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int/growthref/who2007_bmi_for_age/en/index.html WHO. (2004). Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. The Lancet, 363, 157-163. Recommendation: For many Asian populations, additional trigger points for public health action were identified as 23 kg/m2 or higher, representing increased risk, and 27·5 kg/m2 or higher as representing high risk. The suggested categories are as follows: less than 18·5 kg/m2 underweight; 18·5–23 kg/m2 increasing but acceptable risk; 23–27·5 kg/m2 increased risk; and 27·5 kg/m2 or higher high risk. Center of Disease Control (CDC) - supporting programme http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/obesity.htm PROGRAMME nutrition-physicalactivity-obesity http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/states/examples/pdfs/nutrition-physicalactivityobesity.pdf
Lee, S. A., Wen, W. Q., Xu, W. H., Zheng, W., Li, H. L., Yang, G., Xiang, Y. B., & Shu, X. Q. (2008). Prevalence of obesity and correlations with lifestyle and dietary factors in Chinese men. Obesity, 16, 1440-1447. Objective: To estimate the age-adjusted prevalence of general and centralized obesity among Chinese men living in urban Shanghai. Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 61,582 Chinese men aged 40-75. BMI (kg/m2) was used to measure overweight (23 ≤ BMI < 27.4) and obesity (BMI ≥ 27.5) based on the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended criteria for Asians. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was used to measure moderate (75th ≤ WHR < 90th percentile) and severe (WHR ≥ 90th percentile) centralized obesity. Results: The average BMI and WHR were 23.7 kg/m2 and 0.90, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 48.6% and obesity was 10.5%. The prevalence of general and centralized obesity was higher in men with high income or who were retired, tea drinkers, or nonusers of ginseng than their counterparts. Men with high education had a higher prevalence of overweight and centralized obesity, but had a lower prevalence of obesity and severe centralized obesity compared to those with less education. Current smokers or alcohol drinkers had a lower prevalence of general obesity but higher prevalence of
This review addresses the modern epidemic of obesity. The United States is in the midst of an epidemic of obesity involving more than one third of the adult population. D. including dietitians and physicians. and behavior therapists offers the best chance for effective obesity treatment. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. R. exercise specialists. working together to deliver optimal treatment. hypertension. and the prevalence of general and centralized obesity differed by demographic. Obesity as a chronic disease: Modern medical and lifestyle management. International Journal of Obesity. The prevalence of obesity increased by 40% between 1980 and 1990. type 2 diabetes. metabolism. and dyslipidemia. S.centralized obesity than nonsmokers or nondrinkers of alcohol. M. In addition to obesity. lifestyle. 32. A. The past 30 years have seen dramatic changes in the food and physical activity environments. J. Cohen. Lifestyle factors such as proper nutrition. the health risks of abdominal obesity and adult weight gain are discussed. Ex-smokers and exalcohol drinkers had a higher prevalence of general and centralized obesity compared to nonsmokers and nondrinkers of alcohol. S137–S142. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA. Crossley. the strong association between obesity and comorbidities such as coronary heart disease. S9-15.. all rights reserved)(journal abstract) Rippe. and behavioral components. dietitians. additional medical therapies delivered by an interdisciplinary team including physicians. lifestyle. both of which contribute to the changes in human behavior that could explain obesity. Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifactorial etiology including genetics. Prevalence of obesity was associated with high energy intake and less daily physical activity. when appropriate. (1998). & Ringer. This paper reviews documented changes in the food . Obesity is a therapeutic challenge best met by teams of health care professionals. (2008). Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances. and dietary factors. The evidence that supports health benefits from modest weight loss (between 5% and 10% of body weight) is evaluated and the 5 key principles of effective obesity therapy are put forward. A chronic disease treatment model involving both lifestyle interventions and. regular physical activity.. and changes in eating behaviors should be coordinated by this team. Discussion: The prevalence of obesity among Chinese men in urban Shanghai was lower than that observed in Western countries but higher than that in other Asian countries. environment.
Many internal mechanisms favor neurophysiologic responses to food cues that result in overconsumption. The most important environmental changes have been increases in food accessibility. I conducted a series of focus groups. improve client services.environment. 2720. This dissertation aims to determine whether frontline workers in the public education and public health sectors are interested in and willing to work together to solve the problem of childhood obesity. People’s natural response to the environmental cues are colored by framing. hypertension and decreased mobility (Dalton. it is imperative to seek out innovative ways of addressing it. Carpenter. 2006). P. interagency collaborations present an opportunity for agencies to work together to solve wicked problems creatively. tie food to other desirable outcomes. The increases in food marketing and advertising create food cues that artificially stimulate people to feel hungry. and enhance current knowledge. such as food abundance. One of the resolutions proposed by policy scholars is to consider increasing interagency collaborations to minimize miscommunication. Childhood obesity is a "wicked" issue because it is not easily amenable to traditional management strategies (Conklin. External cues. such as conditioning and priming. Designing interagency collaborations between the public education and public health sectors to reduce childhood obesity. often without conscious awareness or control. food salience and decreases in the cost of food. and judgments are flawed and biased depending on how information is presented. and subsequently are unable to change the factors that are responsible for excessive energy consumption. C. food variety and food novelty. Childhood obesity is a growing problem in the United States. and thus increase the frequency that hunger is stimulated by environmental cues. People lack insight into how the food environment affects them. To explore the potential of interagency collaborations between public education and public health. Therefore. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 2004). With changing policy environments. The existence of a metabolic pathway that allows excess energy to be stored as fat suggests that people were designed to overeat. cause people to override internal signals of satiety. 70. Other factors. supplemented by a Delphi . The effects are increased ailments such as early-onset type 2 diabetes. (2009). 1998). changes in the physical activity environment and the mechanisms through which people respond to these environments. Understanding the causal pathway for overconsumption will be necessary to interrupt the mechanisms that lead to obesity. These frontline workers bring the energy and expertise to work directly with overweight children (Vinzant & Crothers.
all rights reserved) Henson. Also. I sought to identify (a) how agency members frame childhood obesity and whether they frame the issues in a similar fashion. and they are the frontline workers who have the ability to make meaningful change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA. However. and (c) whether they have had experiences in and express a willingness to participate in such collaborations. and how psychology can help. Through discussions with frontline workers to include their perceptions of agency decision makers. improving communication between frontline workers across agency boundaries is an important step in. The results of this dissertation align frontline realities with the concept of interagency collaborations. (b) what they view as the main barriers to interagency collaborations. In order to make meaningful change in childhood obesity. Therefore. E. Representatives from both the public education and public health agencies identified poor nutrition and low activity levels as primary causes of childhood obesity. both agencies noted concern about the psychological and emotional well-being of overweight children. According to Sharp (1994)..process. These two service providers were selected because they are confronted with childhood obesity issues on a recurring basis. it is likely that childhood obesity will remain on the policy agenda as policy makers' awareness of its seriousness continues to increase. funding at the state level is needed for public managers to commit to allowing frontline workers to participate in interagency collaborations. Each agency acknowledged that the family lifestyle of the child was a factor that cannot be changed without parental involvement. 2000). Furthermore. K. at education and health agencies in a south central state of the United States where childhood obesity is of considerable concern to public policy makers. educators and health professionals differed in how to address childhood obesity in the agency setting. Childhood obesity in the United States of America with a special focus on Native American reservation dwelling youths: The problem. Yet the participants contend that internal informal networks exist which could become a framework to include frontline workers from other agencies. they have access to the service recipients. (2005). such as time constraints and agency support. Dissertation Abstracts International: . research has shown that they do not collaborate on a routine basis (Blacker. the treatments. it is important to sustain awareness of childhood obesity with state policy makers and agency decision makers.. The participants indicated that current interaction across agency boundaries between frontline workers is rare. coordination between state policy makers and agency champions is needed to identify resources and policies necessary to implement interagency collaborations. However. There are also limitations to these agencies' participation in interagency collaborations which are beyond their control. Additionally.
B. beliefs about wellness. treatment options for Native American youths are sorely lacking and sometimes inappropriate.. Jacobsson. Several treatments have been employed to treat and prevent childhood obesity. including definitions of obesity. Sobko. physical. Childhood obesity has become a significant public health problem in the United States over the last several decades.. 46-52. summer camps.. schoolbased interventions. J. These include: inpatient and outpatient programs. Associations between severity of obesity in childhood and adolescence. emotional and social consequences of the problem. A synthesis of their feedback was incorporated and commented on by the author. (2011). Schitöh. Several factors affect the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. and available treatments for childhood obesity. and socioeconomic status. Danielsson. Professionals assert that programs that involve the parents in the treatment offer the greatest levels of success. mental disorders.Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 35.. and social stigmatization. health psychologists. Current treatment options and success rates are then discussed. community psychologists. such as diabetes. International Journal of Obesity. social and cultural influences. This dissertation reviews the available literature on childhood obesity in the United States. A. present-day status of Native American communities is discussed including a review of the problem of childhood obesity in these communities. Rates of obesity and health related consequences. The author emphasizes that interventions must maintain cultural congruency to be effective and that providers must be willing to attempt interventions outside the cultural confines of their discipline. Obese children are at increased risk of chronic physical health problems. . biological elements. and school psychologists can aid in community treatment and prevention efforts. Childhood obesity also has a significant impact on an often overlooked segment of the United States population. R. which covers onset and maintenance. including poor diet. H. Fredriksson. However. in these communities far outnumber those of the Euro-American population. and surgery. V. 554.. P. contributing factors. Native American health professionals critiqued the treatment recommendation section. prevalence rates. et al. The author then reviews the history of Native American tribes and the development of reservation communities. Svensson. and problems with health care delivery. In the final section the author makes treatment recommendations and makes recommendations for how social psychologists. emotional factors.. obesity onset and parental BMI: A longitudinal cohort study. Next. lack of exercise. Native American reservation dwelling youths. medication regimes. T. 66.
05). 4205 Childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Also. severity of obesity at age 7 and obesity treatment. BMI SDS at age 15 differed by gender (higher for boys) and was positively correlated with severity of obesity at age 7 and negatively correlated with treatment. whereas the age at onset is probably of less importance than previously thought.01). and behavioral risk factors. No correlation with age at onset was found at age 15. The Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) was used to explore the potential pathways by which maternal and paternal behaviors impact children’s health. Children within the highest tertile of the BMI SDS range were more likely to have two obese parents. Maternal employment has been shown to exert considerable influence on childhood obesity. L. 71. Subjects: Obese children (n = 231) and their parents (n = 462) from the Swedish National Childhood Obesity Centre. however little is known about the role of paternal behaviors in children’s overweight and obesity. Childhood obesity has been linked to numerous environmental. The effect of parental BMI was evaluated and in the final models adjusted for gender. J. Severity of obesity at age 15 was significantly correlated with both maternal and paternal BMI (P < 0. Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were applied with severity of obesity (BMI standard deviation score (BMI SDS)) and onset of obesity as dependent variables. Severity of obesity at this age also showed a strong negative correlation with the age at onset of obesity. age at onset of obesity. The role of parental employment in childhood obesity. Results: For severity of obesity at age 7. For age at onset of obesity there was no relevant correlation with parental BMI. Conclusion: The impact of parental BMI on the severity of obesity in children is strengthened as the child grows into adolescence. In addition. a negative correlation was indicated at this age for parental education. a positive correlation with maternal BMI was indicated (P = 0. The current study addresses this important knowledge gap by examining the joint impact of parental influences on children’s overweight and obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI). The influence of parental relative weight primarily affects the severity of childhood obesity and not the timing. this study investigated .Objective: To explore the relationship between severity of obesity at age 7 and age 15. reduced quality of life and significant morbidity and mortality. In particular. Benson. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. and parental body mass index (BMI) in obese children and adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. genetic. age at onset of obesity. as it has been shown to lead to increased health care costs. parental education.
C. Durand. Given parents’ mutual interest in efficiently providing for the health and well-being of their children in terms of relative investments of time and other resources.whether father involvement as measured by paternal weekly work hours plays a significant role in the onset of childhood obesity. The relative importance of parents’ work hours on child body mass outcomes varied with child age. shopping. Logan. with paternal work hours associated with lower child body mass outcomes. E. A. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. The purpose of this critical appraisal was to assess the available literature on the association of maternal obesity as a risk factor for childhood obesity and to explore the implications for incorporating this evidence into practice. but found that paternal employment plays a significant role as well.. talking and reading. Journal of Community Health Nursing. This investigation revealed that parental work hours may impact both the quantity and quality of time spent with one’s child. Thus. This study’s finding that the impact of father’s hours of work on childhood obesity is significant indicates that ignoring this factor may potentially lead to biased and inconsistent findings. and maternal employment predictive of increased risk of childhood obesity.. is a critical public health threat in the United States and worldwide. Association of maternal obesity and childhood obesity: Implications for healthcare providers. building or repair work. & Carruth. with its documented adverse health effects. laundry. Research studies have documented increased rates of childhood obesity associated with maternal obesity. The results of this study point to the need for programs and policies that support parents in their individual and shared contributions to maintaining healthy weight outcomes in children. estimation. 167-176. These findings point to a complex dynamic between parental employment and child weight. F. This study found a significant relationship between maternal employment and child BMI. Healthcare providers are challenged to expand their competencies to . this study found that the relative influence of maternal and paternal employment hours on child BMI differed. younger children being more affected by maternal work hours and older children impacted more by paternal work hours. Additionally. 24(3). and inference must be interpreted with a degree of caution. food preparation. the findings of this research provide theoretical support for the observed asymmetries in parental contributions to child health production. results of studies that omit paternal employment hours from their modeling. Shared parent-child activities found to have an impact on childhood obesity included yard work. (2007). while taking into account the influence of maternal weekly work hours on child weight.
Obese children due to inappropriate growth and development. negative self-image. proper nutrition and exercise habits during early childhood. A three point plan including exercise management. can be incorporated to prevent obesity in children. self-monitoring and recording food intake and physical activity slowing the rate of eating. inadequate activity pattern and negative view of others have found to suffer with poor self-esteem. . 5(2). Together with parents and families. Parents should be educated for various child rearing practices at different stages. lowers self-esteem and affects relationship with peers. anxiety. it becomes a matter of serious concern to make efforts to prevent the epidemic of obesity and its associated health disorders. using rewards and incentives for desirable behaviours. Some authorities feel that social and psychological problems are the most significant consequences of obesity in children. increases stress on the weight bearing joints. Indian Journal of Community Psychology. certain behavior modification strategies. food companies and local governments have an important role in providing opportunities for children to be healthy and active to fight the battle against obesity epidemic. family eating habits. In addition to increasing the risk of obesity during adulthood. 272278. Thus. Although the approach in managing obesity is highly individualized. sadness. diet management and behavior modification can be implemented in routine life of young children.recognize the association of maternal obesity and childhood obesity and to address both primary and secondary prevention of childhood obesity. (2009). Obesity presents numerous problems for a child. social difficulties. The problem of obesity is confined not only to adults but also to children and adolescents. In addition to this. Stopping the cycle of obesity before it becomes the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States is a priority for community health nurses. increased consumption of processed and fast food. asthma. In most of the countries childhood obesity has been found to be associated with heredity. M. for example breastfeeding should be promoted during infancy. dependence on computers and television for leisure and a less physically active lifestyle. Sharma. loneliness and depression. health professionals. Obesity is a global health concern.. is associated with type II diabetes mellitus. limiting the time and place of eating. parents and other family members can play an important role in preventing obesity in children. S. schools. Conceptual nature of childhood obesity and its psychosocial consequences. increases the risk of coronary heart disease. childhood obesity is the leading cause of pediatric hypertension. & Bhanot.
Interventions are largely directed at children's behavior. Dilemmas are fuelled by vogues in research methodology. not replaced. Parents' role in causing and treating their child's condition is one of the major threads traced. pathological. and the vested interests in maintaining the status quo. as history suggests. theories of childhood obesity's etiology have been layered. children themselves. producing an understanding of the condition as complex and multifactorial. specifically diet books and fat camps. I argue that responses to childhood obesity reflect societal values and decisions about apportioning responsibility for children's well-being between parents. . Husky dick and chubby jane: A century of childhood obesity in the united states. but fail to engage with current understandings implicating the macro-environment. 71. to pediatrician's office. Moving from lab. The earliest diagnostic technique—aesthetic judgment—has been supplemented with quantitative techniques. Quantitative techniques have measured different characteristics of children's bodies (size. 2585. Childhood obesity can be readily diagnosed by eye and this is responsible for much of the condition's social valence and how it is experienced. L. The increase is often framed as a sign that modernity is. school nurse's office and home. Recognizing that people enjoy and value certain features of the “obesogenic” environment. requires translations and compromises. ironically.Dawes. and. fat content). Over time. how. Increasing rates of childhood obesity since the 1960s have been attributed to the nature of modern—especially American—society. and why childhood obesity is harmful. but also by practical needs. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. L. and society. Measurement issues are an outcome of continued endeavors to establish whether. a desire to use avant guarde technology. placing major responsibility for managing childhood obesity with children themselves is nonetheless an abrogation of adult responsibilities. contour. In part two. Chapters address biological explanations and drug treatment. family environment and psychological factors (Hilde Bruch as a case study). This thesis examines changes in how childhood obesity has been measured and diagnosed in the twentieth century (Part I) and developments in understanding its causes and treatment (Part II). “Treatment” has been conceptualized as changing the child's macro-environment through social activism. producing a plethora of techniques rather than a definitive method for diagnosing obesity. likely to be ineffective. legal and public health measures. metabolic imbalance and treatment through diet and exercise.
1 years. 1. Pimenta.and age-specific BMI cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. 1443-1448.. E. F. and university graduates from other associations. Beunza. 0. Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse association between meal frequency and the prevalence of obesity in adulthood. all rights reserved)(journal abstract) Sánchez-Villegas. 2.. (2010). & von Kries. 1932-1938. This study included 11.. Research Methods and Procedures: Stature and weight of 4370 German children ages 5 to 6 years were determined in six Bavarian (Germany) public health offices during the obligatory school entry health examination in 2001/2002. A modulation of the response of hormones such as insulin might be instrumental. These effects could not be explained by confounding due to a wide range of constitutional. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between meal frequency and childhood obesity. registered professionals from some Spanish provinces. R. Koletzko. Childhood and young adult overweight/obesity was defined as those cases in which participants reported body shape corresponding to the figures 6–9 (more obese categories) at age 5 or 20. M. four meals.. Küchenhoff. Obesity. 2. M.21) for four meals and 0.2% *95% confidence interval (CI). 18. J.44 to 1. J. Additional analyses pointed to a higher energy intake in nibblers compared with gorgers. H. Childhood and young adult overweight/obesity and incidence of depression in the SUN project.7).8 to 6.4). A. & Martinez-Gonzalez. A. Obesity Research. Obesity was defined according to sex.1+. We aimed to assess the association between childhood or young adult overweight/obesity and the risk of depression. Meal frequency and childhood obesity.Toschke.73 (95% CI.. followedup for 6.825 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort based on former students from University of Navarra.7% (95% CI. Guillen-Grima. and lifestyle factors.2 to 2. and 5 or more meals. Toledo. Results: The prevalence of obesity decreased by number of daily meals: three or fewer meals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA. B. sociodemographic. The adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0. The main exposure was daily meal frequency.89) for five or more meals.8% (95% CI.51 (95% CI. 13(11).29 to 0. Participants were asked to select which of nine figures most closely represented their body shape at ages 5 and 20 years. Discussion: A protective effect of an increased daily meal frequency on obesity in children was observed and appeared to be independent of other risk factors for childhood obesity. respectively..1 to 3. 4. An extensive questionnaire on risk factors for obesity was answered by their parents. (2005). 2. 1. M. A... 0. A subject was classified as incident .
and a stronger association was observed at age 20 years ((HR = 2. (2010). give us hope that there is much work that can and needs to be done. 95% CI = 1. as evidenced by this supplement. & Story. T.50.). E. Fitzgerald H. In light of the desperate need to find solutions to the persistent childhood obesity epidemic after years of limited success. The association between childhood and young adult overweight/obesity and incidence of depression was estimated by multiple-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). CT. Several articles in this supplement were chosen because they specifically address the needs of underserved populations.08). D. New lessons and ideas. Westport. (2008). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA. This chapter will examine social disparities in childhood obesity across three distinct . 95% CI = 1. T.22. -. M. These results.22–4. support treating childhood and young adult overweight/obesity as part of comprehensive adult depression prevention efforts. all rights reserved) Simonton.06–2. Social inequalities in childhood obesity. and those in low-resources communities. such as Latinos. (Eds..case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported physicianmade diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of biannual follow-up questionnaires.12). and Pacific Islanders. In Davies H. 18. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA.. These are exciting times to engage in childhood obesity research. Overweight/obesity at age 5 years predicted an increased risk for adult depression (HR = 1. (subjects younger than 30 years at recruitment were excluded from this last analysis)). US: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group. T. all rights reserved)(journal abstract) Huang. 1-3. S. A journey just started: Renewing efforts to address childhood obesity. if causal and confirmed in other prospective studies. Z. African Americans. this supplement aims to survey the field for evidence of and insights into community-based solutions to the childhood obesity problem. Childhood or young adult overweight/obesity was associated with elevated risk of adult depression. Obesity. thanks to an unrestricted grant from Covidien to The Obesity Society. The opportunity for this supplement came at a turning point in the evolution of childhood obesity research. CT. Westport. This is the first supplement on childhood obesity that Obesity has ever published since its inception. Native Hawaiians.
Reports an error in "Preventing childhood obesity through state policy: Predictors of bill enactment" by Tegan K. H. Hannalori S.. Boehmer. Results: Seventeen percent of bills were enacted. Brownson (American Journal of Preventive Medicine. we will review studies of social inequalities in child obesity by three indices of socioeconomic status (SES): household income and parental educational attainment and occupation. this study sought to identify factors that predict successful enactment of childhood obesity prevention in all 50 states. health professionals are examining policies that address obesogenic environments. and content) and state-level (sociodemographic. This will be followed by an overview of the social disparities in child obesity by race and ethnicity. C. introduction in the state senate. Haire-Joshu. & Brownson. Using a policy research framework. there has been little systematic examination of state legislative efforts in childhood obesity prevention. this chapter will focus exclusively on studies of social inequalities in child obesity among children in the United States. Luke. and industrial) factors associated with bill enactment. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Debra L. S. Correction: "preventing childhood obesity through state policy: Legislative predictors of bill enactment. K. During copyediting. budget . The first section of this chapter will examine how the definition and measurement of childhood obesity may influence our ability to assess the magnitude and health implications of social disparities in child obesity. Haire-Joshu. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-04073-004). and gender. 2008*Apr+. bipartisan sponsorship. however. political. Each of these sections will also consider whether social inequalities in child obesity by race and ethnicity and by SES differ by gender. (2009). D. A. Bill-level factors associated with increased likelihood of enactment included having more than one sponsor. 37(3).. socioeconomic status. Methods: A legislative scan of bills introduced during 2003-2005 in all 50 states identified 717 bills related to childhood obesity prevention. Bates. Luke. Douglas A. D.". T. all rights reserved)(chapter) Boehmer. R. Background: To address the epidemic of childhood obesity. The revised table is presented in the current Erratum. Multilevel logistic regression modeling was performed in 2006 to identify bill-level (procedure.. the 2-letter designation for Alaska was inadvertently listed as “AL” in the fifth column of Table 2 on page 337.. 262262. economic. Finally. composition. Bates and Ross C. 333-340).but profoundly interconnected dimensions of social inequality: race and ethnicity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA. While the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased globally. Vol 34*4+.
Jeanne Holden-Wiltse. and content areas related to safe routes to school. This study provides policymakers. 207221. J.proposals. J.. all rights reserved) Drewnowski. carbohydrate. & Saari. A large clinical sample of obese men and women were asked for a self-generated list of ten favorite foods. 18. and advocacy groups with strategies to develop more politically feasible childhood obesity prevention policies. An indicator of state socioeconomic status was inversely associated with bill enactment. The lists were characterized by frequent instances of foods that are major nutrient sources of fat in the American diet.. Conclusions: In general. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA. preferences for major nutrient sources of fat as opposed to carbohydrate may be a primary characteristic of human obesity syndromes. (1992). Kurth. There was no evidence that selective preferences for a single macronutrient. practitioners. and task forces and studies. bill-level factors were more influential in their effect on policy enactment than state-level factors. State-level political factors. Food preferences in human obesity obesity: Carbohydrates versus fats. economic and industrial variables were not significantly related to bill enactment. increased enactment. including 2-year legislative session and Democratic control of both chambers. were a standard feature of human obesity. including the identification of several modifiable bill characteristics that might improve bill enactment. While obese men listed mainly protein/fat sources (meat dishes) among their favorite foods. obese women tended to list predominantly carbohydrate/fat sources (doughnuts. C. Rather. cake) and foods that were sweet. . walking/biking trails. Appetite. model school policies. A. cookies.. statewide initiatives.
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