and its ammonium salt. The last edition of Urinary Deposits was updated after Bird's death by Edmund Lloyd Birkett. which was supposed to govern the chemical processes within the body. Sometime in the middle of the 19th century. On the left are Guy's. there were five editions between 1844 and 1857.Golding Bird Reports. including the chemistry of both urine and kidney stones. where the vital force could come into play. This belief had been known to be false ever since Friedrich Wöhler succeeded in synthesising urea from inorganic precursors in 1828. which is caused by an excess of oxalate of lime in the urine. Prout held no position at Guy's. For instance.[62] Vitalism A prevalent idea in the 18th and early 19th centuries was that illness was a result of the condition of the whole body.[58] Bird studied and categorised the collection of stones at Guy's.[61] Bird was the first to recognise that urinary casts are an indication of Bright's disease. in which he documents the state of knowledge. fuelled by rapid advances in the understanding of chemistry. the vital force continued to be invoked to explain organic chemistry in Bird's time. and to trace their effects through the 9 . xanthic oxide. He realised that at least some cases of poisoning from stoves were due not to carbonic acid. He shows how the appearance of crystals of the same chemical can vary greatly under differing conditions. that of Alexander Marcet and William Prout. but determined that they all fell within two overall groups: organic stones caused by a misfunctioning bodily process. and was much influenced by. This theory held that organic compounds could only be formed within living organisms. complete with many case histories. such as ammonium oxalate. classified by the chemistry of the nucleus. since stone formation followed once there was a nucleus on which to form. They are microscopic cylinders of Tamm-Horsfall protein that have been precipitated in the kidneys and then released into the urine. although he still had not identified it as carbon monoxide. when Marcet discovered a crystals from a patient suffering from kidney stones. and his writings on urinary sediments and kidney stones were the most advanced at the time.[59] In 1842. The environment and the activity of the patient thus played a large part in any treatment. In the fourth edition Bird added a recommendation to wash out the bladder in cases of alkaline urine. concentrating particularly on the crystal structures of the nuclei.

among the old school was William Addison (a different person from Bird's superior at Guy's). when in 1839 Snow suggested from case studies and laboratory analysis that oedema was associated with an increase in albumin in the blood. a concept that Bird followed in his own work. and challenged Richard Bright (who gave his name to Bright's disease) when Bright suggested that the source of the problem in oedema was the kidneys. Bird disputed that increased urea in the blood was the cause of kidney disease and doubted the effectiveness of this treatment. Liebig had predicted that the ratio of uric acid to urea would depend on the level of activity of a species or individual. although his position is ambiguous. George Rees. He made some attempts to provide this explanation by invoking the electric force. but his arguments clearly show him to be on the radical side of the debate. and therefore proposed bloodletting to counter this. while a student in 1833. It is not clear whether Bird accepted Snow's reasoning that urea must be accumulating. it could not be localised to a specific organ. but that an explanation was also required as to why the atoms recombined in one particular way rather than any other.Golding Bird various functional relations of the organs and the exchanges between them.[64][65] Justus von Liebig is another important figure in the development of the new thinking. Addison disliked the modern reliance on laboratory and theoretical results favoured by the new generation. Snow. Bird showed this to be false. Addison preferred to believe that the condition was caused by intemperance or some other external factor.[63] Among these younger radicals were Bird and Snow. or whether he merely adopted it for the sake of argument. But even the materialistic Liebig continued to invoke the vital force for processes inside living animal bodies. who had injected urea into the blood.[66] 10 . For example. Bird helped to dispel this kind of thinking by showing that specific chemistry is related to specific organs in the body rather than to the whole animal. Addison dismissed this as a mere epiphenomenon. rather than the vital force. Bird disagreed with Snow's proposed treatment. based on his own experiments in electrolysis. Addison further challenged Bright's student. apparently with no ill effects. This seems to have been based on a belief that the entire living animal is required for these chemical processes to take place. citing the results of François Magendie. and that since the whole body had been disrupted. He challenged some of Liebig's conclusions concerning animal chemistry. Snow had found that the proportion of urea in the urine of his patients was low and concluded from this that urea was accumulating in the blood. He explained chemical processes in the body in terms of addition and subtraction of simple molecules from a larger organic molecule. and he completely avoided whole-body arguments. he had disputed this very point with another of Bright's students. Bird also felt that it was not enough simply to count atoms as Liebig did.

Popular Science Review noted that the author was now named as Brooke and observed that he had now made the book his own. as he could apply the stethoscope to the patient from a seated position. its great length led to poor performance. thought that it was "a good and concise elementary treatise . In his paper he mentions an instrument already in use by other physicians (Drs.[67] Bird found the flexible stethoscope convenient as it avoided uncomfortably leaning over patients (as would be required by a rigid stethoscope) and the earpiece could be passed to other doctors and students to listen. first published in 1839. for instance. based on his 1837–1838 lectures. and obtain a competent knowledge of that creation in which they live". In a reply full of anger and sarcasm. which he describes as the "snake ear trumpet". The Literary Gazette. and the result was Elements of Natural Philosophy. The reviewers looked back with nostalgia to the book they knew .[70] Medical journals. The reviewer recommended it as suitable not just for students and not just for the young.Golding Bird 11 Flexible stethoscope Bird designed and used a flexible tube stethoscope in June 1840. and went through six editions. and in the same year he published the first description of such an instrument. in the sixth edition of 1867. It was particular useful for Bird. after the latter's death.[71] In their review of the 6th edition. The Provincial reviewer thought that the book was particularly suitable for students who had no previous instruction in physics. Brooke edited further editions and. on the other hand. a great mass of information not to be found in any other single treatise". Bird pointed out that in his original paper he had already made clear that he claimed no credit for the earlier instrument. were more restrained in their praise.. The form of Bird's invention is similar to the modern stethoscope. pointed with suspicion to the fact that Bird's brother Frederic also worked there. he could not find a textbook suitable for his medical students. but which medical students would not find overwhelmingly mathematical.. saying that it "ought to be in the hands of every individual who desires to taste the pleasures of divine philosophy. Clendinning and Stroud). Burne. a friend of Bird's.[69] The book was well received and was praised by reviewers for its clarity. An ill-tempered exchange of letters occurred in the London Medical Gazette between another physician. The Provincial Medical and Surgical. in its review of the second edition. John Burne. It proved to be spectacularly popular. The fourth edition was edited by Charles Brooke.[68] Bird's flexible stethoscope Elements of Natural Philosophy When Bird took up lecturing on science at Guy's. electricity and light were particularly recommended. with his severe rheumatism. The sections on magnetism. He needed a book that went into some detail of physics and chemistry. Bird reluctantly undertook to write such a book himself. except that it has only one earpiece. presenting in a readable and intelligible form. But the Provincial had a few technical quibbles. thought that it "teaches us the elements of the entire circle of natural philosophy in the clearest and most perspicuous manner". Brooke made good many of Bird's mathematical omissions. Reprints were still being produced more than 30 years later in 1868. even beyond its intended audience of medical students. for instance. thoroughly updated it. among which was the complaint that there was no description of the construction of a stethoscope. in particular. He thought this instrument had some severe technical faults. who worked at the Westminster Hospital. and Bird. Burne claimed that he also used the same instrument as Clendinning and Stroud and was offended that Bird had not mentioned him in his paper.

Bird aimed to mould this movement into a formal association. Bird aimed to form a national body with a chapter in each teaching hospital. Bird laid much of the blame for this public opinion on the caricatures of students in the writings of Charles Dickens. and the spectroscope of Browning. but also in part to Christian influences acting on them. hydrostatics. electrodynamics. From 1853 Bird organised a series of religious meetings of medical professionals in London. It was based on a draft prepared by the Guy's student group. a prototype student group was already in existence at Guy's. Bird attacked the prevalent public view that students were "guilty of every kind of open vice and moral depravity". an ambition which was to crystallise as the Christian Medical Association. acoustics. magnetism. and polarized light. Despite his extremely busy professional life. atmospheric electricity. added two chapters on "thermotics" (thermodynamics – a major omission from the first edition). but were now respected. dynamics. Among the insults levelled at Bird were "saponaceous piety" and being a Mawworm. who felt that students should concentrate on their studies. He went on to say that the behaviour and character of students had greatly improved over the preceding ten years. he devoted all his time to his religion. The 1839 first edition included statics. He was strongly opposed by some sections of the medical profession. and a chapter on the new technology of photography. In the 1843 second edition Bird expanded the material on electrolysis into its own chapter. In November 1853. gravitation. pneumatics.[72] The scope of the book was wide-ranging. student prayer meetings had been held in some of the London hospitals.[75] Bird was quick to defend the virtuousness of students. The constitution of the new Christian Medical Association was agreed at Bird's home on 17 December 1853 in a meeting of medical and surgical teachers and others. Later editions also included a chapter on electric telegraphy. After it became clear that the remainder of his life was going to be very limited. covering much of the physics then known.Golding Bird as "the Golding Bird" when they were students. optics. He was heavily influenced in this by the Medical Missionary Society of John Hutton Balfour at Edinburgh University. He also commented that pious students had once been ridiculed. aiming to encourage physicians and surgeons to exert a religious influence over their students. reworked the polarized light material. They note with approval the many newly included descriptions of the latest technology.[74] For several years prior to 1853. bioelectricity. mechanics. New material included the magnetic properties of iron in ships and spectrum analysis. such as the dynamos of Henry Wilde and Werner von Siemens. He attributed this improvement in part to the greatly increased study requirements imposed on students. Brooke was still expanding the book for the sixth and final edition. hydrodynamics. he meticulously observed the Sabbath and saw to the Christian education of his children.[73] 12 Christian works Bird was a committed Christian throughout his life. thermoelectricity. in a reply to a letter from a student in the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal complaining of a lack of moral care from his superiors. particularly St Thomas'. Bird died before the inaugural public meeting of the Association in November 1854 at Exeter Hall. light. This opposition continued after the formation of the Association. electricity. He showed generosity to the poor. offering them treatment at his house every morning before going about his professional schedule.[76][77] . He had a great ambition to promote Christian teachings and Bible reading among medical students.

Guy's Hospital Reports. vol. Murray. p. March 1838. • "The nature of the green alvine evacuations of children". • Urinary Deposits. Philosophical Magazine. The Medical Times. • "Notice respecting the artificial formation of a basic chloride of copper by voltaic influence" [83]. The Medical Times. 12. London Medical Gazette. Report of the Eighth Meeting of the British Society for the Advancement of Science. London: J. no. series 2. London: John Churchill. . Guy's Hospital Reports. vol. in vegetable matter". 18–22. 15–22. vol. vol. 317. 12. The Medical Times. p. November 1838. 23 August 1844. 999. 12. 1838. in March 1847. • Lectures on the Influence of Researches in Organic Chemistry on Therapeutics. 108–141. 56–57. in their physiological and therapeutical relations [79]. • "Infantile syphylis". • "Fatty urine". pp. 3. 7 (1838). 18 October 1845. London: Wilson & Ogilvy. 14 March 1846. 74–78. Medical Gazette. p. vol. • "Acetate of lead in diarrhoea".Golding Bird 13 Works • Elements of Natural Philosophy. no. vol. which have been used as electrodes of a voltaic battery". vol. pathology and therapeutical indications [80]. pp. p. • Lectures on Electricity and Galvanism. as a remedial agent in the treatment of diseases" [88]. April 1845. 3. 1838. being an experimental introduction to the study of the physical sciences [78]. 1845. July 1838. with a description of a magnetic contact-breaker" [81]. no. vol. vol. 440–412. no. no. Philosophical Magazine. 13. Murray. • "Report on the value of electricity. 1841. p. 79. • "Observations on induced electric currents. 57–59. 84–120. • "Advantages presented by the employment of a stethoscope with a flexible tube" [87]. pp. no. 83. 1848 OCLC 51554760. 12. pp. Philosophical Magazine. 7 (1838). pp. 6. vol. vol. Medical Gazette. 229–232. February 1838. 1. • "Observations on the existence of saline combinations in an organized state. 175. 1838. Report of the Eighth Meeting of the British Society for the Advancement of Science. 6 (1837). Philosophical Magazine. Journal articles • Bird's first publication of his modification of the Daniell cell. Guy's Hospital Reports. their diagnosis. January 1838. 1839. The Medical Times. 1839 OCLC 78948792. 45. 1847 OCLC 664909225. • "Notice respecting the deposition of metallic copper from is solutions by slow voltaic action at a point equidistant from the metallic surfaces" [84]. no. London: John Churchill. 228. • "Treatment of disease by moist air". 74. • "Diseases of children" [89]. no. Report of the Seventh Meeting of the British Society for the Advancement of Science. vol. 325. 74–75. Philosophical Magazine. 9. 465. 337. 4. London: J. 30 December 1843. The Magazine of Natural History. 35–59. delivered at the Royal College of Physicians. pp. London: J. • "Treatment of uric acid gravel by phosphate of soda". 13. • "Observations on some peculiar properties acquired by plates of platina. • "Mucous and purulent secretions" [82]. 75–105. 1839. p. vol. 223. Guy's Hospital Reports. pp. p. Guy's Hospital Reports. pp.[85] • "Observation on poisoning by the vapours of burning charcoal and coals" [86]. 3 October 1845. 2. pp. delivered at the Royal College of Physicians. 13. 1839. pp. 1844 OCLC 670415670. vol. • "Observations on some of the products of nitric acid on alcohol". vol. 379–386. pp. pp. Murray. 11 December 1840. 71. vol. 13 December 1845. 130. • "Treatment of disease by moist air". vol. • "Observations on indirect chemical analysis". pp. 689. London: Wilson & Ogilvy. • "Experimental researches on the nature and properties of albumen". especially in relation to the depuration of the blood.

[12] H. p. no. archived (http:/ / www. vol. p. [4] Balfour. 2 July 1946. 3. no. p. series 2. [11] Certificate of Recommendation for Bird. 39. vol. The Magazine of Natural History. 366 Payne and McConnell Steel. no. November 1838. Golding (1814–1854)" (http:/ / www2. 4 April 1846. co. pp. no. 366 Rosenfeld. vol. 99–124. R. 207 [10] Golding Bird "Diseases of children" (http:/ / books. Bird was frequently mentioned in the transactions of the Medical Society of London. with John Hilton. pp. 27 January 1844. co. 604–609. from Transactions of the Royal Medico-Chirurgical Society. Jan 15 1844" [92]. 1999. 235 [14] Balfour. • "Case of internal strangulation of intestine relieved by operation" [90]. webcitation. rcseng. pp. p. uk/ biogs/ E000458b. nlm. 9. p. 20 [3] Frederic Bird. google. archive. pp. vol. retrieved and archived (http:/ / www. 13. exe?dsqIni=Dserve. 364 Payne and McConnell Steel. webcitation. Dean. 236–237 Steel. ac. p. org/ 64lm0k6eF) 17 January 2011. Cuthbert Hilton (1848–1939)" (http:/ / livesonline. Oct 16" [91]. ini& dsqApp=Archive& dsqCmd=Show.Golding Bird • "Case of excessive secretion of the ammonio-magnesium phosphate by the kidneys. 249 [8] Balfour. pp. 2. pp. pp. 17 Payne and McConnell . 1845.). "On the artificial arrangement of some of the more extensive orders of British plants" (http:/ / books. 213. htm). org/ stream/ proceedings218331838geol#page/ 414/ mode/ 2up). 19 Coley. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. ncbi. 16–17 Payne and McConnell [9] Balfour. p. p. measuringworth. tcl& dsqDb=Persons& dsqPos=0& dsqSearch=(Surname='bird')). 227. p. 39–40. p. pp. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine.414. 13–14 Coley. 9. London:Richard Kinder. vol. 14 References [1] Payne and McConnell "Golding-Bird. vol. 207 Wilks and Bettany. uk/ books?id=4aMBAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA109& q="From October 1843"#v=onepage& f=true). 366 Foregger. org/ 664347Ffu) 10 March 2012. Guy's Hospital Reports. 16–17 Coley. The Medical Times. 366 Payne and McConnell Morus. Golding (Dr. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London. 14 Coley. [2] Balfour. Some examples are: • "Transactions of the Medical Society of London. 1835–1836. "Bird. 2. 340. 207 [5] Balfour. p. The Linnean Society of London. Report on the poisoning of a watch enameller by arsenic vapour. gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC2182434/ ?page=1). nih. google. vol. pp. The Royal Society. [7] Balfour. 21 October 1843. Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online. pp. royalsociety. "The Pathological Societey of London" (http:/ / www. The Medical Times. Report on a case of a child with inflammatory croup. with long continued vomiting". p. org/ DServe/ dserve. 15–16 Coley. "May 25" (http:/ / www. 823–827. • "Transactions of the Medical Society of London. uk/ books?id=4JU5AAAAcAAJ& pg=PA604#v=onepage& q& f=true). 207 [6] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. p. [13] Morus. accessed 14 December 2010. pp. Library and archive catalogue. pp. pp. 50–51 Steel. 1847. p. 271–274. The Medical Times. 16 February 1836. 522–523. 108–109. p. 46. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth.

physoc. London: Richard Spencer March 1850. Garrod. co. Pfeiffer. org/ content/ 17/ 6/ 438). Guy's Hospital Medical School. pp. vol. p. Green. pp. pp. 59–63 Payne and McConnell Steel. See. 1895. 43. for instance. [22] Coley. year 1934. 19. google. webcitation. 21–22. nap. p. vol. co. Edmond J. p. 2001 [21] Katherine D. 1900. uk/ news/ obituaries/ 1508264/ John-Beale. 365 [24] Archibald E. pp. Jean-Pierre Colombo. au/ biography/ ham-nathaniel-burnett-bertie-12959). 20 Wilks and Bettany. The Medical Examiner. 179 [32] "On the therapeutic employment of electricity" (http:/ / books. p. html) (King's College is the successor to Guy's Medical School) Retrieved and archived (http:/ / www. Continuum International Publishing Group. vol.Golding Bird [15] Freemasons' Quarterly Magazine and Review (http:/ / books. King's College London archives document G/AC/F17. Bernard Amos" (http:/ / www. 1975. Astley. p. King's College London archives document G/PUBS/1. php?book=biomems& page=bamos. pp. pp. 43–44 Coley. "D. iss. 11. p. Watson. [18] Balfour. King's College London archives document G/AC/F18. uk/ books?id=OBYCAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA46#v=onepage& q& f=true). 235 [30] Bird. M. August 1975 [26] Cooper. 20 January 2006. 7–8 [34] Grapengiesser was a Berlin doctor who pioneered the treatment of deafness by electricity. p. pp. 56. 62–63 Coley. co. 104–105 [31] Coley. google. April 1849. 25 August 1945. and Longmans 1840. Prize Examinations. p. ac. 366–368 Payne and McConnell Simpson. tb02226. pp. Salter". Australian Dictionary of National Biography. 239 [23] Coley. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston 1850. 4. vol. p. "A contribution to the study of uroerythrin" (http:/ / jp. 1111/ j. uk/ about/ structure/ admin/ acservices/ grad/ staff/ prizes/ book/ medicineprizes. 1928. "Isolation and identification of the urinary pigment uroerythrin" (http:/ / onlinelibrary. 84–85. Lord Russell Claude: Papers" (http:/ / www. London: Orme. 38 [35] Bird. telegraph. 17. The National Academies Press. 373–387. 15. 125. The Times. org/ 64lEw6xWa) 17 January 2012. co. pp. p. Guy's Hospital Medical School. 366 Morus. 367 Morus. retrieved and archived (http:/ / www. 211–212 [19] Payne and McConnell "Brock. p. Handbook of Scholarships and Studentship Prizes: 1983. Yunis. Nathaniel Burnett (Bertie) (1865–1954)" (http:/ / adb. 1. Prize Examinations. 41. The Telegraph. 363–365 Morus. p. [25] Josef Berüter. [20] Rosenfeld. British and Foreign Medico-chirurgical Review. webcitation. 25–26. "On the anatomy of the breast" (http:/ / books. pp. A. Poisoned Lives: English Poisoners and Their Victims. [27] Coley. 6. 7–8 Morus. pp. com/ doi/ 10. html). 439. 249 Winslow. co. p. no. pp. European Journal of Biochemistry. uk/ books?id=JzIBAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA373& q=#v=onepage& f=true). org/ 65s4h2C42) 2 March 2012. 367–372 [17] Balfour. pp. 239–244. p. 366 Foregger. 20. 2006 ISBN 1852855037. Urs Peter Schlunegger. Journal of Physiology. retrieved and archived (http:/ / www. google. 3. 247. "Obituaries: Dr. John Thearle. p. pp. uk/ cgi-bin/ vcdf/ detail?coll_id=10222& inst_id=9). 365–366 [28] Coley. 98–99 15 . anu. "Ham. ac. kcl. edu. vol. org/ 64lfkwwLj) 17 January 2012. retrieved and archived (http:/ / www. Lectures on Electricity. org/ 64lWvhDft) 17 January 2012. x/ abstract). Lectures on Electricity. html). 364 "Obituary" (http:/ / books. Brown. webcitation. [33] Simpson. pp. 17–18. edu/ readingroom. AIM25. [16] Balfour. pp. p. aim25. pp. vol. 1. uk/ books?id=UPcDAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA84#v=onepage& q& f=true). google. 1432-1033. 46. Guy's Hospital Medical School. vol. webcitation. "King's College London: Prize Book: School of Medicine" (http:/ / www. wiley. "Obituaries: John Beale" (http:/ / www. uk/ books?id=EP1KAAAAYAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq="On+ the+ Anatomy+ of+ the+ Breast"& hl=en& ei=ZtZXTfCqJpSFhQfaosSMDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=true). 6. 239 [29] Coley.

1851. January 1838. 16 Coley. 2. 1–2. 388–389. p. 90–92 [51] Golding Bird. The Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 7–8 Morus. 1999. p. 292 Thomas Addison. John McIntyre. google. "Observations on induced electric currents. p. 47 (menstruation) Smellie. co. 367 Morus. pp. 90–92 [44] Isaac Lewis Pulvermacher. 367 [48] Coley. Mechanics' Magazine. pp. 2. pp. 371–373 16 . pp. "Remarks on the hydro-electric chain of Dr. 799. 119–122 [39] Coley. pp. "Dr. pp. 146–148. p. google. pp. 91–92 (spasm and hysteria) Morus. p. pp. 368 Morus. 288–289 [46] Coley. pp. p. uk/ books?id=dRVAAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA316#v=onepage& q& f=true). [57] Balfour. co. co. p. "Observations on poisoning. 71. The Lancet. 369–370 Lardner. pp. 20 Steventon and Mitchell. pp. uk/ books?id=XpEBAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA493#v=onepage& q& f=true). 250–251 Bird. 75 (muscle paralysis) Smellie. 316–317. 235–236 [40] Coley. Report of the Seventh Meeting of the British Society for the Advancement of Science. 146. 368–369 Payne and McConnell Morus. no. 370–371 [49] Coley. 9. pp. com/ patents?vid=9571). 368–369 Smellie. 366 Vinten-Johansen. U. 370 Simpson. Association Medical Journal. [42] Coley. iss. vol. 18–22. Meinig. p. p. 250–251 [38] Morus. google. vol. with a description of a magnetic contact-breaker" (http:/ / books. [37] Coley. 236–237. uk/ books?id=h3I4AAAAMAAJ& pg=PA146#v=onepage& q& f=true). p. 33–62 [53] Vinten-Johansen. co. pp. 1853. by the vapours of burning of charcoal and coal" (http:/ / books. 38 [55] "Alleged death from the use of Harper and Joyce' stove" (http:/ / books. uk/ books?id=2wQDAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA215#v=onepage& q& f=true). London: J. pp. issued 1 February 1853. 30 (opiates) Smellie. 6 (1837). "Improvement in voltaic batteries and apparatus for medical and other purposes". p. 2. uk/ books?id=6Zp0iSrtvmMC& printsec=frontcover& pg=PA18#v=onepage& q& f=true).Golding Bird [36] Golding Bird. 90 [58] Rosenfeld. 79–80 [50] Coley. 215–219. pp. vol. 367 Watt and Philip. pp. co. "On the influence of electricity. pp. pp. pp. Lectures on Electricity. Lectures on Electricity. pp. 367 Bird. Golding Bird. 240–241 [41] Coley. C. google. p. google. 49–50 Coley. as a remedy in certain convulsive and spasmodic diseases" (http:/ / books. 12. pp.S. pp. google. pp. 30. 369–370 Golding Bird. vol. pp. p. vol. co. 69–72 [54] Foregger. 146. p. 1837. p. [52] Coley. 363 [59] Coley. google. 1838. Golding Bird and Pulvermacher's electric chain" (http:/ / books. pp. Pulvermacher" (http:/ / books. 493–507. 8 [43] Chapman. vol. [56] Golding Bird. 1 December 1838. [47] Coley. 177–183 Watt and Philip. pp. p. pp. pp. Philosophical Magazine. [45] Coley. Patent 9571 (http:/ / www. Murray. no. p. 45. September 1840. uk/ books?id=LzhPAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA388#v=onepage& q& f=true). Guy's Hospital Reports. pp. 367–368 Simpson.

uk/ books?id=9FXVoGcVJygC& pg=PA440#v=onepage& q& f=true). 367 Morus. google. 9 December 1853. vol. 1 (new series). p. 105 [65] John Snow. p. p. uk/ books?id=y1qf8OUqwxcC& pg=PA471#v=onepage& q& f=true). 27 Talbott. 64. 45 Steel. uk/ books?id=dRVAAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA1042#v=onepage& q& f=true). 1. p. 306 Lee. google. [72] "Golding Bird's natural philosophy". p. p. xi–xxxvii 1848 Brooke. 371–375 Vinten-Johansen. 85–86. uk/ books?id=y1qf8OUqwxcC& pg=PA590#v=onepage& q& f=true) p. 1999. co. pp. no. p. pp. no. 2003. 1042–1043. xi–xxiv 1839 Bird. google. vol. 367 Payne and McConnell [70] "Review: Elements of natural philosophy" (http:/ / books. co. 246–247 [69] Brooke and Bird. pp. vol. uk/ books?id=hjhPAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA441& dq="The+ anasarca+ which+ follows+ scarlatina"& hl=en& ei=y42YTZX3M83dsga87OTDCA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q="The anasarca which follows scarlatina"& f=true). 11 June 1841 Bird. 14 December 1839. co. p. uk/ books?id=dRVAAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA1090#v=onepage& q& f=true). 440–442. uk/ books?id=09ADAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA64#v=onepage& q& f=true). uk/ books?id=ErrbM26IipIC& pg=PA777#v=onepage& q& f=true). 1999. pp. no. 590. 109 [62] Rosenfeld. 490 Wilks and Bettany. 17 November 1854. Elements. 1194. co. 371–375 Brock. co. Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal. 17–22. 15 Coley. pp. 47. "The anasarca which follows scarlatina" (http:/ / books. 207–210 [75] Balfour pp. pp. 209 Francis Davies. 1999. p. The Literary Gazette. Wilks. co. 310 Rosenfeld. 7 December 1839.Golding Bird [60] Carleton. p. 49. 441–442. vol. 371–372 Payne and McConnell Rosenfeld. 2 (new series). [66] Coley. [76] Golding Bird. 23. 25. p. p. google. p. pp. pp. google. p. 510–511. 1. 50 [63] Coley. 599 Schmidt. Association Medical Journal. p. pp. 471. "Editor's letter box: Medical students" (http:/ / books. vol. p. google. 15 Coley. Elements. pp. 375–376 Steel. 98. p. v–xix 1867 Coley. Elements. p. 18 June 1841 Burne. "The flexible stethoscope" (http:/ / books. no. 1090. co. 50 Vinten-Johansen. 6. 239 [74] Balfour pp. google. "News and topics of the day: Christian Medical Association" (http:/ / books. pp. p. p. pp. p. 55 Coley. Association Medical Journal. 48–49. pp. google. "Editor's letter box: Medical students" (http:/ / books. 11 December 1840. [71] "Review: Elements of natural philosophy. 47–48 17 . 5 Rosenfeld. The Lancet. 50 [67] London Medical Gazette. p. no. 85–86 [64] Vinten-Johansen. 1 May 1844. "Advantages presented by the employment of a stethoscope with a flexible tube" (http:/ / books. 1701 Wermuth. criticism of Bird in a footnote (http:/ / books. vol. 46. p. Elements Balfour. co. 342 [61] Balfour. 434–435. The Popular Science Review. [73] Bird. Burne" (http:/ / books. vol. 777. pp. London Medical Gazette. 2. google. Association Medical Journal. "Reply to Dr. 25 November 1853. Burne. 1047. pp. co. second edition" (http:/ / books. 50–53. vol. pp. google. co. uk/ books?id=y1qf8OUqwxcC& pg=PA510#v=onepage& q& f=true). [77] Balfour. uk/ books?id=jBVAAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA1047#v=onepage& q& f=true). 1867. 1 (new series). 2 July 1841 [68] Golding Bird.

Frankenstein's Children: Electricity. Medical History. co. Elements of Natural Philosophy (http://www. • Lee. google. and Acoustics (http://books. uk/ books?id=EwhAAAAAYAAJ& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_ge_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q& f=true [81] http:/ / books. co. 55–56. google.co. google. Uropoietic Diseases. co. Bird. 4. uk/ books?id=upEBAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA75#v=onepage& q& f=true http:/ / books. John Hutton. Murray. google. 1998 ISBN 0691059527.. Charles. Justus Von Liebig: The Chemical Gatekeeper. 7. co.co. Bukk G.uk/ books?id=FzoDAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA288#v=onepage&q&f=true). 1855 OCLC 14530995. . uk/ books?id=hdg4AAAAMAAJ& pg=RA1-PA55& dq="observations+ on+ some+ of+ the+ products+ obtained+ by+ the+ action+ of+ nitric+ acid+ on+ alcohol"& hl=en& ei=cNqNTZ7CJNOKhQfAoOG7Dg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& sqi=2& ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q="observations on some of the products obtained by the action of nitric acid on alcohol"& f=true) in Report of the Eighth Meeting of the British Society for the Advancement of Science. google. 1.org/stream/ elementsnatural00broogoog#page/n5/mode/2up). vol. Without Confinement. google. and Experiment in Early-nineteenth-century London. co.. uk/ books?id=VRgCAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA39#v=onepage& q& f=true http:/ / books. London: J. google. Golding Bird (http://books. uk/ books?id=tYM5AAAAcAAJ& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_ge_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q& f=true [80] http:/ / books. G. Exhibition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. 1859 OCLC 8344248.ac. New York: Boericke & Runyon. 363–376. google. • Brooke.lww. pp. Anesthesiology. co. Dionysius. • Foregger. Electricity. • Carleton. uk/ books?id=hdg4AAAAMAAJ& pg=RA1-PA57& dq=%22Notice+ respecting+ the+ deposition+ of+ metallic+ copper+ from+ its+ solutions+ by+ slow+ voltaic+ action%22& hl=en& ei=T9-NTd7zCMuBhQeJ1JC8Dg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=%22Notice%20respecting%20the%20deposition%20of%20metallic%20copper%20from%20its%20solutions%20by%20slow%20voltaic%20action%22& f=true [85] Summarised (http:/ / books. iss. London: Spottiswoode & Co. London: John Churchill and Sons 1867 OCLC 558148825.Golding Bird 18 [78] http:/ / books. uk/ books?id=VRgCAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA271#v=onepage& q& f=true Bibliography • Balfour. Dates in Urology. uk/ books?id=MpIBAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA84#v=onepage& q& f=true http:/ / books. • Coley. 2002 ISBN 0521524733. Richard. co. iss. "The collateral sciences in the work of Golding Bird (1814–1854)" (http://ukpmc. 1900 OCLC 14806546. co. • Lardner. London: John Churchill. uk/ books?id=4aMBAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA108& f=true http:/ / books. pp. google. Biographical Sketch of the late Dr. co. google.aspx). 1839.archive. S. Princeton: Princeton University Press. • Chapman. J.google. co. 13.4. vol. Henry Thomas. Edinburgh: Thomas Constable and Co. google.. 20–25. co. co. Magnetism. google. Iwan Rhys. uk/ books?id=6Zp0iSrtvmMC& printsec=frontcover& pg=PA18#v=onepage& q& f=true [82] http:/ / books. uk/ books?id=lJEBAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA35& f=true [83] http:/ / books. • Morus. google. pp. uk/ books?id=hdg4AAAAMAAJ& pg=RA1-PA56& dq=%22Notice+ respecting+ the+ artificial+ formation+ of+ a+ basic+ chloride+ of+ copper+ by+ voltaic+ influence%22& hl=en& ei=FtuNTf2EAdGwhAeZxd27Dg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=%22Notice%20respecting%20the%20artificial%20formation%20of%20a%20basic%20chloride%20of%20copper%20by%20voltaic%20influence%22& f=true [84] http:/ / books. vol.uk/ books?id=XU0BAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q& f=true). William H. October 1969.google. 2000 ISBN 1850704961. google.. "John Snow's early research on carbon dioxide" (http://journals. The Treatment of Obstinate Ulcers and Cutaneous Eruptions on the Leg. uk/ books?id=CbcLAAAAYAAJ& pg=PR3#v=onepage& q& f=true [79] http:/ / books. Group. • Brock. 1856 OCLC 23820736. uk/ books?id=_7ERAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA51#v=onepage& q& f=true http:/ / books. 21. co. google. Golding. co. N. H. co.com/anesthesiology/ Citation/1960/01000/John_Snow_s_Early_Research_on_Carbon_Dioxide. [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] http:/ / books. January/February 1960. New York: Parthenon Pub.uk/articles/ PMC1033981). uk/ books?id=9FXVoGcVJygC& pg=PA440#v=onepage& q& f=true http:/ / books.

London: William Horsell and R Pemberton Junior.org/cgi/content/ full/47/4/784).. John Harold.. pp. 2004. and other Complaints (http://books. Lock. • Talbott. 1999 ISBN 9056996452.google.google. J.Golding Bird • Payne. pp. pp. Alexander. 1860 OCLC 326048674. Brian A. 2003.: McFarland & Co. Doing Good. Golding (1814–1854)". Mitchell. Jacob Edward. no. • Rosenfeld.google.clinchem. McConnell. N. 2001.archive. F. and the Science of Medicine: a Life of John Snow. 28. 2008 ISBN 0123741947. 2007 ISBN 1860948146. Carl J. Golding Bird" (http://www. "Justus Liebig and Animal Chemistry" (http://www.uk/books?id=4HatmonFGQ4C& pg=PA206#v=onepage&q&f=true). vol.clinchem. Medical Discoveries: Who and When.. Burlington. Chloroform.co. Certain Forms of Paralysis. Cholera. • Rosenfeld. • Smellie.uk/ books?id=MLlNqTdjtnkC&pg=PA8#v=onepage&q&f=true). T. C. Oxford University Press. May 2008. Electroplating and Electrorefining of Metals. "Dr. 22. Amsterdam: Gordon & Breach Science. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.org/cgi/content/abstract/49/ 10/1696). • Pfeiffer. 488–491. or. Bowden & Co. Glyn B. Clinical Chemistry. Samuel. 1696–1707. • Wilks.Octavius. Life in Jesus: A Memoir of Mrs. • Steventon. New York: Robert Carter and Brothers. Anita. A Few Observations on the Influences of Electro-galvanism in the Cure of Chronic Rheumatism. Bettany. • Watt. vol. Jefferson.uk/ books?id=iadU222DXAIC&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q&f=true). • Wermuth. Four Centuries of Clinical Chemistry.co. 19 . Robert. G. Molecules of Death. • Rosenfeld. the physician" (http://books. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Elsevier Health Sciences. Arnold.oxforddnb. Mary Winslow (http://books. "Evolution of the stethoscope". 47. 2003 ISBN 0444512586. London: Imperial College Press. A Biographical History of Guy's Hospital.. pp. 1959 OCLC 11030573. The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry. • Wilks. vol. Golding Bird. London: Ward. Samuel. "The Chemical Work of Alexander and Jane Marcet" (http://www. Popular Science. • Vinten-Johansen.. the Christian in Walks of Usefulness. James. 1892 OCLC 14809726. Camille Georges. Palm Springs: Watchmaker Publishing. • Schmidt.co. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. "Dr. 784–792. • Steel.uk/ books?id=PRoDAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q& f=true). Louis. 49.. The Art and Practice of Western Medicine in the Early Nineteenth Century. Louis. Philadelphia: Perkinpine and Higgins. accessed 6 March 2011 (http://www. • Simpson. 1970 OCLC 113889. Nervous. Springfield: Thomas. 1859. Louis. "Bird. 2005 ISBN 1929148453 (originally published 1889). • Winslow.co. MA: Academic Press. Philip. Clinical Chemistry. 1858 OCLC 614815011. online edition. Steve C. 1985 ISBN 0899501672. 2003 ISBN 019513544X.com/view/ article/2445) (subscription required).google. Peter.. A Biographical History of Medicine. New York: Grune & Stratton. February 1883 ISSN 0161-7370.org/stream/ biographicalhist00wilk#page/244/mode/2up). 206–214. Electrical Stimulation and the Relief of Pain (http://books.

co.Golding Bird 20 External links • Golding Bird (1814–1854) (http://www.ac.html) (King's College London Archives) • Archives at the Royal College of Surgeons of England relating to Golding Bird and Cuthbert Golding-Bird (http:/ /www.kcl.uk/cgi-bin/vcdf/detail?coll_id=9849&inst_id=9) (AIM25) . 1840 portrait by Alexander Craig held at the Wellcome Library (BBC – Your Paintings) • Golding Bird's memorial location on cemetery map (http://www.fwpc.ac.org.aim25.uk/depsta/iss/archives/ collect/10bi65-1.html) (Friends of Woodbury Park Cemetery) • Archives at King's College London relating to Golding Bird (http://www.uk/arts/yourpaintings/paintings/ golding-bird-18141854-physician-and-natural-philosopher-125815).bbc.uk/memorials.

Alborzagros. Rjwilmsi. Axl. Graham87. Philcha.jpg  Source: http://en. Magioladitis. Kwamikagami. Crystallina.php?title=File:Uric_acid_crystals.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Duchenne. Plucas58. Joy.org/w/index. Dabomb87.org/w/index. MeltBanana.wikipedia.-B. Mjroots. BrownHairedGirl. G._fig.php?title=File:Golding_Bird_gold_medal.0/ . Ian Rose. Laser brain.wikipedia. Yngvadottir.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown File:Electrostatic friction machines.php?title=File:Golding_Bird. FeanorStar7. File:Pulvermacher chain. Faramir1138.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Wizardman.0 Unported //creativecommons.wikipedia. Another Believer. Brad101AWB.php?title=File:Pulvermacher_chain.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown File:Uric acid crystals.jpg  Source: http://en. Carcharoth.php?oldid=490266207  Contributors: Aboutmovies. Stfg. Jaraalbe. Gigemag76.org/licenses/by-sa/3.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en. Dl2000.org/w/index.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown File:Golding Bird gold medal. Magnus Manske.Article Sources and Contributors 21 Article Sources and Contributors Golding Bird  Source: http://en.org/w/index.org/w/index. 78 .org/w/index. Gilo1969. Licenses and Contributors File:Golding Bird.wikipedia.php?title=File:Bird_stethoscope. Casliber. Smallweed. Nedrutland. Aymatth2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Golding Bird File:Duchenne Mecanisme de la physionomie humaine.php?title=File:Duchenne_Mecanisme_de_la_physionomie_humaine.jpg  Source: http://en. Friend of the Facts. Poo1234561. fig.wikipedia. Regan123. Ruhrfisch.wikipedia. 15 anonymous edits Image Sources.wikipedia.php?title=File:Electrostatic_friction_machines.org/w/index. Mrusso18.wikipedia. Spinningspark. Ready. Arcadian. Alarbus._78_. Michael Devore.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Golding Bird File:Bird stethoscope. Mandarax. Taisensha.jpg  Source: http://en. GoingBatty.jpg  Source: http://en. BD2412.