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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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1

FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER

(Mechatronics)

Max Marks: 70

A total of five questions are to be answered with at least two questions from each part Use separate booklets for Part A and Part B ***** PART- A 1 (a) (b) 2 (a) (b) 3 Explain about pressure and state Pascals law. Define pressure and what are the different units of pressure. Define and explain stream line, path line and streak line in fluids. For the following flow, find the equation of the streamline passing through (1, 1) v= 3xi 3yj. A horizontal pipe 50 mm diameter carrying glycerin has shear stress at the pipe boundary as 196.2 N/m2. Find the pressure gradient, mean velocity and Reynolds number. Take glycerin density as 1275.3 kg/m3 and = 80.442 x 10-2 N-s/m2. Explain the design specifications of a Pelton wheel. A Pelton wheel has a tangential velocity of 15 m/sec. The water is being supplied under a head of 36 m at the rate of 20 lit/sec. The bucket deflects the jet through an angle of 1600. If the coefficient of velocity of the nozzle is 0.98, find the power produced by the turbine. Contd. in Page 2

4 (a) (b)

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5 (a) (b)

Explain the Newtons law of cooling. A furnace wall is made of 75 mm thick fire clay brick and 6.4 mm thick mild steel plate. The inside surface of brick is at 6470C and outside air temperature is 270C. Determine: (i) The heat loss per m2 area of the furnace wall and outside surface temperature of the steel plate. (ii) If 18 steel bolts each of 19 mm diameter are used for fixing the steel plate on the brick wall per m2 area of the wall, what is the percentage increase in the heat flux? Take k (brick) = 1.1 w/m 0C, k (steel) = 39 w/m 0C to (outside heat transfer coefficient) = 68 w/m2 0C. Define Reynolds number and wat is its significance. Water is heated from 150C to 500C passing through a tube of 2.5 cm diameter. The velocity of water is 1.2 m/min. The enter surface of the is heated by an electric heater providing uniform heat flux of 15 KW/m2. Find out (i) The length of the tube required (ii) Tube surface temperature at the exit. Take the properties of water at average temperature as = 995 kg/m3, CP = 4.175 KJ/kg 0C, K = 0.615 w/m 0C, = 0.8x10-3 NS/m2. Discuss about the laws of black body radiation. Determine the heat lost by radiation per meter length of 8 cm diameter pipe at 3000c. If (i) located in a large room with red brick walls at a temperature of 270C. (ii) Enclosed in a 16 cm diameter red brick conduit at a temperature of 270C. Take (pipe) = 0.79 and (brick conduit) = 0.93. Explain the working principle of a heat pipe. Find out the length of a tube required for following heat transfer where air is heated by exhaust gases. The heat transfer rate is 3350 KJ/hr. inside and outside diameters of tube are 5 cm and 6 cm respectively. hi (inside for air) = 100 w/m2 0c ho (outside for gas) = 160 W/m2 o c. Thi = 3500c Tho = 1500c, Tci 500C tco = 1000c neglect the tube resistance and assume that the flow arrangement is parallel. If the flow arrangement is counter, what is percentage saving in tube length? *****

6 (a) (b)

7 (a) (b)

8 (a) (b)

Page 2 of 2

Code: 9A14403

2

FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER

(Mechatronics)

Max Marks: 70

A total of five questions are to be answered with at least two questions from each part Use separate booklets for Part A and Part B *****

PART- A

(a) (b)

Discuss factors which affect the viscosity of a liquid. What do you mean by a single column manometer? Explain boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness, momentum thickness and energy thickness. Using Hagen- Poiseuille equation derive an expression for the head loss in a diameter D and length L in terms of Reynolds number and velocity head.

(a) (b)

Define specific speed of a turbine and derive an expression for the same. Show that pelton turbine is a low specific speed turbine. Contd. in Page 2

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Code: 9A14403

2

PART- B

(a) (b)

Distinguish between steady and unsteady state heat conduction. Hot air at temperature of 400C is flowing through steel pipe of 10 cm diameter. The pipe is covered with two layers of different insulating materials of thickness 4 cm and 3 cm and there corresponding conductivities are 0.1 and 0.32 W/m- K. The inside heat transfer coefficient is 50 w/m2k and outside heat transfer coefficient is 10 W/m2-K. Assuming the atmospheric temperature of 100 c, find heat lost from 40 m length of pipe. Neglect the resistance of steel pipe. Define the thermal boundary layer thickness. A steam pipe 5 cm in diameter is lagged with insulating material of 2.5 cm thick. The surface temperature is 800C and emissivity of the insulating material surface is 0.93. Find the total heat loss from 10 m length of pipe considering the heat loss by natural convection and radiation. The temperature of the air surrounding the pipe is 200c. Also find the overall heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer coefficient of radiation. Explain Kirchoffs law. Two large parallel planes with emissivity 0.6 are at 900 K and 300 K. A radiation shield with one side polished with = 0.05 while the emissivity of the other side is 0.4 is proposed to be used. Which side of the shield should face the hotter plane if the temperature of the shield is to keep minimum? Define effectiveness of the heat exchanger. A single shell and 4-pass counter flow heat exchanger is used as an economizer in a steam power plant. The flue gases, (cp = 1060 j/kg K) enters at 2500c and leaves at 1500C with a flow rate of 0.5 kg/s. The feed water enters at 500C with a rate of 0.35 kg/s. Determine NTU and of the heat exchanger.

*****

(a) (b)

(a) (b)

(a) (b)

Page 2 of 2

Code: 9A14403

3

FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER

(Mechatronics)

Max Marks: 70

A total of five questions are to be answered with at least two questions from each part Use separate booklets for Part A and Part B

*****

PART- A

1 (a) (b)

Define surface tension. Derive the relationship between surface tension and pressure inside a droplet of liquid in excess of outside pressure. Explain the principle of orifice meter and derive the equation to find the rate of flow of water through a pipe using the same. Explain hydraulic gradient and total energy lines with the help of example and draw sketches. Explain with a neat sketch of Francis turbine in detail. Contd. in Page 2

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Code: 9A14403

3

PART- B

5 6 (a) (b)

Derive the heat conduction equation in Cartesian coordinate system. Define the velocity boundary layer thickness for flow inside a duct. Air at 200C flows over a plate 60 cm x 30 cm with a velocity of 20 m/s. The critical reynold number is 5 x 105. Calculate the heat flow per hour from the surface of plate assuming the flow is parallel to 60 cm side. Temperature of the plate is 1000 C. The properties of air at mean temperature of 600 C are ; = 1.06 kg/m3(density) Cp = 1008 J/kgK ; K = 0.0285 w/m ; Pr = 0.708 = 18.97 x 10-6 m2/s. Define emissivity and Stefan Boltzmann constant. A long cylindrical heater 2.5 cm in diameter is maintained at 6600C and has surface emissivity of 0.8. The heater is located in a large room whose walls are at 270C. How much will the radiant transfer from the heater be reduced if it is surrounded by a 30 cm diameter radiation shield of aluminium having an emissivity of 0.2? What is the temperature of the shield? Define LMTD for counter flow arrangement. Water enters a counter flow double pipe heat exchanges at 380. Flowing at 0.076 kg/s. It is heated by oil (Cp = 1880 J/kg.k) flowing at the rate of 0.152 kg/s and an inlet temperature of 1160C. For an area of 1.3 m2 and U = 340 w/m2K. Determine the total heat transfer rate.

7 (a) (b)

8 (a) (b)

*****

Page 2 of 2

Code: 9A14403

4

FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER

(Mechatronics)

Max Marks: 70

A total of five questions are to be answered with at least two questions from each part Use separate booklets for Part A and Part B *****

PART- A

Show that the fluid pressure always acts normal to a surface. Give a complete classification of different types of manometers with neat sketches. Derive Bernoullis equation from Eulers equation of motion Mention the assumptions.

3 (a) (b)

Describe with the help of neat sketches, the variation of drag coefficient for a cylinder over a wide range of Reynolds number. Find the loss of head when a pipe of diameter 200 mm is suddenly enlarged to a diameter of 400 mm. The rate of flow of water through the pipe is 250 lps. Explain unit and specific quantities with respect to turbines. Contd. in Page 2

Page 1 of 2

Code: 9A14403

4

PART- B

5 (a) (b)

Explain the Fourier law of heat conduction. Consider a hallow steel sphere of r1 = 10 cm and r2 = 20 cm. The thermal conductivity of steel is 10 w/mK. The inside surface is maintained at 2300C and the outside surface dissipates heat by convection with h= 20 w/m2k. Into atmosphere T= 300C. Determine the thickness of asbestos insulation (k= 0.5 w/mK) required to reduce the heat loss by 50%. Air flows over a thin plate with a velocity of 2.5 m/s. The plate is 100 cm x 100 cm. Estimate the boundary layer thickness at the trailing edge of the plate and the force necessary to hold the plate. Take properties of air: = 0.86 x 10-5 NS/m2, = 1.12 kg/m3. A light oil with 200C inlet temperature flows at a rate of 500 kg/min through 15 cm ID pipe which is enclosed by a jacket containing condensing stream at 1500C. If the pipe is 10 m long, find the outlet temperature of the oil. Take properties of oil at 850C : = 880 kg/m3; Cp = 2100 J/kg k ; K = 0.12 W/MK = 3.6 x 10-6 m2/s. Consider two large parallel plates, one at 900 K with emissivity 0.8 and the other at 250 Kwith emissivity 0.5. A radiation shield is placed in between these two plates with an emissivity 0.2 on both sides. Calculate the reduction in heat transfer between the plants as a result of radiation shield and also determine the equilibrium temperature of the radiation shield. What are the factors to be considered in the heat exchanger design? A fluid whose Cp = 800 J/kg k flows through a counter flow heat exchanger at 3000C with a flow rate of 2.4 kg/s and is heated to 7000C by passing another fluid ( Cp = 960 J/kgk) with a flow rate of 2 kg/s at 10000C. If the cooling fluid is to be increased to 8000C keeping all flow conditions same, find out an increase in heat transfer area.

6 (a)

(b)

7 (a)

8 (a) (b)

*****

Page 2 of 2

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