INTRODUCTION

In computing, virtualization is the creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as a hardware platform, operating system, storage device, or network resources. Virtualization is software technology which uses a physical resource such as a server and divides it up into virtual resources called virtual machines (VM's). Virtualization allows users to consolidate physical resources, simplify deployment and administration, and reduce power and cooling requirements. While virtualization technology is most popular in the server world, virtualization technology is also being used in data storage such as Storage Area Networks, and inside of operating systems such as Windows Server. The usual goal of virtualization is to centralize administrative tasks while improving scalability and overall hardware-resource utilization. With virtualization, several operating systems (OSs) can be run in parallel on a single CPU. This parallelism tends to reduce overhead costs and differs from multitasking, which involves running several programs on the same OS.

Definitions: Virtualization  A layer mapping its visible interface and resources onto the interface and resources of the underlying layer or system on which it is implemented  Purposes  Abstraction – to simplify the use of the underlying resource (e.g., by removing details of the resource’s structure)  Replication – to create multiple instances of the resource (e.g., to simplify management or allocation)  Isolation – to separate the uses which clients make of the underlying resources (e.g., to improve security)  Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)  A virtualization system that partitions a single physical ―machine‖ into multiple virtual machines.  Terminology  Host – the machine and/or software on which the VMM is implemented  Guest – the OS which executes under the control of the VMM.

The words host and guest are used to distinguish the software that runs on the actual machine from the software that runs on the virtual machine.[1][2] In hardware virtualization. may need modifications to run in this virtual environment. Guest programs need to be specifically modified to run in this environment. a hypervisor is not the same as an emulator. Hardware:Hardware virtualization or platform virtualization refers to the creation of a virtual machine that acts like a real computer with an operating system.TYPES OF VIRTUALIZATION I. however. a computer that is running Microsoft Windows may host a virtual machine that looks like a computer with Ubuntu Linux operating system. Paravirtualization: A hardware environment is not simulated. 3. both are computer programs that imitate hardware. and the guest machine is the virtual machine. a hypervisor (a piece of software) imitates a particular piece of computer hardware or the whole computer altogether. the host machine is the actual machine on which the virtualization takes place. . Some guest programs. For example. The software or firmware that creates a virtual machine on the host hardware is called a hypervisor or Virtual Machine Monitor. which typically consists of a guest operating system. Hardware-assisted virtualization is a way of improving the efficiency of hardware virtualization. but their domain of use in language differs. Furthermore. Ubuntu-based software can be run on the virtual machine. therefore. to run unmodified 2. It involves employing specially-designed CPUs and hardware components that help improve the performance of a guest environment. Full virtualization: Almost complete simulation of the actual hardware to allow software. the guest programs are executed in their own isolated domains. a piece of hardware imitates another. Partial virtualization: Some but not all of the target environment is simulated. while in hardware virtualization. Software executed on these virtual machines is separated from the underlying hardware resources. Hardware virtualization is not the same as hardware emulation: in hardware emulation. Different types of hardware virtualization include: 1. as if they are running on a separate system.

session virtualization can be accomplished using a single PC with multiple monitors keyboards and mice connected. the host computer in this scenario becomes a server computer capable of hosting multiple virtual machines at the same time for multiple users. without being tied to a single client device. the user interacts with the host computer over a network connection (such as a LAN. client architectures also continue to evolve in order to take advantage of the predictability.[4] Selected client environments move workloads from PCs and other devices to data center servers. efficient client environment that is easier to maintain and able to more quickly respond to the changing needs of the user and business.[3]. session virtualization. can be thought as a more advanced form of hardware virtualization: Instead of directly interacting with a host computer via a keyboard. continuity. For users. mouse and monitor connected to it. Each is given a desktop and a personal folder in which they store their files. Wireless LAN or even the Internet) using another desktop computer or a mobile device. virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI).[3] As organizations continue to virtualize and converge their data center environment. this means a more centralized. Having Virtual Desktops allows for development to be implemented quicker and more expertly. With Multiseat configuration. allows multiple users to connect and log into a shared but powerful computer over the network and use it simultaneously. Moving your desktop environment to the cloud also allows for less single points of failure if you allow a third party to control your security and infrastructure.II. and quality of service delivered by their Converged Infrastructure. with applications and client operating environments hosted on servers and storage in the data center. In addition. this means they can access their desktop from any location. For example. Desktop:Desktop virtualization is the concept of separating the logical desktop from the physical machine. Proper testing can also be done without the need to disturb the end user. users moving between work locations can still access the same client environment with their applications and data. Using Desktop Virtualization allows your company to stay more flexible in an ever changing market. companies like HP and IBM provide a hybrid VDI model with a range of virtualization software and delivery models to improve upon the limitations of distributed client computing. Since the resources are centralized. One form of desktop virtualization.[6] [7] Another form.[5] For IT administrators. [8] . creating wellmanaged virtual clients.

Network: Network virtualization.g. the process of completely abstracting logical storage from physical storage Distributed file system Storage hypervisor VI. the hosting of individual applications in an environment separated from the underlying OS. Software:   Operating system-level virtualization. it virtualizes only specific slices of dependent behavior critical to the execution of development and testing tasks. creation of a virtualized network addressing space within or across network subnets . the decoupling of the database layer. Service virtualization. structures and storage Database virtualization. hosting of multiple virtualized environments within a single OS instance Application virtualization and workspace virtualization. giving an application program the impression that it has contiguous working memory. Memory:  Memory virtualization. emulating the behavior of dependent (e. IV. Storage:   Storage virtualization. isolating it from the underlying physical memory implementation V. third-party. Application virtualization is closely associated with the concept of portable applications. the presentation of data as an abstract layer. Data:  Data virtualization. Rather than virtualizing entire components.III. evolving. or not implemented) system components that are needed to exercise an application under test (AUT) for development or testing purposes. which lies between the storage and application layers within the application stack VII. independent of underlying database systems. aggregating RAM resources from networked systems into a single memory pool Virtual memory.

depending on the hardware access policy implemented by the virtualization host.HARDWARE VIRTUALIZATION (in detail) Computer hardware virtualization (or hardware virtualisation) is the virtualization of computers or operating systems. both in resources required to run the hypervisor. Reasons for virtualization: In the case of server consolidation. Access to physical system resources (such as the network access. many hosts allow the execution of complete operating systems. keyboard. but nowadays the terms "hypervisor" or "virtual machine monitor" are preferred. Instead.[citation needed] The creation and management of virtual machines has been called "platform virtualization". for its guest software. display. more recently. and disk storage) is generally managed at a more restrictive level than the host processor and system-memory. instead showing another abstract computing platform. the software that controlled virtualization was called a "control program". a virtual machine (VM). Platform virtualization is performed on a given hardware platform by host software (a control program). It hides the physical characteristics of a computing platform from users. Virtualization often exacts performance penalties. many small physical servers are replaced by one larger physical server to increase the utilization of costly hardware resources such as CPU. and as well as in reduced performance on the virtual machine compared to running native on the physical machine. Guests are often restricted from accessing specific peripheral devices. typically OSs are not. a term which itself dates from the experimental IBM M44/44X system. with several notable caveats. The large server can "host" many such "guest" virtual machines. Although hardware is consolidated. .[citation needed] Concept:The term "virtualization" was coined in the 1960s to refer to a virtual machine (sometimes called "pseudo machine"). The guest software executes as if it were running directly on the physical hardware. or may be limited to a subset of the device's native capabilities. or "server virtualization". each OS running on a physical server becomes converted to a distinct OS running inside a virtual machine. which creates a simulated computer environment.[1][2] At its origins. The guest software is not limited to user applications. This is known as Physical-to-Virtual (P2V) transformation.

be duplicated and installed on multiple hosts. without the need to transport the physical computer. depending on the virtualization software used. a salesperson going to a customer can copy a virtual machine with the demonstration software to his laptop. such as may occur when studying malware or installing     . when multiple VMs are concurrently running on the same physical host. unless proper techniques are used for temporal isolation among virtual machines. so there is no risk of breaking down the OS on the laptop. Because of the easy relocation. Server virtualization: Multiple virtual servers could be run on a single physical server. A virtual machine can easily be relocated from one physical machine to another as needed. each VM may exhibit a varying and unstable performance. and its configuration is more flexible. which highly depends on the workload imposed on the system by other VMs. an error inside a virtual machine does not harm the host system. or restored to a previously backed-up system state. A typical server runs at 425W[3] and VMware estimates an average server consolidation ratio of 10:1. Duplicating specific environments: A virtual machine could.[5] A new virtual machine can be provisioned as needed without the need for an up-front hardware purchase.[4] A virtual machine can be more easily controlled and inspected from outside than a physical one. in order to more fully utilize the hardware resources of the physical server.     However. Creating a protected environment: if a guest OS running on a VM becomes damaged in a way that is difficult to repair. without altering the host OS. virtual machines can be used in disaster recovery scenarios. Likewise. For example. There are several approaches to platform virtualization. Consolidating servers can also have the added benefit of reducing energy consumption. Examples of virtualization scenarios:  Running one or more applications that are not supported by the host OS: A virtual machine running the required guest OS could allow the desired applications to be run. Evaluating an alternate operating system: The new OS could be run within a VM. This is very useful in kernel development and for teaching operating system courses. without altering the host OS.

Win4BSD. VirtualBox. The hyperwiser interact directly with the physical servers cpu and the disk space. Adeos. and Egenera vBlade technology. Oracle VM. the VM may simply be discarded without harm to the host system. Examples outside the mainframe field include Parallels Workstation. Win4Lin Pro. KVM.badly-behaved software. . Parallels Desktop for Mac. VMware Workstation. Virtual PC. Virtual Iron. Virtual Server. This approach was pioneered in 1966 with the IBM CP-40 and CP-67. and a clean copy used next time. 1) Full virtualization:In full virtualization. Mac-on-Linux. the virtual machine simulates enough hardware to allow an unmodified "guest" OS (one designed for the same instruction set) to be run in isolation. VMware Server (formerly GSX Server).each application runs on its own OS –you can even have one guest running on linux and one on windows. The hypervisor keeps each virtual server completely independent and unaware of the other virtual servers running on the physical machine. QEMU. predecessors of the VM family. Hyper-V.

Microsoft Hyper-V. Examples of virtualization platforms adapted to such hardware include Linux KVM. but instead (or in addition) offers a special API that can only be used by modifying[clarification needed] the "guest" OS. In 2005 and 2006. the first virtual machine operating system. Microsoft Virtual PC. 3) Hardware-assisted virtualization:In hardware-assisted virtualization. z/VM. VirtualBox and Parallels Workstation. Examples include IBM's LPARs.[6] Hardwareassisted virtualization was first introduced on the IBM System/370 in 1972. Sun Microsystems (now Oracle Corporation) added similar features in their UltraSPARC T-Series processors in 2005. VMware Workstation. the virtual machine does not necessarily simulate hardware. This system call to the hypervisor is called a "hypercall" in TRANGO and Xen. Parallels Desktop for Mac.2) Para virtualization:In paravirtualization. Xen. . Intel and AMD provided additional hardware to support virtualization. it is implemented via a DIAG ("diagnose") hardware instruction in IBM's CMS under VM[clarification needed] (which was the origin of the term hypervisor).[8] Win4Lin 9x. VMware Fusion.[citation needed] and TRANGO. for use with VM/370. Oracle VM Server for SPARC. the hardware provides architectural support that facilitates building a virtual machine monitor and allows guest OSes to be run in isolation. Sun's Logical Domains.

In 2006 first-generation 32. Free your IT admins from spending so much time managing servers rather than innovating. An automated datacenter built on the production-proven VMware virtualization platform lets you respond to market dynamics faster and more efficiently than ever before. Start by eliminating the old ―one server. Reduce capital costs by increasing energy efficiency and requiring less hardware while increasing your server to admin ratio Ensure your enterprise applications perform with the highest availability and performance Build up business continuity through improved disaster recovery solutions and deliver high availability throughout the datacenter Improve enterprise desktop management & control with faster deployment of desktops and fewer support calls due to application conflicts . VMware vSphere delivers resources. the virtual machine simulates multiple instances of much of an underlying hardware environment. applications—even servers—when and where they’re needed.       Run multiple operating systems on a single computer including Windows. VIRTUALIZATION WITH VMware Transform your Business with Virtualization:Improve the efficiency and availability of IT resources and applications through virtualization.and 64-bit x86 hardware support was found rarely to offer performance advantages over software virtualization[7]. in which each virtual machine consists of an independent address space. particularly address spaces. including address space virtualization. A key form of partial virtualization is address space virtualization. This capability requires address relocation hardware. VMware customers typically save 50-70% on overall IT costs by consolidating their resource pools and delivering highly available machines with VMware vSphere. this means that entire operating systems cannot run in the virtual machine – which would be the sign of full virtualization – but that many applications can run. 4) Partial virtualization:In partial virtualization. Let your Mac run Windows creating a virtual PC environment for all your Windows applications. one application‖ model and run multiple virtual machines on each physical machine. About 70% of a typical IT budget in a non-virtualized datacenter goes towards just maintaining the existing infrastructure. with little left for innovation.[clarification needed] Usually. Linux and more.

applications. This contains a virtual machine monitor or ―hypervisor‖ that allocates hardware resources dynamically and transparently. used by more than 170. Our technology is production-proven. a virtual machine is completely compatible with all standard x86 operating systems.What is Virtualization? Today’s x86 computer hardware was designed to run a single operating system and a single application. Connect this private cloud to a public cloud to create a hybrid cloud. a proven virtualization platform used as the foundation for building private and public clouds. RAM. Multiple operating systems run concurrently on a single physical computer and share hardware resources with each other. leaving most machines vastly underutilized. . memory. availability and scalability it needs to thrive. hard disk and network controller—to create a fully functional virtual machine that can run its own operating system and applications just like a ―real‖ computer. You can safely run several operating systems and applications at the same time on a single computer. storage. with each virtual machine sharing the resources of that one physical computer across multiple environments. with each having access to the resources it needs when it needs them. You can build an entire virtual infrastructure. VMware is the market leader in virtualization. How Does Virtualization Work? The VMware virtualization platform is built on a business-ready architecture. eliminating potential conflicts. including CPU. Instead. Each virtual machine contains a complete system. Different virtual machines can run different operating systems and multiple applications on the same physical computer. Virtualization lets you run multiple virtual machines on a single physical machine. including 100% of the Fortune 100. Build your Datacenter on a Flexible Architecture:Virtualizing a single physical computer is just the beginning.000 customers. Use software such as VMware vSphere to transform or ―virtualize‖ the hardware resources of an x86-based computer—including the CPU. operating system. VMware virtualization works by inserting a thin layer of software directly on the computer hardware or on a host operating system. and device drivers. While others are leaping aboard the virtualization bandwagon now. By encapsulating an entire machine. your hardware resources are dynamically allocated when and where they’re needed within your private cloud. Your highest priority applications always have the necessary resources without wasting money on excess hardware only used at peak times. and network devices. giving your business the flexibility. or network bandwidth permanently to each application. scaling across hundreds of interconnected physical computers and storage devices with VMware vSphere. You don’t need to assign servers.

Red Hat released the SPICE protocol as open source in December 2009. Carpathia. and then pat yourself on the back because you've found one of the few. virtual machines migrate to Hyper-V quite nicely. Amazon . Oracle If Oracle's world domination of the enterprise database server market doesn't impress you. Amazon uses Xen for its Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) services. Microsoft offers attractive licensing for its Hyper-V product and the operating systems that live on it. 2. Hyper-V. So do Rackspace. SoftLayer and 1and1 for their cloud offerings. for those who have used Microsoft's Virtual PC product. Red Hat For the past 15 years. On the corporate side. strategic partnerships and rock-solid products. For all Microsoft shops. What happens when you pit an unstoppable force (Oracle) against an immovable object (the Data Center)? You get the Oraclecentered Data Center. but now it also owns the world's most-used cloud vendor software: Xen (the basis for its commercial XenServer). everyone has recognized Red Hat as an industry leader and open source champion. Hyper-V is a competitive solution. 5.TOP 10 VIRTUALIZATION TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES 1. LDoms and xVM) and server hardware (SPARC). Red Hat entered the world of virtualization in 2008 when it purchased Qumranet and with it. Hailed as the most successful open source company. Not easily outdone in the data center space. its own virtual solution: KVM and SPICE (Simple Protocol for Independent Computing Environment). Its domination doesn't stop with its commercial product. VMware remains in the dominant spot due to its innovations. vSphere. multiple virtualization software solutions (Solaris Zones. Citrix Citrix was once the lone wolf of application virtualization. VMware Find a major data center anywhere in the world that doesn't use VMware. VMware also dominates the desktop-level virtualization market and perhaps even the free server virtualization market with its VMware Server product. Additionally. its acquisition of Sun Microsystems now makes it an impressive virtualization player. 6. VMware dominates the server virtualization market. 3. 4. you're in good company with Bechtel. Oracle owns an operating system (Sun Solaris). SAP and TESCO. And. to compete in a tight server virtualization market that VMware currently dominates. Microsoft Microsoft came up with the only non-Linux hypervisor.

Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) is the industry standard virtualization platform. 9. Its VERDE product allows companies to deploy Windows and Linux Desktops from any 32-bit or 64-bit Linux server infrastructure running kernel 2. 7. OpenVZ. Proxmox Proxmox is a free. open source server virtualization product with a unique twist: It provides two virtualization solutions. for its commercial hosting product for Linux virtual private servers. Virtual Bridges Virtual Bridges is the company that invented what's now known as virtual desktop infrastructure or VDI. To learn more about this Desktop-as-a-Managed Service. mentioned above. download the VERDE whitepaper. High density and low cost are the two keywords you'll hear when experiencing a Parallels-based hosting solution. 10. AppEngine and extensive Business Services list demonstrates how it has embraced cloud-oriented services. ADVANTAGES      Server consolidation Reduced power and cooling Green computing Ease of deployment and administration High availability and disaster recovery . but its Google Apps. It provides a full virtualization solution with Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) and a container-based solution. Parallels has also developed a containerized Windows platform to maximize the number of Windows hosts for a given amount of hardware.6 or above. Google When you think of Google. virtualization might not make the top of the list of things that come to mind. EngineYard's Ruby application services leverage Amazon's cloud as well. Ubuntu's Cloud Server supports seamless integration with Amazon's EC2 services. Parallels Parallels uses its open source OpenVZ project. 8. But. These are the two main reasons why the world's largest hosting companies choose Parallels. the innovation doesn't stop at Linux containerized virtual hosting.

Virtualization is a step in the direction of ―cloud computing‖.  It's also unwise to overload a server's CPU by creating too many virtual servers on one physical machine. The more virtual machines a physical server must support. virtualization isn't a good choice.  Another limitation is migration. Virtualization makes possible significant reductions in the costs of managing data centers. it's only possible to migrate a virtual server from one physical machine to another if both physical machines use the same manufacturer's processor SUMMARY     Virtualization offers major savings in data center operations. the less processing power each server can receive.LIMITATION  For servers dedicated to applications with high demands on processing power. with simplification of systems management tasks. Virtualization offers back-up and increased redundancy for delivery of high performance and high availability services. Right now. POPULAR VIRTUALIZATION PRODUCTS INCLUDE     VMware Microsoft Hyper-V Virtual Iron Xen .

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