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infectious diseases. By frequently washing your hands, you eliminate up to 99.9 % of germs you may have picked up from contaminated surfaces. Health care professionals tried their best to prevent transmission of germs from one patient to another. Today, there are a lot of methods on how to prevent cross contaminations. This is through hand washing. This procedure is simple and is commonly applied within our household. Hand washing is one of the most important interventions to combat germs. There are different types of hand washing and these are commonly practiced in all health care institutions (hospitals, diagnostic laboratory, and clinics). These are the medical hand washing and the surgical hand washing.
When To Wash Hands ? Wash your hands before: Making food Eating or drinking Giving first aid Caring for someone who is sick
Wash your hands after: Going to the bathroom Changing diapers Cleaning up after someone who has urinated or defecated Giving first aid Caring for someone who is sick Preparing food, especially after touching raw meat, poultry or fish Coughing, sneezing or blowing your nose Handling animals or animal waste Taking out the garbage Handling things that were touched by flood water or sewage
In addition, wash your hands whenever they look dirty.
Substances used Soap and detergents The application of water alone is inefficient for cleaning skin because water is often unable to remove fats, oils, and proteins, which are components of organic soil. However, since pathogens removed from the skin have to be rinsed away, there must be a reasonable flow of water.
it is unlikely that any bacteria are transferred to users of the soap. should one's hands require washing more than a few times per day. since the washing action separates the contaminants from the skin but does not completely flush them from the skin . however they should not serve as a replacement for proper hand washing unless soap and water are unavailable. The front and back of both hands and between and the ends of all fingers are rubbed for approximately 30 seconds until the liquid. The increasing use of these agents is based on their ease of use and rapid killing activity against micro-organisms. the use of soap and warm running water and the washing of all surfaces thoroughly. Currently most products sold as "soaps" are actually detergents. even if antibiotic resistant strains aren't selected for by antibacterial soaps. scientific studies have shown that using warm water has no effect on reducing the microbial load on hands Solid soap Solid soap. a dry paper towel should be used to turn off the water (and open the exit door if one is in a restroom). so that is the substance most used to wash hands. because of its reusable nature. which has an extensive list of resistant strains of organisms. may hold bacteria acquired from previous uses. Antibacterial soap Antibacterial soaps have been heavily promoted to a health-conscious public. However. foam or gel is dry. soapy water at removing the natural oils on your hands which hold soils and bacteria. However. disposable or otherwise. removal of microorganisms from skin requires the addition of soaps or detergents to water.Therefore.removing the excess water (with the towel) also removes the suspended contaminants. including under fingernails is seen as necessary. soapy water is more effective than cold. before rinsing thoroughly and then drying with a clean towel. . they might not be as effective as they are marketed to be. Yet. soapy hands together outside the stream of running water for at least 20 seconds. Bacteria grows much faster at body temperature (37 C). One should rub wet. Hand antiseptics Enough hand antiseptic or alcohol rub must be used to thoroughly wet or cover both hands. there is no evidence that using recommended antiseptics or disinfectants selects for antibiotic-resistant organisms in nature. Hand sanitizers are most effective against bacteria and less effective against some viruses. the most common cause of contagious gastroenteritis. Hand antiseptic A hand sanitizer or hand antiseptic is a non-water-based hand hygiene agent. After drying. Contrary to popular belief however. To date. Water temperature Hot water that is comfortable for washing hands is not hot enough to kill bacteria. antibacterial soaps contain common antibacterial agents such as Triclosan. warm. Techniques Soap and water Conventionally. as the bacteria are rinsed off with the foam. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are almost entirely ineffective against norovirus or Norwalk type viruses. So. It has been shown that the use of a towel is a necessary part of effective contaminant removal. Moisturizing lotion is often recommended to keep the hands from drying out.
A systematic approach to the scrub is an efficient way to ensure proper technique. After drying. The alternative method is the timed scrub. To 'scrub' one's hands for a surgical operation. depending on facility protocol. in which a certain number of brush strokes are designated for each finger. If there is debris under fingernails. . and then to wash from a clean area (the hand) to a less clean area (the arm). and each scrub should last from three to five minutes. One is a numbered stroke method. water on the forearms must be prevented from running back to the hands. There are two methods of scrub procedure. Since germs may remain in the water on the hands it is important to rinse well and wipe dry with a clean towel. but there is some debate over the most effective form of drying in washrooms. usually 2–6 minutes. A growing volume of research suggests paper towels are much more hygienic than the electric hand dryers found in many washrooms. This avoids re-contaminating the hands from those surfaces. the hands are dried with a sterile cloth and a surgical gown is donned. When rinsing. a bristle brush may be used to remove it. TYPES OF HAND WASHING Surgical Hand Washing All sterile team members should perform the hand and arm scrub before entering the surgical suite. and a sterile brush for scrubbing and another sterile instrument for cleaning under the fingernails. Long scrub times (10 minutes) are not necessary. some chlorhexidineor iodine wash. back of hand. All jewelry should be removed. and arm.Drying Effective drying of the hands is an essential part of the hand hygiene process. sterile towels for drying the hands after washing. the paper towel should be used to turn off the water (and open any exit door if necessary). This procedure requires washing the hands and forearms up to the elbow. Medical Hand Washing Medical hand washing is for a minimum of 15 seconds using generous amounts of soap and water or gel to lather  and rub each part of the hands. it is necessary to have a tap that can be turned on and off without touching with the hands. After hand washing is completed. Hands should be rubbed together with digits interlocking. palm. The basic principle of the scrub is to wash the hands thoroughly.