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FOOD AND BEVERAGES

Table of Contents Table of Contents..................................................................................................................................1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................3 Systems, techniques, and methods of managing the diversity of international food and beverage industry..................................................................................................................................................3 Discussion of the systems used while managing the diversity of an international food and beverage operation............................................................................................................................3 Discussion of the techniques used while managing the diversity of an international food and beverage industry..............................................................................................................................4 Discussion of the process used while managing the diversity of an international food and beverage industry..............................................................................................................................4 Discussion of the method used while managing the diversity of an international food and beverage industry..............................................................................................................................6 Planning, design and space allocations for storage, preparation, production and service of food and beverages in a hospitality context.........................................................................................................6 Preparation........................................................................................................................................6 Production.........................................................................................................................................6 Service...............................................................................................................................................7 Storage .............................................................................................................................................7 The characteristics and procedures of international food and beverage operations in relation to size, type, markets, design, planning and organization................................................................................7 Size and type.....................................................................................................................................7 Organisation......................................................................................................................................8 Planning ...........................................................................................................................................8 Market design...................................................................................................................................9 Concepts of quality management in food and beverage industry........................................................9 Impacts of cultural issues and diversity in food and beverage industry............................................10 Discussion of the cultural issues in food and beverage industry ..................................................10

FOOD AND BEVERAGES

Discussion of the method used while managing the diversity of an international food and beverage industry............................................................................................................................10 Conclusion .........................................................................................................................................11

FOOD AND BEVERAGES Introduction

The becoming of the world as a global village has brought about new challenges in the food and beverage. As envisaged by many writers as early an in late 1980s and early 1990s, there is a notable increase in diversity in the workforce as a result of demographic changes in the population. This increased diversity called for an effective human resource strategy to manage its dynamics in the workplace. Accordingly, diversity management (DM), although a relatively new management strategy was hailed as been the most appropriate. DM as a management strategy was inspired by the earlier concepts of equal opportunities and affirmative actions. In this background, this writing will explore the management dynamics that are involved in the food and beverage industry. Systems, techniques, and methods of managing the diversity of international food and beverage industry Discussion of the systems used while managing the diversity of an international food and beverage operation The growing demographic diversity in the workforce of food and beverage industry has pushed the individual firms in the industry to turn to explicit policies to facilitate the recruitment, inclusion, and retention of employee of diverse backgrounds. Diversity management is the latest development in a series of strategies which have aimed at better representing the excluded minority in the workplace (Wrench, 2007). Nonetheless, DM is characteristically different form from the preceding employment equity approaches that are directed at under-represented minority groups in a number of ways: whilst both equal opportunity (EO) and affirmative actions (AA) are primarily legal driven, diversity management is driven by the business case. Secondly, both EO and AA focus on underprivileged groups and the qualities that are shared by those people, the key

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postulation of diversity management is that all individuals are unique. Thirdly, DM has it rationale as primarily one of improving organizational competitiveness and efficiency, driven by the purpose of the business and market advantage. Therefore, it accentuates the necessity of recognizing cultural differences between groups of employees, making practical allowances in the formulation of organizational policies. Discussion of the techniques used while managing the diversity of an international food and beverage industry. The idea of diversity management strategy is to encourage an environment of cultural diversity where the differences of the people are valued which enable them to work to their full potential in richer, more creative and more productive work environment. The strength of diversity management is its more positive approach as opposed to a negative approach of simply avoiding contravention of anti-discrimination laws. Thus, on the basis of the aforementioned strengths, diversity management strategy is seen as an inclusive policy that encompasses all the interests of the employees, including those of the dominant group (Groschl & Doherty, 1999). Discussion of the process used while managing the diversity of an international food and beverage industry. The effectiveness of diversity management approach stems from the fact that the top management plays a leading role; it is a strategic element of business plan, it is linked to managerial performance evaluations and rewards, it is long term and it is inclusive of all employees as opposed to simply focusing on the excluded group. According to Kersten, an American author, the core features that make diversity management distinctive compared to previous systems, processes and techniques of managing diversity in the food and beverage industry are: first, diversity management promotes a systematic transformation of the organization

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as opposed to the unitary emphasize on recruitment that was characteristic of the older techniques. A diversity audit is carried out on the culture of the company and its workforce statistics, the results of the audit guides in the formulation of a diversity plan over several years that encompasses the taskforces, broad training programmes that center on teambuilding, collaboration and mentoring and sometimes hiring and promotion plans. In general, the intention of these diversity efforts is to alter the organizational culture in such a way that it becomes transparent, welcome and helpful for all people (Kersten, n.d.). Secondly, diversity management differs from the other techniques and processes in its rhetoric. Diversity management is offered as constructive and deliberate efforts on the part of the organization as opposed to unconstructive and external authorization. The third difference is that diversity efforts in food and beverage industry are warranted by economic and not legal urgings. That is, diversity management is not viewed as goal in and of itself, to be vindicated through some appeal to romantic ideas of justice, parity and fairness. Rather, it is viewed as an instrument goal planned to improve the overall efficiency of the business. Lastly, diversity management approach use the comprehensive characterization of diversity in which all and any differences are considered as part of the diversity project. Kersten quotes from the Ford Motors Company: diversity in the workplace includes all the differences that characterize each of us as exceptional individual, the disparities such as culture, ethnicity, race, gender education among others are some of the distinctions we bring to our place of work. By comprehending, respecting and valuing these differences we capitalize of the benefits they bring to the company (Kersten, n.d.). This is contrary to other systems that focus only on one difference such as sex.

FOOD AND BEVERAGES

Discussion of the method used while managing the diversity of an international food and beverage industry. Training will be a vital element to making sure of supervising the cultural diversity. Training programs can be including learning of the backgrounds of international workforce, teamwork and communicating in order to improve workforce abilities in co-operation and acclimatize into working environment. Moreover, the employees would be informed on the cultural uniqueness of their fellow employees as that would ensure that the optimal utilization of the cultural diversity to the benefit of the industry. Planning, design and space allocations for storage, preparation, production and service of food and beverages in a hospitality context Preparation The most important point to consider when designing a food and or beverage facility is that customers do not just go there to eat. They also go there to socialize, celebrate, to conduct business, romance and even to give the primary preparer of meal a break. Interior design is core to the success of any food and beverage facility whether it is the simple neighborhood restaurant or it is the most prestigious and celebrated gourmet facility. Production The importance of the restaurant is almost as compelling an element as the menu, food, wine and the staff in the determination of the success of the facility. In order for the design of the food and beverage industry to be effective, it must strike an almost impossible balance between three competing agendas: that of the guest-who must feel welcome, aroused and transported, that of the staff- which must be in positions to complete their tasks in a smooth, stress-free flow that allows for utmost hospitality and that of the owner of the restaurant must maintain the proper ratio of selling area to manufacturing space to ensure optimal profits (Piotrowski & Rogers, 2007).

FOOD AND BEVERAGES Service

The principles of design, planning and space allocation for the storage, preparation and production and services of food and beverages in hospitality industry must be applied in such a way that the guests are satisfied and encourages them to come back again. Food and service style will be impacted by the location of the facility. For instance, restaurants in the business district and in shopping areas of urban places will have their business generated during lunch hours. The resolution as which food and beverage production method to use in particular catering process is taken at the preliminary planning stage. This arises from the fact that the initial planning of a food service facility is central to the long term success of the operation and one must be afforded time, finance and commitment to reach the set targets (Davis, Lockwood, & Stone, 1998). Storage Storage is an action characteristically performed in concurrence with receiving of customers. As soon as the receivers examine incoming merchandise, they ensure that it is put in the proper storage facility. The primary aim of storage is to ensure that there is no lose of merchandize either through pilferage and spoilage. A majority of firms in the hospitality industry have a storage managers would is tasked with the storage duty such as sending the merchandize to the necessary departments. The characteristics and procedures of international food and beverage operations in relation to size, type, markets, design, planning and organization Size and type Hotels in the food and beverage industry are measured physically in terms of units, rooms and bed space. This method is most appropriate whenever there is need to measure the size hotel sector in the international hospitality industry. Nonetheless, the measure does not provide a clear

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indication of the capacity of the industry as it does not include the number of persons that can be accommodated by hotels at any one given time. The food and beverage industry dominates the global business with more been opened each day, the type of firms in food and beverage industry ranges from the simple neighborhood restaurant to the most exquisite gourmet facility. In the market organization front, the industry is segmented according to the behavior of the clients. Organisation This form of market organization appreciates the fact that customers not only buy the tangible good but also the intangible. For instance, the client buys the product and what value is the product to the customer. This plays a critical role in food and beverage industry by segmenting its market in terms of the behavior of the clients. For example, there are some firms in the industry that are dedicated to serving the upper echelon of the society where the price charged on their services is not reflective of the food and drinks consumed by of the services offered (Davis, Lockwood, & Stone, 1998). Planning Operational management focuses on the careful management of the processes to produce and distribute products and service. The processes include product creation, development, production and distribution. The main focus of this form of management is on efficiency and effectiveness of the processes. As a result, operational management often includes considerable measurement and analysis of the internal processes (McNamara, n.d.). Ultimately, the nature of how operational management is carried out is dependent of the nature of goods and services that the organization deals with. In the food and beverages industry, operational management helps the management of the individual firms in the industry to formulate products that have a relationship with their target consumers, for instance if their target clients are the rich, the products and services

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offered must in tandem with their attitude and behavior. Secondly, operational management become useful in food production, for example in the planning of menus, developing and applying operational control procedures and ensuring that the services offered by the firm meets and surpasses the expectations of the clients in order to maintain them and to attract more. Market design The market design in the hospitality industry is aimed at ensuring that ensuring the expectations of the customers are met. For instance, those are environmentally conscious they expected a green design of the restaurants. Additionally, the market design of the hospitality industry is not uniform as each targets different customer. Concepts of quality management in food and beverage industry Quality management is considered to have four main components: quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement (Rose, 2005). To ensure that there is quality management in any organization a quality management plan must be implemented. The quality management plan includes four elements: quality policy, which expresses the intended direction of a performing organization with regard to quality, for instance a restaurant can commit to offer deluxe services at a profit if they can or at a loss if they must. Secondly, who is in charge? The most guaranteed way to failure is by having a vague collection of participants where everyone is in charge and no one is in charge. In the food and beverage industry it is common for any restaurant to have a matre d'htel or the head waiter who oversees the smooth running of the hotel. Thirdly, where are we going? Which sets out the goals and objectives of the industry and lastly, how are we going there? This defines the processes, resources and standards to be adopted.

FOOD AND BEVERAGES Impacts of cultural issues and diversity in food and beverage industry Discussion of the cultural issues in food and beverage industry

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In a study published by the international journal of contemporary hospitality management, it was found out that some of the hotels applied the equality opportunity strategy rather than the diversity management. For example, it was found out that the few EO/DM policy documents which were availed during the interview only contained short statement concerning harassment, substance abuse and no-discrimination. It was found out than none of the hotels emphasized ethnic minorities in their policies. There was diverse workforce in the hotels although it was found out that the ethnic minorities were not given the front office jobs but were given the junior back office jobs. Discussion of the method used while managing the diversity of an international food and beverage industry. The cultural issues in the food and beverage industry come into focus where the ethnic minorities are considered for their identity and not talent. Moreover, it was found out that the local employees might be unaware of how to deal with people with different cultures, beliefs and abilities. This always made those employees in the food and beverage industry from the minority cultures to often feel exposed by unfamiliar situations. To create a more culturally enriched environment that is requisite for the success of the food and beverage industry, there is need to have a diversity training of the employees to break down their cultural ignorance. This understanding of different culture would allow the food and beverage industry to exploit the full benefits of cultural diversity (Rodgers, 2008).

FOOD AND BEVERAGES Conclusion

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In conclusion, to ensure the success of the food and beverage industry there is need for adoption of the Diversity Management (DM) strategy to augment Equality Opportunity (EO) and Affirmative Actions (AA) strategies. Also, the industry players should apply the principles of planning, design and space allocation inline with their operational management policies to improve the quality of their management. Moreover, effective operational control mechanism should be adopted to ensure that the goals and objective of different firms in the industry are met. All the aforementioned policies can be achieved if the industry employs problem identification and solving technique such as introspection, experiment and behaviorism to facilitate competent and effective decision making that is so central to the success of the industry.

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References Davis, B., Lockwood, A., & Stone, S. (1998). Food and beverage management (3, illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Food and beverage management. (2004). location Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Groschl, S., & Doherty, L. (1999). Diversity Management in Practise. Intenational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management , 11 (6), 262-268. Kersten, A. (n.d.). Diversity Management :Dialogue, Dialectics and Diversions. Retrieved March 25, 2011, from http://docs.google.com/viewer? a=v&q=cache:96MGA61_2TMJ:mysite.verizon.net/vzeobjce/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilder files/diversityjocm.pdf+diversity+management+kersten&hl=en&gl=ke&pid=bl&srcid=AD GEESgWbE0XuJ-uHisyoRTp_u0BWByw4Tn-4Q194RmDFZ5MIBtM6YDA42ZAhOYn McNamara, C. (n.d.). Operations Management. Retrieved March 25, 2011, from http://managementhelp.org/ops_mgnt/ops_mgnt.htm Piotrowski, C. M., & Rogers, E. A. (2007). Designing commercial interiors (2, illustrated ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons. Rodgers, S. (2008). Technological Innovations Supporting Different food production Philosophies in the food service sector. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management , vol. 20 (no. 1), 19-34. Rose, K. (2005). Project quality management: why, what and how. Fort Lauderdale: J. Ross Publishing. Wrench, J. (2007). Diversity management and discrimination: immigrants and ethnic minorities in the EU (reprint ed.). Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.