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REALISM AS A SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY CONTRIBUTION OF SOME SCHOLARS TO REALISM

The word philosophy came from the Greek words philo and sophia. These Greek words are interpreted as follows philia refers to friendliness, affection or love. Then sophia on the other hand, refers to the highest intellectual, especially philosophical excellence which the human mind is capable of and which is the result of studying nature for its own sake. The two concepts would combine to form philosophy which is literally translated as love of wisdom. Realism as a philosophy of mind is rooted in the "common sense" philosophy of perception known as naive realism, which has been developed as "direct" realism when distinguished from representative realism, the view that we cannot perceive the external world directly. Critical realism is the philosophy of perception concerned with the accuracy of human sense-data. In epistomology realism is accounted a subcategory of objectivism. Hyperrealism or Hyperreality, on the other hand, doubts the inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from fantasy. Transcendental realism is a concept implying that individuals have a perfect understanding of the limitations of their own minds. REALISM AS A SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY Realism is a term that describe any manifestation of this philosophical realism; the belief that reality exists independently of observers, whether in philosophy itself or in the applied arts and sciences. Realism as a philosophy of mind is rooted in the "common sense" philosophy of perception known as naive realism, which has been developed as "direct" realism when distinguished from representative realism, the view that we cannot perceive the external world directly. Critical realism is the philosophy of perception concerned with the accuracy of human sense-data. In epistomology realism is accounted a subcategory of objectivism. Hyper-realism or Hyperreality, on the other hand, doubts the inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from fantasy. Transcendental realism is a concept implying that individuals have a perfect understanding of the limitations of their own minds. In metaphysics Platonic realism describes a philosophy articulated by Plato, positing the existence of universals. Moderate realism is a position holding that there is no realm where universals exist. New realism denotes a school of early 20th-century epistemology rejecting epistemological dualism and Organic realism or the Philosophy of Organism, describes the metaphysics of Alfred North Whitehead, now known as process philosophy. Australian realism or Australian materialism is a 20th Century school of philosophy in Australia. Truthvalue link realism is a metaphysical concept explaining how to understand parts of the world that are apparently cognitively inaccessible. Cornell realism is a view in meta-ethics associated with the work of Richard Boyd and others.Quasi-realism is an expressivist meta-ethical theory which asserts that though our
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moral claims are projectivist we understand them in realist terms. In religious philosophy Christian Realism was advocated by Reinhold Niebuhr and mystical realism, a philosophy concerning the nature of the divine, was advanced by Nikolai Berdyaev. Constructive realism and entity realism are philosophical positions within scientific realism. Modal realism is a philosophy propounded by David Lewis, that possible worlds are as real as the actual world The Concept of Realism Realism in philosophy is a term used for two distinct doctrines of epistemology. In modern philosophy, it is applied to the doctrine that ordinary objects of sense perception, such as tables and chairs, have an existence independent of their being perceived. In this sense, it is contrary to the idealism of philosophers such as George Berkeley or Immanuel Kant. In its extreme form, sometimes called naive realism, the things perceived by the senses are believed to be exactly what they appear to be. In more sophisticated versions, sometimes referred to as critical realism, some explanation is given of the relationship between the object and the observer that accounts for the possibility of illusion, hallucination, and other perceptual errors. In medieval philosophy, the term realism referred to a position that regarded Platonic Forms, or universals, as real. That position is now usually called Platonic realism. In Plato's philosophy, a common noun, such as bed, refers to the ideal nature of the object, which is conveyed by its definition, and this ideal nature has metaphysical existence independent of the particular objects of that type. Thus, circularity exists independent of particular circles; justice, independent of particular just individuals or just states; and bedness, independent of particular beds. In the Middle Ages, this position was defended against nominalism, which denied the existence of such universals. Nominalists asserted that the many objects called by one name shared nothing but the name. Compromises between these two positions included moderate realism, which claimed that the universal existed in the many objects of the same type but not independent of them, and conceptualism, which held that the universal might exist independent of the many objects of that particular type, but only as an idea in the mind, not as a self-subsisting metaphysical entity. Branches of Realism The branches of realism include: Scientific Realism Scientific realism is, at the most general level, the view that the world described by science (perhaps ideal science) is the real world, as it is, independent of what we might take it to be. Within philosophy of science, it is often framed as an answer to the question "how is the success of science to be explained?" The debate over what the success of science involves
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centers primarily on the status of unobservable entities apparently talked about by scientific theories. Generally, those who are scientific realists assert that one can make reliable claims about unobservables (viz., that they have the same ontological status) as observables, as opposed to instrumentalism. Scientific realism involves two basic positions. First, it is a set of claims about the features of an ideal scientific theory; an ideal theory is the sort of theory science aims to produce. Second, it is the commitment that science will eventually produce theories very much like an ideal theory and that science has done pretty well thus far in some domains. It is important to note that one might be a scientific realist regarding some sciences while not being a realist regarding others. For example, one might hold realist attitudes toward physics, chemistry and biology, and not toward economics, psychology and sociology. Socio-Political Realism Legal realism is the theory that law is made by human beings and thus subject to human imperfections. Left realism and Right Realism are contrasting theories about the prevention and control of crime. Classical political realism holds that it is fundamentally the nature of man that pushes states and individuals to act in a way that places interests over ideologies while Liberal realism or the "English school of international relations theory" centres upon the theory that there exists a 'society of states'. Defensive realism is a theory that anarchy on the world stage causes states to increase their security while offensive realism takes the view that states will exploit opportunities to expand whenever they are presented. Neorealism or structural realism is theory that international structures act as a constraint on state behavior. Post-realism sees international realism as a particular rhetoric of international relations while Subaltern realism concerns the theory that Third World states are more concerned with short term gains. Artistic Realism Realism in theatre denotes any movement towards greater fidelity to real life, as in Kitchen sink realism, an English cultural movement in the 1950s and 1960s that concentrated on contemporary social realism, or Poetic realism, a film movement in France in the 1930s that used heightened aestheticism. In the visual arts the term denotes any approach that depicts what the eye can see, such as in American realism, a turn of the 20th century idea in arts, Classical Realism, an artistic movement in late 20th Century that valued beauty and artistic skill. Literary realism particularly denotes a 19th century literary movement. Neorealism is a movement emphasising realism in cinema and literature while the New Realism is an artistic movement founded in 1960 by Pierre Restany and Yves Klein. Romantic realism is an aesthetic art term popularized by writer/philosopher Ayn Rand. Aesthetic Realism is a philosophy founded by Eli Siegel.
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Forms of political realism in the arts have included Nazi heroic realism or the art of the third Reich, a style of propaganda art associated with Nazi Germany, Social realism, an artistic movement which depicts working class activities, and Socialist realism, a style of propaganda art associated with Communism. Photorealism is a genre of painting that resembles photography, Hyperrealism (painting) resembles high resolution photography while Pseudorealism, is a term coined by American film critics to describe films in which digital unreal images are created and amalgamated with regular scenes thereby creating an illusion that is difficult to distinguish from reality, or a genre of art initiated by Indian artist Devajyoti Ray where reality is approached via abstraction Surrealism and Magic realism are artistic genres in which magical or impossible elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF PHILOSOPHERS TO REALISM ARISTOTLE One of the earliest proponents of realism was through classical traditions supported by Aristotle (384 322 BC), the Father of Realism. Realism was developed through Aristotles interest in completing the unfinished business of idealism. Aristotle was a student of Plato, the Father of Idealism, but gradually developed differences from the teachings of Plato. He never totally departed from Platos influence of idealism. Aristotle viewed reality as a uniting of both actuality (form) and potentiality (matter). Both must be united in order for something to be real or to truly exist. Aristotles greatest belief was that form or ideas can exist without matter, but there can be no matter without form. Aristotle and Plato agreed that form is always constant but matter is always changing. They also believed that we should be very much involved in studying and understanding the reality of all things. They differed, however, in that Aristotle felt one could get to form by studying particular material things and Plato believed form could be reached only through some kind of reasoning (Ozmon & Craver, 1995). Humanness would be considered human form. Humanness is reality and exists independently and regardless of any one particular human. In the development of people, we see that as children, individuals have the particular characteristics of children. As they grow, however, their bodies change and they enter the phase of growth called adolescence; later they become adults. Humanness remains even though the development process of the individual changes several times.
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Aristotle believed that matter is cyclical. He also believed all matter had an intelligent creator who designed it for some specific reason. Aristotle believed matter to be in a constant state of motion caused by four things: material cause, formal cause, efficient cause, and final cause. The material cause is the matter from which something is made. The formal cause is the design which shapes the material object. The efficient cause would be the agent which produces the object. The final cause would be for the intent of the object . If one were baking a pizza, she would use each cause to prove that matter is real. The ingredients used to create the pizza would be considered the material cause. The recipe used to create the pizza would be the formal cause. The chef creating the pizza would be the efficient cause, and the final cause would be that the pizza serves as nourishment for the body. Aristotle was focused on how things are compared to Platos view of how things ought to be. Perception of things is not enough, according to Aristotle; we must think and delve into the world of logic. Deductive reasoning involves a first or major premise, a second or minor premise and a conclusion. All three premises together are referred to as a syllogism. JOHN LOCKE John Locke widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. John Locke contributed to realism through his investigations and certainty of human knowledge. Locke believed that we are born with our mind as a blank sheet on which ideas are imprinted. He believed all ideas are derived from experience by sensing and reflecting on the source of data. Locke concentrated on how the mind gained knowledge. He insisted that what we know is what we experience. His major contribution to philosophy was the development of an acute awareness of experience. Rather than speculate about innate ideas or essences, or an independent material reality, his field of investigation was human experience and human knowledge (Ozmon & Craver).

JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism of French expression. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological and educational thought.
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Jean Jacques Rousseau contributed to realism particularly the aspect related to education. The concern and interest in primary education have their root in the taught of early philosophy like Rousseau. He was one of the early educators who initiated influences of the development of the child physically, socially, mentally and emotionally from birth. He expressed sentiment on the importance of the childs early education in character formation. He was conscious of the young childrens susceptibility to environmental experiences and their influences on the course of development. Rosseau therefore suggested that teaching should be child centred and the methods of teaching to be activity-oriented so as to create amusement and joy to the children. His ideal are strictly adhered to in the Nigeria education system where proprietors of primary school are given the guidelines by ministry of education to provide sufficient teaching materials that are attuned to the natural tendencies of children, hence inclusion of teaching methods like play methods, activity method, experimental, story-telling methods to mention but a few on primary school curriculum. The play way he advocated makes learning easy and interesting because children learn by doing and at same time solve their problems. Teachers are advised not to force the child to learn but rather teach every lesson with play activity. Rousseau also laid much emphasis on the freedom and liberty to pursue learning. Children should not be forced to learn without their willing cooperation. His principle is that normal child activities provide the natural means of development, that should the content and method of education which ought to be attuned to the childs natural growth and that education should focus attention on, and be responsive to the changing needs, interest and ability of children as they develop. To him, natural conditions have created unhappy results and mans negligence of the way of the nature has left them or left him in chain. Education therefore provided to the children should take cognizance of their rate of comprehension instead of stuffing the children with materials that are uninteresting and of no value to their age. This may lead to the childs alienation from school. Instruction must be made to fit the childs level of understanding and his stage of development, cognizance should also be taken of their immediate experience and group instruction should be preferred to private instruction because it exposes the children to other children ideas and promotes social learning

RELEVANCE OF REALISM TO EDUCATION

Realism as a philosophical field has impacted greatly on education. It has defined and designed certain aspects of education from the realistic perspectives. The Fundamental Postulates of Realism on Education 1) External world is a solid Reality, whether known or unknown to man. Reality is already

in existence and in the invention of man. It exists independently of being known to perceived by, or related to mind. Man can only comprehend it, through senses. One should dip below the surface to know the reality. 2) Realism places great premium on Man and human endeavour, which it says, should

be combined with science and common-sense. It, however, asserts that Man is finite' and learning is necessary for a finite man, Education is the process by which he lifts himself up to the external. " The Realists wish man to be a man of affairs, practical and always seeker of deeper and deeper truth and reality," 3) The realist say that Mind' like any other material thing has mechanical functioning.

They discount its creating ability. "Just as any object of universe can be true' or false' similarly mind is also true' or false'. The development of mind is the part of the process of development of the world." If this concept of the realists is accepted in education then we are forced to believe that children's mind are mere cameras to register the reality of the universe. 'Philosophers say that mind has lot of scope for enrichment elevation and creativity. 4) Realism tries to build up a body of systematized knowledge, which is certain and

objective and agrees with the standpoint of physical sciences. It says that every reality can be proved by observation, experience, experiment and scientific reasoning, For them, experience is the touchstone of what is real. Whenever the simple and direct experience can't determine the objective truth, the common sense puts its truth in scientific research. In the present world of falling idols and falling ideals, the realists emphasize the role of intelligence as great significant, as it formulates the concepts and develops general and abstract ideas. 5) The realists of all brands aver that values are permanent and objective and say that

although institutions and practices very a great deal, the fundamental values of society should not change. The children should be taught those values, which have proved enduring throughout history. They should be taught the nature of right' and wrong' and what is objectively good and beautiful.

In brief, Realism believes in the usefulness of the world and the material existence in its field of action . It believes that whatever is real is independent. Whatever is, is and exists. Its presence of existence does not depend upon the knower. (Compare with idealist's standpoint. ) The individual doesn't make reality, he only discovers it. Main tenets: i. Realism believes in the world which we see of perceive to be real. ii. Realists believe in the present life. iii. They believe that the truth of life and aim of life are in the development from the present unsystematic life. iv. Knowledge is real and can be assimilated by the human beings. v. The realists distinguish between appearance' and reality'. vi. Realism believes that there is an objective reality apart from that which is presented to the consciousness. The developing realism has adopted four points in education: i. Humanistic Realism, ii. Social Realism, iii. Sense Realism, and iv. Neo-Realism. i) Humanistic Realism in education Humanistic realism is the reaction against the emphasis on form and style of the old classical literature. It has great regard for the ancient literature but it emphasizes the study of content and ideas in the ancient classical literature to understand one's present social life and environment. The aim is not to study the form and style of old literature to have mastery over it. The study of old literature is a means to understand the practical life. History, Geography, Kautilyas Arthashastra are the subjects and books should be studied for this purpose. Erasmus (1446-1537 ), Rabelais (1483-1553), John Milston (1608-1674) were the supporters of this faculty. ii. Social Realism in education Social Realism in education is the reaction against a type of education that produces scholars and professional men to the neglect of the man of affairs i.e. practice. Education should not produce men who are unfit in social life. The purpose of education, according to social realists, is to prepare the practical man of the world. Michael de Montaigue (15331592) was the main supporter of this faculty. iii) The sense Realism in education
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The sense realism in education emphasizes the training of the senses. Senses are the gateways of knowledge and learning takes place the operation of the senses. According to sense-realists nature is the treasure house of all knowledge and this knowledge can be obtained through the training of the senses. The sense-realists emphasized the three things: a) Application of inductive method formulated by Bacon in order to organize and simplify

the instructional process. b) c) To replace instruction in Latin by the instruction in Vernacular, and To substitute new scientific and social studies in place of the studies in language and

literature. Richard Mulcaster (1531-1611), Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Ratke (1571 to 1635) and Comenius (1592-1670) were the supporters of this faculty. iv) Neo-Realism in education Neo-Realism is really a philosophical thought. It appears the methods and results of modern development in physics. They do not consider the scientific principles everlasting while they express the changeability in them. They support the education of art with the science and analytical system of education with the humananistic feelings. They consider living and un living all objective to be organs and the development of organs is the main objective and all round development of the objects is the main characteristic of education. Bertrand Russel and whitehead were the supporters of this faculty. REALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION "Realists do not believe in general and common aims of education. According to them aims are specific to each individual and his perspectives." (Seetharamu, A.S. : philosophies of Education, p.74). And each one has different perspectives. The aim of education should be to teach truth rather than beauty, to understand the present practical life. The purpose of education, according to social realists, is to prepare the practical man of the world. The science realists expressed that the education should be conducted on universal basis. Greater stress should be laid upon the observation of nature and the education of science. Neo-realists aim at developing all round development of the objects with the development of their organs.
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Social realism was generally recommended for the people of the upper social class/strata. It combined literary elements with ideals of chivalric education. Naturally it included the study of literature, heraldry ( the science dealing with coats of arms and the persons who have right to wear them ), genealogy ( science of the development of plants and animals from earlier forms ),riding, fencing, gymnastics, study of modern languages and the customs and institutions of neighboring countries. Sense-realism attached more importance to the study of natural sciences and contemporary social life. Study of languages is not so significant as the study of natural sciences and contemporary life. Neo-realism gives stress on the subject physics and on humanistic feelings, physics and psychology, sociology, economics, Ethics, Politics, history, Geography, agriculture varied arts, languages and so on, are the main subjects to be studied according to the Neorealists. REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING 1. Education should proceed from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract. 2. Things before rules and words. 3. Students to be taught to analyze rather than to construct. 4. Vernacular to be the medium of instruction. 5. The order of nature to be sought and followed. 6. Repetition is necessary for retention. 7. Individual's experience and spirit of inquiry is more important than authority. 8. No unintelligent cramming. More emphasis on questioning and understanding. 9. Methods of scientific thinking formulated by sir Thomas Bacon. REALISM AND THE TEACHER: 1) 3) 4) A teacher should be such that he himself be educated and well versed with the He must have full mastery of the knowledge of present life. He must guide the student towards the hard realities of life. He is neither pessimist, customs of belief and rights and duties of people, and the trends of all ages and places.

nor optimist. 5) He must be able to expose children to the problems of life and the world around. (To

master one's own environing life natural, social through a knowledge of the broader life of the ancients.) A teacher should always keep in mind11

1. Re-capitulation is necessary to make the knowledge permanent. 2. One subject should be taught at one time. 3. No pressure or coercion be brought upon the child. 4. The practice of cramming should be given up. 5. The uniformity should be the basic principle in all things. 6. Things should be introduced first and then the words. 7. The entire knowledge should be gained after experience. 8. The knowledge should be imparted on the basis of organs. 9. Straight forward method should be adopted for teaching. 10. There should be a co-relation between utility in daily life and education. 11. The child should be told the utility of whatever is taught. 12. The simple rules should be defined. 13. All the subjects should be taught in proper order. 14. Various organs of education should be taught in chronological order. 15. The topic should not be given up unless the boys understand it well. 16. To find out the interest of the child and to teach accordingly. REALISM AND THE CHILD 1) "Realism in education recognizes the importance of the child. The child is a real unit which has real existence. He has some feelings, some desires and some powers. All these cannot be overlooked. These powers of the child shall have to be given due regard at the time of planning education. " 1 2) 3) 4) 5) " Child can reach near reality through learning by reason." 1 " Child has to be given as much freedom as possible." 1 "The child is to be enabled to proceed on the basis of facts," 1 The child can learn only when he follows the laws of learning." (When only one

response is repeated for one stimulus, it conditioned by that stimulus. Now wherever that situation comes, response will be the same; this is the fact.) 6) " The child is to be understood a creature of the real world there is no sense in making him a God . He has to be trained to become a man only." REALISM AND SCHOOL ORGANIZATION: 1) School organization would be based on the real needs of society. It is not proper that a college should be established due to political pressure at a place when it is not needed. 2) The opening of science classes in every school is must. Only academic and literary subjects are not sufficient to fulfill the needs of the society.
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3) Realism doesn't oppose co-education. Sex-drive is a real feeling. It is a natural happening so it cannot be rejected. 4) School is the mirror of the society. It is a miniature form of society and it presents the real picture of the society REALISM AND DISCIPLINE Discipline is adjustment to objectivity. It is necessary in order to enable the child to adjust himself to his environment and concentrate on his work. Bringing out change in the real world is impossible. The student himself is a part of this world. He has to admit this fact and adjust himself to the world. A disciplined student is one who does not withdraw from the cruelties, tyrannies, hardships and shortcomings pervading the world. Realism has vehemently opposed withdrawal from life. One has to adjust oneself to this material world. Thus, the realism has brought great effect in various fields of education. The aims, the curriculum, the methods of teaching the outlook towards the child, the teachers, the discipline and the system of education all were given new blood. Realism in education dragged the education from the old traditions, idealism and the high and low tides to the real surface. CONCLUSION Some of the points raised against realism may be true but some are raised under ignorance of the study of realism in the true sense. Its contributions to modern education should not be ignored. Today attention is being paid towards technical and vocational education in all corners of the world. There are many Engineering Colleges in India, too. Everywhere there is an arrangement of higher education of Medicine and Law. Increasing interest towards empirical education is the application of the realistic attitude. There are two main contributions of the education based upon the realism. Firstly, it tried to remove the gulf-between the life and education. Secondly, it propounded the principle of experimentation and observation in education. It was realism that first introduced the thought that the organs are the door way to knowledge and the knowledge can be gained through the inductive method. The wordy education and bookish knowledge are not sufficient. Real education is that which brings about union between nature and society based upon one's own experience.

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REFERENCES Chaube, S. P. Akhilesh : Philosophical and Sociological Foundation of Education, 1981 : Agra Vinod Pustak Mandir , Agra 2. Chapter 12, pp.171 to 174. Dunn, Sheila G. (2005) Philosophical foundations of education. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,. Durant, Will. (1961)The story of philosophy. New York: Washington Square Press,. Frost, S. E. Jr. Basic teachings of the great philosophers. New York: Doubleday, 1962. Jacobsen, David A. Philosophy in classroom teaching: Bridging the gap. Microsoft Encarta 2009. 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Ozmon, H. & Craver, S. Philosophical foundations of education. 5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1995. Pande, Ram Shakal : An Introduction to Major philosophies of Education, 1982 : Agra, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Section Six- Chapters 25 to 30, pp. 149 to 173. Power, Edward J. Philosophy of Education. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press Inc., 1990. Rose, James S. Grouondwoek of Educational Theory, 1969 : London, George G. Harrap and Co. Ltd. , 182, High Holborn, London, W.C.I. , Chapter-X, pp. 211 to 236. Seetharamu, A. S. : Philosophies of Education, 1989 : New Delhi, S. B. Nangia, for Ashish Publishing House, 8/81 , Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi 110026 . Chapter 6 , pp. 72 to 77. Socio-Philosophical Approach to Education, 1987 : New Delhi , Atlantic publishers and Distributors, B-2 , Vishal Enclave, Najafgarh Road, New Delhi 110 027. Chapter Twenty, pp. 239 to 251.

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