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1. Some authors incorrectly give 1882 as Xiong’s year of birth. (Cf. Liu
Shu-hsien, “Hsiung Shih-li’s Theory of Causation,” PEW, 19:4 (Oct ’69)
399.) Xiong states that he arrived at Peking University in 1922 when he was
thirty-seven years old. (Xiong shili, Shili yuyao chuxu [十力語要初續],
Taipei, 1973, p. 17. [Hereafter cited as Chuxu.]) Xiong also states that he
began the draft for his Dujing Shiyao in 1944 when he was sixty sui. (Xiong
Shili, Dujing shiyao [讀經示要], Taipei, 1973, Introduction, p. 4 [Hereafter
cited as Shiyao.]) These two sources indicate that Xiong was born in 1885.

2. Xiong’s name was Dingzhong (定中) and his style was Zizhen (子真). (Cf.
Xiong Shouhui (ed.), Xinhai wuchang shouyi shibian (辛亥武昌首義史編),
Taipei, 1971, Vol. I, p. 189.) Xiong later took the name Shili (十力,
dasabala) a reference to the ten powers of a Buddha.

3. Brief biographies of Xiong in English include Boorman, et. al., (ed.)
Biographical Dictionary of Republican China, Columbia University Press,
New York, 1968, Vol. II, pp. 116-117; and Encyclopedia Britannica, 1969,
Vol. II, pp. 300-301. According to Wing-tsit Chan, Clarence C. Hamilton
wrote the biography in the Encyclopedia Britanica. (Cf. Wing-tsit Chan, An
Outline and Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Philosophy, Yale University
Press, New Haven, 1969, p. 146.)

4. Dujing shiyao, juan (卷) II, p. 91. [Hereafter cited as Shiyao II:91.]

5. Xiong Shili, Mingxin pian (明心篇), Taipei, 1976, p. 183. [Hereafter cited
as Mingxin pian.]

6. Xiong Shili, Shili Yuao [十力語要], Taipei, 1973, juan 3, p. 62b.
[Hereafter cited as Yuyao, III:62b.]

7. Xu Fuguan, Xu Fuguan wenlu [徐復觀文錄], Taipei, 1971, Vol. IV, p. 217;
and Yuyao, op. cit.

8. Yuyao, op. cit.

9. Ibid.

10. Shiyao, III:200. The difference centers on the person of Guan Zhong
through whose ministerial talents the Duke of Huan (663-642 BC) achieved
hegemony over the other feudal princes. Confucius seems to admire Guan
Zhong (Cf. Analects, XIV, 17 & 17) while Mencius is contemptuous (Cf.
Mencius, IIA, 1; and IIB, 2).

11. Yuayo, III:80b.

12. Xiong Shili, Yuan ru (源儒), Taipei, 1972, juan shang (卷上), p. 27b.
[Hereafter cited as Yuan ru, I:27b.]

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid. I:45b.

15. Xu Fuguan, op. cit., p. 217. Xu had forgotten the name of Xiong’s first
teacher but thought it might be Bingli (炳黎). He Bingli (styled Kunge
[何焜閣] ) was in fact the teacher of Xiong’s two boyhood friends Wang Han
and He Zixin and was Wang Han’s brother-in-law. (Yuyao, I:76b.) Xiong
mentions that he and his two friends met with Teacher He for study and
discussion (Cf. Yuyao, ibid.) but Xiong’s first teacher was, however, He
Cheng (何 ), styled Shengmu (聖木). (Cf. Shiyao, II:61a.)

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid. and Yuyao, III:63a. See also Xu Fuguan, op. cit., pp. 127-128.

18. Yuayo, III:63a.

19. Yuan ru, II:3b.

20. Yuyao, IV:58a.

21. Yuyao, III:69b. Xiong later denied that his concepts of “opening “ and
“closing” were influenced by Yan Fu’s use of these terms. (Cf. Shiyao,
III:75; and Mingxin pian, 215.)

22. Yuayo, III:63a.

23. Yuyao, I:59a, and II:57a.

24. Xiong Shili, Tiyong lun [體用論], Taipei, 1976, p. 241. [Hereafter cited
as Tiyong lun, 241.]

25. Mingxin pian, 182.

26. Shiyao, III:86; and Mingxin pian, 151.

27. Chuxu, p. 202.

28. Mencius, IVB, 19. (Cf. D.C. Lau (trans.), Mencius, London, 1970, p.

29. Mencius, VIIA, 25. Lau, op. cit., p. 187 slightly emended.

30. Xiong Shili, Popo xin weishi lun 破破新唯識論), Taipei, 1975, p. 4.
[Hereafter cited as Popo lun.]

31. Cf. Xiong Shili, Fojia mingxiang tongshi (佛家明相通釋),
Taipei, 1974, juan shang, pp. 14b-15b. [Hereafter cited as Foming, I:14b-

32. The Han dynasty work Shuoyuan (說苑) by Liu Xiang (劉向) contains the
story of a supposed visit by Confucius to Zi Sang Bo Zi. See also Analects,
VI, 1.

33. Yuyao, III:63a; and Xu Fuguan, op. cit., p. 128.

34. Yuyao, op. cit.

35. For a biography of He Zixin, see Yuyao, I:80a-80b; for Wang’s, Yuyao,

36. Yuyao, I:77a.

37. Cf. Book of Changes (易經) under the qian (乾) hexagram.

38. Yuyao, I:77a.

39. This is undoubtedly the same He Bingli mentioned by Xu Fuguan, op.
cit., p. 217. Xu gives He’s style as Kunge (昆閣) while Xiong gives it as
Kunge (焜閣). (Cf. Yuyao, I:80b.)

40. Yuyao, I:77b.

41. Yuan run, I:88b.

42. Yuyao, I:77b.

43. Ibid.

44. Hsueh Chun-tu, Huang Hsing and the Chinese Revolution, Stanford
University Press, Stanford, California, 1961, p. 20.

45. Ibid.

46. H.K. Schiffrin, Sun Yat-sen and the Origins of the Chinese Revolution,
University of California, Berkeley, California, 1968.

47. Hsueh Chun-tu, op. cit., p. 20.

48. K.S. Liew, Struggle for Democracy: Song Chiao-jen and the 1911
Chinese Revolution, A.N.U. Press, Canberra, Australia, 1971.

49. Hsueh Chun-tu, op. cit., p. 20. And Xiong Shouhui (ed.), Xinhai
wuchang shouyi shibian (辛亥武昌首義史編), Taipei, 1971, Vol. 1, p. 66.

50. Yuyao, I:78a. Zhang Nanxian claims that Wang Han and Hu Ying first
went to Wuhan to assassinate Tie only to find that he had come and gone.
(Cf. Xiong Shouhui, op. cit., p. 167.)

51. Yuyao, I:78a.

52. For Zhang Nanxian’s account of Wang Han’s assassination attempt on
Tie Liang, see: Zhang Nanxian, Hubei geming zhi zhi lu (胡北革命知之錄),
Commercial Press, Shanghai, 1944, pp. 60-62.

53. Yuyao, I:78a.

54. Mingxin pian, p. 107. The name of the society was probably inspired by
Gu Yanwu’s collected notes entitled Record of the Daily Increase of
Knowledge (日知錄). In his preface to this work, Gu states that he took the
title from Zi Xia’s saying: “He, who from day to day recognizes what he has
not yet, and from month to month does not forget what he has attained to,
may be said indeed to love to learn.” (Legge [trans], Analects, XIX, 5.)

55. Hsueh Chun-tu, op. cit., p. 58; and Yuyao, I:78a.

56. Yuyao, I:81a; and Xiong Shouhui, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 188. See also: Ju
Juesheng, Xinhai zaji meichuan riji hekan (辛亥雜記梅川日記合刊), Taipei,
1956, p. 12.

57. Yuyao, I:81a; and Ju Juesheng, op. cit., p. 12.

58. Xiong Shouhui, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 188.

59. John Lust (trans.), The Revolutionary Army, Mouton & Co., Paris, 1968.

60. Hsueh Chun-tu, op. cit., p. 14.

61. Xiong Shouhui, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 188.

62. Jean Chesneaux, (trans. By Gillian Nettle), Secret Societies in China,
Heinemann Educational Books, London, 1971, p. 15; pp. 43-47.

63. For a description of the Army Special School, see: Ju Juesheng, op. cit.,
p. 12.

64. Mingxin pian, p. 107; and Yuyao, I:81a.

65. Ju Juesheng, op. cit., Xiong’s preface.

66. Yuan ru, I:49a.

67. Ju Juesheng, op. cit., p. 59.

68. Xiong Shili, Qiankun yan (乾坤衍), Taipei, 1976, p. 66. [Hereafter cited
as Qiankun yan.]

69. Yuyao, I:79b.

70. Yu Zi, “Xiong Shili yishi (熊十力逸事), Nei ming (內明), Hong Kong, 44
(Nov. 1975), 3-6.

71. Yuyao, IV:58b; and Shiyao, II:41-42, and 91.

72. Shiyao, II:42.

73. Yuyao, IV:58b.

74. Xiong wrote a book entitled Zizhen xinshu (子真心書) about his change
of heart at this time. I have been unable to locate a copy of the book,
published in 1918.

75. Xu Fuguan, op. cit., p. 219.

76. Cf. Holmes Welch, The Buddhist Revival in China, Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1968.

77. For an English translation, see: Yoshito S. Hakeda, The Awakening of
Faith, Columbia University Press, New York, 1967.

78. For an account of Nanjiu, see: Dong Chu, Zhongri fojiao jiaotong shi
(中日佛教交通史), Taipei, 1970, Vol. II, p. 668.

79. Welch, op. cit., pp. 4-5. Wing-tsit Chan in his Religious Trends in
Modern China (Columbia University Press, N.Y., 1953), p. 60, claims that
Yang himself went to Japan. Yang’s granddaughter, Yang Buwei (楊步偉),
however, does not mention her grandfather going to Japan. (Cf. Welch, op.
cit, and Yang Buwei, Yige nuren de zizhuan (一個女人的自傳), Taipei, 1967.

80. Cf. Wei Tat (trans.), The Doctrine of Mere Consciousness, Hong Kong,
1974, p. LIV. (Hereafter cited as Doctrine.)

81. D. Shimaji’s (鳥地天等, died 1928) introduction to the Japanese
translation of the Completion of the Doctrine of Consciousness-only
(Kokuyaku daizokyo, 國譯大藏經, Vol. X, Tokyo, 1920) states that the
Transmitted Notes and three other commentaries on Xuan Zang’s work were
lost in China during the proscription of 841-846. (For a French translation

of Shimaji’s introduction, see: Sylvain Levi, Materiaux pour l’etude du
systeme Vijnaptimatra, Paris, 1932, pp. 15-42.) Xiong also holds that the
works were lost during the Tang proscription. (Cf. Chuxu, p. 172.)

82. Foming II:4a-7b. For an English translation of the life of Xuan Zang,
see: Samuel Beal, The Life of Hiuen-tsiang, Kegan Paul, London, 1914.

83. For a list of the ten Indian commentators, see: Sylvain Levi, op. cit., pp.
18-22, and Foming, II:6a. Walter Liebenthal is of the opinion that Xuan
Zang did not rely on the commentary of Dharmapala. (Cf. Walter
Leibenthal, “The Version of the Vimsatika by I-ching and Its Relation to
That by Hsuan-tsang,” Yanjing Xuebao (燕京學報), 17 (June 1935) 179-184.)

84. Junjiro Takakusu, The Essential of Buddhist Philosophy, University of
Hawaii, Honolulu, 1949, pp. 85-86.

85. Cf. Yang Wenhui’s preface to the Jinling Scriptural Press 1901 edition of
Kui Ji’s Transmitted Notes. This edition has been reprinted by the Xin
wenfeng chuban gongci, Taipei, 1974.

86. Welch, op. cit., p. 33.

87. Dong Chu, op. cit., Vol II, p. 712.

88. Welch, op. cit., p. 118, and p. 320, fn. 33.

89, Welch, op. cit., p. 204. Tai Xu (太虛, 1889-1947) is considered to be the
leader of the revival of devotional Buddhism.

90. Wing-tsit Chan, op. cit., p. 109; and Chuxu, p. 187.

91. Cf. Etienne Lamotte (trans.), La Concentration de La Marche Heroique,
Institut belge des hautes etudes chinoises, Brusells, 1965. (This sutra is also
known by the abbreviated name of Suramgamasutra.) The Chinese Tripitika
contains another sutra with this title (Taisho 945) but it is a forgery. (Cf.
Yuyao, I:68b; Lamotte, op. cit., p. 106; and M.P. Demieville, Concile de
Lhasa, Paris, 1952, pp. 43-52.)

92. Yuyao, II:9b. And Ju Juesheng, op. cit., p. 59.

93. For a biography of Yue Xia, see: Dong Chu, Zhongguo fojiao jindai shi
(中國佛教近代史), Taipei, 1974, Vol. II, pp. 755-777.

94. Welch, op. cit., p. 341, fn. 1.

95. Xiong Shili, “Tangshi foxue jiupai fandui Xuan Zang zhi anchao,”
(唐世佛學舊派反對玄奘之暗潮), Zhongguo zhexueshi lunwen chuji (中國哲學史
論文初集), Peking, 1959, pp. 97-103.

96. Yuyao, III:63b.

97. Xu Fuguan, op. cit., p. 219.

98. Wang Huatang, “Tan Xiong Shili,” Changliu (暢流), 33:11 (July 1955) 4.
One account says that Xiong was never admitted into the inner circle of
Ouyang’s students. (Cf. Yu Zi, “Fojia mingxiang tongshi,” Neiming, 44
(Nov. ’74) 3-5).

99. Shiyao, II:13, appendix, p. 121b

100. Xiong Shili, Xin weishi lun (新唯識論), Letian Publishing Co., Taipei,
1972, appendix, p. 121b. [Hereafter cited as Xinlun, appendix:121b.]

101. Foming, II:1b.

102. Mou Zongsan (牟宗三) described Xiong to me in these terms.

103. Yuan ru, II:33b. Only a part of this original draft was ever published.
(Cf. Xiong Shili, “Jing xiang zhang,” (境相章), Neixue niankan (內學年刊),
Dingwen Publishing Co., Taipei, 1975, pp. 337-352.

104. The original of this passage can be found in Xinlun, IV:82b-83a. The
translation is that of Tu Wei-ming. (Cf. Tu Wei-ming, “Hsiung Shih-li’s
Quest for Authentic Existence,” in Charlotte Furth (ed.), The Limits of
Change, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1976, pp. 206-207.)

105. Xu Fuguan, op. cit., p. 219. One source claims that Lin Zaiping
recommended Xiong to Cai Yuanpei. (Cf. Wang Huatang, “Tan Xiong
Shili,” op. cit.) Liang Shumin (梁漱溟) recounts the story in “Yi Xiong Shili

Xiansheng” (忆熊 十力先生), published in 1987, in the ninth edition of Du
Shu (读书) magazine.

106. Yuayo, III:55b.

107. Shiyao, III:170. For Cai’s opinions on the classics, see his “Cai
Yuanpei xiansheng de yijian,” in Jiaoyu zazhi (教育雜誌), 25:5 (May ’35) 46-
47. (Reprinted in Dujing wenti (讀經問題), Longmen Book Co., Hong Kong,
1966, p. 46.)

108. Chow Tse-tsung, The May Fourth Movement, Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, 1960.

109. Shiyao, I:8.

110. Shiyao, I:11.

111. Shiyao, I:9. For the original quote, see: Dai Dongyuan ji (戴東原集),
Commercial Press, Shanghai, 1936, part II, p. 30. Hu Shi quotes this same
passage from Dai but interprets it completely differently from Xiong. Hu
says: “Dai Zhen’s uniqueness among Qing Confucians is that he clearly saw
that textual research was not the final end but only a means for
‘understanding the Way.’” (Cf. Hu Shi, Dai Dongyuan de zhexue (戴東原的
哲學), Commercial Press, Shanghai, 1927, pp. 26-27.)

112. Shiyao, I:10.

113. Cf. David Nivison, The Life and Thought of Chang Hsueh-ch’eng,
Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1966.

114. This quote is from the ‘Ten Appendices” (十翼) to the Book of Changes
that Xiong held Confucius authored. (Cf. Shiyao, III:48.)

115. Cf. Guo Zhanpo, Jindai zhongguo sixiang shi (近代中國思想史),
Longmen Book Co., Hong Kong, 1973, p. 495. For Xiong’s correspondence
with Zhang Shenfu, see: Yuyao, I:3a.

116. Foming, II:68a; and Xinlun, appendix:22a.

117. Cf. Liang Shuming, Dongxi wenhua ji qi zhexue (東西文化及其哲學),
Peking, 1922.

118. Chow Tse-tsung, op. cit., p. 329.

119. Shiyao, II:58.

120. Cf. D.W.Y. Kwok, Scientism in Chinese Thought, Yale University
Press, New Haven, 1965.

121. For a biography of Ding, see: Hu Shi, Ding Wenjiang de zhuanji
(丁文江的傳記), Hu Shi Memorial Museum, Taipei, 1973.

122. Kwok, op. cit., p. 149.

123. Lin Zaiping, “Du Ding Zaijin xiansheng de xuanxue yu kexue,” Kexue
yu rensheng guan (科學與人生觀), Shanghai, 1923, pp. 1-8.

124. Chuxu, p. 11.

125. Lyman P. Van Slyke, “Liang Sou-ming and the Rural Reconstruction
Movement,” Journal of Asian Studies, 18:4 (Aug. ’59) 457-474.

126. See Liang’s letter to Lin of 23 September 1918 in: Ding Wenjiang,
Liang Rengong xiansheng nianpu changpian chugao (粱任公先生年譜長篇初
稿), World Book Co., Taipei, 1962, Vol. II, pp. 546-547.

127. Chow Tse-tsung, op. cit., p. 334.

128. Yuyao, II:45a; and Van Slyke, op. cit., p. 466.

129. Chuxu, pp. 17-18.

130. Yuyao, I:53a-54b.

131. Quoted by Yuzi in “Xiong Shili yishi,” op. cit., p. 4.

132. For a short biography of Ma, see: Hashikawa Tokio, Chugoku bunkakai
jimbutsu sokan, Peking, 1940, p. 328.

133. Yuzi, “Xiong Shili yishi,” op. cit., and Qingyuan, “Tan Xiong Shili yu
Ma Yifu,” Changliu, 21:10 (July’49) 2-4.

134. Chuxu, p. 29.

135. Dai Junren (戴君仁, born 1900), of National Taiwan University
remarked to me that their ability to captivate the reader characterize Xiong’s

136. Mou Zongsan, Shengming de xuewen (生命的學問), Sanmin Book Co.,
Taipei, 1970, pp. 133-134.

137. Yuyao, II;47A.

138. Ibid.

139. Chuxu, pp. 148-152.

140. See Xiong’s preface in Ju Juesheng, op. cit.

141. Reprinted by the Letian Book Co., Taipei, in 1973.

142. Huang Genyong was Xiong’s close friend and occasional amanuensis.
Huang compiled juan two and three of Shili yuyao from Xiong’s notes and
wrote a long rebuttal of the Monk Yin Xu’s critique of Xiong’s New Treatise
on Consciousness-only. (Chuxu, pp. 43-131.)

143. Ju Haoran, Cunxin ji (寸心集), Wenxing Publications, Taipei, 1964, pp.

144. For a brief account of Sun, see: Yuan ru, I:59b; and Yuyao, III:79a.

145. Ju Haoran, “Xiong Shili xiansheng qianying,” Zhuanji wenxue
(傳記文學), Taipei, 3:1 (July 1963) 18.

146. Xie Youwei, “Ping Xiong Shili zhu xin weishi lun,” Sixiang yu shidai
(思想與時代), 13 (Aug. 1942) 43-49. (Reprinted in Xie Youwei’s Xiandai
zhexue mingzhu shuping (現代哲學名著書評), Taipei, Xintiandi Book Co.,

1974.) And Xie Youwei, “Ping Xiong Shili zhu dujing shiyao,” Zhejiang
xuebao (浙江學報), 1:2 (Dec. 1947) 96-98.

146. Zho Kanqing, “Huai Xiong Shili xiansheng,” Zhongguo yizhou
(中國一周), Taipei, 599 (Oct. 1950) 890.

147. Cf. Gendai chugoku jimmei jiten (現代中國人名字典), Tokyo, 1972, p.
890. And Xu Fuguan, op. cit., p. 208 and p. 213.