Goa

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Goa
— State —

Seal

Location of Goa in India

Map of Goa

Coordinates (Panaji): 15.563°N 73.818°ECoordinates: 15.563°N 73.818°E Country Established Capital Largest city Districts Government - Governor - Chief Minister - Legislature - Parliamentary constituency Area - Total Area rank Population (2011) - Total - Rank - Density Time zone ISO 3166 code HDI India 30 May 1987 Panaji Vasco da Gama 2 K. Sankaranarayanan Digambar Kamat {INC) Unicameral (40 seats) 2 3,702 km2 (1,429.4 sq mi) 28th 1,457,723 25th 393.8/km2 (1,019.9/sq mi) IST (UTC+05:30) IN-GA 0.779 (medium)

in ^* Konkani is the sole official language but Marathi is also allowed to be used for any or all official purposes.1 Municipal Corporation & Municipal Councils 6 Flora and fauna 7 Economy 8 Transport 9 Demographics 10 Languages 11 Tourism o 11. it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north.[5][6] Renowned for its beaches.2 Museums and science center . owing to its location on the Western Ghats range.goa.1 Geography o 4. The Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961. The historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese.HDI rank Literacy Official languages Website 3rd (2005) 87% (3rd) Konkani * www.ə/ (Konkani: ) is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India in the region known as the Konkan.[1][2][3] Goa i/ˈɡoʊ. who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year. places of worship and world heritage architecture. Goa is India's richest state with a GDP per capita two and a half times that of the country as a whole. while the Arabian Sea forms its western coast. Contents [hide]            1 Mythological origins 2 Etymology 3 History 4 Geography and climate o 4.gov.[4] Panaji is the state's capital.[4] It was ranked the best placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators. It also has rich flora and fauna. which is classified as a biodiversity hotspot.1 Historic sites and neighbourhoods o 11. while Vasco da Gama is the largest city. and by Karnataka to the east and south.2 Climate 5 Subdivisions o 5.

.. Another legend has that after performing the penance.[7] Even though there are no archeological and historical evidences.2 Theatre o 12.           12 People and culture o 12. He is said to have settled ten sages in this land and performed fire sacrifices.. the seven sages or the Saptarshis were blessed by lord Shiva therefore known as Saptakoteshwar. (see:Hari Vamsha purana)[8] In Suta Samhita Govapuri or Goa is associated with spiritually cleansing touch:..3 Food 13 Architecture 14 Sports 15 Government and politics 16 Media and communication 17 Education 18 See also 19 Citations 20 References 21 Further reading 22 External links [edit] Mythological origins The first literary reference to Goa is mentioned in the Bhishma Parva of Mahabharata as Gomanta which means the region of cows. Certainly there is no other kshetra equal to Govapuri[9] .1 Dance and music o 12. The very sight of Govapuri destroys any sin committed in former existence just as sunrise dispels darkness. Hindu scriptures mention Parashurama. as its creator (see:Skanda Purana:Sahyadrikhanda). Yet another legend says that Lord Krishna defeated Jarasandha the king of Magadha on Gomanchal mountain in Goa. Further Lord Shiva is believed to have taken up temporary residence after having tiff with his consort Parvati.

the bottom of Deccan plateau was lifted up and out of sea-waters by the tectonic movements. “ ” According to the Parshurama legend. Sandabur. In ancient literature. Goa was known by many names such as Gomanta. Jarson D. Gopakapattam. Kunha. Parashurambhoomi is a name that the region is referred to in certain inscriptions and texts such as the Puranas. The sea-god is believed to have acceded his to wish and crated a regionShurparaka (literally:winnowing fan). Govem.(See:Shree Scanda Puran (Sayadri Khandha) -Ed.[12] The Indian epic Mahabharata refers to the area now known as Goa.000 BC. This region is also known as Parashurama Kshetra. and these names were also mentioned in other sacred Hindu texts such as the Harivansa and the Skanda Purana. The Parashurama legend personifies the geological process of elevation of submerged land along the west coast. The Greeks referred to Goa as Nelkinda in the 13th century. and Gomantak.000 BC.[11] [edit] Etymology The name Goa came to European languages from the Portuguese. the sixth reincarnation of lord Vishnu faces with an order of banishment from the lands that he had once conquered. which must have taken place around 12.[10] The legend further tells us that having created Goa thus. Goa being a part thereof. Some other historical names for Goa are Sindapur. Parashurama brought Brahmins from the North and settled them in this land. Gomanchala. In the latter. Marathi version Ed.Lord Parshuram with Saraswat brahmin settlers commanding Lord Varuna to make the seas recede to make the Konkan . but its precise origin is unclear. Gopakapuri. At the decline of the intensity of pluviation in the last Pleistocenic age around 10. formed the West-coast of India. There is evidence to support this theory as indicated by presence of marine fossils. and Mahassapatam.[13] In the third century BCE. petrified roots. which says the extent of Goapuri was about seven Yojanas. Govapuri.000 BC.[8] The evidence provided by the conch (Shankh) at Surla Village. as Goparashtra or Govarashtra which means a nation of cowherds. By Gajanan shastri Gaytonde). fossilied branches have been found later in many villages on the foothills of the Sahyadri dating back more than 10. A similar hymn praising Govapuri city is found in Sahyadrikhanda of Skanda Purana. Goa is also known as Gomanchala. Gopakapuri or Gopakapattanam were used in some ancient Sanskrit texts. fossilized marine conches discovered in 1863. Dr. and is mentioned by the Greek geographer Ptolemy. Thus the geologists concluded that Goa has risen up from seabed as a result of violent tectonic movements. Goa was known as Aparantha. Parashurama. buried seashells and other features of reclaimed topography in the coastal belt. sets seven arrows fly from the Sahyadris to push back the sea and create a stretch of land which he could claim for himself.[14] .

000 years back have been found in many places in Goa like Kazur.[17] These discoveries have shed light on Goa's prehistory. the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra.[19] The rule later passed on to the Chalukyas of Badami. Early Paleolithic and Mesolithic rock art engravings have been found on the bank of river Kushavati at Usgalimal. stone-axe. and the Mandovi-Zuari basin. and choppers dating back 10. Adkon. cones. Shivachitta Paramadideva. Fatorpa. However from 765 to 1015.[18] In 3rd century BC. Mauxim.[16] Palaeolithic cave existence is seen at Dabolim. it formed part of the Mauryan Empire. the Southern Silharas of Konkan ruled . Arli.[15] Petroglyphs. Maulinguinim. Goa was ruled by the Chutus of Karwar as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur (2nd century BCE to the 2nd century CE). Shigao. Sanguem. The early Goan society underwent radical changes when aboriginal locals and the migrants amalgamated. Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat. who controlled it between 578 to 753. Ashoka of Magadha. The Sumerians inhabited Goa around 2200 BC which was followed by several waves of IndoAryan people and the Dravidians from the Deccan. Gold coins issued by the Kadamba king of Goa. ruled by the Buddhist emperor. Western Kshatrapas (around 150 CE). and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris. and AquemMargaon etc. Circa 1147-1187 AD. Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses problems in determination of exact time period.[edit] History Main article: History of Goa Rock cut engraving at Usgalimal Goa's history stretches back to 8000-6000 BC. Pilerne. Diwar. and later the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BCE and the 6th century CE. forming the base of early Goan culture.

The Sé Cathedral at Old Goa. leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa). of which Goa was the largest territory. and by 1370 they were forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. They patronised Jainism in Goa. an example of Portuguese influence. the kingdom's grip on the region was weak. the area fell to the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa. Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur kings with the help of a local ally. when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. By the mid-18th century the area under occupation had expanded to most of Goa's present day state limits. the Indian Army commenced with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa. Coat of Arms of Goa as a Portuguese enclave 1935–1961.[21] In 1312. Daman and Diu into . In 1843 the capital was moved to Panjim from Velha Goa. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da India Portuguesa. However.Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Timayya.[20] Over the next few centuries. In 1510. Portugal refused to negotiate with India on the transfer of sovereignty of their Indian enclaves. After India gained independence from the British in 1947. After that dynasty crumbled. On 19 December 1961. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469.

Most of Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan. with their tributaries draining 69% of its geographic area. On 30 May 1987. and Goa was made India's twenty-fifth state. Goa has more than three hundred ancient tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over a hundred medicinal springs.827 feet). Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa between Molem and Anmod on Goa's border with Karnataka.167 meters (3. The . The highest point is the Sonsogor. with an altitude of 1. the Union Territory was split.the Indian union. Further inland and along the riverbanks. which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats range of mountains. Goa's main rivers are the Mandovi. along with Daman and Diu was made into a centrally administered Union Territory of India. which separate it from the Deccan Plateau. It lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E. has a hot and humid climate for most of the year.702 km2 (1. the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy. Most of Goa's soil cover is made up of laterites which are rich in ferric aluminium oxides and reddish in colour. A specimen of the rock is exhibited in the Goa University. The rocks are classified as Trondjemeitic Gneiss estimated to be 3. Goa. The soil is rich in minerals and humus. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the lifelines of Goa. These rivers are some of the busiest rivers in India. thus conducive to plantation. The total navigable length of Goa's rivers is 253 km (157 mi). with Daman and Diu remaining Union Territories. The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the River Zuari is one of the best natural harbours in South Asia. Chapora River and the Sal. eight marine and about ninety riverine islands. dated by the Rubidium isotope dating method. the Terekhol.429 sq mi). Goa. [edit] Climate Goa features a tropical monsoon climate under the Koppen climate classification.600 million years old. the Zuari. Goa has a coastline of 101 km (63 mi). [edit] Geography and climate [edit] Geography Goa coastline Goa encompasses an area of 3. being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea. Goa has more than forty estuarine.

precipitation days Sunshine hours Jan Sep Oct Nov 32.5) 24.047 (0.7 Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN).7 2.month of May is the hottest.9) (88. and orange denote South Goa.4 120. 7 313.0 248.4) 28.0 (75.1 301.3 13.4) (91.926 (0.185 (9.1 (75.9 (84) 24.9 177.7 (76. the nights are a few degrees cooler. Main article: Districts of Goa .8 512.5 23.0 33.6 20.9 27.6 31.913 (1.2) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 0.1) (73.1) (69.437 (34.21 (74.0 0.4 31.465 (4.6 126.8 4.3 (86.2 25. During March 2008 Goa was lashed with heavy rain and strong winds. These months are marked by nights of around 21 °C (68 °F) and days of around 28 °C (84 °F) with moderate amounts of humidity.8) (78.217 (0. Most of Goa's annual rainfall is received through the monsoons which last till late September.0 297.78) 0.2 0.9 16.8 30.6) (91.5 31.1 1.7 868.2 21.0 33.28 (90.0 300.5 0.2 13.4 90.3) (68.1 2.5 32.6 26.1 0.8) (72. Talukas in purple shades belong to North Goa district.8 22.9) 23.7 251.4 288.9 124.6 291.3) (88.2) Month Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Precipitatio n mm (inches) Avg.0 (88.181 (39.165 (20. due to altitudinal gradation.3 20.3 (67. The monsoon rains arrive by early June and provide a much needed respite from the heat.8 23.3) 29. Further inland.004 (0.[22] Hong Kong Observatory[23] for data of sunshine hours [edit] Subdivisions Talukas of Goa.0 105.4) 19.8) 24.6 (85.008 (0. This was the first time in 29 years that Goa had seen rain during March.5 6.8 (91) Dec Year 32.9) (73.3) 31.8 (83.7) (89.6 23.8 112.0 0.917 (4.0 273.2 11.657 (115.8) (74. seeing day temperatures of over 35 °C (95 °F) coupled with high humidity. [hide]Climate data for Goa Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug 30.2 2.842.1) (88.2 994. Goa has a short winter season between mid-December and February.1) (79.5) 28.

Most of the forests in the state are located in the interior eastern regions of the state.[12] The State has a rich forest cover of more than 1. In the February 1999 issue of National Geographic Magazine. Mormugao (including Vasco). Cuncolim. which is a variation of Black-crested Bulbul.[12] most of which is owned by the government. Salcete (Margao). The North Goa District is further divided into four subdivisions . Sanquelim. the state bird is the Ruby Throated Yellow Bulbul. The Western Ghats.81 sq mi). South Goa District: Margao is the headquarters of the South Goa district. and six taluks. The South Goa District is further divided into three subdivisions . Margao. over 48 kinds of animals and over 60 genera of reptiles. Government owned forest is estimated at 1.Mapusa. and Dharbandora. [edit] Municipal Corporation & Municipal Councils Goa's major cities include Ponda. ragi and other food crops are also grown. an administrator appointed by the Indian government.224. (Canacona) [edit] Flora and fauna Main article: Flora and fauna of Goa Equatorial forest cover in Goa stands at 1. Panaji. and Quepem. have been internationally recognised as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. . Canacona (Chaudi). Bicholim. Sanguem. which form most of eastern Goa. Municipal Corporation (1): Panaji Municipal Councils (13): Pernem. Bicholim.Margao.74 sq mi) whilst private is given as 200 km2 (77. cashewnuts. Pernem.424 km2 (549. Valpoy. Main cash crops are coconuts. and the state tree is the Asan. Goa was compared with the Amazon and Congo basins for its rich tropical biodiversity[citation needed]. Vasco and Panaji. Each district is governed by a district collector. and six taluks. Mapusa. Mapusa. or a more or less continuous urban area.[24] Rice is the main food crop with pulses. Goa's wildlife sanctuaries boast of more than 1512 documented species of plants. Ponda. Bicholim.22 sq mi). sugarcane and fruits like pineapples. over 275 species of birds.424 km².38 km2 (472. Mormugao. Margao. Tiswadi (Panaji) and Ponda. The region connecting the last four cities is considered a de facto conurbation. Quepem.The state is divided into two districts: North Goa and South Goa. Bardez (Mapusa). mangos and bananas. Mormugao (Vasco). Curchorem-Cacora. arecanuts. Sanguem. Quepem. North Goa District: Panaji is the headquarters of the North Goa district. and Ponda. Mormugao. Sattari (Valpoy). Goa's state animal is the Gaur.

pineapples and 'black-berry' ('podkoam' in konkani).6% of the geographic area. Other wildlife sanctuaries include the Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary. wild boars and migrating birds are found in the jungles of Goa. plantations. Crabs. The avifauna includes kingfishers. Molem Wildlife Sanctuary. mango. mynas and parrots.570 GSDP . The important forests products are bamboo canes. Numerous types of fish are also caught off the coast of Goa and in its rivers. cashew and mango trees are present. shrimps.38 km²) of which about 62% has been brought under Protected Areas (PA) of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park.Rice paddies are common in rural Goa. etc. A large number of deciduous vegetation consisting of teak. including the renowned Salim Ali bird sanctuary. Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary. Maratha barks. oysters and catfish form some of the piscine catch. Madei Wildlife Sanctuary. Goa has many famous National Parks. Foxes. Coconut trees are ubiquitous and are present in almost all areas of Goa barring the elevated regions. Since there is a substantial area under private forests and a large tract under cashew. Goa has more than 33% of its geographic area under government forests (1224. which keeps the rodent population under control. [edit] Economy Gross State Domestic Product (in millions of Rupees)[25] Year 1980 1985 1990 3. Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and the Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary located on the island of Chorao. Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary. coconut.550 12. chillar barks and the bhirand. Goa also has a high snake population. jellyfish. sal. Fruits include jackfruits.980 6. lobsters. the total forest and tree cover constitutes 56. Goa's forests are rich with medicinal plants. mangos.

in Goa. Goa's gross state domestic product for 2007 is estimated at $3 billion in current prices. though recent official figures indicate a decline of . Bauxite. Rampant mining in areas rich in Iron Ore and other minerals is now threatening the forest cover as well as posing a health hazard to the local population.190 76. In the winter time. manganese.980 Train carrying iron ore to Marmagao Port. The land away from the coast is rich in minerals and ores and mining forms the second largest industry. is the rainy season). tourists from across India come to spend the holidays. The Marmagao Port handled 31. Mining corporations are also indulging in illegal mining in some areas without proper permits.[26] Tourism is Goa's primary industry: it handles 12%[27] of all foreign tourist arrivals in India. limestone and silica. Rice is the main agricultural crop. The fishing industry provides employment for about forty thousand people. offers part-time employment to a sizable portion of the populace.69 million tonnes of cargo last year. followed by areca. Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. clays. Agriculture.23% (yearly average 1990–2000). Mining in Goa focuses on ores of iron. In the summer time (which.1995 2000 33. Vasco Commercial area in Panaji. tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come to Goa to enjoy the climate. The leaders in the Goan Iron Ore industry include Sesa Goa (now owned by Vedanta Resources) and Dempo. cashew and coconut. while of shrinking importance to the economy over the past four decades. and accounts for over 39% of India's Iron Ore exports. Goa is one of India's richest states with the highest GDP per capita — two and a half times that of the country as a whole — and one of its fastest growth rates: 8.

Goa has two National Highways passing through it. footwear. chemicals. Another source of cash inflow into the state comes from many of its citizens who work abroad and remit money to their families. besides charter flights from the UK. Government-run buses. Arkefly. maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation.[28] Goa is also notable for its low beer. fertilisers. Dabolim Airport is serviced by the following carriers – Air Arabia.the importance of this sector and also a fall in catch. Kingfisher Airlines. and residents depend heavily on their own transport. Germany operated by Thomas Cook. cashew nuts. Jet Airways. the Dabolim Airport. Qatar Airways. However. usually motorised two-wheelers. pharmaceuticals. Monarch Airlines etc. [edit] Transport Most of Goa is well connected by roads. Indian Airlines. Sharjah and Kuwait in the Middle East and from Britain. perhaps coupled with the fact that traditional fishing has given way to large-scale mechanised trawling. In large towns such as Panjim and Margao. Germany. This decision was taken by state government after strong opposition to SEZs by political parties and Goa Catholic Church. Medium scale industries include the manufacturing of pesticides. Netherlands and Russia during the charter flight tourist season. Goa receives international flights from Qatar. The airport also handles a large number of chartered flights. is both a military and civilian airport catering to domestic and international airlines that stop en route to other Indian destinations.  Air Goa's sole airport. SpiceJet. tubes. NH-17 runs along India's west coast and . fruits and fish canning. tyres.  Road Goa's public transport largely consists of privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Condor. steel rolling. The Goa government has recently decided to not allow any more special economic zones (SEZs) in Goa. wine and spirits prices due to its very low excise duty on alcohol. Dubai. intra-city buses ply. SEZs are known to bring tax revenues for the government and employment option for local citizens since industries flock there for lower tax rates as compared to other areas. textiles. public transport in Goa is less developed. wheat products. Russia. brewery products. Netherlands. This is in stark contrast to policy followed by other states of India. Currently there are 16 planned SEZs in Goa. links both major routes (like the Panjim–Margao route) and some remote parts of the state. Go Air.

 Rail Margao railwaystation Goa has two rail lines—one run by the South Western Railway and the other by the Konkan Railway. River crossings in Goa are serviced by flat-bottomed ferry boats. NH-4A running across the state connects the capital Panjim to Belgaum in east. petroleum. Much of the shipments consist of minerals and ores from Goa's hinterland. operated by the river navigation departments. coal and international containers. The line run by the South Western Railway was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama.  Sea The Mormugao harbour near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore. auto rickshaws. operated by drivers who are locally called "pilots". also has a minor port. which was built during the 1990s. which is situated on the banks of the Mandovi. These vehicles transport a single pillion rider. via Dabolim airport. Goa has a total of 224 km (139 mi) of National highway. Verna. Panjim. 232 km (144 mi) of state highway and 815 km of district highway. and the new NH-17B. The Konkan Railway line. at fares that are usually negotiated. in urban areas. [edit] Demographics See also: Goans [show]Population Growth . which used to handle passenger steamers between Goa and Mumbai till the late 1980s. Karnataka via Margao. Goa with Hubli. and. The NH-17A connects NH-17 to Mormugao Harbour from Cortalim. runs parallel to the coast connecting major cities on the western coast. There was also a short-lived catamaran service linking Mumbai and Panaji operated by Damania Shipping in the 1990s. A unique form of transport in Goa is the Motorcycle taxi. linking Goa to cities in the Deccan.links Goa to Mumbai in the north and Mangalore to the south. Hired forms of transport include unmetered taxis. is a four lane highway connecting Mormugao Harbour to NH-17 at another location.

65% 26% 6% 3% [edit] Languages The Goa. making it India's fourth smallest (after Sikkim.998.344 million residents.[34] Goa also is the State with lowest proportion of Scheduled Tribes at 0.[37] Whilst there have been demands for according Marathi and Konkani in the Roman script co-equal status in the state.21% of the people in the state.41%).210 (6%) were Muslims.A native of Goa is called a Goan in English. 970 (0. Daman and Diu Official Language Act.[30] Goa is the State with highest proportion of Urban Population with 49.551 (65%) were Hindus. Jains (0. The birth rate is 15. Religion in Goa[36] Religion Percent Hinduism   Christianity   Islam   Others†   Distribution of religions †Includes Sikhs (0. Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh). 886.[36] Hindu-Christianity Unity Memorial at Miramar Beach.[38][39] Konkani is spoken as a native language by about 61.06%) and Others (0.000 people in 2007. Goa has a population of 1. The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. 820 (0.04%) were Buddhists.06%) were Jains and 3530 (0.07%). Goenkar ( ) in Konkani.[32] The literacy rate of Goa is over 87%.24%). but provides that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". Buddhists (0. 359.568 (26%) were Christians. Konkani remained the sole official language. Govekar ( ) in Marathi. As of October 2008.24%) belonged to other religious communities.12%).04%). 92.70 per 1. Other linguistic minorities in the state as of 1991 are Marathi (27.76% of the population living in urban areas.9% per decade.[33] The sex ratio is 968 females to 1000 males.343.07%) were Sikhs. Kannada (3.[35] According to the 2001 census out of a total population of 1.04% in India. 649 (0. The population has a growth rate of 14. 1987 makes Konkani in the Devanagari script the sole official language of Goa. Urdu .[31] There are 363 people for each square kilometre of the land.

in Goa. tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come to Goa to enjoy the climate. In 2010. are spoken by the recent migrants and not the natives.41% 8.[41] Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In the summertime (which.2 million of whom were from abroad. In the winter time. is the rainy season). about 1. and Hindi (2.81%). tourists from across India come to spend the holidays. Languages in Goa Language Percent Konkani Marathi Kannada Others/English†         61.21% 27.[citation needed] .(2. there were more than two million tourists reported to have visited Goa.09%).12% 3.26% [edit] Tourism See also: Tourism in Goa Taj Hotels Fort Aguada Beach Resort Baga Creek Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa. with decreased tourist activity inland.[40] All these minority languages except Marathi . The Portuguese language was used extensively as an administrative language during the colonial era but today it is not widely spoken.

many of these were demolished and reconstructed in the indigenous Indian style.With the rule of the Portuguese for over 450 years and the consequential influence of Portuguese culture. The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches. culture and heritage in Old Goa are other tourism destinations. Fontainhas in Panaji has been declared a cultural quarter. and temples. Gaspar Dias and Cabo de Rama.[citation needed] Also. notably the Shanta Durga Temple. showcasing the life. architecture and culture of Goa. Fort Aguada and a new wax museum on Indian history. Chapora. though in some villages. In many parts of Goa. Corjuem. Once every twelve years. [edit] Museums and science center Goa also has a few museums. regarded by many Catholics as the patron saint of Goa (the patron of the Archdiocese of Goa is actually the Blessed Joseph Vaz). the Mangueshi Temple and the Mahalasa Temple. The last such event was conducted in 2004. mansions constructed in the Indo-Portuguese style architecture still stand. The Bom Jesus Cathedral. Some influences from the Portuguese era are visible in some of Goa's temples. most of them are in a dilapidated condition. which is located in Panjim.[44] [edit] People and culture Main article: Culture of Goa . The Aviation museum is the only one of its kind in the whole of India. the two important ones being Goa State Museum and the Naval Aviation Museum. Francis Xavier. Aguada. Vagator Beach. [edit] Historic sites and neighbourhoods Goa has two World Heritage Sites: the Bom Jesus Basilica[42] and churches and convents of Old Goa. the body is taken down for veneration and for public viewing. churches. although after 1961. Goa presents a somewhat different picture to the foreign visitor than other parts of the country. There are many forts in Goa such as Tiracol. The Velhas Conquistas regions are also known for its Goa-Portuguese style architecture. The Basilica holds the mortal remains of St.[43] The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) is also located in Goa at Dona Paula. a place not well known to tourists is the Goa Science Center.

Bhajan and Kirtan. Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. Goan cuisine is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes cooked with elaborate recipes. Tiatr and Zagor are the chief forms of Goa's traditional performance arts. Xacuti. The tableau of Goa showcases religious harmony by focusing on the Deepastambha. signify unity in diversity. the Cross. Diwali. Kala and Rathkala. chorisa and Sorpotel are cooked for major occasions among the Goan Catholics. fugdi. An exotic Goan vegetable stew. Khatkhate . While Goa trance never achieved widespread popularity itself. spices and vinegar giving the food a unique flavour. Coconut and coconut oil are widely used in Goan cooking along with chili peppers. Many famous Indian Classical singers hail from Goa. Shigmo Mel or the Holi and Spring celebrations. The festival of music and dance. techno. [edit] Dance and music Goan Hindus are very fond of Natak. Goa is also known as the origin of Goa trance. keyboard artists. and guitarists are part of the show and give the background score. Some traditional Goan art forms are dekhnni. Western royal attire of kings and regional dances being performed depict the unique blend of different religions and cultures of the State. Goulankala. Dashavatari. it heavily influenced later forms of music such as psytrance. Hindu and Christian alike. Other forms are Ranmale. The Goan Carnival and new year celebration is known to attract a large number of tourists. Samvatsar Padvo. Lalit. Kesarbai Kerkar. and dubstep. is a very popular dish during the celebrations of festivals. Dasara etc. Easter. Kalo.[45] Prominent local festivals are Chavoth. including Kishori Amonkar.[46][47] The drummers. Stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata along with more modern social subjects are narrated with song and dance. Pork dishes such as Vindaloo. Jitendra Abhisheki and Pandit Prabhakar Karekar. [edit] Theatre Natak. [edit] Food Rice with fish curry (Xit kodi in Konkani) is the staple diet in Goa. corridinho. Mando and dulpod. Christmas.Shanta Durga temple at Kavlem. known as Khatkhate. Shigmo.

and special Goan spices that add to the aroma. Goan Hindu houses do not show any Portuguese influence. Since the Portuguese ruled for four centuries. Hitt are variants of idli and Polle.[citation needed] See also: Goan cuisine. The most popular alcoholic beverage in Goa is feni. People living in the houses can only renovate the insides – the outside look has to be left as it is. (July 2009) Goan-Portuguese villa Fontainhas is a protected area in Panjim for its old architecture. Cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the fruit of the cashew tree. Islamic and Portuguese styles. Music of Goa. Sannas. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. .are native to Goa. Specific concerns may be found on the talk page. fresh coconut.contains at least five vegetables. The architecture of Goa is a combination of Indian. and Goa literature [edit] Architecture This section's tone or style may not reflect the formal tone used on Wikipedia. A rich egg-based multi-layered sweet dish known as bebinca is a favourite at Christmas.Kailoleo are variants of dosa. many churches and houses bear a striking element of the Portuguese style of architecture.Amboli. while coconut feni is made from the sap of toddy palms.

[50][51] On 22 December 1959. and Roberto Fernandes have all captained the national team at one time or another. is located at Margao and also hosts cricket matches. Goa has two seats in the Lok Sabha. A bench of the High Court is present in Panaji. Goa also has its own state football league.[48] The original Goan temple architecture fell into disuse as the temples were demolished by the Portuguese and the Sthapati known as Thavayi in Konkani were converted to Christianity though the wooden work and the Kavi murals can still be seen.[50] is the locus of football in the country and is home to many football clubs in India's I-League. known as Panjim in English and earlier called Pangim in Portuguese times.has announced that the Goa Swarm will be a member franchise. William Robert Lyons established the sport as part of a "Christian education". Goa's legislative assembly building is located in Porvorim – the seat of the Goa assembly. Dilip Sardesai remains the only Goan to date to play international cricket for India. and Portuguese architecture. Vasco Sports Club and Sporting Clube de Goa.an American football league slated for a November 2012 kickoff . and known in the local language as Ponnje is the administrative capital of Goa lying on the left bank of the Mandovi near Panaji. which is the capital of Goa's neighbouring Maharashtra state). The biggest peak of the league is Goa pro league which is sponsored by Kingfishers. along with West Bengal and Kerala. and it will be Goa's first professional American football franchise. The state's football powerhouses include Salgaocar. Dempo. Goa's capital is Panaji. as the state comes under the Bombay High Court. Hemadpanthi. Churchill Brothers. [edit] Sports Football is a popular sport in Goa and is embedded in Goan culture.though the modern temple architecture is a spectacular amalgam of original Goan temple style with Dravidian. and four of them. Goa is one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season. Goa Football Association. which follow the British Indian model of . The state's judicial hierarchy relates to Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay. [edit] Government and politics In the Parliament of India. the Associação de Futebol de Goa was formed. which lies across the Mandovi River. and one seat in the Rajya Sabha.[50] Goa. Islamic. namely Brahmanand Sankhwalkar. see Goans in sports.[49] (see:Goa:Hindu temples and deities by Rui Gomes Periera). Unlike other states. Mauricio Afonso. Goa has its own cricket team.[50] Its origins in the state are traced back to 1883 when the visiting Irish priest Fr.[52] A number of Goans have represented India in football. which continues to administer the game in the state under the new name. Fatorda (or Nehru stadium).[53] The Elite Football League of India (EFLI) . Bruno Coutinho. The Swarm's first season will be played in Pune.[54][55] For more details on this topic. The state's main football stadium. one representing each district.

Idea Cellular. The All India Radio is the only radio channel in the state. Radio Mirchi at 98. the Nationalist Congress Party and the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party. Local newspaper publications include the English language The Herald (Goa's oldest. channels are received via satellite dishes. The Congress party and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) are the two largest parties in the state. A by-election in June 2005 saw the Congress coming back to power after winning three of the five seats that went to polls. The governor's role is largely ceremonial. has been retained by the Goa government. Goa has a unicameral legislature consisting of a forty member Legislative Assembly. The governor is appointed by the President of India. In the assembly poll of 2007. Goa is now notorious for its political instability having seen fourteen governments in the span of the fifteen years between 1990 and 2005. Digambar Kamat and the Leader of Opposition is Mr. which suspended the legislature. In addition to these. the national television broadcaster.8 MHz.7 MHz. The Times of India and the Indian Express are also received from Mumbai and Bangalore in the urban areas. broadcasting in both FM and AM bands.civil laws framed for individual religions. Tata Sky & DD Direct Plus. based on the Napoleonic code. Uninor. became the first college in the state to launch a campus community radio station 'Voice of Xavier's'. headed by a Chief Minister who wields the executive power. After having stable governance for nearly thirty years up to 1990. Tata Indicom/Tata DoCoMo and BSNL CellOne. AIR's FM channel is called FM Rainbow and is broadcast at 105. Channels are received through cable in most parts of Goa. Manohar Parrikar. The present Chief Minister of Goa is Mr. In the interior regions. Among the list of officially-accredited newspapers are Sunaparant in Konkani (Devanagari script). Gyan Vani. Reliance Infocomm. Major cellular service operators include Bharti Airtel. the Portuguese Uniform Civil Code. Two AM channels are broadcast. the primary channel at 1287 kHz and the Vividh Bharati channel at 1539 kHz. The Navhind .3 MHz. Mapusa.[56] In March 2005 the assembly was dissolved by the governor and President's Rule was declared. has two free terrestrial channels on air. but plays a crucial role when it comes to deciding who should form the next government or in suspending the legislature as has happened in the recent past. Doordarshan. run by IGNOU broadcast from Panaji at 107. the Gomantak Times and the Navhind Times. There is also an educational radio channel. and Radio Indigo at 91.9 MHz. Vodafone Essar (Previously Hutch). St Xavier's College. Congress-led coalition won and started ruling the state. once a Portuguese language paper known as O Heraldo). The Times of India has recently started publication from Goa itself serving the local population news directly from the state capital. Private FM radio channels available are Big FM at 92.4 MHz.[57] Other parties include the United Goans Democratic Party. Both of them are Brahmins.[58] [edit] Media and communication Main article: Media in Goa Goa is served by almost all television channels available in India. DTH (Direct To Home) TV services are available from Dish TV. In 2006. The ruling government consists of the party or coalition garnering the most seats in the state elections and enjoying the support of a simple majority of the House.

Most students in Goa complete their high school using English as the medium of instruction. Primary schools. Sanatan Prabhat. Two years of college is followed by a professional degree. weekly) Goa Messenger'. Goa has a literacy rate of 87% with 90% of males and 84% of females being literate.Times. each having a school run by the government. All are dailies. Vavraddeancho Ixtt (Roman-script Konkani. Due to the low levels of corruption and the quality of the government schools. The Herald Times and The Gomantak Times in English. students join a Higher Secondary school. There are also a few schools run by the all-India ICSE board or NIOS board. Additionally.[60] After ten years of schooling. Law and Commerce. got married to a beautiful white lady when he was in Goa as well.[59] Each taluka is made up of villages. monthly). made a romantic-comedy film called Goa (film). Bimb (Devanagari-script Konkani) . enrollment for vernacular media has seen a fall in numbers in favour of English medium education.Vasco Watch.Gulab (Konkani. Goa University is the sole university in the state located in Taleigao and all Goan colleges are affiliated to it.A student may also opt for a course in vocational studies.Gomantak. The Goa Engineering College and Goa Medical College are run by the state whereas the other three engineering colleges are run by private organisations. three youngsters who were born and raised in a village had decided to run away. and Tarun Bharat. also known as Kollywood. director Venkat Prabhu hailing from Tamil Cinema . All schools come under the Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education whose syllabus is prescribed by the state Education department. Due to particular events. on the other hand are largely run in Konkani and marathi (in private. In this movie. [edit] Education Main article: Education in Goa Goa University According to the 2011 census. which offers courses in popular streams such as Science. many join three year diploma courses. the three of them decided to to Goa where their goal of marrying a white woman would be fulfilled when a not-so-handsome friend of theirs. As is the case in most of India. There are four engineering colleges and one medical college in the state. Arts. monthly). but government-aided schools). compared to the rest of the country. Navprabha. As per a report published in the times of India. Govadoot (all in Marathi). Goan Observer (English. In 2010. 84% of Goan schools run without an administrative head. Goa Times. . weekly). Other publications in the state include Goa Today (English-language. private schools are less in demand.

Dhempe College. BITS Pilani Goa Campus near Dabolim. .M. hotel management and cuisine. commerce and science.N. BITS Pilani university started its Third Campus. the Progress high school.Among the best known schools in Goa include Vidya Prabhodini at Porvorim. Shiroda. Among the best known colleges in Goa include V. choose to take up courses in other states as the demand for a course in Goa is more than that available. Chowgule College.M's college of Arts Science and Commerce. NCAOR and the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) in Vasco and Panjim.V. Vasco da gama which impart technical and vocational training. Don Bosco College. Verna and the Institute of Shipbuilding Technology.Salgaocar Higher Secondary School in Margao G. J.Samiti's I. A.B. architecture and dentistry along with numerous private colleges offering law. The Goa University also offers Bachelors and Masters degrees in Portuguese.M's R. Damodar College. often as a third language in some schools. Carmel College.V. D.A higher secondary school. High school in Dhawali-Ponda. there are quite a few polytechnic institutions such as the Father Agnel Polytechnic. however. Mahila And Nutan English High School in Margao. arts. Mushtifund high school in Panaji.B.D.J. Vidya Bharati. There are also colleges offering pharmacy. The private engineering colleges are Shree Rayeshwar Institute of Engineering and Information Technology. Don Bosco High School. Goa is also well known in India for courses in marine engineering. Verna.S. Manovikas in Margao and the prestigious Sharada Mandir School in Miramar.V. etc. K. There is also two National Oceanographic Science related centres. The State also hosts one of the best business school in the country – the Goa Institute of Management which is autonomous and was founded in 1993 by Romuald D'Souza. Portuguese is taught as a part of the school curriculum. In addition to the engineering colleges. MES College. S. St Xavier's College. Hedgewar High School. De Almeida high school in Ponda.M's S. In 2004. and Padre Conceicao College of Engineering. Many residents. People's high school. fisheries.

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