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Emotion is a complex psychophysiological experience of an individual's state of mind as interacting with biochemical (internal) and environmental (external) influences.

In humans, emotion fundamentally involves "physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience."[1] Emotion is associated withmood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation. Motivations direct and energize behavior, while emotions provide the affective component to motivation, positive or negative.[2] Emotion classification system exists, though numerous taxonomies have been proposed. Some categorizations include:[citation needed]

"Cognitive" versus "non-cognitive" emotions Instinctual emotions (from the amygdala), versus cognitive emotions (from the prefrontal cortex). Universal emotions recognized cross-culturally based on research on identification of facial expressions

Characteristics of Emotional Intelligence

Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist, developed a framework of five elements that define emotional intelligence: Self-Awareness People with high emotional intelligence are usually very self-aware. They understand their emotions, and because of this, they don't let their feelings rule them. They're confident because they trust their intuition and don't let their emotions get out of control. They're also willing to take an honest look at themselves. They know their strengths and weaknesses, and they work on these areas so they can perform better. Many people believe that this self-awareness is the most important part of emotional intelligence. Self-Regulation This is the ability to control emotions and impulses. People who self-regulate typically don't allow themselves to become too angry or jealous, and they don't make impulsive, careless decisions. They think before they act. Characteristics of self-regulation are thoughtfulness, comfort with change, integrity, and the ability to say no. Motivation People with a high degree of emotional intelligence are usually motivated. They're willing to defer immediate results for long-term success. They're highly productive, love a challenge, and are very effective in whatever they do. Empathy This is perhaps the second-most important element of emotional intelligence. Empathy is the ability to identify with and understand the wants, needs, and viewpoints of those around you. People with empathy are good at recognizing the feelings of others, even when those feelings may not be obvious. As a result, empathetic people are usually excellent at managing relationships, listening, and relating to others. They avoid stereotyping and judging too quickly, and they live their lives in a very open, honest way. Social Skills It's usually easy to talk to and like people with good social skills, another sign of high emotional intelligence. Those with strong social skills are typically team players. Rather than focus on their own success first, they help others develop and shine. They can manage disputes, are excellent communicators, and are masters at building and maintaining relationships.


1. Emotional Perception and Expression - the ability to accurately identify and express feelings

The ability for self-awareness; to be aware of your own feelings as they are occurring. The ability to become emotionally literate. The ability to learn to identify and label specific feelings in yourself and others and the ability to clearly and directly communicate and discuss these emotions.

2. Use of Emotions - the ability to use your feelings constructively

The ability to let your feelings guide you to what is important to think about The ability to use your feelings to help you decisions which are healthy for both you and the rest of the human race

3. Emotional Understanding - the ability to understand the meanings of emotions and how they can change This includes the ability to understand...

The purpose of emotions; understanding their survival value to the species The relationships between emotions; how and why they can change from one feeling to another The emotions which lead to the behavior in yourself and others The relationship between thoughts and feelings The causes of emotions and their relationship to our human psychological needs, especially our unmet emotional needs.

4. Emotional Management - the ability to manage emotions for personal and social growth

The ability to take responsibility for one's own feelings and happiness The ability to turn negative emotions into positive learning and growing opportunities The ability to help others identify and benefit from their emotions

2 .Mixed models
The model introduced by Daniel Goleman[18] focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. Goleman's model outlines four main EI constructs: 1. Self-awareness the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions.

2. Self-management involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. 3. Social awareness the ability to sense, understand, and react to others' emotions while comprehending social networks. 4. Relationship management the ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while managing conflict. Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies.[19] Goleman's model of EI has been criticized in the research literature as mere "pop psychology" (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008). [edit]Measurement of the Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model Two measurement tools are based on the Goleman model: 1. The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI), which was created in 1999, and the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), which was created in 2007. 2. The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which was created in 2001 and which can be taken as a self-report or 360-degree assessment.[20] [edit]Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI) Bar-On[2] defines emotional intelligence as being concerned with effectively understanding oneself and others, relating well to people, and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be more successful in dealing with environmental demands.[21] Bar-On posits that EI develops over time and that it can be improved through training, programming, and therapy.[2] Bar-On hypothesizes that those individuals with higher than average EQs are in general more successful in meeting environmental demands and pressures. He also notes that a deficiency in EI can mean a lack of success and the existence of emotional problems. Problems in coping with one's environment are thought, by Bar-On, to be especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales of reality testing, problem solving, stress tolerance, and impulse control. In general, Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence to contribute equally to a person's general intelligence, which then offers an indication of one's potential to succeed in life.[2] However, doubts have been expressed about this model in the research literature (in particular about the validity of self-report as an index of emotional intelligence) and in scientific settings it is being replaced by the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) model discussed below.[10] [edit]Measurement of the ESI model The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), is a self-report measure of EI developed as a measure of emotionally and socially competent behavior that provides an estimate of one's

emotional and social intelligence. The EQ-i is not meant to measure personality traits or cognitive capacity, but rather the mental ability to be successful in dealing with environmental demands and pressures.[2] One hundred and thirty three items (questions or factors) are used to obtain a Total EQ (Total Emotional Quotient) and to produce five composite scale scores, corresponding to the five main components of the Bar-On model. A limitation of this model is that it claims to measure some kind of ability through self-report items (for a discussion, see Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2001). The EQ-i has been found to be highly susceptible to faking (Day & Carroll, 2008; Grubb & McDaniel, 2007). [edit]Trait

EI model

Soviet-born British psychologist Konstantin Vasily Petrides ("K. V. Petrides") proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based model and a trait based model of EI and has been developing the latter over many years in numerous scientific publications.[9][22] Trait EI is "a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality."[22]In lay terms, trait EI refers to an individual's self-perceptions of their emotional abilities. This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured by self report, as opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities, which have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement. Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework.[23] An alternative label for the same construct is trait emotional selfefficacy. The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman and Bar-On models discussed above. The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that lies outside thetaxonomy of human cognitive ability. This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it.[9] [edit]Measurement of the trait EI model There are many self-report measures of EI,[24] including the EQ-i, the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT), and the Schutte EI model. None of these assess intelligence, abilities, or skills (as their authors often claim), but rather, they are limited measures of trait emotional intelligence.[22] One of the more comprehensive and widely researched measures of this construct is the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), which was specifically designed to measure the construct comprehensively and is available in many languages. The TEIQue provides an operationalization for the model of Petrides and colleagues, that conceptualizes EI in terms of personality.[25] The test encompasses 15 subscales organized under four factors: Well-Being, Self-Control, Emotionality, and Sociability. The psychometric properties of the TEIQue were investigated in a study on a French-speaking population, where it was reported that TEIQue scores were globally normally distributed and reliable.[26]

The researchers also found TEIQue scores were unrelated to nonverbal reasoning (Raven's matrices), which they interpreted as support for the personality trait view of EI (as opposed to a form of intelligence). As expected, TEIQue scores were positively related to some of the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness) as well as inversely related to others (alexithymia, neuroticism). A number of quantitative genetic studies have been carried out within the trait EI model, which have revealed significant genetic effects and heritabilities for all trait EI scores.[27] Two recent studies (one a meta-analysis) involving direct comparisons of multiple EI tests yielded very favorable results for the TEIQue.[11][28] 3.The trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) model successfully integrates and extends EIrelated ideas in a general framework that incorporates 15 specific facets. The TEIQue assesses all of the above facets through 15 subscales. In addition, it provides scores on four factors of broader relevance (well-being, self-control, emotionality, and sociability). Below, you will find brief information about each of the scales and factors. At all times, it is important to remember that scores on the trait EI facets do not reflect cognitive abilities (e.g., IQ), but rather self-perceived abilities and behavioural dispositions. The TEIQue is a scientific measurement instrument based exclusively on trait EI theory. Trait EI theory is unrelated to what lay individuals understand by emotional intelligence and is incompatible with all other models promoted in the various literatures. The TEIQue is not an alternative to questionnaires or tests claiming to measure emotional intelligence. It is Copyright K. V. Petrides 2001 . All rights reserved. specifically developed and updated to provide a gateway to trait EI theory. Trait EI theory is developed in the context of the trait emotional intelligence research program. Interpreting subscale scores 1.Emotion expression: High scores on this scale mean people are fluent in communicating their emotions to others. They know what the best words are for expressing their feelings accurately and unambiguously. Low scores on this scale indicate a difficulty in communicating emotionrelated thoughts, even in situations when this is necessary. People with low scores find

it difficult to let others know how they feel. Inability to express emotion may be indicative of a more generalized problem of lack of self-confidence and social assertiveness. 2.Empathy: This scale measures the perspective-taking aspect of empathy: seeing the world from someone elses point of view. In other words, it has to do with whether one can understand other peoples needs and desires. People with high scores on this scale tend to be skilful in conversations and negotiations because they take into account the viewpoints of those they are dealing with. They can put themselves in somebody elses shoes and appreciate how things seem to them. Low scorers have difficulty adopting other peoples perspectives. They tend to be opinionated and argumentative and may often seem self-centred. 3Self-motivation: People with high scores on this scale are driven by a need to produce highquality work. They tend to be determined and persevering. rewarded for their efforts because they have a strong sense of achievement and are motivated from within. Low scorers tend to need a lot of incentives and encouragement in order to get things done. They need constant reward to keep going and they are more likely to give up in the face of adversity. They also tend to have reduced levels of drive and persistence. 4.Emotion regulation: This scale measures short-, medium-, and long-term control of ones own feelings and emotional states. High scorers have control over their emotions and can change unpleasant moods or prolong pleasant moods through personal insight and effort. They are psychologically stable and they know how to pick themselves up after emotional setbacks. Low scorers are subject to emotional seizures and periods of prolonged anxiety or even depression. They find it difficult to deal with their feelings and are often moody and irritable. 5.Happiness: This scale concerns pleasant emotional states, primarily directed towards the present rather than the past (life satisfaction) or the future (optimism). High scorers are cheerful and feel good about themselves. Low scorers often feel blue and can be overly negative about things. More generally, people with low scores on this scale tend to be disappointed with their life as it is at present. Along with self-esteem and optimism, this scale reflects your general psychological state at present. 6.Social awareness: High scorers believe they have excellent social skills and are socially sensitive, adaptable, and perceptive. They are good at negotiating, brokering deals, and

influencing others. In addition, they tend to have control over their emotions and the manner in which they express them, which enables them to function confidently in diverse social contexts,. like parties or networking events. Low scorers believe they have limited social skills and often feel anxious in unfamiliar settings because they are unsure about how to behave. They find it difficult to express themselves clearly and have a small circle of acquaintances. They are known for their limited interpersonal skills. 7.Low impulsiveness: This scale measures mainly dysfunctional (unhealthy) rather than functional (healthy) impulsivity. Low impulsivity involves thinking before acting and reflecting carefully before making decisions. High scorers on this scale weigh all the information before they make up their mind, without, however, being overly cautious. Low scorers tend to be impetuous and to give in to their urges. Much like children, they want immediate gratification and have low self-control. They often speak without having thought things through and they change their mind frequently. 8.Emotion perception: This scale measures emotion perception in ones own self as well as in others. High scorers on this scale are clear about what they feel and able to decode other peoples emotional expressions. In contrast, people with low scores on the emotion perception scale are often confused about how they feel and do not pay much attention to the emotional signals that others send out. 9.Self-esteem: The self-esteem scale measures ones overall evaluation of oneself. High scorers have a positive view of themselves and their achievements. They are confident, positive, and satisfied with most aspects of their life. Low scorers tend to lack self-respect and to not value themselves very highly. Low self-esteem scores are often the result of challenges in one or more of the other areas that the TEIQue assesses.

10.Assertiveness: Individuals with high scores on this scale are forthright and frank. They know how to ask for things, give and receive compliments, and confront others when necessary. They have leadership qualities and can stand up for their rights and beliefs. Low scorers tend to backdown even if they know they are right and have difficulty saying no, even when they feel they must. As a result, they often end up doing things they do not want to do. In most cases, they prefer to be part of a team rather than to lead it. 11.Emotion management: This scale concerns ones perceived ability to manage other peoples emotional states. High scorers on the emotion management scale can influence other peoples feelings (e.g., calm them down, console them, motivate them). They know how to make others feel better when they need it. Low scorers can neither influence nor manage others feelings.They become overwhelmed when they have to deal with other peoples emotional outbursts and are less likely to enjoy socializing and networking. 12.Optimism: Like happiness, this scale is linked to well-being, albeit in a forward-looking way. High scorers look on the bright side and expect positive things to happen in their life. Low scorers are pessimistic and view things from a negative perspective. They are less likely to be able to identify and pursue new opportunities and tend to be risk-averse. Along with happiness and self-esteem, this scale reflects your general psychological state at this point in time. 13.Relationships: This scale mainly concerns ones personal relationships, including close friends, partners, and family. It is about starting and maintaining emotional bonds with others. High scorers usually have fulfilling personal relationships that positively affect their productivity and emotional well-being. They know how to listen and be responsive to the people close to them. Low scorers find it difficult to bond well with others and tend to undervalue their personal relationships. They often behave in ways that hurt those close to them. Adaptability: High scorers are flexible in their approach to work and life. They are willing and able to adapt to new environments and conditions in fact, they may even enjoy novelty and regular change. Low scorers are change-resistant and find it difficult to modify their work- and

life-style. They are generally inflexible and have fixed ideas and views. Stress management: High scorers on this scale can handle pressure calmly and effectively because they have developed successful coping mechanisms. More often than not, they are good at regulating their emotions, which helps them tackle stress. Low scorers are less likely to have developed stress-coping strategies. They may prefer to altogether avoid situations that are potentially hectic, rather than deal with the associated tension. Their vulnerability to stress is problematic, as it leads them to reject important, but time-demanding, projects. Interpreting factor scores Well-being: High scores on this factor reflect a generalized sense of well-being, extending from past achievements to future expectations. Overall, individuals with high scores feel positive, happy, and fulfilled. In contrast, individuals with low scores tend to have low self-regard and to. be disappointed about their life as it is at present. Your well-being score largely depends on your scores on the other three factors of the TEIQue. Self-control: High scorers have a healthy degree of control over their urges and desires. In addition to fending off impulses, they are good at regulating external pressures and stress. They are neither repressed nor overly expressive. In contrast, low scorers are prone to impulsive behaviour and seem to be incapable of managing stress. Low self-control are associated with inflexibility. Emotionality: Individuals with high scores on this factor believe they have a wide range of emotion-related skills. They can perceive and express emotions and use these abilities to develop and sustain close relationships with important others. Individuals with low scores on this factor find it difficult to recognize their internal emotional states and to express their feelings to others, which often leads to less rewarding personal relationships. Sociability: The sociability factor differs from the emotionality factor above in that it emphasises social relationships and social influence. The focus is on the individual as an agent

in different social contexts rather than on personal relationships with family and close friends. Individuals with high scores on the sociability factor are better at social interaction. They believe they have good listening skills and can communicate clearly and confidently with people from very diverse backgrounds. Those with low scores believe they are unable to affect others emotions and are less likely to be good negotiators or networkers. They are unsure what to do or say in social situations and, as a result, they often appear shy and reserved.

Somatic theories
Somatic theories of emotion claim that bodily responses rather than judgements are essential to emotions. The first modern version of such theories comes from William James in the 1880s. The theory lost favor in the 20th century, but has regained popularity more recently due largely to theorists such as John Cacioppo, Antnio Damsio, Joseph E. LeDoux and Robert Zajonc who are able to appeal to neurological evidence.[citation needed] [edit]JamesLange theory Main article: JamesLange theory William James, in the article "What is an Emotion?",[6] argued that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. The Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time, so this position is known as the James Lange theory. This theory and its derivatives state that a changed situation leads to a changed bodily state. As James says "the perception of bodily changes, as they occur, is the emotion." James further claims that "we feel sad because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and neither we cry, strike, nor tremble because we are sorry, angry, or fearful, as the case may be."[6] This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state, a desired emotion is induced.[7] Such experiments also have therapeutic implications (for example, in laughter therapy, dance therapy). Some people may believe that emotions give rise to emotion-specific actions: e.g. "I'm crying because I'm sad," or "I ran away because I was scared." The JamesLange theory, conversely, asserts that first we react to a situation (running away and crying happen before the emotion), andthen we interpret our actions into an emotional response. In this way, emotions serve to explain and organize our own actions to us. The JamesLange theory has until 1953 been all but abandoned by most scholars.[8] Tim Dalgleish (2004)[9] states the following:

The JamesLange theory has remained influential. Its main contribution is the emphasis it places on the embodiment of emotions, especially the argument that changes in the bodily concomitants of emotions can alter their experienced intensity. Most contemporary neuroscientists would endorse a modified JamesLange view in which bodily feedback modulates the experience of emotion." (p. 583) The issue with the JamesLange theory is that of causation (bodily states causing emotions and being a priori), not that of the bodily influences on emotional experience (which can be argued is still quite prevalent today in biofeedback studies and embodiment theory). [edit]Cognitive


Several theories argue that cognitive activityin the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughtsis necessary for an emotion to occur. This, argued by Richard Lazarus, is necessary to capture the fact that emotions are about something or have intentionality. Such cognitive activity may be conscious or unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing. An influential theory here is that of Lazarus: emotion is a disturbance that occurs in the following order: 1.) Cognitive appraisalThe individual assesses the event cognitively, which cues the emotion. 2.) Physiological changesThe cognitive reaction starts biological changes such as increased heart rate or pituitary adrenal response. 3.) ActionThe individual feels the emotion and chooses how to react. For example: Jenny sees a snake. 1.) Jenny cognitively assesses the snake in her presence, which triggers fear. 2.) Her heart begins to race faster. Adrenaline pumps through her blood stream. 3.) Jenny screams and runs away. Lazarus stressed that the quality and intensity of emotions are controlled through cognitive processes. These processes underlie coping strategies that form the emotional reaction by altering the relationship between the person and the environment. George Mandler provided an extensive theoretical and empirical discussion of emotion as influenced by cognition, consciousness, and the autonomic nervous system in two books (Mind and Emotion, 1975, and Mind and Body: Psychology of Emotion and Stress, 1984) There are some theories on emotions arguing that cognitive activity in the form of judgements, evaluations, or thoughts is necessary in order for an emotion to occur. A prominent philosophical exponent is Robert C. Solomon (for example, The Passions, Emotions and the Meaning of Life, 1993). The theory proposed by Nico Frijda where appraisal leads to action tendencies is another example. It has also been suggested that emotions (affect heuristics, feelings and gut-feeling reactions) are often used as shortcuts to process information and influence behavior.[10] The affect infusion model (AIM) is a theoretical model developed by Joseph Forgas in the early 1990s that attempts to explain how emotion and mood interact with one's ability to process information.

[edit]Perceptual theory A recent hybrid of the somatic and cognitive theories of emotion is the perceptual theory. This theory is neo-Jamesian in arguing that bodily responses are central to emotions, yet it emphasizes the meaningfulness of emotions or the idea that emotions are about something, as is recognized by cognitive theories. The novel claim of this theory is that conceptually-based cognition is unnecessary for such meaning. Rather the bodily changes themselves perceive the meaningful content of the emotion because of being causally triggered by certain situations. In this respect, emotions are held to be analogous to faculties such as vision or touch, which provide information about the relation between the subject and the world in various ways. A sophisticated defense of this view is found in philosopher Jesse Prinz's book Gut Reactions and psychologist James Laird's book Feelings. [edit]Affective events theory This is a communication-based theory developed by Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano (1996), that looks at the causes, structures, and consequences of emotional experience (especially in work contexts). This theory suggests that emotions are influenced and caused by events which in turn influence attitudes and behaviors. This theoretical frame also emphasizes time in that human beings experience what they call emotion episodesa "series of emotional states extended over time and organized around an underlying theme." This theory has been utilized by numerous researchers to better understand emotion from a communicative lens, and was reviewed further by Howard M. Weiss and Daniel J. Beal in their article, "Reflections on Affective Events Theory" published in Research on Emotion in Organizations in 2005. [edit]CannonBard theory In the CannonBard theory, Walter Bradford Cannon argued against the dominance of the JamesLange theory regarding the physiological aspects of emotions in the second edition ofBodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. Where James argued that emotional behavior often precedes or defines the emotion, Cannon and Bard argued that the emotion arises first and then stimulates typical behavior. [edit]Two-factor theory Another cognitive theory is the SingerSchachter theory. This is based on experiments purportedly showing that subjects can have different emotional reactions despite being placed into the same physiological state with an injection of adrenaline. Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation displayed that emotion. Hence, the combination of the appraisal of the situation (cognitive) and the participants' reception of adrenaline or a placebo together determined the response. This experiment has been criticized in Jesse Prinz's (2004) Gut Reactions.

[edit]Component process model A recent version of the cognitive theory regards emotions more broadly as the synchronization of many different bodily and cognitive components. Emotions are identified with the overall process whereby low-level cognitive appraisals, in particular the processing of relevance, trigger bodily reactions, behaviors, feelings, and actions. [edit]Situated

perspective on emotion

A situated perspective on emotion, developed by Paul E. Griffiths and Andrea Scarantino , emphasizes the importance of external factors in the development and communication of emotion, drawing upon the situationism approach in psychology.[11] This theory is markedly different from both cognitivist and neo-Jamesian theories of emotion, both of which see emotion as a purely internal process, with the environment only acting as a stimulus to the emotion. In contrast, a situationist perspective on emotion views emotion as the product of an organism investigating its environment, and observing the responses of other organisms. Emotion stimulates the evolution of social relationships, acting as a signal to mediate the behavior of other organisms. In some contexts, the expression of emotion (both voluntary and involuntary) could be seen as strategic moves in the transactions between different organisms. The situated perspective on emotion states that conceptual thought is not an inherent part of emotion, since emotion is an action-oriented form of skillful engagement with the world. Griffiths and Scarantino suggested that this perspective on emotion could be helpful in understanding phobias, as well as the emotions of infants and animals. [edit]Evolutionary


Illustration from Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.

Main article: Evolution of emotion Perspectives on emotions from evolutionary theory were initiated in the late 19th century with Charles Darwin's book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.[12] Darwin's original thesis was that emotions evolved via natural selection and therefore have crossculturally universal counterparts. Furthermore, animals undergo emotions comparable to our own (see emotion in animals). In the early 1970s, Paul Ekman and colleagues began a line of research that suggests that many emotions are universal.[2] He found evidence that humans share at least five basic emotions: fear, sadness, happiness, anger, and disgust.[2] Other research in this area focuses on physical displays of emotion including body language of animals and humans (see affect display). The increased potential in neuroimaging has also allowed investigation into evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain. Important neurological advances were derived from these perspectives in the 1990s by, for example, Joseph E. LeDoux and Antnio Damsio.

Social emotions evidently evolved to motivate social behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment.[2] For example, spite seems to work against the individual but it can establish an individual's reputation as someone to be feared.[2] Shame and pride can motivate behaviors that help one maintain one's standing in a community, and self-esteem is one's estimate of one's status.[2][13] [edit]Neurobiological


Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system, the neurobiological explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant mental state organized in the limbic system of the mammalian brain. If distinguished from reactive responses ofreptiles, emotions would then be mammalian elaborations of general vertebrate arousal patterns, in which neurochemicals (for example,dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) step-up or step-down the brain's activity level, as visible in body movements, gestures, and postures. For example, the emotion of love is proposed to be the expression of paleocircuits of the mammalian brain (specifically, modules of the cingulate gyrus) which facilitate the care, feeding, and grooming of offspring. Paleocircuits are neural platforms for bodily expression configured before the advent of cortical circuits for speech. They consist of pre-configured pathways or networks of nerve cells in the forebrain, brain stem and spinal cord. The motor centers of reptiles react to sensory cues of vision, sound, touch, chemical, gravity, and motion with pre-set body movements and programmed postures. With the arrival of nightactive mammals, smell replaced vision as the dominant sense, and a different way of responding arose from the olfactory sense, which is proposed to have developed intomammalian emotion and emotional memory. The mammalian brain invested heavily in olfaction to succeed at night as reptiles sleptone explanation for why olfactory lobes in mammalian brains are proportionally larger than in the reptiles. These odor pathways gradually formed the neural blueprint for what was later to become our limbic brain. Emotions are thought to be related to certain activities in brain areas that direct our attention, motivate our behavior, and determine the significance of what is going on around us. Pioneering work by Broca (1878), Papez (1937), and MacLean (1952) suggested that emotion is related to a group of structures in the center of the brain called the limbic system, which includes the hypothalamus, cingulate cortex, hippocampi, and other structures. More recent research has shown that some of these limbic structures are not as directly related to emotion as others are, while some non-limbic structures have been found to be of greater emotional relevance. In 2011, Lvheim proposed a direct relation between specific combinations of the levels of the signal substances dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin and eight basic emotions. A model was presented where the signal substances forms the axes of a coordinate system, and the eight basic emotions according to Silvan Tomkins are placed in the eight corners. Anger is,

according to the model, for example produced by the combination of low serotonin, high dopamine and high noradrenaline.[14]

Lvheim Cube of emotion

[edit]Prefrontal cortex There is ample evidence that the left prefrontal cortex is activated by stimuli that cause positive approach.[15] If attractive stimuli can selectively activate a region of the brain, then logically the converse should hold, that selective activation of that region of the brain should cause a stimulus to be judged more positively. This was demonstrated for moderately attractive visual stimuli[16] and replicated and extended to include negative stimuli.[17] Two neurobiological models of emotion in the prefrontal cortex made opposing predictions. The Valence Model predicted that anger, a negative emotion, would activate the right prefrontal cortex. The Direction Model predicted that anger, an approach emotion, would activate the left prefrontal cortex. The second model was supported.[18] This still left open the question of whether the opposite of approach in the prefrontal cortex is better described as moving away (Direction Model), as unmoving but with strength and resistance (Movement Model), or as unmoving with passive yielding (Action Tendency Model). Support for the Action Tendency Model (passivity related to right prefrontal activity) comes from research on shyness[19] and research on behavioral inhibition.[20] Research that tested the competing hypotheses generated by all four models also supported the Action Tendency Model.[21][22]

[edit]Homeostatic/primordial emotion Another neurological approach distinguishes two classes of emotion. "Classical" emotions including love, anger and fear, are evoked by appraisal of scenarios fed by environmental stimuli via distance receptors in the eyes, nose and ears.[23] "Homeostatic"[24] or "primordial"[25] emotions are feelings such as pain, hunger, thirst and fatigue, evoked by internal body states, communicated to the central nervous system by interoceptors, which motivate behavior aimed at maintaining the body's internal milieu at its ideal state.[26] These demanding sensations that capture conscious attention are coordinated from the lower or basal regions of the brain and impact diverse regions of the brain, including the frontal lobes.[25] [edit]Disciplinary


Many different disciplines have produced work on the emotions. Human sciences study the role of emotions in mental processes, disorders, and neural mechanisms. In psychiatry, emotions are examined as part of the discipline's study and treatment of mental disorders in humans. Nursing studies emotions as part of its approach to the provision of holistic health care to humans. Psychology examines emotions from a scientific perspective by treating them as mental processes and behavior and they explore the underlying physiological and neurological processes. In neuroscience sub-fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience, scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood. In linguistics, the expression of emotion may change to the meaning of sounds. In education, the role of emotions in relation to learning are examined. Social sciences often examine emotion for the role that it plays in human culture and social interactions. In sociology, emotions are examined for the role they play in human society, social patterns and interactions, and culture. In anthropology, the study of humanity, scholars use ethnography to undertake contextual analyses and cross-cultural comparisons of a range of human activities; some anthropology studies examine the role of emotions in human activities. In the field of communication sciences, critical organizational scholars have examined the role of emotions in organizations, from the perspectives of managers, employees, and even customers. A focus on emotions in organizations can be credited to Arlie Russell Hochschild's concept of emotional labor. The University of Queensland hosts EmoNet,[27] an e-mail distribution list representing a network of academics that facilitates scholarly discussion of all matters relating to the study of emotion in organizational settings. The list was established in January 1997 and has over 700 members from across the globe. In economics, the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, emotions are analyzed in some sub-fields of microeconomics, in order to assess the role of emotions on purchase decision-making and risk perception. In criminology, a social science approach to the study of crime, scholars often draw on behavioral sciences, sociology, and psychology; emotions are examined in criminology issues such as anomie theory

and studies of "toughness," aggressive behavior, and hooliganism. In law, which underpins civil obedience, politics, economics and society, evidence about people's emotions is often raised in tort law claims for compensation and in criminal law prosecutions against alleged lawbreakers (as evidence of the defendant's state of mind during trials, sentencing, and parole hearings). In political science, emotions are examined in a number of sub-fields, such as the analysis of voter decision-making. In philosophy, emotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethics, the philosophy of art (for example, sensoryemotional values, and matters of taste and sentimentality), and thephilosophy of music (see also Music and emotion). In history, scholars examine documents and other sources to interpret and analyze past activities; speculation on the emotional state of the authors of historical documents is one of the tools of interpretation. In literature and filmmaking, the expression of emotion is the cornerstone of genres such as drama, melodrama, and romance. In communication studies, scholars study the role that emotion plays in the dissemination of ideas and messages. Emotion is also studied in non-human animals in ethology, a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study of animal behavior. Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with strong ties to ecology and evolution. Ethologists often study one type of behavior (for example, aggression) in a number of unrelated animals. [edit]Sociology Main article: Sociology of emotions We try to regulate our emotions to fit in with the norms of the situation, based on many sometimes conflictingdemands upon us which originate from various entities studied by sociology on a micro levelsuch as social roles and "feeling rules" the everyday social interactions and situations are shaped byand, on a macro level, by social institutions, discourses, ideologies, etc. For example, (post-)modern marriage is, on one hand, based on the emotion of love and on the other hand the very emotion is to be worked on and regulated by it. The sociology of emotions also focuses on general attitude changes in a population. Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism. [edit]Psychotherapy Depending on the particular school's general emphasis either on cognitive components of emotion, physical energy discharging, or on symbolic movement and facial expression components of emotion,[28] different schools of psychotherapy approach human emotions differently. Cognitively oriented schools approach them via their cognitive components, such asrational emotive behavior therapy. Yet others approach emotions via symbolic movement and facial expression components (like in contemporary Gestalt therapy).[29]

Factors that Affect Students' Social & Emotional Development

The test to raise a child who is literate, non-violent, drug-free, caring and responsible has been around for hundreds of years. This was a task for parents and other family members. But in recent years the task has spread to the school system. This is considered the missing pieces of education. When teachers are involved in these aspects they are educating the whole child. These things are all parts of social emotional development. According to Erik Erickson, Abraham Maslow, Maurice Elias and many other social development theorist, children all have common needs. These needs are necessary to develop a young healthy adult, who can properly function in society. Skills One skill that is becoming more and more important each day is for children to have good commutation skills. Children also need to have good work ethics. Children also need to learn to take responsibility for their actions and health. Children need to develop social relationships, so that they can work in groups. Children need to learn to be caring. They also need to develop good problem solving skills. Finally they need to develop a good character and sound morals. All of these things are essential needs of all children, in order to properly develop socially. Communication is the act of communicating verbally and non-verbally. Communication skills are important skills for children to learn because communication is a tool that is used everyday by everyone. It's important for children to develop this skill because not being able to communicate properly can and has led to major problems. So much depends on effective communication. Entire countries have gone to war as a result of its absence. Work ethics is another important skill for children to develop. Work ethics can be described as a set of values based on the moral merits of hard work and assiduousness. Work ethics are needed because a child who lacks them, may end up steeling or participating in some sort of malpractice. Children also need to learn to take responsibility for their actions and health. It is essential for children to learn to take care of their health. It's also very important that children learn to take risibility for their actions. When I say health I am referring to cleanliness and nutrition. Taking responsibility for ones actions is saying yes I did that and excepting the

consequences, whether they be bad or good. These are very important life and social skills especially when seeking employment. Being caring is a very important skill that many people are lacking today. Children need to learn to be caring. Children need to be able to care about others feelings. Meaning they take into consideration others feelings. Caring can be described as feeling and exhibiting concern and empathy for others. At a young age children usually develop this skill. In a preschool setting Tommy may start crying after his mother dropped him off. When all of a sudden another child (Jack) walks up to him and says what's wrong? It's okay I miss my mommy too. But she always comes back after work. Jack wants to know, what's wrong with Tommy and reinsure him that his mom will be back. Jack is trying to use his skill of caring to let Tommy know that sometimes he feels the same way. Problem solving is an important skill for children to develop. Problem solving is the application of knowledge. A good problem solver can take the skills that they have learned and apply them to problems, to find an answer. It's common for parents and families to wish and hope that their child will turn out right. Developing morals and a good character are two important social skills that can lead to this. Morals are personal principles, standards. This is important for children, because it aides in determining what is right and what is wrong. A persons character can be described as a description of a person's attributes, traits, or personality None of the above skills can be adequately developed if the environment doesn't support them. Family Environment Families play a very important role in the development of social emotional skills in children. Families are the first influences or first teachers that children have. Children learn how to groom themselves and how to communicate with others from watching their families. It's a good idea for families to build strong relationships with their child at a young age, and continue it through out adolescents. There are many things that families can do to contributed to the development social development. Parents need to keep close relationships with their child. It has been proven that teens who have a close relationship with their parents are less likely to engage is risky

behavior. When parent child relationships are close this makes way for open commutation. Children and teens who have a close relationship with their parents are more likely to come to them when they have a problem. Parents also need to know where their child is at all times. This is called parental monitoring. Parents who are positive role models help to support healthy life styles and development in their children. Children and teens need support from their parents. This helps them to feel that they are cared for. A very simple way for parents to help support social development is by simply setting down and eating with their child or teen. It has been shown that teens who regularly eat meals with their families are more likely to eat fruits and vegetables it has also been shown that these teens are less likely to skip breakfast. All of these things can contribute to a healthy life style. However, parents and families must be careful not to overstep. By overstepping parents can leave children feeling helpless and inhibit social development. Parents who don't allow their children to explore are inhibiting social development. Abuse of any kind is damaging to anyone no matter their age, especially children and teens. If children feel let down or that know one cares for them, they may never learn how to care for others. If children are not taught healthy eating habits and how to care for themselves they may never be able to do so. When parents are not practicing parental mentoring their child may be anywhere. Parental mentoring is not spying on children but simply making sure that they are safe and not doing any thing they shouldn't be doing. A lack of this can lead to children being injured or arrested. Without parental mentoring children are at a great risk to become violent, use drugs and be involved in criminal activity. "Children love and want to be loved and they very much prefer the joy of accomplishment to the triumph of hateful failure. Do not mistake a child for his symptom" ( , 2007). Out side of the home parents also have an major influences on their child's social development skills. I have observed this many times while shopping at the local dollar store. On a few occasion I have noticed children screaming for a toy or candy bar. Sometimes the parents buy whatever the child wants, while other times they don't. Buy giving in while the child is screaming parents are teaching their child that this is an effective way to communicate. But on the other hand parents who simple ignore their child and never talk

about what happened are inhibiting many self help skills. Such as communication skills, problem solving skills and conflict resolution. Observation I work at a preschool and have the chance to observe parents interacting with their child frequently. Last week I noticed a parents dropping off her first grade son on the play ground. The mother was crying and so was the child. The mother keep saying I'm sorry, baby. Her son was screaming very loudly mommy , please don't go. The mother then started pulling her arms from her sons. She then broke free from his grasp and started to quickly walk away. The mother then went inside and shut the door. She then stood at the window watching her son. Her son then ran to the door and started kicking it and pounding on it with his fists. The mother then walked out side and picked up her son and left. In my option this just reinforce the child's behavior. From my experience once parents do this, it only gets harder. This is because the child now thinks that if they cry enough they can go home. I really don't think that it's healthy for the child or the parent. I understand that parents some times fill guilty about bring their children to daycares, but they need to be strong and be a positive role model for their child. Another thing that I have noticed after working with young children for over six years is that children who are well taken care of and have close bonds with their parents are generally easier to be around. Meaning these children don't cry as much. They seem to get along easily with caregiver and other children. I believe this can be seen in children as young as 6 weeks. Classroom Environment There is a lot of stress on schools and teachers to include curriculum that is appropriate and applicable to the challenges of modern life. When social issues arise through the content of school, students' daily lives and their exposure to the media; teachers must step up to the challenge. When a social issue is the focus of study, teachers need to consider how to ensure that treatment of the issue so that it is comprehensive and reasonable, and also how to avoid moral relativism without oppressing student's own opinions. Every teacher knows that a

safe, clean, comfortable and attractive classroom can stimulate learning and help build a classroom community. To promote social development in the classroom teachers should incorporate life skills into their lessons. Teachers should encourage students to clam themselves and help them to find ways to do so. This is also known as conflict resolution skills. When children learn conflict resolution skills they are able to effetely work through problems without violence. Teachers should help students to set goals, both academic and personal. This goes along with Maslow's social development theory. Maslow said that self-actualization can be done by setting goals or "to find self-fulfillment and realize one's potential" (Huitt, 2004). By doing this teacher are providing positive examples of what goal setting can do. Teachers need to encourage interaction between others students . This can be done by having students work in groups or pairs. Teachers also need to help students to feel safe and give them choices. Teacher should try to provide opportunities in the classroom so that all students feel that they are needed. Teacher can also promote these skills by exhibiting persistence and creativity in seeking solutions to problems. Teachers should also use positive reinforcement; this can be done be phrasing students. Teachers must be careful to avoid hampering social development. Scolding students can inhibit social development. A teacher who does not teach conflict resolution skills is inhibiting social development. Eric Erikson once said "Doubt is the brother of shame" (Erikson, 1963 p228). Sometimes a teacher may doubt their students conflict resolution skills and take things into their own hands. Teachers may inhibited this skill by separating two students that are have problems with each other. Rather then helping them to communicate with each other and work through their problems. When a teacher separates the two students the conflict is left unsolved. Teachers need to be sensitive yet assertive and not embarrasses students. Maslow also said that everyone needs Esteem. Teacher need to try not to put students on the spot. This could level the students feeling dumb. According to Maslow Esteem is "to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition" (Huitt, 2004). If a teacher where to embarrass a student they would not be promoting this need. It is important for students to learn how to work through things on their own in a non-violent way. As for goal setting a teacher can inhibit

positive goal setting skills by not following through with her own goals or helping students to stick to and follow through with their own goals. By educating the whole child, education as we know is changing. No longer will it be the parents sole responsibility to raise a healthy child with good character and morals, but now educators have joined the battle. Social devolvement is important because all students are important.

How to Improve Your Emotional Intelligence

The good news is that emotional intelligence CAN be taught and developed. Many books and tests are available to help you determine your current EI, and identify where you may need to do some work. You can also use these tips: Observe how you react to people. Do you rush to judgment before you know all of the facts? Do you stereotype? Look honestly at how you think and interact with other people. Try to put yourself in their place, and be more open and accepting of their perspectives and needs. Look at your work environment. Do you seek attention for your accomplishments? Humility can be a wonderful quality, and it doesn't mean that you're shy or lack self-confidence. When you practice humility, you say that you know what you did, and you can be quietly confident about it. Give others a chance to shine put the focus on them, and don't worry too much about getting praise for yourself. Do a self-evaluation. What are your weaknesses? Are you willing to accept that you're not perfect and that you could work on some areas to make yourself a better person? Have the courage to look at yourself honestly it can change your life. Examine how you react to stressful situations. Do you become upset every time there's a delay or something doesn't happen the way you want? Do you blame others or become angry at them, even when it's not their fault? The ability to stay calm and in control in difficult situations is highly valued in the business world and outside it. Keep your emotions under control when things go wrong. Take responsibility for your actions. If you hurt someone's feelings, apologize directly don't ignore what you did or avoid the person. People are usually more willing to forgive and forget if you make an honest attempt to make things right. Examine how your actions will affect others before you take those actions. If your decision will impact others, put yourself in their place. How will they feel if you do this? Would you want that experience? If you must take the action, how can you help others deal with the effects?

The Four Components of Emotional Intelligence

You may have heard of emotional intelligence, but you may not know exactly what it means, so lets begin there. In essence, Emotional Intelligence (EI) is about recognizing and managing your emotions and those of others. There is a solid research basis from the fields of psychology, neuroscience, and business leadership. There are four fundamental aspects of EI (as measured by the Emotional Competence Inventory, published by The Hay Group): Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, and Relationship Management. Self-Awareness

This is how aware you are and how accurately you can assess your emotions. Most of us are so busy with the daily grind that we rarely take a step back and think about how were responding to situations and how we come across. The other source of self awareness is recognizing how others respond to us. This is often challenging because we tend to see what we want to see. And we tend to avoid the uncomfortable action of asking others for feedback. To grow in your self awareness, consider building time for reflection into your day. Also consider getting into the routine of collecting specific feedback from people who will be honest and whose ideas you value. A large study that compiled thousands of data points found that leaders who sought out negative feedback were much more self-aware and effective than those who sought out positive feedback. Self-Management Self-management is your ability to control your emotions. This component also includes your transparency, adaptability, achievement, and optimism. A key factor is whether you react or respond to situations. Answer these questions: When you get an irritating email, do you write back right away? Do you sometimes find yourself regretting how you handled yourself, wishing that you had been more calm and poised? Do you lose patience or rush others? If you said yes to any of these questions, you may be in the habit of reacting rather than responding. When you react, you do what comes naturally, which is going with the emotional part of your brain. When you respond, you act against what is natural, which is why it is difficult. You engage the rational part of your brain and select the best response. Social Awareness Your organizational awareness, focus on service, and level of empathy compose your social awareness. Improve your organizational awareness by fine-tuning your radar for the emotional climate in groups, and recognizing power dynamics. Improve your service orientation by fine-tuning your radar for your customers or clients needs. Do this by first and foremost, always taking personal responsibility even when things arent going well. Other strategies to enhance your service orientation include being as available and responsive to your customers as possible, and coming up with a system to regularly gather feedback. Relationship Management Developing others, serving as an inspiring leader and catalyst for change, collaborating with a high-performing team, and managing conflict are part of relationship management. You are high on this characteristic if others perceive you as likeable and youre able to work well with diverse groups, even in the face of stress and conflict. As you can imagine, to do this requires the 3 characteristics we just discussed, plus finesse in dealing with others.

If you can create and communicate an inspiring vision and help them to do difficult things, such as embrace change, you are definitely high on this characteristic. How do you fare and what can you further develop to enhance your EI and career performance?