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Title : Natural Disaster: Significant and the effects on human physical systems and the economy, and responsibility of governments. Written by : NorHazren Izatie binti Mohd (MB 111016)
A disaster is an occurrences arising with little or no warning, which causes or threatens serious disruptions of life, and perhaps death or injury to large no of people, and requires therefore a mobilization of effort in excess of that normally provided by the statutory emergency services. In short, disaster symbolizes an event which afflicts a community the consequence of which is beyond the immediate financial, material or emotional resources of the community. Thus, a disaster result due to either an urgent situations or sue to a long set process which completely disrupts normal life situations in it’s establish social, traditional, environmental and economic systems. Such high intensity disruptions may be caused by natural phenomena. Thus called natural disaster, or by human-induced phenomena, thus called man-made disasters (N.Kumar, 2006)1.
What is a natural disaster mean exactly? According to Coenraads (2006) natural disaster roughly fall into three broad grouping; geological events, triggered by the internal workings of our planet; meteorological events, caused by variations in global weather patterns; and biological disasters, resulting from the action of living agents such as disease or insects pests. They can occur separately or together, are generally, although not always, unrelated2.
Nikuj Kumar, 2006 - Disaster Management (pp 1) Robert coenraads,2006 – natural disasters and how we cope; the world greatest natural disaster (pp 11)
NorHazren Izatie Mohd - (MB 111016)
NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1
Natural disasters are also known as “acts of God” because they can strike with little or no warning and without any apparent direct human involvement. Often one disaster will trigger a string of other disasters that can be as devastating as the original event. For example a big earthquake can rupture a city’s gas and water line. This occurred in San Francisco in 1906 and in Tokyo 1923, causing massive firestorms that dwarfed the death and destruction caused by earthquake; fire fighters then discovered they had little water to fight the fires. Volcanic eruptions can trigger mudflows, avalanches, landslides, flood surges, and fires. Eruptions and earthquake at sea can send tsunamis on an ocean-wide journey of destruction. Hurricanes and typhoons can cause floods, leading to disease threats from bacteria’s and toxins in the unclean waters. Major out breakers of infectious disease can also take their toll if basic needs such as clean water, food, shelter, and medical supplies are not restored quickly to a disaster zone3.
There are several different types of natural disaster, starting with the most cataclysmic, but least likely in a human lifetime, and continuing on to the least deadly, but most likely in a human lifetime. For example Mega Disaster, this event already changes the whole course of human and even planetary evolution. Into this category fall the extremely rare but totally devastating giant meteorite impacts and massive volcanic blasts but thankfully our human did not witnessed any of these events.
Robert coenraads,2006 – natural disasters and how we cope; the world greatest natural disaster (pp 11)
NorHazren Izatie Mohd - (MB 111016)
marking the end of the Ordovician period. First of all let discuss about Cyclone. and etc. The most significant of these mega disasters took places at the end of the Permian. 65 million ago ending the Cretaceous period. What exactly is Cyclone? According to Kumar (2006). possibly to due massive volcanic eruptions in Siberia and associated greenhouses causing global warming (Coenraads. That is for mega disaster. flood and storms and also tsunami. But there are a few major natural disasters that created history in this world such as cyclone. 2006)4. Circulating winds less than 39mph are called tropical depression. 4 Robert coenraads. heat waves. famines and droughts.(MB 111016) Page 3 . 195 million year ago. ending the Triassic and the most recent. destroying over 95 percent of life on Earth. the world greatest natural disaster (pp 19) 5 Nikuj Kumar. 365 million year ago.2006 – natural disasters and how we cope. hurricane. There are a lot of type’s natural disaster that already occur now a day such as flood. ending the Permian.Disaster Management (pp 208-210) NorHazren Izatie Mohd . winds reaching 39 to 73mph are classified as tropical storms5. These events have their own story that makes it become history in human life. 2006 . cyclone can be defined as are hurricanes (wind speed exceeds 73mph) that are generated in the Indian Ocean. earthquake.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 This mega disaster happen in the millions years ago which are occurred over 440 million ago.
Disaster Management (pp 208-210) 8 Robert coenraads. Death tolls from famine can rival those pandemics. particularly with rapidly rising population pressures in certain part of the worlds. 2006 . India. as many as 43 million people starved to death (Coenraads. 2. and the damage estimation reached US $3. it is estimated that more than 300.2006 – natural disasters and how we cope. and thousands of acres of farmland were destroyed. Also happen in India. and Africa. The effect of this event are transportation routes.000 ships in the densely populated area with a huge amount of shipping and trade. 2006)8. Drought related to the famines particularly common in China. the world greatest natural disaster (pp 17) NorHazren Izatie Mohd . where they may last up to several years and lead to severe land 6 7 Nikuj Kumar. Puri.5 billion7. public building including schools and hospital. Jagatsinghpur. During the little-publicized “three difficult years” in china from 1958 to 1961. utilities. Super cyclone with winds guts up to 190mph and wanes of up to 15 feet in height crashed into the 85 mile of coastal stretch and caused devastation in the districts of Kendrapara. More than 9. infrastructure. communication lines. 2006 .(MB 111016) Page 4 . this event occur when large populations become malnourished and die of starvation.000 people died6.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 The first cyclone happen around 1737 at Bay of Bengal a cyclone destroyed 20. eastern state of Orissa. The latest case of cyclone reported in 29th October 1999. and Jaipur.500 people died. four hundred thousand head of livestock had drowned. They are often associated with crop failure due to drought or pestilence.Disaster Management (pp 208-210) Nikuj Kumar. but may also arise from human-related causes. The second major natural disasters are famines. Suttack.5 million become homeless.
NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 degradation. The tsunami occur when earthquake generate it. or 60 percent of China populations. The first event happens on the morning of February 14. Jegadish Gandhi. 9 Robert coenraads. the Tangshan city was almost totally destroyed (Coenraads. 2006)10. 2006)9.000 people as they lay sleeping. this event swept onto the densely populated coastlines of Indian Ocean. For earthquake event China also become unfortunate because they become the worlds top two most deadly earthquakes.000 people were killing that time.2006 – natural disasters and how we cope. 200711). Almost 300. The sheer magnitude of causalities has spurred the global community into taking responsibilities for the development of advance-warning systems for this kind of natural disaster (Ghandi. The second attack killing almost 242.Tsunami Perspectives” NorHazren Izatie Mohd . once again the earthquake takes place. In Asia the most natural event that probably will be remind all the time are when Tsunami happen in 2004 in Sumantra – Andaman Islands. Essentially. 2007 – Disaster Mitigation and Management “Post. the land in many of these high-populations density areas has been pushed beyond its human-carrying capacity. the world greatest natural disaster (pp 17) 10 Ditto (pp 18) 11 P. 1976. It is particularly difficult for the international community to respond to famine disasters because of the enormous number people of effected (Coenraads. 1556. That was a powerful earthquake. On July 28.(MB 111016) Page 5 .000 people were killed. almost millions people were living in caves at that time were buried when the caves collapse during the landslides happen. Approximately 830.
Children. City residents are particularly vulnerable to high heat conditions.(MB 111016) Page 6 . This occurs when an air mass stalls over a region. so the city does not cool down. Humidity reduces your body’s natural cooling mechanism.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 The last event that may be rarely happen but also become major among the natural disaster is heat waves. tornadoes. 12 Nikuj Kumar. The heat radiates back at night. Prolonged exposure to extreme heat taxes the human body beyond its abilities to function properly and can cause sunstroke. the higher the humidity. surfaces warm to temperatures even higher than air. lightening. When strong sunlight hit brick and stone. heat cramps and heat exhaustion. 2006 . northern cities sometimes fare worse because citizens and governments are not prepared for it and can be caught off guard (Kumar. and hurricanes combined. It also can exacerbate existing health conditions such as heart or respiratory problems. and the elderly are especially susceptible to heat. The temperature and often the humidity build to unhealthy levels for days on ends. explained the National Weather Service. the evaporation of moisture or sweat from your skin. Ironically. Thus. 2006) 12 . infants. For information extreme heat kills more Americans each year than floods. the hotter a temperature feels to your body.Disaster Management (pp 208-210) NorHazren Izatie Mohd .
vehicles and other personal possessions are damaged and business are forced to shut down. the number of people affected by natural disasters tripled to 2 billion13. Human activities play a role in the frequency and severity of natural disasters that have diverse causes. it’s preventing people from working. homes are destroyed. One of most devastating effects of natural disasters is the damages to physical property left behind.16 13 Natural Disaster : Counting the cost http://web. A natural when it occurs disrupts the balance of the environments. leaving scores of peoples homeless. 2011)14.Each of these natural disasters has short term and long term effects. 16 Jose Arellano. 2011 – Short.(MB 111016) Page 7 . causes property damage and event loss of life (Devon. 2011).00.worldbank. 2011 – What a Negative Effects Of Natural Disasters? NorHazren Izatie Mohd . When public transportation such as train and cars can become damaged and businesses temporarily close. While the number of lives lost declined in the past 20 years—800. we can conclude that Natural disasters are happening more often and having an ever more dramatic impact on the world in terms of both their human and economic cost. In the past decade.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0. and may deal with billions of dollars of economic losses (Arellano. 15 Devon Willis.000 people died from natural disasters in the 1990s compared with 2 million in the 1970s—the number of people affected has risen.Term Effect of Natural Disasters.html 14 Devon Willis. 2011 – Short.Term Effect of Natural Disasters. The government may spend a great deal of money to reconstruct areas that were affected by natural disaster.contentMDK:20169861~pagePK:642 57043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 Based on the discussion about the major natural disaster that happen in history..2011)15. some permanently due to physical ruin(Devon.
Devon Willis.Term Effect of Natural Disasters. 2011 – Short.2011)17. trauma. deaths of people and precious pets.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 Besides that communities surround areas affected by natural disasters are seriously affected by the disruptions caused to utility services. 2011). missing all add up to severe emotional trauma. Communities get displaced meaning separation from family and friends. Generally. Medical assistance becomes hard (Devon. People lose loved ones in natural disasters.Term Effect of Natural Disasters. People who are susceptible to traumas becomes depressed and develop an anxiety disorders that can be developed after a disaster is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Victims face stress. power is the first thing to go when there’s a natural disaster. seriously injury people.(MB 111016) Page 8 . the emotional toll on the people affected is quite devastating. 2011 – What a Negative Effects Of Natural Disasters? NorHazren Izatie Mohd .19 17 18 19 Devon Willis. Jose Arellano. which can leave a person feeling traumatised years after the disasters(Arellano. 2011 – Short. the emotional damage can take a long while to heal. Whiles possessions can be replaced eventually through insurances. When a natural disaster strikes. anxiety and depression as a result of natural disasters (Devon.2011)18. This can literally mean life or death to people who are on life support systems such as oxygen and dialysis.
2011 – Short. property. Transportation capacity is reduced hindering reliefs efforts and disrupting normal life (Devon. psychologist and social effects can be categorized as one which is physical effect.(MB 111016) Page 9 . additional pressures may be imposed on finances of the governments through investments in relief and rehabilitation works. people are left homeless and rebuilding a home takes a long time and a lot of money. Disasters may also reduce availability of new investment. For economical effect when the event occurs the development process was disrupt unless contingency plans already in place and fiscal and monetary policies can be adjusted with sufficient flexibility. 20 Devon Willis. The disaster affects housing. All this human. Disease starts spreading and without proper medical attention. teachers are unable to come in to work and children are displaced are unable to attend school. NorHazren Izatie Mohd . economic and environmental conditions. Health care infrastructure is affected. Disasters have forced countries to postponed national development programmes and have contributed to worsening already precarious social. particularly in human settlements. environmental loss. the impacts are worse in developing countries that already have poor facilities to begin with. Besides. makes a situation worse. Education is big losers when a natural disaster happens.Term Effect of Natural Disasters. 2011)20.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 The social consequences of natural disasters in short and long term are wide ranging. schools are often closed. further constricting the growth of the region.
implementing effective disaster recovery programs. In 2003.contentMDK:20169861~pagePK:642 57043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607. says the economic cost of natural disasters has skyrocketed. Annual direct losses from weather-related events increased from an estimated $3. and academic organizations dedicated to reducing the impact of disasters in developing countries. Of this insured losses accounted for only US$15. Because natural disasters hit poor people the hardest. In the past two decades alone.5 billion.00.8 billion. there were about 700 natural disasters which killed about 75. which publishes an annual World Disasters Report.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0. if they are well targeted.(MB 111016) Page 10 . non-governmental.21 Disasters are closely linked to poverty as they can wipe out decades of development in a matter of hours. Other recent statistics show: • In the 1990s. according to a forthcoming report by the ProVention Consortium – an international network of public. an average of 80. the World Bank financed 147 postcatastrophe reconstruction projects worth about $12.000 people and caused about US$65 billion damage (source: Munich Re.. private.000 people died each year in natural disasters. 2004). direct economic losses from natural disasters multiplied fivefold to US$629 billion.9 billion in the 1950s to $63 billion in the 1990s.worldbank. Other senior disaster recovery officials share that view: 21 Natural Disaster : Counting the cost http://web. • • Between 1980 and 2003.html NorHazren Izatie Mohd . may be an effective means of reducing poverty.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 According to the International Red Cross.
that shoulder the greatest costs.21%. Zimbabwe-9. According to Dr Anna Moss. GDP losses for individual events can be even more devastating: In Honduras. the USA's losses from the 1997-1998 El Niño were US$ 1.00. whereas in Ecuador. In terms of the government’s annual tax revenue. such as USA and China.. economic losses were US$ 2. when losses are calculated as a percentage of GDP.” Didier J Cherpitel. Bangladesh-5. This percentage of GDP shows that natural disasters resulted in damages constituting between 2 to 15 percent of an exposed country’s annual GDP. followed by China – 2.96 billion. or 14.worldbank.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 “Disasters are first and foremost a major threat to development and specifically to the development of the poorest and most marginalized people in the world. She saoid that "When economic losses are taken as absolute figures. it is developing countries that are most exposed. Maple croft Environmental Analyst.9 billion.5%.(MB 111016) Page 11 .org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0.03 percent of GDP.6%.21%. According to the World Bank’s Margaret Arnold show that from 19902000 for Argentina the GDP was 1.contentMDK:20169861~pagePK:642 57043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607. the losses amounted to 292%22. For example." "However.58% and Nicaragua15..html NorHazren Izatie Mohd .6 percent of GDP. former Secretary General of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies said in the organization’s 2002 Disaster Report. Hurricane Mitch caused losses equal to 41% of GDP. Jamaica-12. or 0. it is predominantly the industrialised countries." 22 Natural Disaster : Counting the cost http://web.81%. … and ensure they stay poor.
NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 A research has been done by Maplecroft's to a several places that have been damaged by natural disaster.com/about/news/economic_losses.0 magnitude earthquake in January 2010. The World Bank also reported that Mozambique is at increasing risk from storm surges (flood of water caused by wind and low pressure) due to climate change and estimates that 41% of the country's coastal area and 52% of coastal GDP is vulnerable24. Mozambique was hit by the worst flood in 50 years. 23 Haiti and Mozambique most vulnerable to economic losses from natural disasters http://maplecroft. In 2000. which was hit by a 7. Haiti is also highly vulnerable to hydrometeorological disasters and Maplecroft's research reveals that even without the damage from the 2010 earthquake.(MB 111016) Page 12 . which was equivalent to 73% of annual GDP. suffered an estimated 222.570 fatalities and close to $8 billion worth of economic damage. according to its government. which killed 800 and caused economic losses estimated at US$419m. However.html 24 Ditto NorHazren Izatie Mohd . In Mozambique is particularly vulnerable to the hydro-meteorological impacts of climate change and has suffered an increasing amount of floods and droughts in the last decade. the Caribbean country would still have had the 12th highest economic loss in the index23. first of all Haiti.
governments. rendered homeless and left without any help. The fiscal aspect is only a part of economics of natural disasters. provincial and central come to rescue of the affected but in a majority of cases they are criticised for the delayed response. Firstly what are action has been taken by government to reduce or decreasing the effect of natural disaster toward the nation? How the government reduce the rate of occurrences of natural disaster? NorHazren Izatie Mohd . medical help and money for meeting the daily needs of essential goods. shops and private and public sectors production units. for insufficient help or for not helping the neediest usually women and children. When natural disasters occur. it is necessary to provide the affected food and shelters. shops and private and public establishments in varying degrees. Such losses are sustained by private individuals. Let take case of materials looses of individuals. From the discussion on the effect of natural disaster above. A corollary to natural disasters is assets loss.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 Natural disasters have economics. there are few question come out through my finds.(MB 111016) Page 13 . Governments provides relief with their own personnel and with help of NGOs. Immediately after a disaster. politics and social implications.
By now.(MB 111016) Page 14 . For example in China. 2006). from my reading I can make a conclusion that there are a lot of methods that have take by government to reduce the effect of natural disaster. According the statistics. 2006).. Some cities which located in high earthquake risk area almost rehearse the rescuing and rushrepairing procedure in designed earthquake every year. NorHazren Izatie Mohd . it is the responsibility of the affected municipalities to deal with the situations and only in extreme cases do the related prefectures support them and carry out overall coordination (Kumar. the accepted abilities of earthquake risk and hazard have been greatly improved in recent year (Kumar. it has been proved that earthquake disaster management is one of the important and powerful tools in China (Kumar. The anti-seismic awareness of the public is trained.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 Every government in this world always try their best to protect their nation toward natural disaster. all of main cities and large states enterprises have set up their own special earthquake system. The government always laid stress on making series of measures to reduce the level of risk and hazard since 1970s. In Japan’s. 2006).. In this country the earthquake disaster is a huge negative effect on sustainable healthy development. To mitigate the earthquake disaster. their government also practice disaster management system. the most suffering countries severe natural hazard all over the world.
These hazards cause severe agricultural losses and place great strains on country’s economy and its ability to achieve sustainable development (Kumar. In order to combat the many major disaster which have afflicted Bangladesh in recent years. Volunteer doctor and nurses are registered to JMTDR after taking a training course on emergency disaster relief. along with emphasis on emergency response and relief. Bangladesh is predominantly a rural country. They also create the cornerstone of legislation on disaster risk reduction with Disaster Countermeasures Act. 2006). enacted in 1961. NorHazren Izatie Mohd . devastating floods and crippling droughts. relying heavily upon agricultural production for its existences. such as construction of coastal dykes and river embankments. it is frequently struck by destructive cyclones. with the aim of engaging in international medical emergency relief operation when major natural disaster occurs. 2006). which set out basis for measures to reduce disaster risk in Japan (Kumar. Subsequently initiatives have involved prevention and preparedness measures with bias towards infrastructure development. As we know.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 Besides that in Japan government also have The Japan Medical Team for Disaster Relief (JMTDR) was established in 1982. the governments has pursued a vigorous programme of disaster management. its topography and climatic systems make it one of the most water-related disaster prone countries in the Asian region. This programme gave the initial priority to improvement in the forecasting and early warning systems for cyclones and floods. Unfortunately.(MB 111016) Page 15 .
However. In some countries of the region there was a need for preparation or review of cyclone resistant design codes for building and other engineering structures and for their enforcements. Over last 20 years. NorHazren Izatie Mohd . the average annual damages have remained substantially costant over the same period (Kumar. involvements of NGOs in disaster mitigation on response and incorporation of disaster management and reduction component in development projects. multilevel initiatives are being pursued which includes awareness and education programmes. 2006). A review of the available damage statistic discloses that the Government effort in natural disaster reduction has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the death toll. Progress had been achieve in developing mitigation measures to improve the safety non-engineered structures such as ordinary dwellings and simple public buildings constructed with local materials in traditional manner. The average annual loss life has been reduced from 280 to less than 80. 2006). Up to the present time. as well as the undertaking of proper arrangements for the infrastructures to be able to deal with natural hazards (Kumar.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 More recently. decentralized planning and community participation in disaster mitigation and response. disruptions to the economy and massive property damage. The republic of Korea also has the same problems with Bangladesh.(MB 111016) Page 16 . Besides that their government also constructed and equipment cyclone shelters to reduce the number of life lost to typhoons and tropical cyclones. these hazards have caused considerable loos of life. 2006). the disaster management programme has been successful in mitigating the effects of water-related natural disasters (Kumar.
Provision to adequate funding for operational aspects and the encouragements of private participation in disaster mitigation iv.(MB 111016) Page 17 . A strengthening of the institutional framework for natural disaster prevention and preparedness by concentrating the overall responsibility for the task into a single agency. A comprehensive revision of the natural disaster countermeasure act to incorporate comprehensive disaster prevention measures iii. 2006) NorHazren Izatie Mohd .NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 These achievements can be attributed to improved disaster management planning and the initiative associated with a plan. The placing of greater emphasis on scientific research in the field of disaster prevention v. The most significant initiates have involved that have been implied by Korean govern are: i. ii. The formulation of 5-year disaster prevention plan (Kumar.
iv. vi.(MB 111016) Page 18 . to cope with the fact that disaster are becoming more varied and larger scale. the Korean Government is continuing its effort in the field of disaster reduction by concentrating on such aspect: i. iii. This legislation has permitted the relevant authorities to govern the long-term requirements of disaster prevention and the short-term needs of disaster preparedness. Most countries of the region had enacted legislation to provide for the controls and responsibilities necessary to cope with disaster situation.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 The Korean government do not stop at that step. NorHazren Izatie Mohd . ii. v. Streamlining land development regulations Availability of flood insurance Greater investment in flood control Systematic scientific research for disaster prevention Development of a national disaster management system Active international cooperation (Kumar. 2006).
monitoring of crop situations and the implementations of drought management strategies has helped to ameliorate the effect of drought and to reduce the amount of associated damages. For flood event. 2006) NorHazren Izatie Mohd . In India. Timely warnings and quick response has permitted the early evacuation of threatened populations. The construction of water storages. As a consequence. flood plain zoning and forecasting and warning. They also us watershed management to elevated in importance to further reduce run-off and promote sustainable development. For drought monitoring and alleviation is also afforded a high priority in disaster management. including satellite and weather radars. the number of cyclone related deaths has been reduced by a factor of 10. drainage channel and protective embankments along rivers to help mitigate the intensity of floods and reduce damage of area.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 The approach in India is totally different from the Republic of Korea even though their problems are similar. they use flood modifications strategies include both structural and non-structural measures. their government make an improvement in cyclone forecasting and warning through remote sensing systems. ( Sources :Kumar. Their government constructed numerous of dams.(MB 111016) Page 19 . For the non-structural includes risk mapping.
West Malaysia.(MB 111016) Page 20 . India is directing its effort towards the liking of disaster mitigation with development planning.82 million people (22% of the population) and inflicting annual damage of RM 915 million. particularly in rural areas. SEMINAR NASIONAL GIS 2006 NorHazren Izatie Mohd . These floods are common hydrological phenomena in Malaysia. the introduction of disaster insurance. In Malaysia the most severe climate-related natural disasters in Malaysia are monsoon floods and flash floods. Safie Mohd – GIS Analysis for flood Hazard Mapping : Case study : Segamat. the employment of extensive public awareness and education campaigns. 2006). more than 4. Johor. 2006)25.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 In an effort to further its achievements in water related disaster reduction. the strengthening of institutional mechanisms and international cooperation (Kumar.000 km2. the establishment of more effective communication systems. 25 Mohd. on average affecting an area of 29. Government of Malaysia created flood mitigation policy and strategy to reduce the implication from the flood (Safie. the greater involvement of the private sector. the use of the latest information technology.
Subsequently. Johor. ii. iv. 2006)26. Government machinery allows the Economic Planning Unit of the Prime Minister’s Department to coordinate all aspects of planning. In 1982 the government conducted a National Water Resources Study on structural and non-structural measures for flood mitigation and management. 26 Mohd. such as canalization of rivers. Implementation of structural flood mitigation in terms of engineering and socio. a number of flood mitigation projects were completed. SEMINAR NASIONAL GIS 2006 NorHazren Izatie Mohd . Implementation of non-engineering measures where there is no engineering solution.economic environment. Implementation of complementary non-structural measures. iii. With this in mind. Safie Mohd – GIS Analysis for flood Hazard Mapping : Case study : Segamat. (Sources: Safie. design and implementation of water resources in the country. West Malaysia. and Continuation on strengthening flood forecasting and warning systems. policy guidelines for implementing flood mitigation measures will include the following: i. Another indispensable nonstructural measure is the adoption of a flood forecasting and warning system.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 This structural measure consist of controlling flood flows. whereas non-structural measures such as land conservation regulate human activities to mitigate the impact of flooding. Such escalating expenditures require the government to be more proactive in finding ways and means to address the flood problems in a holistic manner.(MB 111016) Page 21 . The financial involvement for such projects was increased in Malaysia’s five yearly development allocations. raising river embankments and multi-purpose dams.
Real-time flood forecasting and warning systems in nine river basins. the following infrastructures for flood forecasting and warning systems have been installed28: .190 telemetric water level stations. rescue. 2006)27.217 flood sirens.Good Practices –Chapter 3 NorHazren Izatie Mohd . They also are using Flood Forecasting and Warning System. .256 manual stick gauges. Most of the committee members are governmental departments/agencies and social organizations that are able to provide shelter.84 flood warning boards.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 The Malaysian Government also formed the National Disasters and Relief Committee to be responsible for planning. food and medical supplies (Safie. . Safie Mohd – GIS Analysis for flood Hazard Mapping : Case study : Segamat. Johor. To date. . . . 27 Mohd. West Malaysia. coordinating and supervising relief operations during floods. SEMINAR NASIONAL GIS 2006 28 Total Disaster Risk Management .(MB 111016) Page 22 .233 telemetric rainfall stations.
29 Total Disaster Risk Management . we can said that natural disaster will gave effects to human whether in physical and emotional or economically. with geographical data on demography and transportation infrastructure. that is part of strategic social planning.Good Practices –Chapter 3 NorHazren Izatie Mohd . It is also important globally because of the wide range of climate-induced natural disasters and man-made disasters.This system allows the merging of hydrological data.moa. via which rainfall and water level data can be collected for the whole country. Effective natural disaster management planning can help government control and reduce the implication from natural disaster29.NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 The Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID). is an important requirement for developing countries in close proximity to the “ring of fire” zone. We as human need to know how to manage the change. responsible for providing flood forecasting and warning service to the public. has established an Internet-based National Flood Monitoring System known as Infobanjir (http://infobanjir. widely informed and inclusive.my). If we have an effective natural disaster management. hydrological model and geographical information systems (GIS). For the conclusion. if we can well manage the disaster and which would develop the preparedness among the people at large to face any thing and any time. The government has been working closely with the Canadian government to establish the GEOREX Monsoon Flood System for the Kelantan River Basin.(MB 111016) Page 23 . such as river water levels and potential flooded areas. a flood monitoring system integrating remote sensing.
Term Effect of Natural Disasters. West Malaysia.Flood Damage Assessment Model Using CostBenefit Analysis NorHazren Izatie Mohd .html Nikuj Kumar. SEMINAR NASIONAL GIS 2006 Natural Disaster: Counting the cost http://web.00. 2006 – Natural Disasters and How We Cope. 2011 – Short.(MB 111016) Page 24 . 2006 . 2011 – What a Negative Effects Of Natural Disasters? Mohd.worldbank.Good Practices –Chapter 3 Nor Azliza Binti Akbar.com/about/news/economic_losses..Disaster Management P. Haiti and Mozambique most vulnerable to economic losses from natural disasters http://maplecroft.contentMDK:20 169861~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607. 2007 – Disaster Mitigation and Management “PostTsunami Perspectives” Robert Coenraads.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0. the World Greatest Natural Disaster Total Disaster Risk Management .html Jose Arellano. 2006 .NATURAL DISASTER – EFFECT ON PHYSICAL 201 & ECONOMY 1 REFERENCES Devon Willis. Johor. Safie Mohd – GIS Analysis for flood Hazard Mapping: Case study: Segamat. Jegadish Gandhi.
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