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Usman Kayani

March 28, 2012

Candidate number: P04349

Supervisor: Dr B Doyon

King’s College London

MSci in Mathematics

Abstract

Overview of Integrable Quantum Spin Chains focusing in particular on the

XXX Heisenberg spin chain with topics covering the coordinate Bethe

Ansatz, the algebraic Bethe Ansatz, integrability, higher conserved charges

and correlation functions. I have adapted and ﬁlled in some of the proofs

which are commonly left out in the literature. Material for students at a

masters level.

Contents

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Integrability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.2 What is Spin? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.3 Spin Chains? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.4 Notation, Conventions and Concepts from QM . . . . . . . . 6

2 Heisenberg Spin Chain 9

2.1 Basis for observables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.2 Derivation of Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2.1 One-particle wave function N = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.2.2 Two-particle wave function N = 2 . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.2.3 N Spin chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.3 Energy spectrum of H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3 Bethe Ansatz 19

3.1 Coordinate BA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.1.1 Symmetries of Heisenberg Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.1.2 Eigenstates of H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

3.2 BAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.3 Algebraic BA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.3.1 Integrability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.3.2 Yang-Baxter equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.3.3 Spectrum of H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

3.3.4 Bethe Ansatz equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3.4 Thermodynamic limit N →∞ - String Hypothesis . . . . . . 48

3.4.1 XXZ Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

4 Higher Conserved Charges of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian 57

4.1 Logarithmic derivative of the transfer matrix . . . . . . . . . 58

5 Correlation functions 62

5.1 EFP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5.1.1 Integral representation of EFP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

5.1.2 Sato’s formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

1

6 Conclusion 68

References 70

2

Chapter 1

Introduction

“The career of a young theoretical physicist consists of treating

the harmonic oscillator in ever-increasing levels of abstraction.”

– Sidney Coleman

H =

1

2m

ˆ p

2

+

1

2

ω

2

q

2

We will begin by brieﬂy talking about the quantum harmonic oscillator - a

model which is easy to understand, familiar amongst most graduate students

and will help us understand the idea behind a quantum integrable system.

The quantum harmonic oscillator is one of the most important models in

quantum mechanics, simply because it is one of the few systems for which

an exact, analytic solution is known. Though solving this system directly is

rather straightforward as you essentially have to solve a diﬀerential equation,

it can get quite tedious since we will have to deal with Hermite polynomials

which get increasingly complicated

1

for energy eigenstates above the ground

state. Fortunately there exists another method to extract the energy eigen-

values without solving the diﬀerential equation known as the ladder operator

method. The familiar terminology “creation” and “annihilation” operator

that appears in quantum ﬁeld theory and other area’s of physics comes from

generalizing this simple and elegant concept. It will also be essential in

the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz, where the action of the “creation” operator is

thought of as a excitation in the chain with respect to the reference ferro-

magnetic ground state. The quantum harmonic oscillator is one example of

an integrable system.

1.1 Integrability

The concept of integrability hails from our old friend classical mechanics

and we will later give a more precise deﬁnition of this in terms of conserved

1

Increase in the polynomial order

3

quantities. For now, we will think of integrability as simply meaning we

can solve the system in question exactly i.e. given the Hamiltonian, which

encodes the dynamics of the system we can ﬁnd the entire energy spectrum

and other physical quantities such as correlation functions. Other examples

of integrable systems include the hydrogen atom, which we will brieﬂy meet

in the next chapter, the sine-Gordon model and of course the model of focus

for the project, the Heisenberg spin chain. The concepts that are important

in Quantum integrable models are the Coordinate Bethe Ansatz and the

Quantum Inverse Scattering Method also known as the Algebraic Bethe

Ansatz due to the strong algebraic framework. The CBA was originally

developed by Bethe in 1931 and it will be the ﬁrst method we will use to

ﬁnd the energy spectrum, after which we will use the ABA and prove its

integrability.

1.2 What is Spin?

In classical mechanics, we have the notion of orbital angular momentum

associated with the motion of the center of mass. In quantum mechanics, the

orbital angular momentum has a simular structure as in classical mechanics.

There is however another type of angular momentum which arises known as

spin. A fundamental diﬀerence between the two types that the spin can have

both integer and half integer values while only integer values of the orbital

angular momentum are allowed. Spin is a characteristic property of ele-

mentary particles (fermions and bosons), composite particles (hadrons) and

atomic nuclei. The direction of spin can change but an elementary particle

cannot be made to spin faster or slower. For our consideration we will be

looking at Spin-1/2 particles i.e. the electron. Particles (like the electron)

with Spin posses a magnetic dipole moment, just like a rotating electrically

charged body in classical electrodynamics. As a result, the ‘movement’ of

individual electrons in their atomic nuclei will generate a weak magnetic

ﬁeld.

Conventionally the direction chosen for the quantization axis is the z-

axis, but this choice is arbitrary and chosen for convenience as we shall see

shortly. The spin projection operator S

z

aﬀects a measurement of the spin

in the z direction and the eigenstates [1, 0]

t

and [0, 1]

t

form a complete basis

for the Hilbert space describing a spin-1/2 particle, which we can call ”up”

4

and ”down”. This means that we can essentially write any eigenvector by

taking linear combinations of the above eigenstates and hence describe all

possible states of the spin. It is important to note that by the postulates of

quantum mechanics, an experiment designed to measure the electron spin

on the x, y or z axis can only yield an eigenvalue of the corresponding spin

operator (S

x

, S

y

or S

z

) on that axis. A measurement of the z-component

of spin destroys any information about the x and y components that might

previously have been obtained.

1.3 Spin Chains?

A quantum spin chain is a particular example of an integrable system usu-

ally in 1+1 space-time dimensions for the purposes of integrability. Picture

a ring of atoms each which posses a quantum degree of freedom (spin), which

with our convention can point in two directions, up or down and which form

a complete basis for the Hilbert space describing the spin-1/2 particle. The

study of spin chains naturally arises in the study of magnetism (particularly

ferromagnetism). Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism which certain ma-

terials (such as Iron) form permanent magnets or are attracted to magnets.

An example of ferromagnetism is a refrigerator magnet used the hold notes

on the refrigerator door. It is the only type that creates forces strong enough

to be felt and is responsible for the common phenomena of magnetism en-

countered in everyday life. Though the study of spin chains arose to solve

particular problems in condensed matter physics, its application has also

reached String theory particularly in the AdS/CFT correspondence and in

high-energy QCD scattering.

In ferrous materials such as Iron, the individual electrons that generate

their weak ﬁelds will ‘combine’ to generate a strong magnetic ﬁeld and thus

what we experience as ferromagnetism. At absolute zero temperature, a

ferromagnet reaches the state of lowest energy (ground state energy) in

which all the atomic spins align. As the temperature increases more and

more spins deviate from the common direction which can be thought of

excitations from the ground state caused by a magnon.

2

Thus there is an

increase in the internal energy and reducing the net magnetization. Thus

2

The concept of a magnon was introduced in 1930 by Felix Bloch in order to explain

the reduction of spontaneous magnetization in a ferromagnet. A magnon can be thought

of as a quantized spin wave. We will introduce the concept of a magnon in chapter 3 in

terms of the low-lying excitations from the ground state.

5

magnetism arises because the state in which all atomic spins align has less

energy than disaligned spins. We will begin by considering the diatomic

Hydrogen Molecule H

2

which contains two Hydrogen atoms

3

. What we

ﬁnd is that the total internal energy of the system is actually greater than

the sum of the individual atomic energies. This ‘extra’ energy comes from

the Coloumb interaction between the protons and electrons. By invoking

the Pauli exclusion principle for the total wave function and making a few

arguments, we will then derive the main system of study in this project -

the XXX Heisenberg Hamiltonian. This Hamiltonian describes the nearest-

neighbour interaction between electron spins of a linear chain of N atoms.

1.4 Notation, Conventions and Concepts from QM

Unless stated otherwise we will use natural units i.e. set = 1.

For Spin-1/2 particles, we can represent the Spin operators in terms of

Pauli matrices:

S

α

=

1

2

σ

α

, α ∈ ¦x, y, z¦

σ

x

=

_

0 1

1 0

_

, σ

y

=

_

0 −i

i 0

_

, σ

z

=

_

1 0

0 −1

_

[σ

a

, σ

b

] = 2i

abc

σ

c

, (

abc

= 1)

¦σ

a

, σ

b

¦ = 2δ

ab

I

σ

a

σ

b

= δ

ab

I +i

abc

σ

c

tr σ

α

= 0

It is convenient to specify the eigenkets of

S

2

and S

z

, given a state with

spin s and z-component m of the spin:

S

2

[s, m¸ = s(s + 1)[s, m¸

S

z

[s, m¸ = m[s, m¸

The possible values for s and m are:

s = 0,

1

2

, 1,

3

2

, , m = −s, −s + 1, , s −1, s

In many applications there is no confusion about the spin s of the particles

and therefore the index is dropped. For a spin-1/2 particle s = 1/2, we have

3

Each with one electron and one proton

6

two possible states [1/2¸ and [ − 1/2¸ which is commonly denoted as [ ↑¸

and [ ↓¸.

Tensor product

Let A and B be two n n matrices with elements A

i

j

, B

k

l

. The upper

index denotes a row and the lower index a column. The tensor product

A⊗B is a n

2

n

2

matrix elements:

(A⊗B)

ik

jl

= A

i

j

B

k

l

Where i, j are the block indices and k, l the intrinsic indices. For example

if A and B are 2 2 matrices with

A =

_

a

11

a

12

a

21

a

22

_

, B =

_

b

11

b

12

b

21

b

22

_

Then:

A⊗B =

_

a

11

B a

12

B

a

21

B a

22

B

_

=

_

_

_

_

a

11

b

11

a

11

b

12

a

12

b

11

a

12

b

12

a

11

b

21

a

11

b

22

a

12

b

21

a

12

b

22

a

21

b

11

a

21

b

12

a

22

b

11

a

22

b

12

a

21

b

21

a

21

b

22

a

22

b

21

a

22

b

22

_

_

_

_

Properties:

det (A⊗B) = (det (A))

2

(det (B))

2

tr (A⊗B) = tr (A) tr (B)

(A⊗B)

†

= A

†

⊗B

†

(A+C) ⊗B = A⊗B +C ⊗B

A⊗(B +C) = A⊗B +A⊗C

(A⊗B)(C ⊗D) = AC ⊗BD

We also have the notion for a vector tensor product, given x, y ∈ V = C

2

:

x ⊗y =

_

x

1

x

2

_

⊗

_

y

1

y

2

_

=

_

x

1

y

x

2

y

_

=

_

_

_

_

x

1

y

1

x

1

y

2

x

2

y

1

x

2

y

2

_

_

_

_

which is an element of the tensor product space V ⊗V = C

2

⊗C

2

Let V

1

⊗ V

2

⊗ ⊗ V

N

be a d

N

- dimensional vector space. We can

interchange V

j

with V

k

by means of the permutation matrix P

j,k

:

P

j,k

(V

j

⊗V

k

) = (V

k

⊗V

j

)

7

with property P

2

j,k

= 1. When V

j

are a 2-dimensional space e.g. C

2

as will

be the case for the discussion in this project, the permutation matrix can

be represented by:

P =

1

2

(I ⊗I +

α

σ

α

⊗σ

α

)

which is a permutation in C

2

⊗C

2

i.e. Given x, y ∈ C

2

we have:

P(x ⊗y) = y ⊗x

Now if we use a basis for C

2

⊗ C

2

which we will deﬁne in the next section,

we can see that the permutation operator P can be written explicitly as:

P =

_

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

_

Note: P

i,j

permutes the spin at site i and j. We also have the following

properties:

tr

a

P

a,b

= tr

b

P

a,b

= I

P

a,b

= P

b,a

P

n,p

P

n,q

= P

p,q

P

n,p

= P

n,p

P

p,q

P

∗

= P P

2

= I

The notation for any operator A ∈ End( ), where is the tensor

product of many vector spaces, means that the operator acts as A in the

tensor product space and trivially in any other space.

It will be useful to deﬁne the Riemann zeta function ζ(s) since it will be

used for the correlation functions in Chapter 5. The Riemann zeta function

is deﬁned as:

ζ(s) =

∞

n=1

1

n

s

, 1(s) > 1

Alternative the Riemann zeta function can be expressed in terms of the

alternating zeta series ζ

a

as:

ζ(s) =

1

1 −2

1−s

ζ

a

(s), s ,= 1,

where

ζ

a

(s) =

n>0

(−1)

n−1

n

s

.

The alternating zeta function is well deﬁned for s = 1 and has value ζ

a

(1) =

ln 2 unlike the Riemann zeta function which has a pole at s = 1.

8

Chapter 2

Heisenberg Spin Chain

In this chapter, we shall derive the Hamiltonian for the Heisenberg Spin

Chain by considering the Coloumb Hamiltonian. First we will state the set

of observables and the vector space on which the operators act. The material

in this chapter is adapted from [1],[2],[3] and [4]. An observable is, roughly

speaking, any measurable property of a physical system such as: position,

spin, energy, momentum or angular momentum. In Quantum Mechanics,

each observable is represented by a maximally Hermitian linear operator

acting on the state space. Each eigenstate of an observable corresponds to

an eigenvector of the operator, and the associated eigenvalue corresponds to

the value of the observable in that eigenstate. The observable in question

for the next part is given by the spin operators. For example, for a spin-1/2,

S

z

aﬀects the measurement in the z direction and has eigenvalues ±/2,

where if we set = 1 simply gives ±1/2. These correspond the eigenstates

pointing “up” or “down”, as we shall see shortly.

2.1 Basis for observables

For N = 1, the case where there is one particle in the chain is trivial in the

context of the Spin Chain. It is still important to state the set of observables

as we will use this to construct the set of observables for N > 1.

The basis for observables for N = 1 are given by the identity I and the

ﬁrmilar Pauli Matrices σ, that is: ¦I, σ¦ = ¦I, σ

x

, σ

y

, σ

z

¦

These operators act on a two-dimensional complex vector space V

∼

= C

2

,

for our consideration these will operate on the space spanned by the “up”

and “down” Spinors:

[ ↑¸ =

_

1

0

_

, [ ↓¸ =

_

0

1

_

For N = 2 we need to construct our basic observables by using the notion

of a tensor product. The basic observables at each site are: σ

1

≡ σ ⊗I and

9

σ

2

≡ I ⊗σ. The basis for the observables at each site are therefore given by:

¦I

⊗2

, σ

i

¦ for i = 1, 2. where I

⊗2

= I ⊗I.

These act on the tensor product space V

1

⊗V

2

∼

= C

2

⊗C

2

, again for our

consideration these correspond to the space spanned by the vectors:

[ ↑↑¸ = [ ↑¸ ⊗[ ↑¸ , [ ↑↓¸ = [ ↑¸ ⊗[ ↓¸ , [ ↓↑¸ = [ ↓¸ ⊗[ ↑¸ , [ ↓↓¸ = [ ↓¸ ⊗[ ↓¸

For general N the basic observables σ

n

, n = 1 , 2 , . . . , N are deﬁned by:

σ

n

=

1

↓

I

⊗ ⊗I⊗

n

↓

σ ⊗I ⊗ ⊗

N

↓

I

,

which acts nontrivially on the n

th

space and trivially on the rest. A basis

for the observables at each site are therefore given by: ¦I

⊗N

, σ

i

¦ for i =

1, 2, , N. These are operators which act on the Hilbert (tensor product)

space:

1

N

=

1

↓

V

1

⊗ ⊗

n

↓

V

n

⊗ ⊗

N

↓

V

N

∼

= C

2

⊗N

,

with dimension dim(1

N

) = 2

N

. This corresponds to the space spanned by

the 2

N

elements:

[ ↑↑ ↑¸, [ ↓↑ ↑¸, [ ↓↓ ↑¸, [ ↑↓ ↑¸, , [ ↓↓ ↓¸,

which consists of the complex linear superpositions of all the diﬀerent pos-

sible states.

2.2 Derivation of Hamiltonian

In this section, we will derive the Hamiltonian for the Heisenberg Spin Chain

based on considerations of the Coulomb interaction Hamiltonian between

idealized charged bodies. There are many variants of this derivation (See

[1],[2],[3] for a formal treatment) that can be found in numerous papers

and textbooks and as such I will give quick overview based on my own

understanding. Since we are talking about spin-1/2 particles, it is useful to

consider the electron. We will particularly be interested in how the total

energy is aﬀected by the electron dynamics. By deﬁnition, atoms have no

overall electrical charge and so must contain an equal number of protons and

electrons.

1

For this reason, when we study electron systems in atoms and

solids we must also take into account the various electrostatic interactions

between the electrons and protons, we will see how this comes into play

when we deal with two-particle wave function (atoms with one un-paired

electron next to each other). Well-separated atoms are described by atomic

1

An atom can gain or lose electrons, becoming an ion which is nothing more than an

electrically charged atom. Adding or removing electrons from an atom does not change

the element, just its net charge.

10

wave functions, but in a molecule or solid the wave functions overlap. The

amount they overlap will depend on the spin orientation of the electrons,

if they posses the same spin then by the Pauli exclusion principle the two

electrons cannot be in the same quantum state and so their wave functions

will not remix as much. If the spin is diﬀerent between the electrons, their

wave functions will overlap more and the electrons have a greater probability

of being near to each other, this means that electrons with opposite spins

posses a higher potential energy. The more the wave functions overlap, the

greater the Coloumb repulsion between them - this is why the ground state

for a ferromagnetic tends to have all parallel spins as they tend to align.

2.2.1 One-particle wave function N = 1

Firstly, let us consider a one-electron system (i.e. the Hydrogen atom). This

is a famous integrable model in physics for which the solution can be found

exactly. The Hamiltonian will be given by the kinetic energy of the electron

and the attractive Coloumb interaction between the proton and the electron.

We will neglect the kinetic energy associated with the motion of the protons,

assuming that they are relatively stationary because of their large mass.

Figure 1: The Hydrogen atom

We will introduce some labelling which will be useful later on. For each

electron we will associate a number (n ∈ E = ¦1, 2, ¦) and for each

proton we will associate a letter (α ∈ P = ¦A, B, ¦). We will denote

the position of each electron by r

n

∈ R

3

, and the position of each proton

by r

α

. We will be particularly working with the magnitude of the distance

between the particles i, j, this will be denoted by r

ij

= [r

ij

[ = [r

i

−r

j

[ where

i, j ∈ E, P. The kinetic energy for each electron will be given by −

h

2

2m

∇

2

n

while the protons will be assumed to be stationary (relative to the electrons),

the coloumb interaction term between two such particles will be given by

±k

e

2

r

ij

where the sign depends on whether it is repulsive or attractive. For

example, for the one-particle wave function we have one-electron and one-

proton with positions r

1

and r

A

, with relative magnitude r

1A

= [r

1

−r

A

[,

in this case since there are no other particle labels to consider we can simply

call this r = r

1A

for convenience. See Figure 1. The Hamiltonian for this

11

system will be given by:

H

0

(r) = −

h

2

2m

∇

2

−k

e

2

r

Where k = 1/4π

0

. The wave function

2

describing this system will be given

as a solution to H

0

ψ = E

0

ψ and ψ(r) ∈ L

2

(R

3

).

The total wave function Ψ

tot

for the particle is an element of the Hilbert

space given by the tensor product of the spatial and spin wave function

spaces, i.e. the Hilbert Space is: H

n

= L

2

(R

3

) ⊗ V

n

. Here V

n

is a vector

space spanned by [ ↑¸ and [ ↓¸ as in the previous section.

2.2.2 Two-particle wave function N = 2

Figure 2: The Helium atom

Now we wish to consider a two-electron system. One such system is

the Helium atom, which contains a doubly positively charged nucleus. See

Figure 2.

Figure 3: The Hydrogen

Molecule (H

2

), we will assume

R

AB

to be ﬁxed.

For our discussion, since we would like to study the nearest neighbour

interaction between a linear chain of atoms which will give rise to magnetism,

we will consider the more general diatomic Hydrogen molecule (H

2

). It is

the smallest molecule that consists of two Hydrogen atoms. Like Helium, a

Hydrogen molecule also has two electrons, and so the intermolecular forces

are going to be small - but not as small as Helium. In the Hydrogen molecule,

you have two atoms that you can distribute the charge over.

The Hamiltonian will be given by the sum of the Hamiltonians for the

one-electron system (for each of the two Hydrogen atoms) and an additional

2

The wave function can be determined by the time-independent Schrdinger equation,

which is the eigenvalue equation for the Hamiltonian

12

term known as the interaction or exchange Hamiltonian, which will encode

the electrostatic Coloumb interaction between the electrons and protons, and

each proton with each corresponding neighbouring electron. See Figure 3.

The Hamiltonian is:

H = H

0

(r

1A

) +H

0

(r

2B

) +H

exch

where

H

0

(r

nα

) = −

h

2

2m

∇

2

n

−k

e

2

r

nα

and

H

exch

= k(−

e

2

r

1B

−

e

2

r

2A

+

e

2

r

12

+

e

2

r

AB

)

and the unperturbed hydrogen atom wave functions ψ

1

and ψ

2

satisfy

the equations:

H

0

(r

nα

)ψ

n

(r

n

) = E

0

ψ

n

(r

n

)

We can use these as building blocks to construct symmetric and an-

tisymmetric wave functions using the Heitler-London approximation

3

(see

[3]):

Ψ

S

(r

1

, r

2

) =

1

√

2

(ψ

1

(r

1

)ψ

2

(r

2

) +ψ

2

(r

1

)ψ

1

(r

2

))

Ψ

A

(r

1

, r

2

) =

1

√

2

(ψ

1

(r

1

)ψ

2

(r

2

) −ψ

2

(r

1

)ψ

1

(r

2

))

or in compacted notation:

Ψ

±

(r

1

, r

2

) =

1

√

2

(ψ

1

(r

1

)ψ

2

(r

2

) ±ψ

2

(r

1

)ψ

1

(r

2

))

where ψ

1

and ψ

2

are wave functions in L

2

(R

3

) determined by H

0

. We can

calculate this energy by using:

E

±

=

¸Ψ

±

[HΨ

±

¸

¸Ψ

±

[Ψ

±

¸

We can calculate this by plugging in Hamiltonian and the energy for the

unperturbed wave functions. Firstly, calculating the normalization integral

in the dominator of E

±

:

¸

Ψ

±

¸

¸

Ψ

±

_

=

__

Ψ

∗

±

(r

1

, r

2

)Ψ

±

(r

1

, r

2

) d

3

r

1

d

3

r

2

= 1 ±α

2

3

Based on the Calculation made by Walter Heitler and Fritz London on the hydrogen

molecule (H

2

) in 1927, it plays an important role in the context of quantum chemistry.

13

Where we have used:

_

[ψ

i

(r)[ d

3

r = 1 i = 1, 2

and α is deﬁned to be the overlap integral:

α ≡

_

ψ

∗

1

(r)ψ

2

(r) d

3

r

The numerator in expression for E

±

can be found in a simular manner,

after some manipulation:

¸

Ψ

±

¸

¸

HΨ

±

_

=

__

Ψ

∗

±

(r

1

, r

2

) HΨ

±

(r

1

, r

2

) d

3

r

1

d

3

r

2

= 2E

0

(1 ±α

2

) +V ±U

E

0

is the one- particle energy deﬁned as before. V and U are called the

“Coulomb integral” and “exchange integral”, respectively, deﬁned by:

V ≡

_

H

exch

[ψ

1

(r

1

)[

2

[ψ

2

(r

2

)[

2

d

3

r

1

d

3

r

2

U ≡

_

ψ

∗

1

(r

2

)ψ

∗

2

(r

1

) H

exch

ψ

1

(r

1

)ψ

2

(r

2

) d

3

r

1

d

3

r

2

The energy is therefore given by:

E

±

= 2E

0

+

V ±U

1 ±α

2

Note that α, V and U need to be calculated. This result shows that

the total energy of the system is in fact greater than the individual atomic

energies.

2.2.3 N Spin chain

Since we are only considering the nearest neighbour interaction, it suﬃces to

consider the interaction for N = 2, then to generalise for any N by summing

up the “interaction” for all possible nearest neighbours. The Hilbert space

for the total wave function of the Spin Chain will be given by the tensor

product of all the individual Hilbert spaces for each particle, i.e. for N = 2

the total wave function Ψ

tot

is an element of H

tot

= H

1

⊗ H

2

= h

spatial

⊗

h

spin

, where h

spatial

∼

= L

2

(R

3

) ⊗ L

2

(R

3

) is the spatial component of H

tot

,

and h

spin

∼

= V

1

⊗V

2

∼

= C

4

is the spin component of H

tot

.

The Pauli exclusion principle states that the total wave function for two

identical fermions is anti-symmetric with respect to the exchange of the

particles.

4

This means when we interchange H

1

with H

2

the total wave

function is replaced by its negative. The total wave function Ψ

tot

is an

4

Deﬁnition taken from wiki

14

eigenstate of the total Hamiltonian H

tot

and therefore we can express it

as the product Ψ

spatial

⊗ χ

spin

, where Ψ

spatial

is clearly an eigenstate of

H

tot

in h

spatial

and χ

spin

a vector in h

spin

. We will have symmetric and

antisymmetric wave functions for both the spatial and spin components,

we have already introduced the symmetric and antisymmetric spatial wave

functions from the Heitler-London approximation.

The symmetric and antisymmetric spin wave functions are given by:

χ

sym

spin

= χ

S

(s

1

, s

2

) = [ ↑↑¸,

1

√

2

([ ↑↓¸ +[ ↓↑¸), [ ↓↓¸

χ

anti

spin

= χ

A

(s

1

, s

2

) =

1

√

2

([ ↑↓¸ −[ ↓↑¸)

These are also called the triplet and singlet states. Note these spin wave

functions are eigenstates of the total spin operator

S

2

, with eigenvalues 2

and 0 respectively.

It is clear from the Pauli exclusion principle that the symmetric spatial

wave function will be associated to the antisymmetric spin wave function and

vice versa, in order for the total wave function to always be antisymmetric

with respect to the exchange. This will allow us to associate each spin wave

function with an energy (calculated from the corresponding spatial wave

function) and hence construct the spin Hamiltonian H

spin

. This will be

formally equivalent to the Coloumb Hamiltonian H and will give the same

energy spectrum.

We can calculate the energy of the spatial wave functions, this will give

E

+

for the symmetric and E

−

for the antisymmetric spatial wave function as

we have shown. Note these are also the energies of the total wave function,

since H acts only on the spatial wave functions. We can deﬁne the exchange

energy by J = E

+

−E

−

. We can now deﬁne the spin Hamiltonian to be:

H

spin

= E

+

+

1

2

(E

−

−E

+

)

S

2

= E

+

−

J

2

S

2

Where

J = −2

V α

2

−U

1 −α

4

Let us comment on H

spin

, it will have energy E

+

for the antisymmetric spin

wave function and E

−

for the symmetric spin wave function. As required,

this Hamiltonian will produce the same energy spectrum as H but is inde-

pendent of the spatial wave function and hence of the coordinate system for

the spatial component. We have formally replaced a Hamiltonian that de-

pends only on the spatial component by a Hamiltonian which depends only

on the spin component - by virtue of the Pauli exclusion principle with the

Coloumb potential. We can expand the operator

S

2

= (S

1

+S

2

) (S

1

+S

2

),

15

using the properties of the spin operator and the fact that we have s = 1/2

for our consideration we obtain:

H

spin

=

1

4

(E

+

+ 3E

−

) −JS

1

S

2

Since we measure energy diﬀerences (energies are relative), we can ignore

the ﬁrst term that appears in the Hamiltonian as it is a constant.

H

spin

= −J

S

1

S

2

Now we consider the Spin chain. In a magnetically ordered solid with

no external magnetic ﬁeld, we will sum this Hamiltonian over all pairs of N

particles. We thus obtain the famous Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian:

H = −

i,j

J

ij

S

i

S

j

The Heisenberg model works in higher dimensions as well such as in a lattice

of spins but we restrict our attention to 1 + 1 space-time dimensions for

the purposes of integrability. More generally, a spin chain is a chain of

local degrees of freedom with a local Hilbert space of low dimension, with

a Hamiltonian that represents the interaction between a few neighbours

everywhere along the chain. The Heisenberg spin chain is a special case of

this where we consider the interaction between nearest neighbouring spins.

One can thus simplify the Hamiltonian by assuming the exchange integral

J

ij

decreases rapidly with increasing distance between the two electrons,

essentially being zero except for nearest neighbours. We will also assume

that the exchange integral will be equal for all nearest neighbour pairs of

electrons. Note we can expand

S

j

S

j+1

= S

x

j

S

x

j+1

+ S

y

j

S

y

j+1

+ S

z

j

S

z

j+1

=

S

α

j

S

α

j+1

, giving:

H = −J

N

j=0

S

j

S

j+1

= −J

N

j=0

(S

x

j

S

x

j+1

+S

y

j

S

y

j+1

+S

z

j

S

z

j+1

) = −J

N

j=0

S

α

j

S

α

j+1

This is called the XXX Heisenberg Spin chain for N particles. Note, one

can also write this in terms of the Pauli matrices as S

α

n

= σ

α

n

/2 for α = x, y, z

if one wishes, The Hamiltonian then becomes

H = −

J

4

N

j=0

σ

α

n

σ

α

n+1

We will however stick to writing the Hamiltonian in terms of the spin op-

erator S

α

n

in what follows. The sign of the exchange integral J indicates

whether parallel or antiparallel spins are energetically preferred, that is if

J > 0 means we have a parallel (ferromagnetic) spin coupling and for J < 0

16

means we have a antiparallel (antiferromagnetic) coupling. The ground state

for a ferromagnetic will be given by all spins being parallel (i.e. all spins

pointing in the same common direction e.g. up or down, or a linear com-

bination) and the ground state for an antiferromagnet will be the highest

excited state of the corresponding ferromagnetic. One can generalise the

Hamiltonian to an anisotropic arrangement, where the magnetization is dif-

ferent in all directions. This gives the generalized anisotropic Heisenberg

Hamiltonian:

H = −

N

j=0

(J

x

S

x

j

S

x

j+1

+J

y

S

y

j

S

y

j+1

+J

z

S

z

j

S

z

j+1

)

Which is also known as the XY Z Heisenberg Spin Chain. When there is

one preferred direction, we align this direction with the z axis (J

x

= J

y

) and

we obtain the XXZ Heisenberg Spin Chain. The XXX Spin Chain is an

isotropic special case of this Hamiltonian (J

x

= J

y

= J

z

), in this report I will

mainly be discussing the XXX Spin Chain and brieﬂy stating results for

the XXZ that can be obtained in a simular manner to the XXX spin chain

via the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz. For my project, I will be using the above

representation of the Hamiltonian for the XXX spin chain. It is sometimes

common however in the literature to subtract a constant proportional to the

identity matrix, this will not change the dynamics of the system and merely

brings shifts the energy, in particular the energy of the ground state to 0.

H = −J

N

j=0

(S

x

j

S

x

j+1

+S

y

j

S

y

j+1

+S

z

j

S

z

j+1

−1)

Also, when we talk about a closed chain we will also impose the periodic

boundary condition S

α

N+1

= S

α

1

.

2.3 Energy spectrum of H

Now that we have derived the XXX Heisenberg Hamiltonian, we can work

towards the problem of ﬁnding the energies of the given system. That is,

we wish to solve:

H[φ¸ = E[φ¸

This can of course be done by direct diagonalization of the matrix H,

but the matrix will become large very rapidly for increasing N. The Hilbert

space will be of dimension 2

N

and the matrix will be of size 2

N

2

N

. More

over, direct diagonalization is not possible when N →∞when only analytic

methods will work.

17

We seek a more elegant method than direct diagonalization, one such

method is called the Bethe Ansatz which was formulated by Bethe in 1931

(See [5]).

18

Chapter 3

Bethe Ansatz

In this chapter we will examine the problem of diagnolozing the Hamiltonian

by using the Coordinate Bethe Ansatz (CBA) and the using the Algebraic

Bethe Ansatz (ABA). The material on the ﬁrst part of the chapter is based

on [5],[6] and [7].

Let us introduce the spin ﬂip operators S

±

n

≡ S

x

n

±iS

y

n

, these do exactly

what it says on the tin. S

+

n

ﬂips then

th

down spin to up (assuming it is

down in the ﬁrst place), and S

−

n

does the opposite. As a matrix acting on

C (i.e. N = 1):

S

+

=

_

0 1

0 0

_

, S

−

=

_

0 0

1 0

_

We get S

±

n

by applying the appropriate tensor product, as deﬁned in Chapter

2. We will write the Hamiltonian in terms of the spin ﬂip operators:

H = −J

N

n=1

S

α

n

S

α

n+1

= −J

N

n=1

_

1

2

_

S

+

n

S

−

n+1

+S

−

n

S

+

n+1

_

+S

z

n

S

z

n+1

_

We will keep the sign of J general unless speciﬁcally stated otherwise, though

our considerations will be made for the ferromagnet J > 0 and our “vacuum”

(ground state) will be appropriately deﬁned with this in mind. The physical

properties of the anti-ferromagnet are very diﬀerent from the ferromagnet,

but for the purposes of calculating the eigenstates and energy eigenvalues

are interchangeable (see comments below).

[ ↑¸

n

[ ↓¸

n

S

+

n

0 [ ↑¸

n

S

−

n

[ ↑¸

n

0

S

z

n

1

2

[ ↑¸

n

−

1

2

[ ↑¸

n

Table 3.1: Action of spin operators on the basis vectors [σ

1

. . . σ

N

¸ with σ

n

=↑, ↓.

[ ↑¸

n

= [ . . . ↑ . . .¸, [ ↓¸

n

= [ . . . ↓ . . .¸.

19

The spin operators also satisfy the following su(2) spin algebra commu-

tation relations:

[S

a

n

, S

b

m

] = iδ

n,m

abc

S

c

m

, [S

z

m

, S

±

n

] = ±δ

n,m

S

±

m

, [S

+

m

, S

−

n

] = 2δ

n,m

S

z

m

with a, b, c = x, y, z. For the ferromagnet J > 0, the ground state of the

system will be given by all the spins being aligned (See Chapter 1), we will

choose this to be [0¸ = [ ↑↑ . . . ↑¸ = ⊗

N

n=1

[ ↑¸

n

. We will deﬁne the basis

vectors for r down spins to be given by:

[m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

¸ = [ ↑¸

1

⊗ [ ↓¸

m

1

⊗ [ ↓¸

m

r

⊗ [ ↑¸

N

= S

−

m

1

S

−

m

2

. . . S

−

m

r

[0¸ = S

−

M

[0¸

Where M = ¦m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

¦ and m

i

≤ N ∀i = 1, . . . , r denotes the

position of the down spin with respect to the ground state.

A general eigenstate [ψ¸ will be constructed as a linear combination of

these basis vectors, we will later see this more concretely and in particular

the exact form of the general eigenstate in accordance with the Bethe Ansatz.

It can also be shown (see [7]) that the eigenvalues of H are at least −JN/4

which will infact turn out to be the ground state energy of H for J > 0.

Though the sign of the coupling constant J will not aﬀect the diagonal-

ization procedure in what follows, it is important to make a few comments

before we begin. For the anti-ferromagnet J < 0, [0¸ is not a true ground

state (vacuum) of the system i.e. a state with the lowest energy, it is actually

the state of highest energy due to the change of sign. Instead it is a known

as a pseudo-vacuum and it will nevertheless be useful as a reference state for

the true vacuum. The true ground state is non-trivial in terms of excitations

in the pseudovacuum and requires some work to be identiﬁed. All the eigen-

vectors remain the same for both the ferromagnet and anti-ferromagnet, but

the energy eigenvalues have opposite sign.

3.1 Coordinate BA

We will start by using the Coordinate Bethe Ansatz which was originally

developed by Bethe in 1931 (See [6]), which will essentially allow us to write

the general eigenstate of H in an elegant form. We will investigate the solu-

tions to the Heisenberg Hamiltonian, by considering the spin deviation from

the ground state. For completeness, I will go through a simular approach

taken in [6], ﬁrst by considering the low-lying states (r = 1, 2) then leading

up the general case of r down spins. I will use the same notation as in [5]

to discuss these low-lying states in terms of the spin ﬂip operator.

3.1.1 Symmetries of Heisenberg Model

We will begin by examining the symmetries of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian,

which will be essential in the application of the Bethe Ansatz. The model has

20

a full rotational SU(2) symmetry, though we will only require the rotational

symmetry about the z-axis in spin space, which will take as the quantization

axis.

Claim: The conserved quantity which arises from this symmetry is the

z-component of the total spin S

z

= S

z

T

=

N

n=1

S

z

n

with quantum number

S

z

T

= N/2 −r

Proof. We need to consider the action of S

z

on the basis vectors [m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

¸,

by using the rules of Table 1.1:

S

z

[m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

¸ =

N

n=1

S

z

n

[m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

¸

=

N

n=1

S

z

n

S

−

M

[0¸

S

z

n

S

−

M

[0¸ =

_

−S

−

M

[0¸/2 n ∈ M

S

−

M

[0¸/2 n / ∈ M

Note for n = 1, . . . , N, it is evident that n ∈ M r times since we have r

down spins by deﬁnition of the basis vector and n / ∈ M N −r times.

N

n=1

S

z

n

S

−

M

[0¸ =

_

N −r

2

−

r

2

_

S

−

M

[0¸

=

_

N

2

−r

_

[m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

¸

It is now easy enough to show [H, S

α

] = 0, for which α = z gives the result:

[H, S

α

] = −J

N

n,m=1

[S

β

n

S

β

n+1

, S

α

m

] = −J

N

n,m=1

_

[S

β

n

, S

α

m

]S

β

n+1

+S

β

n

[S

β

n+1

, S

α

m

]

_

= −iJ

N

n,m=1

(δ

n,m

αβγ

S

β

n

S

γ

n+1

−δ

n+1,m

αβγ

S

β

n

S

γ

n+1

) = 0

21

One can also verify this by a direct computation, by using what we

have shown above for the quantum number of S

z

. Given an eigenstate [ψ¸

constructed from the basis vectors, such that H[ψ¸ = E[ψ¸ and S

z

[ψ¸ =

_

N

2

−r

_

[ψ¸:

[H, S

z

][ψ¸ = (HS

z

−S

z

H) [ψ¸

=

_

H

_

N

2

−r

_

−S

z

E

_

[ψ¸

=

_

E

_

N

2

−r

_

−E

_

N

2

−r

__

[ψ¸

= 0

Since [ψ¸ is an arbitrary eigenstate, we conclude that [H, S

z

] = 0 as required.

The model also has a discrete translational symmetry i.e. the invariance

of H with respect to discrete translation by any number of lattice spacings.

This can be realised by considering the translation operator T which is

deﬁned by:

T[m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

¸ = [m

1

−1, m

2

−1, . . . , m

r

−1¸ = [m

2

, m

3

, . . . , m

r

, m

1

¸

Which basically shifts the spin chain by one position. Any eigenvector [ψ¸ of

T will satisfy T[ψ¸ = e

ip

[ψ¸ for some momentum p. In fact the interpretation

of p as momentum follows from the eigenvalue of T. It is a conserved quantity

and hence commutes with H, i.e. [H, T] = 0. These are the important

symmetries for the application of the Bethe Ansatz. The model also has a

Reﬂection symmetry on the lattice.

3.1.2 Eigenstates of H

Let us ﬁrst discuss the case where r = 0, this will be given by the (pseudo)-

vacuum of H which deﬁned to be [0¸ = [ ↑↑ . . . ↑¸ at the beginning of the

chapter. Note this is a arbitrary choice and we could have just as well chosen

all spins down which will give the same energy. This can be understood in

terms of the SU(2) symmetry of the model, since rotating the system will

leave the system invariant.

Claim: It is an eigenstate H[0¸ = E

0

[0¸, with energy E

0

= −JN/4.

22

Proof. Using Table 1.1 the result is evident since we immediately have:

H[0¸ = −J

N

n=1

_

1

2

_

S

+

n

S

−

n+1

+S

−

n

S

+

n+1

_

+S

z

n

S

z

n+1

_

[0¸

= −J

N

n=1

S

z

n

S

z

n+1

[0¸

= −J

N

n=1

1

4

[0¸ = −

JN

4

[0¸

An excitation in the chain will be thought of as a spin deviation from

the ground state, i.e. r = 1 corresponds to an excited state with one spin

down with respect to the ground state. The N basis vectors in the invariant

subspace with one down spin are labelled by the position of the ﬂipped spin:

[n¸ = S

−

n

[0¸ n = 1, . . . , N

Where S

−

n

is the spin ﬂip operator that changes a spin up to a spin down

at position n. These are clearly not eigenstates of H, but one can construct

a translationally invariant eigenvector from the [n¸ by writing:

[ψ¸ =

N

n=1

e

ipn

[n¸

With momentum p = 2πm/N, m = 0, 1, . . . , N − 1. This can also be

understood in terms of the discrete fourier transform of the “position” of the

spin down (in analogy with the continuum [p¸ =

_

dxe

ipx

[x¸ from quantum

mechanics).

Claim: These vectors are eigenvectors of the translation operator T

with eigenvalue e

ip

and eigenvectors of H with eigenvalue (energy) E =

E

0

+J(1 −cos k).

23

Proof. First we will show the eigenvalue of T:

T[ψ¸ = T

N

n=1

e

ipn

[n¸

=

N

n=1

e

ipn

T[n¸

=

N

n=1

e

ipn

[n −1¸

=

N

n=1

e

ip(n+1)

[n¸

= e

ip

N

n=1

e

ipn

[n¸

= e

ip

[ψ¸

As required, [ψ¸ is an eigenstate of T with eigenvalue e

ip

. Now we will show

the eigenvalue of H. Again, we will show this by applying the rules of Table

1.1 in a systematic manner:

H[ψ¸ = −J

N

n=1

_

1

2

_

S

+

n

S

−

n+1

+S

−

n

S

+

n+1

_

+S

z

n

S

z

n+1

_

[ψ¸

= −J

N

m=1

e

ipm

N

n=1

_

1

2

_

S

+

n

S

−

n+1

+S

−

n

S

+

n+1

_

+S

z

n

S

z

n+1

_

[m¸

= −J

N

m=1

e

ipm

_

1

2

[m+ 1¸ +

1

2

[m−1¸ +

_

N

4

−1

_

[m¸

_

= −J

N

m=1

_

1

2

e

ip(m−1)

+

1

2

e

ip(m+1)

+

_

N

4

−1

_

e

ipm

_

[m¸

= −J

N

m=1

_

1

2

e

−ip

+

1

2

e

ip

+

_

N

4

−1

__

e

ipm

[m¸

= −J

_

1

2

e

−ip

+

1

2

e

ip

+

_

N

4

−1

__

N

m=1

e

ipm

[m¸

= (E

0

+J(1 −cos p))

N

m=1

e

ipm

[m¸

= (E

0

+J(1 −cos p)[ψ¸ = E[ψ¸

By using the identity cos p = (e

−ip

+ e

ip

)/2 and E

0

= −JN/4. Note, we

have also used the periodicity condition which allows us to make shifts of

24

the summation variables, which in this case is simply m to bring all the

states to the uniform expression [m¸.

Hence we have the result:

E −E

0

= J(1 −cos p)

Since we have shown that [ψ¸ is an eigenstate of T with eigenvalue e

ip

, by

deﬁnition it follows that the momentum of the ‘excitation’ can be interpreted

as p. The expression above for the eigenvalue (energy) of H is also known as

the dispersion relation between energy E and momentum p. An excitation

of the spin chain around the (pseudo)-vacuum [0¸ carrying momentum p is

called a magnon, which we touched upon brieﬂy in the introduction. Thus

a magnon can be thought of a “particle” with momentum p = 2πm/N, m =

0, 1, . . . , N −1 and energy as given above.

For r > 1 this technique of ﬁnding the translationally invariant eigenvec-

tor by exploiting the symmetries will fail as it will not completely diagonalize

the Hamiltonian. For this reason we will need to use the Bethe Ansatz as a

powerful alternative.

For a general eigenstate with r spins down, assuming that the particles

with numbers m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

corresponds to ﬁxing which atoms point down

[5]:

[Ψ¸ =

m

1

,m

2

,...,m

r

a(m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

)[m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

¸

where we can write [m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

¸ = S

−

m

1

S

−

m

2

. . . S

−

m

r

[0¸. The following

claim was included in the original Bethe paper [6], but the proof is missing

from the literature in general.

Claim: If we apply the Hamiltonian on this general eigenstate, we will

obtain the following consistency equations for the coeﬃcients a(m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

):

2(E −E

0

)a(m

1

, . . . , m

r

) = J

m

1

,...,m

r

[a(m

1

, . . . , m

r

) −a(m

1

, . . . , m

r

)] (*),

where particles with numbers m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

corresponds to ﬁxing which

atoms point down.

Proof. Let us introduce the short hand notation:

[Ψ¸ =

M

a(M)[M¸ =

M

a(M)S

−

M

[0¸,

where M = ¦m

1

, m

2

, , m

r

¦. This will be useful since considering the gen-

eral case can get rather tedious and it simpliﬁes the notation, this which will

25

become apparent during the proof. Let us begin straight away by applying

the Hamiltonian on this general eigenstate:t

H[Ψ¸ = −J

N

n=1

_

1

2

_

S

+

n

S

−

n+1

+S

−

n

S

+

n+1

_

+S

z

n

S

z

n+1

_

M

a(M)[M¸

= −J

M

a(M)

N

n=1

_

1

2

_

S

+

n

S

−

n+1

+S

−

n

S

+

n+1

_

+S

z

n

S

z

n+1

_

[M¸

To compute this we need to consider the action of the spin operators on

[M¸ = S

−

M

[0¸:

n

S

+

n

S

−

n+1

[M¸ =

n

S

+

n

S

−

n+1

S

−

M

[0¸ =

˜

M

S

−

˜

M

[0¸ =

˜

M

[

˜

M¸

Where

˜

M = ¦ ˜ m

1

, , ˜ m

r

¦ is obtained by displacing a ↓ toward the right

in M. We can see this by considering the object Γ

1

(M) = S

+

n

S

−

n+1

S

−

M

[0¸

for diﬀerent values of n. We see that Γ

1

(M) vanishes for all n / ∈ M or

n + 1 ∈ M. The only terms that contribute are terms with neighbouring

opposite spins that look like ↓↑ in the spin chain i.e. n ∈ M and n+1 / ∈ M,

exchange if m

i+1

,= m

i

+ 1 for some i = 1, , r − 1, and ˜ m

i

= m

1

+ 1.

Let Λ

+

(M) be the set of all ¦ ˜ m

1

, , ˜ m

r

¦ gotten by displacing a ↓ to in M

toward the right. i.e. ↓↑ →↑↓ and

˜

M ∈ Λ

+

(M).

Similarly, we can consider:

n

S

−

n

S

+

n+1

[M¸ =

M

S

−

M

[0¸ =

M

[M

¸

Where M

= ¦m

1

, , m

r

¦ is obtained by displacing a ↓ toward the left

in M. We can see this in a simular way as the above, and we see that

the object in the sum only contributes for neighbouring opposite spins that

look like ↑↓ in the spin chain i.e. n / ∈ M and n + 1 ∈ M, exchange if

m

i

,= m

i−1

+ 1 for some i and m

i

= m

i

− 1. Let Λ

−

(

˜

M) be the set of all

¦m

1

, , m

r

¦ gotten by displacing a ↓ in M toward the left i.e. ↑↓ →↓↑ and

M

∈ Λ

−

(

˜

M) = ¦M :

˜

M = Λ

+

(M)¦. Combining these results we obtain:

N

n=1

_

S

+

n

S

−

n+1

+S

−

n

S

+

n+1

_

[M¸ =

˜

M

[

˜

M¸ +

M

[M

¸

=

M

[M

¸

Where M

= ¦m

1

, , m

r

¦ can be obtained by M by exchanging oppo-

site neighbouring spins i.e. ↓↑ →↑↓ and ↑↓ →↓↑. Now we wish to consider:

F(M)[M¸ =

N

n=1

S

z

n

S

z

n+1

[M¸ =

N

n=1

S

z

n

S

z

n+1

S

−

M

[0¸

26

We can denote f(n, M) by:

f(n.M) =

_

1 if n ∈ M;

−1 if n / ∈ M.

Then we can write

S

z

n

S

−

M

[0¸ =

1

2

f(n, M)S

−

M

[0¸

and

S

z

n

S

z

n+1

S

−

M

[0¸ =

1

4

f(n, M)f(n + 1, M)S

−

M

[0¸

then

F(M)[M¸ =

N

n=1

S

z

n

S

z

n+1

[M¸ =

1

4

N

n=1

f(n, M)f(n + 1, M)[M¸

Now we can compute H[Ψ¸ as above:

H[Ψ¸ = −J

M

a(M)

_

1

2

M

[M

¸ +F(M)[M¸

_

Recall in the r = 1 case, we had to apply the periodicity condition inside

the sum which allowed us to make shifts of the summation variables. In this

case, we will essentially do the same in order to bring all states to the uniform

expression [M¸. Since we are shifting the variables M

= ¦m

1

, , m

r

¦ to

M in [M

**¸, we need to compensate by also shifting a(M) appropriately (by
**

the periodicity condition). When we represent a shift of a ↓ to the right in

[M

¸ (i.e. by

˜

M), we change a(M) to represent a shift of a ↓ to the left (i.e.

by M

) and vice versa. Since M

is composed of

˜

M and M

, it is clear that

a shift in M

in the sum would be compensated by a shifting a(M) to M

with M ∈ Λ

±

(M

), hence:

M

a(M)

M

[M

¸ =

M

M

a(M

)[M¸

Let us consider F(M):

F(M) =

1

4

N

n=1

f(n, M)f(n + 1, M) =

1

4

(#parallel −#anti-parallel)

Since N = #parallel + #anti-parallel, this becomes:

F(M) =

1

4

(N −2#anti-parallel)

Note:

#anti-parallel =

M

1

27

and therefore

F(M) =

N

4

−

1

2

M

1

Putting the above together we obtain:

H[Ψ¸ = −J

M

_

1

2

M

a(M

) +a(M)F(M)

_

[M¸

= E

M

a(M)[M¸

This now gives the relation between the coeﬃcients a(M) as:

−J

_

1

2

M

a(M

) +a(M)F(M)

_

= Ea(M)

substituting our F(M):

−

J

2

M

a(M

) −Ja(M)(

N

4

−

1

2

M

1) = Ea(M)

Rearranging as in the form of (∗), and substituting E

0

= −JN/4, we obtain

the result:

2(E −E

0

)a(M) = J

M

[a(M) −a(M

)]

As required.

This useful since to check that an eigenstate satisﬁes H[Ψ¸ = E[Ψ¸, we

need the coeﬃcients to satisfy (∗). We also have the periodicity condition

for the coeﬃcients as a(m

1

, , m

i

, , m

r

) = a(m

1

, , m

i

+N, , m

r

).

Now we will introduce the Bethe Ansatz, which is the “assumed” general

form of the coeﬃcients a(m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

) in terms of r quasi-momenta k

j

:

a(m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

) =

π∈S

r

A

π

exp

_

_

i

r

j=1

k

π(j)

m

j

_

_

The sum π ∈ S

r

is over all r! permutations of the labels ¦1, 2, , r¦. The

coeﬃcients A

π

∈ C depending on the permutation π need to be determined

and will be given in terms of the scattering phase. We will work through

the examples r = 1 and r = 2 to verify the Bethe Ansatz and to give a more

explicit form for A

π

.

For r = 1, we obtain:

[Ψ¸ =

N

m=1

a(m)[m¸ a(m) = Ae

ikm

28

If we let A = 1, then we get the same eigenstate as we discussed before. One

can verify this by (∗) since we get:

2(E −E

0

)a(m) = J[2a(m) −a(m−1) −a(m+ 1)]

for n = 1, , N and a(n +N) = a(n). This immediately implies as before:

a(m) = e

ikm

, k =

2πn

N

n = 0, , N −1

The energy of the one-magnon state is therefore:

E −E

0

= J(1 −cos k)

which agree’s with the Bethe Ansatz.

For r = 2, we obtain:

[Ψ¸ =

N

m=1

a(m

1

, m

2

)[m

1

, m

2

¸

a(m

1

, m

2

) = Ae

i(k

1

m

1

+k

2

m

2

)

+A

e

i(k

2

m

1

+k

1

m

2

)

We wish to determine the conditions on A, A

**given that this Ansatz satisﬁes
**

(∗). We have two cases that we need to consider, either the two down spins

are separate from each other or nearest neighbours. Using (∗) we get the

following condition for the former:

2(E −E

0

)a(m

1

, m

2

) = J[4a(m

1

, m

2

) −a(m

1

−1, m

2

) −a(m

1

+ 1, m

2

)

−a(m

1

, m

2

−1) −a(n

1

, m

2

+ 1)], m

2

,= m

1

+ 1

And for the latter:

2(E −E

0

)a(m

1

, m

2

) = J[2a(m

1

, m

2

) −a(m

1

−1, m

2

) −a(m

1

, m

2

+ 1)],

m

2

= m

1

+ 1

The ﬁrst group of equations is automatically satisﬁed for arbitrary A, A

, k

1

, k

2

.

The second group can be satisﬁed by choosing A and A

**such that we have
**

the following eigenstate conditions:

2a(m

1

, m

1

+ 1) = a(m

1

, m

1

) +a(m

1

+ 1, m

1

+ 1) (**)

which is obtained by subtracting the ﬁrst group by the second for m

2

=

29

m

1

+1. To obtain the energy, we can substitute the Ansatz in (∗) to obtain:

2(E −E

0

)

_

Ae

i(k

1

m

1

+k

2

m

2

)

+A

e

i(k

2

m

1

+k

1

m

2

)

_

= J

_

4

_

Ae

i(k

1

m

1

+k

2

m

2

)

+A

e

i(k

2

m

1

+k

1

m

2

)

_

−

_

Ae

i(k

1

m

1

+k

2

m

2

)

e

ik

1

+A

e

i(k

2

m

1

+k

1

m

2

)

e

ik

2

_

−

_

Ae

i(k

1

m

1

+k

2

m

2

)

e

−ik

1

+A

e

i(k

2

m

1

+k

1

m

2

)e

−ik

2

_

−

_

Ae

i(k

1

m

1

+k

2

m

2

)

e

ik

2

+A

e

i(k

2

m

1

+k

1

m

2

)

e

ik

1

_

−

_

Ae

i(k

1

m

1

+k

2

m

2

)

e

−ik

2

+A

e

i(k

2

m

1

+k

1

m

2

)

e

−ik

1

_

_

We see that the dependence on A and A

**cancel out completely as we expect
**

and we get the following equation for the energy:

E −E

0

= J

2

j=1

(1 −cos k

j

) = J(2 −cos k

1

−cos k

2

)

We observe that the energy of the two-magnon state appears to be equal

to the sum of the energies of the one-magnon state. This observation is

quite remarkable as it appears that the energy is additive. This shows that

magnons essentially behave themselves as free particles in a box. We will

now use the condition (∗∗) to determine the restrictions placed on A and A

Labelling n

1

= n and substituting our Ansatz into this condition we get:

Ae

i(k

1

+k

2

)n

+A

e

i(k

1

+k

2

)n

+Ae

i(k

1

+k

2

)(n+1)

+A

e

i(k

1

+k

2

)(n+1)

−2

_

Ae

i(k

1

n+k

2

(n+1))

+A

e

i(k

2

n+k

1

(n+1))

_

= 0

This allows us to determine the ratio in terms of a phase angle θ

12

= −θ

21

≡

θ as:

A

A

≡ e

iθ

= −

e

i(k

1

+k

2

)

+ 1 −2e

ik

1

e

i(k

1

+k

2

)

+ 1 −2e

ik

2

(***)

i.e. by setting A = e

iθ

12

/2

and A

= e

iθ

21

/2

. This requirement is incorporated

into our Ansatz as phase factors:

a(m

1

, m

2

) = e

i(k

1

m

1

+k

2

m

2

+

1

2

θ

12

)

+e

i(k

2

m

1

+k

1

m

2

+

1

2

θ

21

)

= e

i(k

1

m

1

+k

2

m

2

+

1

2

θ)

+e

i(k

2

m

1

+k

1

m

2

−

1

2

θ)

Where the phase angle θ depends on the undetermined the as yet undeter-

mined k

1

, k

2

via:

2 cot

θ

12

2

= 2 cot

θ

2

= cot

k

1

2

−cot

k

2

2

30

The periodicity condition requires:

a(m

1

, m

2

) = a(m

2

, m+ 1 +N)

Inserting this into our Ansatz we obtain:

e

i(k

1

m

1

+k

2

m

2

+

1

2

θ)

+e

i(k

2

m

1

+k

1

m

2

−

1

2

θ)

= e

i(k

2

(m

1

+N)+k

1

m

2

+

1

2

θ)

+e

i(k

1

(m

1

+N)+k

2

m

2

−

1

2

θ)

Since this is true for all m

1

and m

2

we have:

e

ik

1

N

= e

iθ

, e

ik

2

N

= e

−iθ

If we take the logarithm of these we obtain:

Nk

1

= 2πI

1

+θ, Nk

2

= 2πI

2

−θ

Where the integers I

j

∈ ¦0, 1, , N − 1¦ are called the Bethe quantum

numbers. These numbers are useful to distinguish eigenstates with diﬀerent

physical properties. The total momentum is given by the sum of all quasi-

momenta:

p = k

1

+k

2

=

2π

N

(I

1

+I

2

)

p is a true integration constant of the problem. This is the same momentum

associated to the translation operator T as we saw earlier, since displacing

a down spin by one place on the lattice does not change the physics of the

system. Now that we have discussed the case for r = 2 i.e. two down

spins, we can use the concepts that we introduced to general r down spins

in a natural way. The generalization of (∗ ∗ ∗) for the A

π

in terms of the

scattering phase θ

jl

= −θ

lj

for each pair (k

j

, k

l

) is given by:

A

π

= exp

_

_

i

2

l<j

θ

π(l)π(j)

_

_

i.e. the Bethe Ansatz for the coeﬃcients a(m

1

, , m

r

) can be written as:

a(m

1

, m

2

, . . . , m

r

) =

π∈S

r

exp

_

_

i

2

l<j

θ

π(l)π(j)

_

_

exp

_

_

i

r

j=1

k

π(j)

m

j

_

_

=

π∈S

r

exp

_

_

i

r

j=1

k

π(j)

m

j

+

i

2

l<j

θ

π(l)π(j)

_

_

If we assume that these coeﬃcients satisfy the consistency equations (∗)

then the energy depends on k

1

, k

2

, , k

r

given as a straightforward gener-

alization of the two-particle case:

E −E

0

= J

r

j=1

(1 −cos k

j

)

31

The eigenstate condition analogous to (∗∗) is given by:

2a(m

1

, , m

j

, m

j

+ 1, , m

r

) = a(m

1

, , m

j

, m

j

, , m

r

)

+a(m

1

, , m

j

+ 1, m

j

+ 1, , m

r

)

These conditions relate every phase angle θ

jl

to the (as yet undetermined)

k

j

as a generalization of (∗ ∗ ∗):

e

iθ

jl

= −

e

i(k

j

+k

l

)

+ 1 −2e

ik

k

e

i(k

j

+k

l

)

+ 1 −2e

ik

l

or in real form is given as

2 cot

θ

jl

2

= cot

k

j

2

−cot

k

l

2

, j, l = 1, , r

3.2 BAE

Here we will derive the Bethe Ansatz Equations by considering the period-

icity condition on the Ansatz given for the coeﬃcients a(m

1

, m

2

, , m

r

).

By the periodicity condition (closed chain)

a(m

1

, m

2

, , m

r

) = a(m

2

, , m

r

, m

1

+N)

Which from the general eigenstate (Bethe Ansatz) gives:

r

j=1

k

π(j)

m

j

+

1

2

l<j

θ

π(l)π(j)

=

1

2

l<j

θ

π

(l)π

(j)

−2πI

π

(r)

+

r

j=2

k

π

(j−1)

m

j

+k

π

(r)

(m

1

+N)

The permutations π

**(j) and π(j) on the left and right are related by:
**

π

(j −1) = π

(j), j = 2, , r

π

(r) = π(1)

The terms not involving the index π

**(r) = π(1) cancel and we are thus left
**

with the following set of r equations:

Nk

j

= 2πI

j

+

l=j

θ

jl

, j = 1, , r (+)

Claim: If we introduce the rapidities λ

j

to parametrize the momenta

k

j

:

λ

j

=

1

2

cot

k

j

2

32

then we can rewrite (+) as the Bethe Ansatz equation (BAE):

_

λ

j

+i/2

λ

j

−i/2

_

N

=

r

l=1,l=j

λ

j

−λ

l

+i

λ

j

−λ

l

−i

Proof. Before we begin the proof, we will need the following simple trigono-

metric identity:

e

iφ

(cot (φ/2) −i) = (cot (φ/2) +i)

We can show this by using Euler’s identity with:

e

iφ

=

e

iφ/2

e

−iφ/2

=

cos (φ/2) +i sin (φ/2)

cos (φ/2) −i sin (φ/2)

=

cot (φ/2) +i

cot (φ/2) −i

and hence the result. Now if we take multiply both sides of (+) by i and

take the exponential, we get:

e

iNk

j

= e

i

l=j

θ

jl

Since e

i2πI

j

= 1, as I

j

is an integer. Now, applying the trigonometric identity

to e

ik

j

and substituting the rapidity λ

j

:

e

ik

j

=

2λ

j

+i

2λ

j

−i

=

λ

j

+i/2

λ

j

−i/2

and so the LHS becomes:

(e

ik

j

)

N

=

_

λ

j

+i/2

λ

j

−i/2

_

N

We can also rewrite the RHS as:

e

i

l=j

θ

jl

=

r

l=1,l=j

e

iθ

jl

Again, by applying the trigonometric identity on e

iθ

jl

and substituting λ

j

we obtain:

e

θ

jl

=

λ

j

−λ

l

+i

λ

j

−λ

l

−i

Which then gives using the above:

_

λ

j

+i/2

λ

j

−i/2

_

N

=

r

l=1,l=j

λ

j

−λ

l

+i

λ

j

−λ

l

−i

As required.

33

3.3 Algebraic BA

Here we will solve the XXX Heisenberg Spin chain using a variant of the

Bethe Ansatz known as the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz (ABA). The ABA is

more powerful since it will allow us to derive properties of the system such

as integrability, it also allows us to more easily generalise the XXZ spin

chain in which we state results for at the end of the chapter. Before we

begin by applying the ABA we will ﬁrst introduce some concepts which will

be essential in its application. The material in this section will be adapted

from [7],[8] and [9].

3.3.1 Integrability

Let us deﬁne what it means for a Quantum system to be integrable.

A classical system with N degrees of freedom, described by a Hamilto-

nian H is Liouvelle integrable if there exists N conserved charges Q

i

with

zero poisson bracket in involution i.e. ¦Q

i

, Q

j

¦ = 0 and the Hamiltonian

H is one of the charges. Each of the conserved charges yields a conserva-

tion law that can be solved (integrated) to ﬁx all the independent degrees

of freedom. This notion of integrability can be carried over to Quantum

systems.

AQuantum systemwith N degrees of freedom deﬁned by a Hamiltonian-

operator H, will be called integrable if there exists N local conserved charges

Q

i

that commute i.e. [Q

i

, Q

j

] = 0 and the Hamiltonian H is one of them.

Therefore, all the charges can be diagonlalized simultaneously and the set of

complete eigenstates with corresponding eigenvalues can be found exactly.

1

We will later see how we can compute these conserved charges.

3.3.2 Yang-Baxter equation

The Yang-Baxter equation is an essential tool in showing the integrability

of the Heisenberg model. There are diﬀerent conventions for the form of the

equation, we will brieﬂy look at the diﬀerent conventions and ﬁnally stick

with the most common. The deﬁnition involves the n

th

local quantum space

V

n

= C

2

and the auxiliary space A, which we will also take to be C

2

to

allow us to make sense of the permutation operator as deﬁned above acting

on both spaces. Given λ, µ, χ ∈ C, and u, v ∈ ¦λ, µ, χ¦, the invertible R

matrix R

a

1

,a

2

(λ

1

, λ

2

) ∈ End(A

1

⊗A

2

) satisﬁes:

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ, µ)R

a

1

,a

3

(λ, χ)R

a

2

,a

3

(µ, χ) = R

a

2

,a

3

(µ, χ)R

a

1

,a

3

(λ, χ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ, µ)

1

This deﬁnition of quantum integrability is not entirely correct and it is still a subject

of research on how to make a better deﬁnition. For example, the XXX model actually

has 2

N

degrees of freedom since each lattice site can be occupied by a spin up or a spin

down electr on. But in this deﬁnition we only consider the lattice site of the XXX model

of having one degree of freedom.

34

On End(A

1

⊗A

2

⊗A

3

). The index (a

1

, a

2

) indicates that it acts nontrivially

on two copies of the auxiliary spce. Assume R

a

i

,a

j

(u, v) = R

a

i

,a

j

(u − v),

then the Yang-Baxter equation can be written as:

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ−µ)R

a

1

,a

3

(λ−χ)R

a

2

,a

3

(µ−χ) = R

a

2

,a

3

(µ−χ)R

a

1

,a

3

(λ−χ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ−µ)

If we let χ = 0 or by relabelling u −χ →u, we obtain:

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)R

a

1

,a

3

(λ)R

a

2

,a

3

(µ) = R

a

2

,a

3

(µ)R

a

1

,a

3

(λ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)

The Lax operator L

a,n

(λ) ∈ End(A ⊗ V

n

) satisﬁes the FCR (Interwining

equation):

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)L

a

1

,n

(λ)L

a

2

,n

(µ) = L

a

2

,n

(µ)L

a

1

,n

(λ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)

On End(A

1

⊗A

2

⊗V

n

). The index (a, n) indicates that it acts nontrivially

on the auxiliary space and the n

th

local quantum space. We also have

the commutativity of the Lax operator with completely diﬀerent indices

(Ultralocality condition):

[L

a

1

,n

(λ), L

a

2

,m

(µ)] = 0

On End(A

1

⊗A

2

⊗V

n

⊗V

m

). This is obvious since L

a

i

,n

acts trivially with

L

a

j

,m

given both auxiliary spaces are distinct i.e. i ,= j and both local

quantum spaces are distinct i.e. n ,= m.

For the XXX Heisenberg model in particular, the Lax operator is given

by:

L

a,n

(λ) = λI

a

⊗I

n

+i

α

S

α

n

⊗σ

α

a

Explicitly as a 2 2 matrix in the auxiliary space:

L

a,n

(λ) =

_

λ +iS

z

n

iS

−

n

iS

+

n

λ −iS

z

n

_

Which is a matrix acting in the auxiliary space A, with entries being oper-

ators on the Quantum space V

n

. Given that the operator:

P =

1

2

(I ⊗I +

α

σ

α

⊗σ

α

)

is a permutation in C

2

⊗ C

2

, we can rewrite the Lax operator in terms of

P

a,n

:

L

a,n

(λ) = (λ −

i

2

)I

a,n

+iP

a,n

In order for this to satisfy the FCR, we must have:

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ) = λI

a

1

,a

2

+iP

a

1

,a

2

,

35

which we will refer to as our R-operator (or matrix). It is easy to see that

the Lax operator and the R-matrix are in a simular form, indeed L

a,n

(λ) =

R

a,n

(λ −i/2).

The R-operator given explicitly is a solution of the Yang-Baxter equa-

tion. One way to see this is explicitly, one can express R

a

1

,a

2

(λ) as a matrix

in an appropriate basis and perform a tedious task in matrix multiplication.

Let us deﬁne the Monodromy matrix T

a

(λ) ∈ End(A⊗1

N

) by:

T

a

(λ) = T

a,N

(λ) = L

a,N

(λ) L

a,1

(λ) =

N

n=1

L

a,N−(n−1)

Claim: This matrix also has a FCR which is in the same form as the local

FCR i.e.

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)T

a

1

(λ)T

a

2

(µ) = T

a

2

(µ)T

a

1

(λ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)

On End(A

1

⊗A

2

⊗1

N

). We shall call this the Global FCR.

Proof. We will start with the left hand side of the equation, which we will

write in terms of the L-operators:

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)L

a

1

,N

(λ) L

a

1

,1

(λ)L

a

2

,N

(µ) L

a

2

,1

(µ)

= R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)L

a

1

,N

(λ)L

a

2

,N

(µ) L

a

1

,1

(λ)L

a

2

,1

(µ)

Where the last line by the application of the ultralocality condition repeat-

edly. Next we will use the local FCR for the L-operators in order to transfer

the R-operator from the left to the right of the product i.e.:

= L

a

2

,N

(µ)L

a

1

,N

(λ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ) L

a

1

,1

(λ)L

a

2

,1

(µ)

= L

a

2

,N

(µ)L

a

1

,N

(λ) L

a

2

,1

(µ)L

a

1

,1

(λ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)

= L

a

2

,N

(µ) L

a

2

,1

(µ)L

a

1

,N

(λ) L

a

1

,1

(λ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)

= T

a

2

(µ)T

a

1

(λ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)

Where in the third line we have used the ultralocality condition again in

order to make the monodromy matrix appear.

Note: L

a,n

(λ) is linear in λ i.e.

d

dλ

L

a,n

= I

a,n

∀λ. Since T

a

(λ) is a

product of N of these, this implies that the power expansion for T

a

(λ) is

ﬁnite

T

a

(λ) =

∞

n=1

a

n

(λ −λ

0

)

n

=

N

n=1

a

n

(λ −λ

0

)

n

= λ

N

+

N−1

n=1

a

n

(λ −λ

0

)

n

where

a

n

=

1

n!

d

n

dλ

n

T

a

(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=λ

0

=

T

(n)

a

(λ

0

)

n!

36

and λ

0

= i/2 is the usual parametrization, but it doesn’t matter which

parametrization we use as the expansion is ﬁnite. In other words, it is

a polynomial of order N with leading coeﬃcient (of λ

N

) equal to unity.

This is obvious by looking at the explicit expression for T

a

(λ) but can also

be realised by computing a

N

and using

d

N

dλ

N

T

a

(λ) = N! I

a,N

∀λ. Let us

compute the coeﬃcient of the next to highest degree a

N−1

:

a

N−1

=

1

(N −1)!

d

N−1

dλ

N−1

T

a

(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=λ

0

Which is the coeﬃcient of λ

N−1

, here we will take λ

0

= 0 for convenience.

If f

n

(x) is linear i.e.

d

dx

f

i

(x) = 1 ∀i →f

n

(x) = x +r

n

d

N−1

dx

N−1

_

N

n=1

f

n

(x)

_

= (N −1)!

N

n=1

f

n

(x)

From this we can compute:

d

N−1

dλ

N−1

T

a

(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=0

=

d

N−1

dλ

N−1

(L

a,N

L

a,1

)

¸

¸

¸

λ=0

= (N −1)!

N

n=1

L

a,n

(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=0

= (N −1)!

N

n=1

L

a,n

(0)

L

a,n

(0) = i

α

(S

α

n

⊗σ

α

a

)

The total spin is deﬁned as:

S

α

= S

α

T

=

N

n=1

S

α

n

Therefore we have:

a

N−1

= i

α

N

n=1

(S

α

n

⊗σ

α

)

= i

α

(S

α

⊗σ

α

)

T

a

(λ) = λ

N

+iλ

N−1

α

(S

α

⊗σ

α

) +

37

This operator can also be represented by the following 2 2 matrix in

the auxiliary space A, with entries being operators on the Quantum space

V

n

:

T

a

(λ) =

_

A(λ) B(λ)

C(λ) D(λ)

_

The transfer matrix is deﬁned by tracing over the auxiliary space:

t(λ) = tr

a

T

a

(λ) = A(λ) +D(λ)

Claim: The transfer matrix consists of a one-parameter family of com-

muting operators:

[t(λ), t(µ)] = 0

Proof.

t(λ)t(µ) = (tr

a

1

T

a

1

(λ))(tr

a

2

T

a

2

(µ))

= tr

a

1

,a

2

[T

a

1

(λ)T

a

2

(µ)]

= tr

a

1

,a

2

[R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)

−1

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)T

a

1

(λ)T

a

2

(µ)]

= tr

a

1

,a

2

[R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)

−1

T

a

2

(µ)T

a

1

(λ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)]

= tr

a

1

,a

2

[T

a

2

(µ)T

a

1

(λ)]

= (tr

a

2

T

a

2

(µ))(tr

a

1

T

a

1

(λ))

= t(µ)t(λ)

Where we have taken the double trace over both auxiliary spaces and have

used the cyclic property of the trace.

Note since this holds for ∀λ, µ ∈ C, we can take the series expansion

t(λ) =

i

λ

i

Q

i

and by the commutation relation:

i,j

λ

i

µ

j

[Q

i

, Q

j

] = 0

This automatically tells us that we have

[Q

i

, Q

j

] = 0 ∀i, j

Let us compute the trivial terms in the power expansion for the transfer ma-

trix t(λ) = aλ

N

+bλ

N−1

+ , the transfer matrix will be a ﬁnite polynomial

38

of order N, the coeﬃcients are given by:

a =

1

N!

d

N

dλ

N

t(λ)

=

1

N!

tr

a

(

d

N

dλ

N

T

a

(λ))

=

1

N!

tr

a

(N! I

a,N

)

=

1

N!

tr

a

(N! I

a

⊗I

N

)

= tr

a

(I

a

) tr

a

(I

n

) = 2I

N

This is true for all λ, we shall now compute the λ

N−1

term, we will ﬁnd that

the λ

N−1

term vanishes since the Pauli matrices σ

α

are traceless:

b =

1

(N −1)!

d

N−1

dλ

N−1

t(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=0

=

1

(N −1)!

tr

a

_

d

N−1

dλ

N−1

T

a

(λ)

_

¸

¸

¸

λ=0

=

1

(N −1)!

tr

a

_

i(N −1)!

α

S

α

⊗σ

α

a

_

= i tr

a

_

α

S

α

⊗σ

α

a

_

= i

α

tr

a

(S

α

) tr

a

(σ

α

a

)

= i

α

S

α

tr

a

(σ

α

a

) = 0

Where we have used the identity tr(A⊗B) = tr Atr B.

This tells us that the non-trivial expansion begins with power λ

N−2

:

t(λ) = 2λ

N

+

N−2

n=0

Q

n

λ

n

and produces N − 1 commuting operators Q

i

(conserved charges). As we

shall see in Chapter 4, these charges will turn out to be intractable and non-

local, it will therefore be useful to consider the expansion of the logarithm

of the transfer matrix since it has been shown by Lusher [17] to produce

local charges which will be algebraically related to the coeﬃcients Q

n

. The

Hamiltonian will be related to the ﬁrst term of the expansion (the ﬁrst

derivative) which we can write in terms of t(λ) as:

d

dλ

ln t(λ) = t

(λ)t(λ)

−1

39

Claim: The Hamiltonian H for the XXX model can be generated by the

coeﬃcients Q

n

as:

H = −J

_

i

2

Q

−1

0

Q

1

−

N

4

_

Proof. Let us consider the point λ = i/2:

L

a,n

(i/2) = iP

a,n

we also have for any λ:

d

dλ

L

a,n

(λ) = I

a,n

This makes it easy to control the expansion of t(λ) in the neighborhood of

λ = i/2. We have:

Q

0

= t(i/2) = tr

a

(L

a,N

(i/2) L

a,1

(i/2))

= tr

a

((iP

a,N

) (iP

a,1

))

= i

N

tr

a

(P

a,N

P

a,1

)

These string of permutations inside the trace can be transformed by the

identities from Chapter 1 to isolate a single permutation carrying the index

of the auxiliary subspace:

P

a,N

P

a,1

= P

N,N−1

P

N,N−2

P

N,1

P

a,N

= P

1,2

P

2,3

P

N−1,N

P

a,N

Recall that tr

a

P

a,N

= I

N

, therefore we have:

t(i/2) = i

N

P

1,2

P

2,3

P

N−1,N

We can deﬁne the shift (translation) operator T as:

T = i

−N

t(i/2) = P

1,2

P

2,3

P

N−1,N

The operator T is unitary T

∗

T = TT

∗

= I because the permutations have

the properties P

∗

= P and P

2

= I, it generates a shift along the chain as:

T

−1

X

n

T = X

n−1

By deﬁnition an operator of the inﬁnitesimal shift is the momentum on the

lattice deﬁned as

T[ψ¸ = e

ip

[ψ¸

where p is the momentum as we used in the CBA for the translation operator.

40

Now let us diﬀerentiate the logarithm of the transfer matrix:

Q

1

= t

(i/2) =

d

dλ

t(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=i/2

=

d

dλ

(tr

a

[L

a,N

(λ) L

a,1

(λ)])

¸

¸

¸

λ=i/2

= tr

a

d

dλ

([L

a,N

(λ) L

a,1

(λ)])

¸

¸

¸

λ=i/2

Let us compute the object inside the trace:

d

dλ

([L

a,N

(λ) L

a,1

(λ)])

¸

¸

¸

λ=i/2

= i

N−1

n

(P

a,N

ˆ

P

a,n

P

a,1

)

Thus we get:

t

(i/2) = i

N−1

n

tr

a

(P

a,N

ˆ

P

a,n

P

a,1

)

= i

N−1

n

(P

1,2

P

n−1,n+1

P

N−1,N

)

Putting the above together, we are now in a position to compute the loga-

rithmic derivative:

d

dλ

ln t(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=i/2

=

_

d

dλ

t(λ)

_

t(λ)

−1

¸

¸

¸

λ=i/2

= i

−N

Q

1

(P

N,N−1

P

N−1,N−2

P

2,1

)

=

1

i

N

n=1

P

n,n+1

Recall that:

H = −

J

4

N

n=1

σ

α

n

σ

α

n+1

= −J

N

n=1

S

α

n

S

α

n+1

= −J

_

1

2

N

n=1

P

n,n+1

−

N

4

_

Hence we can write the Hamiltonian in terms of the transfer matrix as:

H = −J

_

i

2

Q

−1

0

Q

1

−

N

4

_

= −J

_

i

2

d

dλ

ln t(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=i/2

−

N

4

_

Therefore, H belongs to a family of N − 1 commuting operators. If we

add the total spin operator S

z

T

to this family we get N commuting operators

and hence the XXX-model is integrable.

41

3.3.3 Spectrum of H

Now that we have proven the integrability of the model, we need to solve it

i.e. ﬁnd the spectrum of the Hamiltonian H. It is clear that [H, t(λ)] = 0,

this implies that eigenstates of H will also be eigenstates of t(λ), hence in

order to solve the model it suﬃces to diagonalize t(λ). Given [ ↑¸

n

∈ V

n

and v ∈ a, the action of the Lax operator L

a,n

(λ) : A ⊗ V

n

→ A ⊗ V

n

on

arbitrary element of v ⊗[ ↑¸

n

∈ A⊗V

n

:

L

a,n

(λ)(v ⊗[ ↑¸

n

) =

_

(λ +iS

z

n

)[ ↑¸

n

iS

−

n

[ ↑¸

n

iS

+

n

[ ↑¸

n

(λ −iS

z

n

)[ ↑¸

n

_

v

=

_

(λ +

i

2

)[ ↑¸

n

i[ ↓¸

n

0 (λ −

i

2

)[ ↑¸

n

_

v

The action on v is that of matrix multiplication on V

a

, in what follows we

can omit it. Let us now compute the action of L

a,n

(λ) on the ground state

[0¸ = [ ↑↑ ↑¸ = ⊗

N

n=1

[ ↑¸

n

∈ 1

N

:

L

a,n

(λ)[0¸ =

_

λ +iS

z

n

iS

−

n

iS

+

n

λ −iS

z

n

_

[0¸

=

_

(λ +iS

z

n

)[0¸ iS

−

n

[0¸

iS

+

n

[0¸ (λ −iS

z

n

)[0¸

_

Note (from the table at the beginning of the section):

S

z

n

[0¸ =

1

2

[0¸ S

+

n

[0¸ = 0

The action of S

−

n

on the ground state merely changes the nth spin in the

chain to a spin down, the explicit form will be unimportant in what follows

since we will be considering the action of the trace of the Monodromy matrix

(i.e. the transfer matrix) on the ground state. Denoting any unimportant

items with a ∗ i.e., we get from the above:

L

a,n

(λ)[0¸ =

_

(λ +

i

2

)[0¸ ∗

0 (λ −

i

2

)[0¸

_

=

_

(λ +

i

2

) ∗

0 (λ −

i

2

)

_

[0¸

Using this, we can now compute the action of the Monodromy matrix

42

T

a

(λ) on [0¸ by the repeated application of the above:

T

a

(λ)[0¸ = L

a,N

(λ) L

a,1

(λ)[0¸

=

_

λ +iS

z

N

iS

−

N

iS

+

N

λ −iS

z

N

_

_

λ +iS

z

1

iS

−

1

iS

+

1

λ −iS

z

1

_

[0¸

=

_

λ +iS

z

N

iS

−

N

iS

+

N

λ −iS

z

N

_

_

(λ +

i

2

)[0¸ ∗

0 (λ −

i

2

)[0¸

_

=

_

(λ +

i

2

)

N

[0¸ ∗

0 (λ −

i

2

)

N

[0¸

_

=

_

(λ +

i

2

)

N

∗

0 (λ −

i

2

)

N

_

[0¸ =

_

A(λ) B(λ)

C(λ) D(λ)

_

[0¸

More importantly, what this tells us is that the ground state [0¸ is an

eigenstate of A(λ) and D(λ) simultaneously i.e.:

A(λ)[0¸ = a(λ)[0¸ D(λ)[0¸ = d(λ)[0¸

Where a(λ) = (λ +

i

2

)

N

and d(λ) = (λ −

i

2

)

N

. Consequently, it is also an

eigenstate of the transfer matrix t(λ) = A(λ) +D(λ). This is not surprising

since we know that [H, t(λ)] = 0 and we have also proved that [0¸ is an

eigenstate of H earlier in the section, this immediately implies that it is also

an eigenstate of t(λ). It is also clear from the above that [0¸ is annihilated

by C(λ) i.e.:

C(λ)[0¸ = 0

The algebraic Bethe Ansatz (ABA) is the ’“assumption” that C(λ) and

B(λ) are annihilation and creation operators. A general state with r down

spins will be given by choosing λ such that:

[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ = B(λ

1

) B(λ

r

)[0¸ =

r

n=1

B(λ

n

)[0¸

The conditions on λ for the above to be an eigenstate of t(λ) will produce

the BAE’s, which we have also derived using the CBA. The λ

i

, the so-called

Bethe roots are comparable to the k

i

(momenta) from the CBA and we

shall see how they are related to each other. To calculate the eigenvalue for

the above eigenstate will require us to establish the commutation relations

between [A(λ), B(µ)], [B(λ), B(µ)] and [D(λ), B(µ)]. These will result from

the RTT relations (the Global FCR).

Claim: Applying the RTT relations we get the following:

[B(λ), B(µ)] = 0

A(λ)B(µ) = f(λ −µ)B(µ)A(λ) +g(λ −µ)B(λ)A(µ)

D(λ)B(µ) = h(λ −µ)B(µ)D(λ) +k(λ −µ)B(λ)D(µ)

43

Where:

f(λ) =

λ −i

λ

, g(λ) =

i

λ

, h(λ) =

λ +i

λ

, k(λ) = −

i

λ

Proof. We will do this by direct computation of the RTT relations and

comparing coeﬃcients. We will use the explicit matrix representation of the

FCR in End(A

1

⊗A

2

). All objects are 4 4 matrices in A

1

⊗A

2

with the

basis given by 1

2

. The R-matrix in this representation looks like:

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ) = (λ +i)

_

_

_

_

1 0 0 0

0

λ

λ+i

i

λ+i

0

0

i

λ+i

λ

λ+i

0

0 0 0 1

_

_

_

_

The matrices T

a

1

(λ) and T

a

2

(µ) in this representation are given by:

T

a

1

(λ) = T

a

(λ) ⊗I

T

a

2

(µ) = I ⊗T

a

(µ)

Explicitly:

T

a

1

(λ) =

_

_

_

_

A(λ) B(λ)

A(λ) B(λ)

C(λ) D(λ)

C(λ) D(λ)

_

_

_

_

T

a

2

(µ) =

_

_

_

_

A(µ) B(µ)

C(µ) D(µ)

A(µ) B(µ)

C(µ) D(µ)

_

_

_

_

Thus:

T

a

1

(λ)T

a

2

(µ) =

_

_

_

_

A(λ)A(µ) A(λ)B(µ) B(λ)A(µ) B(λ)B(µ)

A(λ)C(µ) A(λ)D(µ) B(λ)C(µ) B(λ)D(µ)

C(λ)A(µ) C(λ)B(µ) D(λ)A(µ) D(λ)B(µ)

C(λ)C(µ) C(λ)D(µ) D(λ)C(µ) D(λ)D(µ)

_

_

_

_

and

T

a

2

(µ)T

a

1

(λ) =

_

_

_

_

A(µ)A(λ) B(µ)A(λ) A(µ)B(λ) B(µ)B(λ)

C(µ)A(λ) D(µ)A(λ) C(µ)B(λ) D(µ)B(λ)

A(µ)C(λ) B(µ)C(λ) A(µ)D(λ) B(µ)D(λ)

C(µ)C(λ) D(µ)C(λ) C(µ)D(λ) D(µ)D(λ)

_

_

_

_

By direct computation of the RTT relation:

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)T

a

1

(λ)T

a

2

(µ) −T

a

2

(µ)T

a

1

(λ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ) = 0

By looking at the 1st row and 4th column of the matrix on the LHS and

equating it to 0, we obtain the ﬁrst relation. Doing the same with the 1st row

and 3rd column and interchanging µ with λ we obtain the second relation,

the third is obtained by looking at the 3rd row and 4th column.

44

3.3.4 Bethe Ansatz equations

Now we are in a position to derive the BAE from the above considerations,

these will follow from the following claim.

Claim: The condition that [λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ is an eigenstate of the trans-

fer matrix t(λ) will lead to a set of algebraic relations on the parameters

λ; ¦λ

i

¦ = ¦ λ

1

, , λ

r

¦, these will be the BAE.

Proof. To this end, let us compute the action of A(λ) and D(λ) on [λ

1

, , λ

r

¸:

A(λ)[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ = A(λ)B(λ

1

) B(λ

r

)[0¸

= a(λ)

r

n=1

f(λ −λ

n

)B(λ

1

) B(λ

r

)[0¸

+

r

n=1

M

n

(λ, ¦λ

j

¦)B(λ)

r

j=1,j=n

B(λ

j

)[0¸

Where

M

n

(λ, ¦λ

j

¦) = g(λ −λ

n

)a(λ

n

)

r

j=1,j=n

f(λ

n

−λ

j

)

We can see this explicitly by using the commutation relations repeatedly

to move A(λ) to the right, lets compute the coeﬃcient for the nth term. Note

we can write [λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ in the following way:

[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ = B(λ

n

)

r

j=1,j=n

B(λ

j

)[0¸ n = 1, , r

since the operators B(λ) commute with each other, using this along with

the second commutation relation, we can move the A(λ) past the B(λ

n

) i.e.:

A(λ)[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ = A(λ)B(λ

n

)

r

j=1,j=n

B(λ

j

)[0¸

= f(λ −λ

n

)B(λ

n

)A(λ)

r

j=1,j=n

B(λ

j

)[0¸

+g(λ −λ

n

)B(λ)A(λ

n

)

r

j=1,j=n

B(λ

j

)[0¸

From this it is clear that the ﬁrst term will not contribute to M

n

(λ, ¦λ

i

¦)

since it contains B(λ

n

), only the second term will contribute. If we now move

A(λ

n

) past the B(λ

j

) we see that the only way to avoid the appearance of

45

B(λ

n

) is by using the ﬁrst term of the A-B commutation relation. The

resulting term will be:

g(λ −λ

n

)a(λ

n

)

r

j=1,j=n

f(λ

n

−λ

j

)B(λ)

r

j=1,j=n

B(λ

j

)[0¸

i.e. we have:

M

n

(λ, ¦λ

i

¦) = g(λ −λ

n

)a(λ

n

)

r

j=1,j=n

f(λ

n

−λ

j

)

Similarly we have:

D(λ)[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ = D(λ)B(λ

1

) B(λ

r

)[0¸

= d(λ)

r

n=1

h(λ −λ

n

)B(λ

1

) B(λ

r

)[0¸

+

r

n=1

N

n

B(λ)

r

j=1,j=n

B(λ

j

)[0¸

Where

N

n

= N

n

(λ, ¦λ

j

¦) = k(λ −λ

n

)d(λ

n

)

r

j=1,j=n

h(λ

n

−λ

j

)

Combining these results we get for the transfer matrix t(λ):

t(λ)[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ = (A(λ) +D(λ))[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸

=

_

a(λ)

r

n=1

f(λ −λ

n

) +d(λ)

r

n=1

h(λ −λ

n

)

_

[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸

+

r

n=1

(M

n

+N

n

)B(λ)

r

j=1,j=n

B(λ

j

)[0¸

The ﬁrst term has a desirable form and if the second term was absent

then we would immediately have that [λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ is an eigenstate of t(λ) for

all λ. Since it is present however, it will produce restrictions on λ which we

will see will lead to the BAE. We can now make the following statement: The

general eigenstate with r spins down, produced by the creation operators

B(λ

i

), [λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ is an eigenstate of t(λ) (and consequently of H) with

eigenvalue:

Λ(λ) =

_

a(λ)

r

n=1

f(λ −λ

n

) +d(λ)

r

n=1

h(λ −λ

n

)

_

46

provided that the second term vanishes i.e. M

n

+N

n

= 0 ∀n. This means

one needs to satisfy the condition:

g(λ −λ

n

)a(λ

n

)

r

j=1,j=n

f(λ

n

−λ

j

) = −k(λ −λ

n

)d(λ

n

)

r

j=1,j=n

h(λ

n

−λ

j

)

−

g(λ −λ

n

)a(λ

n

)

k(λ −λ

n

)d(λ

n

)

=

r

j=1,j=n

h(λ

n

−λ

j

)

f(λ

n

−λ

j

)

Substituting the explicit expressions for f(λ), g(λ), h(λ), k(λ) and the eigen-

values of the ground state a(λ), d(λ), we obtain the Bethe Ansatz Equa-

tion:

_

λ

n

+i/2

λ

n

−i/2

_

N

=

r

j=1,j=n

λ

n

−λ

j

+i

λ

n

−λ

j

−i

As required.

We will now look at the expressions for the eigenvalues of the components

of spin on [λ

1

, , λ

r

¸. To this end, we will look at the limit λ → ∞ in

the RTT relation, using the power expansion of T

a

(λ) and the R- matrix

representation in terms of the permutation matrix P. We get:

_

(λ −µ) +

i

2

[I

a

1

⊗I

a

2

+

α

(σ

α

a

1

⊗σ

α

a

2

)

__

λ

N

+iλ

N−1

α

(S

α

⊗σ

α

) +

_

T

b

(µ)

= T

b

(µ)

_

λ

N

+iλ

N−1

α

(S

α

⊗σ

α

) +

__

(λ −µ) +

i

2

[I

a

1

⊗I

a

2

+

α

(σ

α

a

1

⊗σ

α

a

2

)

_

_

α

(σ

α

a

⊗I

b

⊗S

α

)

_

(I

a

⊗T

b

(µ)) +

1

2

α

(σ

α

a

⊗σ

α

b

⊗I

h

)(I

a

⊗T

b

(µ))

= (I

a

⊗T

b

(µ))

_

α

(σ

α

a

⊗I

b

⊗S

α

)

_

+ (I

a

⊗T

b

(µ))

1

2

α

(σ

α

a

⊗σ

α

b

⊗I

h

)

α

σ

α

a

⊗[T

b

(µ), I

b

⊗S

α

+

1

2

(σ

α

b

⊗I

h

)] = 0

_

T

b

(µ), I

b

⊗S

α

+

1

2

(σ

α

b

⊗I

h

)

_

=

__

A(µ) B(µ)

C(µ) D(µ)

_

,

_

S

α

0

0 S

α

_

+

1

2

(σ

α

b

⊗I

h

)

_

= 0

Taking α = z:

__

A(µ) B(µ)

C(µ) D(µ)

_

,

_

S

z

0

0 S

z

_

+

1

2

_

I 0

0 −I

__

= 0

47

The (1, 2) matrix entry of this equation gives us

[S

z

, B] = −B

Taking α = x, y we get the relation:

[S

+

, B] = A−D

For our ground state [0¸ we have:

S

+

[0¸ = 0 S

z

[0¸ =

N

2

[0¸

Which tells us that [0¸ is a highest weight vector for the spin algebra. Let

us look at the eigenstates [λ

1

, , λ

r

¸. Using the above relations we get:

S

z

[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ =

_

N

2

−r

_

[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸

which conﬁrms the result we got in the ﬁrst part of the section. One can

show in a simular fashion to the proof of the BAE that:

S

+

[λ

1

, , λ

r

¸ = 0

This shows that the eigenstates obtained from the ABA are also the highest

weight vectors of the spin algebra.

We will now calculate the energy for the corresponding eigenstates using

the logarithmic derivative of the eigenvalue of the transfer matrix. We obtain

after straightforward diﬀerentiation:

E = −J

_

i

2

d

dλ

ln Λ(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=i/2

−

N

4

_

= E

0

+

J

2

N

i=1

1

λ

2

i

+ 1/4

If we identify λ

i

as the rapidity as shown in the CBA and use the parame-

terization λ

k

=

1

2

cot(

k

j

2

) we get:

E −E

0

= J

N

i=1

2

cot(k

j

/2)

2

+ 1

= J

N

i=1

2 sin

2

(

k

j

2

) = J

N

i=1

(1 −cos (k

j

))

3.4 Thermodynamic limit N → ∞ - String Hy-

pothesis

We will use our analysis on the CBA and ABA in order to analyse the be-

haviour at N →∞. The mathematical and physical features of the N →∞

are completely diﬀerent for the cases the cases J > 0 and J < 0. We will

consider these separately corresponding to the ferromagnetic and antifer-

romagnetic phases respectively. We saw earlier that the rapidities λ

j

can

48

have real and complex solutions, so far our discussion has been general but

it turns out that the majority of the states are characterized by complex

rapidities. In general these have to found numerically but they can be ex-

tremely hard to ﬁnd. We would like to understand the structure of the

complex rapidities to develop more suitable ways to determine them, but

for ﬁnite N this can be intractable. The advantage of analysing N → ∞ is

that a simple structure emerge, called the string hypothesis which allows us

to analyse these complex rapidities in more detail. We will begin by talking

about the FM case J > 0, though some of the deductions will allow us to

explore the physics of the AFM J < 0. The material in this section will be

based on [8] ,[11] and [12].

Recall the BAE:

_

λ

n

+i/2

λ

n

−i/2

_

N

=

r

j=1,j=n

λ

n

−λ

j

+i

λ

n

−λ

j

−i

Rapidities λ

j

to parameterize the quasi-momenta k

j

as:

λ

j

= cot

k

j

2

or

k

j

=

1

i

ln

λ

j

+i

λ

k

−i

= π −θ

1

(λ

j

),

where θ

n

(λ) = 2 arctan

λ

n

.

Taking the Log of the BAE or using what we obtained from the CBA

we obtain (k

j

= k(λ

j

)):

Nk(λ

j

) = 2πI

j

+

l=j

θ

jl

, j = 1, , r

In the BAE, N enters the exponent of the LHS. For real λ

1

, , λ

r

, both

sides of the BAE are functions on the circle with the LHS oscillating wildly

when N is large. For large N and I with r kept ﬁxed, the second term of

the above is negligible thus we have

Nk

j

∼ 2πI

j

=⇒ k

j

∼

2πI

j

N

Which is simply the momentum of a free particle on the chain. When J > 0,

the energy of this particle is (p) = 1 − cos p. The “correction” caused by

the second term of the RHS encodes the information about the scattering

of these particles.

The BAE also allows for λ

j

∈ C, which correspond to bound states for

J > 0. Let us look at the case r = 2 (two down spins), the BAE are:

_

λ

1

+i/2

λ

1

−i/2

_

N

=

λ

1

−λ

2

+i

λ

1

−λ

2

−i

(1)

49

_

λ

2

+i/2

λ

2

−i/2

_

N

=

λ

2

−λ

1

+i

λ

2

−λ

1

−i

(2)

=⇒

_

λ

1

+i/2

λ

1

−i/2

_

N

_

λ

2

+i/2

λ

2

−i/2

_

N

= 1

Since we require that the total momentum k(λ

1

) + k(λ

2

) be real. For

Imλ

1

,= 0 the LHS of (1) grows (or decreases) exponentially when N →

∞ and thus the RHS must have Im(λ

1

− λ

2

) = ±i. λ

1

and λ

2

can be

interchanged and hence their form is given by:

λ

1

= λ

1/2

+

i

2

, λ

2

= λ

1/2

−

i

2

The momentum and energy of this state are:

e

ip

1/2

(λ)

= e

ip

0

(λ+i/2)+ip

0

(λ−i/2)

=

λ +i

λ −i

1/2

(λ) = −J

d p

1/2

dλ

=

0

(λ +i/2) +

0

(λ −i/2) =

4J

λ

2

+ 4

Which gives the dispersion relation:

1/2

(p) =

J

2

(1 −cos p

1/2

)

For J > 0 we have ∀p, p

< 2π:

1/2

(p) <

0

(p −p

) +

0

(p

)

Bound states are energetically favoured compared to the real solutions in

the ferromagnetic case.

For r > 2 more complex solutions can appear and we can describe them

in a simular way. Roots λ

r

are combined with complexes (or strings) of type

M, where M can have half-integer values M = 0, 1/2, 1, , we can have

complexes of 2M+1 rapidities characterized by the same real value λ

M

, but

diﬀerent imaginary parts.

λ

M;m

= λ

M

+im −M ≤ m ≤ M

Where m is a integer or half-integer together with M. Counting all the

complexes of length (type) M, we can denote the number of complexes by

ν

M

. The set of integers ¦ν

M

¦ deﬁnes the conﬁguration space of Bethe roots.

For a state with a given magnetization we can deﬁne the partition:

r =

M

(2M + 1)ν

M

50

It is important to stress that this string structure is only value in the ther-

modynamic limit N → ∞. The energy and momentum of a M-complex is

given by:

p

M

(λ

M

) =

1

i

ln

λ

M

+i(M + 1/2)

λ

M

−i(M + 1/2)

M

(λ

M

) =

2J(M + 1/2)

λ

2

M

+ (M + 1/2)

2

=

J

2M + 1

(1 −cos p

m

)

For a ferromagnetic coupling the completely aligned state [0¸ can be

taken as the ground state. Excited states above the ground state can be

constructed in terms of magnon excitations, keeping into consideration that

bound states corresponding to 2M + 1 complexes have lower energies com-

pared to states with 2M + 1 real magnons. For the Anti-Ferromagnetic

(J < 0) case we will have to do more work in order to determine the phys-

ical spectrum as the completely polarized [0¸ used as our reference state

is clearly diﬀerent from the anti-ferromagnet ground state. In the ferro-

magnetic regime, string solutions have lower energy than unbound, purely

real ones. The opposite is true for the AFM, the string solutions will have

higher energy. From here on we will let J = −1 for the anti-ferromagnet

without loss of generality. Let us assume that N is even in what follows. The

ground state conﬁguration for the AFM will be composed of single particle

excitations:

ν

0

=

N

2

; ν

M

= 0 M ≥

1

2

For this conﬁguration we have r = N/2, this implies that the spin of the

states vanishes. Excited states over the ground state can be characterised

by κ with:

ν

0

=

N

2

−κ; ν

M

= 0 M ≥

1

2

We will now proceed to approximate the distribution of the solutions of the

Bethe equation with their continuous distribution. We will start with the

ground state, for which the quantum numbers I

0,j

ﬁll the allowed interval

of vacancies without holes. Let us assume that N/2 is odd (with the even

case requiring a minor modiﬁcation), so that:

I

0,j

= −

N

4

+

1

2

, −

N

4

+

3

2

, ,

N

4

−

1

2

We can write the Bethe equations as:

θ

1

(λ

j

) =

π

N

I

0,j

+

1

N

k

θ

2

(λ

j

−λ

k

)

Explicitly this is:

arctan λ

j

=

π

N

I

0,k

+

1

N

k

arctan

_

λ

j

−λ

k

2

_

51

In the limit N → ∞, the variable x = I

0,k

/N becomes continuous and

limited in the range −1/4 ≤ x ≤ 1/4. The set of roots λ

j

becomes a

function λ(x) and we obtain:

arctan λ(x) = πx +

_

1/4

−1/4

arctan

_

λ(x) −λ(y)

2

_

dx

Using:

_

1/4

−1/4

f(λ(x)) dx =

_

∞

−∞

f(λ)ρ

0

(λ) dλ

where the change of variables x →λ(x) maps interval −1/4 ≤ x ≤ 1/4 into

the real line −∞< λ < ∞ due to the monotonicity of λ(x), i.e. explicitly:

ρ

0

(λ) =

dx

dλ

=

1

λ

(x)

¸

¸

¸

x=λ

−1

(λ)

Now diﬀerentiation this wrt to λ, the Bethe equations for the ground state

become:

ρ

0

(λ) =

1

π

1

1 +λ

2

−

1

π

_

∞

−∞

2

(λ −µ)

2

+ 4

ρ

0

(µ) dµ

In the thermodynamic limit, the energy and momentum can also be ex-

pressed in terms of the density function ρ

0

(λ) as:

E

AFM

≡ E

0

+N

_

0

(λ)ρ

0

(λ) dλ

K

AFM

≡ N

_

p

0

(λ)ρ

0

(λ) dλ

We can solve ρ

0

(λ) from the above integral equation by using the Fourier

transform, we get (see [11]):

ρ

0

(λ) =

1

4 cosh (

πλ

2

)

And we thus obtain the anti-ferromagnet (J = −1) ground state energy:

E

AFM

= N

_

1

4

−ln 2

_

and

K

AFM

=

Nπ

2

mod 2π

Now we turn to the state with ν

0

= N/2 −1 and ν

M

= 0 for M ≥ 1/2.

The state is characterized by two wholes which we place at j

1

and j

2

:

I

0,j

= j +H(j −j

1

) +H(j −j

2

),

52

where H(x) is the usual Heaviside step-function. The integral equation for

the rapidity density of the real roots ρ

t

(λ) (where t stands for triplet) is:

ρ

t

(λ) =

1

π

1

1 +λ

2

−

1

π

_

∞

−∞

2

(λ −µ)

2

+ 4

ρ

t

(µ) dµ −

1

N

[δ(λ −λ

1

) +δ(λ −λ

2

)],

where λ

i

, i = 1, 2 are the images of x

i

= j

i

/N under the map x → λ(x).

Since we are dealing with linear equations, we can write the solution for

ρ

t

(λ) as:

ρ

t

(λ) = ρ

0

(λ) +

1

N

[τ(λ −λ

1

) +τ(λ −λ

2

)],

where τ(λ) solve the integral equation:

τ(λ) +

1

π

_

∞

−∞

2

(λ −µ)

2

+ 4

τ

(

µ) dµ +δ(λ)

As before, solving this integral equation using the fourier transform as in

[11], we obtain the total momentum and energy as:

K = N

_

p

0

(λ)ρ

t

(λ) dλ = K

AFM

+κ(λ

1

) +κ(λ

2

),

E = N

_

0

(λ)ρ

t

(λ) dλ = E

AFM

+(λ

1

) +(λ

2

),

where

κ(λ) ≡

π

2

−arctan sinh

πλ

2

, (λ) ≡ −

π

2 cosh

πλ

2

This is a state with two-particle excitations (spinons) and (λ), κ(λ) are

their dressed energy and momentum. Combing the two, we see that these

excitations are characterized each by the dispersion relation:

(k) = −

π

2

sin k, −

π

2

≤ k ≤

π

2

Therefore each hole in the quantum numbers generates a quasi-particle ex-

citation, which is called a spinon, i.e. a spin- 1/2 excitation.

We see that if we follow the same procedure for the state with ν

0

=

N/2 −2, ν

1/2

= 1 and ν

M

= 0 for M ≥ 1. We can compute rapidity density

for the real roots ρ

s

(λ) (s is for singlet) by solving its integral equation using

a simular procedure to the above given in [11], after which we obtain for the

energy:

E = E

AFM

+N

_

0

(λ)ρ

S

(λ) dλ +

1/2

(λ

1/2

)

= E

AFM

+(λ

1

) +(λ

2

)

We see that the contributions from the string cancel exactly and this state

has the same momentum, energy and (dispersion relation) as the one without

53

complexes given by the state with ν

0

= N/2−1 and ν

M

= 0 for M ≥ 1/2. We

see that the excitations in the anti- ferromagnetic ground state [AFM¸ can

be interpreted as spinon excitations over the spinon vacuum, this point of

view is particularly suitable to desribe the anti-ferromagnetic case only. For

the ferromagnet case the ground state is a magnon-vacuum and excitations

are interpreted as magnons.

3.4.1 XXZ Model

We will brieﬂy state the results for the XXZ-model that can be obtained by

the ABA through a very simular method to the XXX-model. The results

presented here will be based on [12] and [13]. The generalized anisotropic

Heisenberg Hamiltonian as introduced in Chapter 2 is given by:

H = −

N

j=0

(J

x

S

x

j

S

x

j+1

+J

y

S

y

j

S

y

j+1

+J

z

S

z

j

S

z

j+1

)

The XXZ model in particular corresponds to J

x

= J

y

= J and J

z

= ∆J,

where ∆ is the measure of anisotropy:

H = −J

N

j=0

(S

x

j

S

x

j+1

+S

y

j

S

y

j+1

+ ∆S

z

j

S

z

j+1

),

where ∆ = 1 corresponds to the XXX model. For the XXZ model, the Lax

operator is given by:

L

a,n

(λ) =

_

sinh (λ +ηS

z

n

) i2S

−

n

sinh(η)

S

+

n

sinh (η) sinh (λ −ηS

z

n

)

_

,

where λ is the spectral parameter. The relationship between η and ∆ is given

by ∆ = cosh η. This will satisfy the Yang-Baxter algebra, in particular the

FCR relation as given before:

R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ)L

a

1

,n

(λ)L

a

2

,n

(µ) = L

a

2

,n

(µ)L

a

1

,n

(λ)R

a

1

,a

2

(λ −µ),

on End(A

1

⊗ A

2

⊗ V

n

). This will be given as a direct consequence by the

following R-matrix (R(λ) acting on C

2

⊗ C

2

) which is a solution to the

Yang-Baxter equation as before:

R(λ) =

1

sinh (λ +η)

_

_

_

_

sinh (λ +η) 0 0 0

0 sinh λ sinh η 0

0 sinh η sinh λ 0

0 0 0 sinh (λ +η)

_

_

_

_

.

Indeed we have the R-matrix and the Lax operator in a simular form as

L

a,n

(λ) = R

a,n

(λ − η/2) which is simular to what we had in the XXX

54

model. As with the XXX model, we have the Monodromy matrix:

T

a

(λ) = L

a,N

(λ) L

a,1

(λ) =

_

A(λ) B(λ)

C(λ) D(λ)

_

Transfer matrix:

t(λ) = tr

a

T

a

(λ) = A(λ) +D(λ)

It follows as from the isotropic case that these transfer matrices generate

higher conserved charges, in particular the Hamiltonian which can be written

as:

H = (−2J sinh η) t

−1

(η/2)t

(η/2) + const

= −2J sinh η

∂

∂λ

ln t(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=η/2

+ const

The eigenvalues of t(λ) are again given as excitations from the pseudo-

vacuum [0¸,

[λ

1

, , λ

n

¸ =

r

i=1

B(λ

i

)[0¸,

where B(λ) and C(λ) are assumed to be creation and annihilation operators

as before. λ

i

also satisfy the BAE’s which in the XXZ model are given by:

_

sinh (λ

j

+η/2)

sinh (λ

j

−η/2)

_

N

=

r

l=1,l=j

sinh (λ

j

−λ

l

+i)

sinh (λ

j

−λ

l

−i)

, j = 1, , r

For the XXZ model, the energy is given by:

E = −

JN∆

4

+J

r

j=1

(∆−cos k

j

),

which for the isotropic limit ∆ →1 reduces to the energy that we calculated

before for the XXX model.

The construction of [0¸

AFM

= [AFM¸ (J = −1) is credited due Hulthen

[23] in the thermodynamic limit N →∞. For −1 < ∆ < 1 the value in the

thermodynamic limit for the AFM (J = −1):

E

AFM

= N

∆

4

−N

sin πν

2π

_

∞

−∞

dz

sinh (1 −ν)z

sinh z cosh νz

= N

∆

4

+N

sin πν

2π

_

∞+i/2

−∞+i/2

dx

1

sinh x

cosh νx

sinh νx

Where the anisotropy parameter ∆ is parameterized in [23] as ∆ = cos πν.

In the XXX limit ∆ →1, the ground state energy is more simply given by:

E

AFM

= N

_

1

4

−ln 2

_

,

55

which agree’s with the result that we obtained in the previous section in the

thermodynamic limit N− > ∞ for the anti-ferromagnet ground state. It

is useful to introduce the ground state energy per site which will simply be

deﬁned as:

e

0

= lim

N→∞

E

AFM

N

For the above we obtain:

e

0

=

∆

4

+

sin πν

2π

_

∞+i/2

−∞+i/2

dx

1

sinh x

cosh νx

sinh νx

,

and in particular for the XXX spin chain:

e

0

=

_

1

4

−ln 2

_

56

Chapter 4

Higher Conserved Charges of

the Heisenberg Hamiltonian

In this chapter we will be looking at the Higher Conserved charges of the

Heisenberg Hamiltonian which will produce the local conservation laws of

the XXX-model. The material in this chapter will be based on [14],[15] and

[16].

In the previous chapter we saw that the transfer matrix t(λ) produced

a mutually commuting set Q

n

of N − 1 independent conserved quantities,

essentially given as the coeﬃcients of the power series of t(λ). We also

saw that we could generate the Hamiltonian from the transfer matrix, in

particular it was related to second term in the expansion (coeﬃcient of the

λ term) via:

H = −J

_

i

2

t(i/2)Q

1

−

N

4

_

and

Q

1

=

d

dλ

t(λ)

¸

¸

¸

λ=i/2

A local conserved charge is a sum over the whole chain of terms that are

supported (i.e. non-trivial) only on a ﬁnite number of sites, which makes

sense as a deﬁnition in the large N limit. For ﬁnite N, these number of sites

will be suﬃciently small compared to N, we will give a more mathematical

description in the next section. In order to satisfy the locality conditions, a

Hamiltonian should be expressible as a sum of terms each one only involving

spins close to each on the chain. The Heisenberg Hamiltonian in particular

is a local conservation law, but the other coeﬃcients Q

n

are in general

not. These conserved quantities are rather intractable due to their non-

locality, we wish to consider only local conservation charges since they are

the characteristic of integrability. If we look at the Hamiltonian, we see that

in the left hand side we notice that t(i/2)Q

1

= t(i/2) t

(i/2) corresponds

57

to the ﬁrst derivative of the logarithm of the Transfer matrix evaluated at

λ = i/2. This provides us a clue to what we must do in order to generate

local conserved quantities which we address in this section.

4.1 Logarithmic derivative of the transfer matrix

A more useful set of operators to consider are given by coeﬃcients from

the expansion of P(λ) = ln (t(λ)), given essentially as derivatives of P(λ)

evaluated at some point λ = λ

0

. It can be shown that the higher derivatives

of this logarithm commute and so form a set of conserved quantities, taking

the logarithm ensures locality but it is very non-trivial to see this explicitly.

We can write P(λ) as a power series in the spectral parameter λ around

λ

0

= i/2 as:

P(λ) = ln (t(λ)) =

∞

n=1

(λ −λ

0

)

n

p

n

n!

Notice that the expansion of P(λ) will provide inﬁnitely many coeﬃ-

cients, but these coeﬃcients will be expressed as functions of the coeﬃcients

of t(λ) (i.e. Q

n

) - so they are not all algebraically independent, there are

non-linear algebraic relations between them. In general if Q

1

, , Q

n

are

conserved then so is p

i

= f(Q

1

, , Q

n

), so these coeﬃcients constructed

from other conserved charges do not produce any new conservation laws.

It is clear from the expansion of t(λ) in the previous section that we

cannot have more than N−1 conserved quantities. Since t(λ) is a polynomial

of order N, we have the following properties which we have been shown or

are inferred, true ∀λ:

t

(N−1)

(λ) = 0, t

(N)

(λ) = 2N!, t

(i)

(λ) = 0 ∀i > N

This controls the expansion of P(λ) in some sense and prevents higher

than N order coeﬃcients from being algebraically independent. The coeﬃ-

cient of P(λ) at order higher than N will therefore not produce new charges,

these will be algebraically related to the local conserved charges at lower or-

ders and will lose locality since it is focused around a site of extent of order

N.

The Hamiltonian is related to p

1

by:

H = ap

1

+b

Where a and b are constants, in this case given by a = −J/2i, b = JN/4

Since p

1

corresponds to the Hamiltonian, the coeﬃcients of the above

expansion will form a commuting set of local conservation laws, the locality

was shown by Luscher [17]. In the previous section when we showed that we

can generate the Hamiltonian from the derivative of the transfer matrix, it

was explicitly clear that the Hamiltonian was local. When we multiplied the

58

derivative of t(λ) by t

−1

(λ), we cancelled out the most of the permutation

matrices and we were left with identities everywhere except for a small bit of

size n (∼ P

n,n+1

). This is simular to what happens in higher local charges,

admitting an expansion as:

p

n

=

d

dλ

ln (t(λ))

¸

¸

¸

λ=λ

0

= t

−1

(λ

0

)t

(n)

(λ

0

) + polynomials,

where the polynomials depend on lower order local charges. It can be shown

in [21] that the expectation value of such higher charges is actually equal to

the expectation value of the ﬁrst term i.e. t

−1

(λ

0

)t

(n)

(λ

0

).

Higher charges p

i

for i > 1 correspond to Hamiltonians with ’more neigh-

bours interacting’. Since these charges are local operators, they can be put

in the form [17]

1

:

p

n

=

{i

1

,··· ,i

n−1

}

G

T

n−1

(i

1

, , i

n−1

)

Where the summation is over the ordered subsets ¦i

1

, , i

n−1

¦ ∈ ¦1, , N¦

and G

T

is a translationally covariant and totally symmetric function, obey-

ing the locality property:

G

T

n

(i

1

, , i

n

) = 0

for [i

n

− i

1

[ ≥ n. For the inﬁnite XXX chain, further properties of the

conserved charges, including their completeness, have been proved in [22].

It is very diﬃcult to extract the explicit form of the charges directly by

computing higher derivatives of P(λ), this is because the size for the transfer

matrix grows exponentially with the length of the chain. Fortunately there

exists a shortcut which will involve an alternative method of constructing

higher charges with a boost operator. See [14]. The Boost operator is deﬁned

as the ﬁrst moment of the Hamiltonian i.e.:

ˆ

B =

N

n=1

n

S

n

S

n+1

We use the fact that its commutator with the transfer matrix is equal to the

derivative i.e.:

[

ˆ

B, t(λ)] =

∂

∂λ

t(λ)

A consequence of this is that up to some constant terms, the boost operator

generates conserved quanties recursively i.e.:

p

n+1

= [

ˆ

B, p

n

]

1

Shown by Luscher for the XYZ model

59

Recall

p

1

=

d

dλ

ln (t(λ))

¸

¸

¸

λ=i/2

=

1

i

N

n=1

P

n,n+1

= −

J

2a

N

n=1

S

α

n

S

α

n+1

−

b

a

We can omit the constants in this expression for convenience, since multiply-

ing the charge by a constant will not change its conservation or locality and

[

ˆ

B, k] = 0 for any constant k. This allows us to concentrate mainly on the

part with the spin matrices i.e. p

1

∼

N

n=1

S

α

n

S

α

n+1

. Using our knowledge

of p

1

and the above, we will now proceed to calculate p

2

and p

3

:

p

2

= [

ˆ

B, p

1

]

=

n,m

n[S

a

n

S

a

n+1

, S

b

m

S

b

m+1

]

In order to compute this, we will need the following identities for commuta-

tors and the knowledge of the su(2) algebra of spins (see appendix):

[A, BC] = [A, B]C +B[A, C]

[AB, C] = A[B, C] + [A, C]B

[AB, C D] = A[B, C]D + [A, C]BD +C A[B, D] +C[A, D]B

[S

a

n

, S

b

m

] = iδ

n,m

abc

S

c

m

p

2

∼

n,m

m

abc

(δ

m+1,n

S

a

m

S

c

i

S

b

i+1

+δ

m,n

S

c

n

S

a

m+1

S

b

n+1

+δ

m+1,n+1

S

b

n

S

a

m

S

c

n+1

+δ

m,n+1

S

b

n

S

c

n+1

S

a

m+1

)

=

N

n=1

abc

[(n −1)S

a

n−1

S

c

n

S

b

n+1

+nS

c

n

S

a

n+1

S

b

n+1

+nS

b

n

S

a

n

S

c

n+1

+ (n + 1)S

b

n

S

c

n+1

S

a

n+2

]

Since

abc

is antisymmetric, terms with two S’s acting on the same site

vanish, we obtain:

p

2

=

N

n=1

abc

[(n −1)S

a

n−1

S

c

n

S

b

n+1

+ (n + 1)S

b

n

S

c

n+1

S

a

n+2

]

If we shift the ﬁrst term by 1 then recombine both terms we get:

p

2

=

N

n=1

abc

[nS

a

n

S

c

n+1

S

b

n+2

+ (n + 1)S

b

n

S

c

n+1

S

a

n+2

]

=

N

n=1

(n

acb

+ (n + 1)

cab

)S

a

n

S

b

n+1

S

c

n+2

=

N

n=1

abc

S

a

n

S

b

n+1

S

c

n+2

60

By the deﬁnition of the cross product:

(AB)

i

=

ijk

A

j

B

k

Finally we have:

p

2

=

N

n=1

(

S

n

S

n+1

)

S

i+2

Indeed this has a local form that acts on the nearest and next-to- nearest

neighbouring sites. In the same way iteratively we will obtain p

3

:

p

3

= [

ˆ

B, p

2

] =

m,n

m

abc

[S

α

m

S

α

m+1

, S

a

i

S

b

i+1

S

c

i+2

]

By repeatedly using the commutator identities, we get:

[AB, C DE] = A[B, C]DE + [A, C]BDE +C A[B, D]E

+C AD[B, E] +C[A, D]E B +C D[A, E]B

p

3

=

n,m

m

abc

(S

α

m

[S

α

m+1

, S

a

n

]S

b

n+1

S

c

n+2

+ [S

α

m

, S

a

n

]S

α

m+1

S

b

n+1

S

c

n+2

+S

a

n

S

α

m

[S

α

m+1

, S

b

n+1

]S

c

n+2

+S

a

n

S

α

m

S

b

n+1

[S

α

m+1

, S

c

n+1

]

+S

a

n

[S

α

m

, S

b

n+1

]S

c

n+2

S

α

m+1

+S

a

n

S

b

n+1

[S

α

m

, S

c

n+1

]S

α

m+1

)

Inserting the commuting relation for the spin algebra:

p

3

∼

n,m

m

abc

(

αad

δ

m+1,n

S

α

m

S

d

n

S

b

n+1

S

c

n+2

+

αad

δ

m,n

S

d

n

S

α

m+1

S

b

n+1

S

c

n+2

+

αbd

δ

m+1,n+1

S

a

n

S

α

m

S

d

n+1

S

c

n+2

+

αcd

δ

m+1,n+2

S

a

n

S

α

m

S

b

n+1

S

d

n+2

+

αbd

δ

m,n+1

S

a

n

S

d

n+1

S

c

n+2

S

α

m+1

+

αcd

δ

m,n+2

S

a

n

S

b

n+1

S

d

n+2

S

α

m+1

)

Using the same procedure as before and shifting appropriate terms we

ﬁnally get:

p

3

= 2

N

n=1

[(

S

n

S

n+1

)

S

n+2

S

n+3

+

S

n

S

i+2

] −4p

1

61

Chapter 5

Correlation functions

The material based here will be from [17], [18] and [19].

The matrix element computed by inserting a product of operators be-

tween two states, usually the vacuum states, is called a correlation function.

Consider an operator acting on the j-th site, S

a

j

j

∈ ¦S

x

n

, S

y

n

, S

z

n

¦. The aver-

age of this operator with respect to the ground state [0¸ is:

¸0[

n

j=1

S

a

j

j

[0¸ = ¸

n

j=1

S

a

j

j

¸

We will particularly be looking at the thermodynamic limit for the anti-

ferromagnet (J < 0) since the correlation functions for the ferromagnet

(J > 0) are trivial since the ground state has all the spins aligned. The

XXZ model for the antiferromagnetic phase (J = −1), the energy is given

by:

E =

N∆

4

+

M

j=1

(cos k

j

−∆)

The construction of [0¸

AFM

(see [19]) is credited to Hulthen [23] in the

thermodynamic limit N → ∞, which we also stated in Section 3. For

−1 < ∆ < 1 the value in the thermodynamic limit the ground state energy

per site is given by:

e

0

= lim

N→∞

E

AFM

N

=

∆

4

−

sin πν

2π

_

∞

−∞

dz

sinh (1 −ν)z

sinh z cosh νz

=

∆

4

+

sin πν

2π

_

∞+i/2

−∞+i/2

dx

1

sinh x

cosh νx

sinh νx

Given

H =

N

j=1

(S

x

j

S

x

j+1

+S

y

j

S

y

j+1

+ ∆S

z

j

S

z

j+1

)

62

Where ∆ = 1 corresponds to the XXX model.

e

0

(∆) =

¸0[H[0¸

N

= (2a +b∆)

Where a, b are given by:

a = ¸S

x

j

S

x

j+1

¸ = ¸S

y

j

S

y

j+1

¸, b = ¸S

z

j

S

z

j+1

¸

By the Hellmann Feynman theorem:

¸S

z

n

S

z

n+1

¸ =

d

d∆

e

0

(∆)

¸

¸

¸

∆=1

,

i.e we can compute the nearest-neighbour correlation directly from our ex-

pression for the anti-ferromagnetic ground state energy. It it well known

that the nearest neighbour correlator can be obtained from the ground state

energy per site by Hulthen [23], what is less obvious is calculating higher

neighbouring correlators. I will state a few results that have been obtained:

¸S

z

n

S

z

n+1

¸ =

1

12

−

1

3

ln 2

=

1

12

−

1

3

ζ

a

(1) = −0.1477157168

which is obtained as above from the ground state energy per site.

¸S

z

n

S

z

n+2

¸ =

1

12

−

4

3

ln 2 +

3

4

ζ(3)

=

1

12

−

4

3

ζ

a

(1) +ζ

a

(3) = 0.06067976995 ,

which is obtained from the half-ﬁlled Hubbard model by Takahashi [25].

The next nearest correlators and other type of correlation functions up to

8 lattice sites have been calculated in many papers (see [18]) and it has

the same pattern structure as above, given in terms of the Riemann zeta

functions

1

. We generally would like to compute ¸S

z

j

S

z

j+n

¸ ∀n.

5.1 EFP

An important class of correlation functions called the Emptiness Formation

Probability (EFP) which is the probability to ﬁnd the formation of a ferro-

magnetic string of length n in the anti- ferromagnetic ground state [AFM¸.

The EFP is deﬁned as:

P(n) = ¸AFM[

n

j=1

P

j

[AFM¸ = ¸

n

j=1

(

1

2

+S

z

j

)¸

1

This was deﬁned in the introduction

63

Where P

j

= 1/2 + S

z

j

is the projector on the state with the spin up in the

j-th lattice site. The importance of the EFP was realised in [28]. It was

conjectured in [18] that P(n) is always in terms of ln 2 and Riemann zeta

functions ζ(n) with odd arguments and rational coeﬃcients. This is also

the case for ¸S

z

j

S

z

j+n

¸ since it was also conjectured that we can write these

correlators in terms of P(n). In particular, we can recover the ﬁrst and

second-neighbour correlators by the following relations

P(2) = ¸(

1

2

+S

z

j

)(

1

2

+S

z

j+1

)¸ = ¸S

z

j

S

z

j+1

¸ +

1

4

P(3) = ¸S

z

j

S

z

j+1

¸ +

1

2

¸S

z

j

S

z

j+2

¸ +

1

8

Though it is important to note that ¸S

z

j

S

z

j+3

¸ cannot solely be determined

from P(4). It was also shown in [26] that P(n) exhibits interesting Gaussian

decay at n →∞. The ﬁrst four values of the EFP look as follows:

P(1) =

1

2

= 0.5

P(2) =

1

3

(1 −ln 2) = 0.102284273

P(3) =

1

4

−ln 2 +

3

8

ζ(3) = 0.007624158

P(4) =

1

5

−2 ln 2 +

173

60

ζ(3) −

11

6

ζ(3) ln 2 −

51

80

ζ

2

(3)

−

55

24

ζ(5) +

85

24

ζ(5) ln 2

The value of P(1) is evident from the symmetry, P(2) can be extracted

from the explicit expression of the ground state energy from ¸S

z

j

S

z

j+1

¸ as we

have shown above. P(3) can be extracted from the results M. Takahashi in

[25] on the calculation of the next to nearest neighbour correlation, as we

discussed above. P(4) can be extracted from the integral representation of

the EFP as in [26].

5.1.1 Integral representation of EFP

There is an explicit formula for P(n) which was determined in [28] and in

the XXX limit reads:

P(n) =

n

j=1

_

C

dλ

j

2πi

U

n

(λ

1

, , λ

n

) T

n

(λ

1

, , λ

n

)

Where:

U

n

(λ

1

, , λ

n

) = π

n(n+1)/2

1≤k<j≤n

sinh π(λ

k

−λ

j

)

n

j=1

sinh

n

πλ

j

64

T

n

(λ

1

, , λ

n

) =

n

j=1

λ

j−1

j

(λ

j

+ 1)

n−j

1≤k<j≤n

(λ

j

−λ

k

−i)

The contour C goes parallel to the real axis with the imaginary part

conﬁned between 0 and −i for each integral, though in principle it can be

chosen arbitrary between the two points.

It can be shown in [29] that the expression for P(2) reduces to the one

dimensional integral for arbitrary ν as:

P(2) =

1

2

+

1

2π

2

sin πν

∂

∂ν

_

sin πν

_

∞

−∞

sinh (1 −ν)x

sinh xcosh νx

d x

_

,

which leads to a one-dimensional integral representation for ¸S

z

n

S

z

n+1

¸, since

we have ¸S

z

n

S

z

n+1

¸ = P(2) − 1/4. This reduces to the same form as the

ground-state energy per site e

0

shown above by the Feynmann Hellman

theorem.

One can compute these type of integrals in general by transforming the

integrand to a canonical form and thereby reducing it in such a way that

the integral doesn’t change, then one can perform the integral simply using

the residue theorem. This method of evaluating integrals was introduced

by Boos and Korepin (see [26],[27]). I will brieﬂy go through the details for

P(3) as in [27].

P(3) =

3

j=1

_

∞−i/2

−∞−i/2

dλ

j

2πi

U

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

) T

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

)

U

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

) = π

6

1≤k<j≤3

sinh π(λ

k

−λ

j

)

3

j=1

sinh

3

πλ

j

T

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

) =

3

j=1

λ

j−1

j

(λ

j

+ 1)

3−j

1≤k<j≤3

(λ

j

−λ

k

−i)

=

(λ

1

+i)λ

2

(λ

2

+i)λ

2

3

(λ

2

−λ

1

−i)(λ

3

−λ

1

−i)(λ

3

−λ

2

−i)

By utilizing the anti-symmetry and some analytic properties of U

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

),

we can replace the integrand T

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

) by a certain canonical form

T

C

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

), the details of the transformation to canonical form are given

in [26],[27], which was derived as:

T

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

) ∼ T

C

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

) = P

(0)

3

+

P

(1)

3

λ

2

−λ

1

Where P

(0)

3

= −2λ

2

λ

2

3

and P

(1)

3

= 1/3−iλ

1

−iλ

2

−iλ

3

−2λ

1

λ

3

. Performing

the integration by the residue theorem, we obtain:

J

(0)

3

=

3

j=1

_

∞−i/2

−∞−i/2

dλ

j

2πi

U

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

) P

(0)

3

=

1

4

65

J

(1)

3

=

3

j=1

_

∞−i/2

−∞−i/2

dλ

j

2πi

U

3

(λ

1

, λ

2

, λ

3

)

P

(0)

1

λ

2

−λ

1

= −ln 2 +

3

8

ζ(3)

and hence the result for P(3) is given by:

P(3) = J

(0)

3

+J

(1)

3

=

1

4

−ln 2 +

3

8

ζ(3),

which agree’s with the result as above. This result also allows us to com-

pute the second-neighbour correlation function since we have ¸S

z

n

S

z

n+2

¸ =

2(P(3) − P(2)) + 1/4 which is obtained by rearranging the expression for

P(3) in terms of ¸S

z

n

S

z

n+2

¸ and substituting the expression for P(2).

5.1.2 Sato’s formula

The exact calculation of correlation functions has been a non-trivial task,

except in the limit ∆ → 0 for the XX Ising model. In this case an exact

formula can be derived in terms by the use of Wicks theorem as in [30],[31]:

¸S

z

n

S

z

n+k

¸ = −

(1 −(−1)

k

)

2π

2

k

2

.

As we have mentioned before, it was conjectured that any correlation func-

tions of the XXX spin chain can be represented in terms of ln 2 and Riemann

zeta functions ζ(n). This conjecture was actually proved in 2006 by H.boos,

M. Jimbo, T. Miwa, F smirmnov and Y.Takeyama [24]. It is reasonable

therefore to ask whether there is an explicit expression for all the rational

coeﬃcients that enter the expressions for the correlation function, this does

not exist yet and is an open problem. Fortunately, a recent development by

Juw Sato [18]

2

, who obtained a formula for the linear terms and some of the

higher terms for the coeﬃcients. In order to present the formula let ζ

a

(s)

be the alternating Riemann zeta function, we will deﬁne:

c

0

=

1/4 −ζ

a

(1)

3

c

n

=

ζ

a

(2n −1) −ζ

a

(2n + 1)

3

Then Sato’s formula is deﬁned by:

¸S

z

j

S

z

j+n

¸ =

n

k=0

(−1)

k

_

n −1

k

__

2k + 1

k

_

c

k

−24

_

n −1

2

_

c

1

(c

0

+c

1

)+higher terms

The “higher terms” represent terms which contribute for n > 7. This for-

mula can reproduce the result up to n = 7, though the calculation itself can

2

Though this result was not directly obtained in [18], the author has listed the reference

as a private communication, as such no other references exist to this

66

be rather tedious. For the nearest-neighbour correlator, we immediately

have according the formula:

¸S

z

n

S

z

n+1

¸ =

1

k=0

(−1)

k

_

0

k

__

2k + 1

k

_

c

k

= c

0

=

1

12

−

1

3

ζ

a

(1),

which is the same result obtained by the ground state energy and the integral

formulation.

67

Chapter 6

Conclusion

We started our discussion by deriving the Heisenberg Hamiltonian through

considerations of the Hydrogen Molecule and the Pauli exclusion principle.

We then examined some of the symmetries of the model and saw that it

possed full rotational, translational and reﬂection symmetry. The key be-

hind the CBA is through exploiting these known symmetries . We then

solved the model via the CBA and obtained the energy spectrum by making

an Ansatz about the coeﬃcients for the general eigenstate of the model.

By considering the periodicity condition on these coeﬃcients led to the for-

mulation of the Bethe Ansatz equation (BAE). In the context of the ABA

framework, we then introduced the mathematical description of integrabil-

ity. We thus showed from that the transfer matrix we can produce the

Hamiltonian, and generate local conserved quantities that commute with

the Hamiltonian from which we were able to deduce the integrability of the

model. The ’Ansatz’ for the ABA is the assumption that B(λ) and C(λ)

through the entries of the transfer matrix are creation and annihilation op-

erators respectively, this lead to conditions on the parameter λ which led to

same BAE’s as from the CBA. By using the fact that the (pseudo)-vacuum

[0¸ is a highest weight vector for the global spin algebra su(2), we then

showed that this was the case for any general eigenstate. We then looked

at the thermodynamic limit N → ∞ and in particular examined the string

hypothesis. This lead us to calculate the non-trivial anti- ferromagnetic

ground state energy.

We then stated some results for the XXZ-model in the context of the

ABA and the thermodynamic limit, which immediately reduced to the XXX-

model in the limit ∆ →1. We then examined the higher conserved charges,

where we had to take the charges hailing from the expansion of the loga-

rithm transfer matrix in order to maintain locality. We thus showed that

we can produce a family of N −1 indepedant local charges from the trans-

fer matrix for the XXX Hamiltonian, which when by adding the total spin

operator S

z

(which is also local) produces N such charges and thus proves

68

the integrability of the model. Finally, we looked at correlation functions

for the XXX anti-ferromagnetic spin chain, ﬁrst the nearest neighbouring

correlator which we saw can be calculated directly from the ground state

energy per site. Other correlators as we saw are not as obvious to compute,

we then stated some known results in and in particular stated modestly ways

to compute such correlators.

Some comments have to made on the ABA and CBA: Though the CBA

and ABA led to the same spectra, the ABA has the advantage of an algebraic

framework easily generalizable to other models such as the XXZ spin chain,

it allows us to prove the integrability of the model which the CBA lacks and

it also allows us to more readily compute other quantities such as correlation

functions, using methods such as the quantum inverse scattering method.

The CBA does provide a “picture” of the excitations in the spin chain in

terms of the concept of a magnon (for the ferromagnet magnon-vacuum),

with which its description leads natrually to establish the momentum of

the magnon. We also saw that the energy was additive and the that the

total momentum of the system was conserved, this description is harder to

imagine in the ABA because of its purely algebraic nature.

Though the Heisenberg XXX spin chain is one of the bestl understood

models in terms of its integrability, open problems within the area still exist

such as to produce a general formula for any correlation function. As we saw

in Chapter 5, these correlators have been proven to be expressible in terms

of polynomials of the alternating zeta function, with a regular pattern as can

be directly observed. It is reasonable to assume that such a formula does

exist, perhaps as a generalization of Sato’s formula given in Chapter 5. It is

advantageous to therefore to try to determine the coeﬀcients either by brute

force in trying to recognize a pattern by ﬁnding higher correlators, or by a

more elegant approach utilizing mathematical tools from number theory in

the description of the Riemann zeta function. I will personally look into such

a problem during my spare time as I feel a more mathematically rigorous

treatment is needed in order to realize the full potential of the connection

between the Riemann zeta function and the Heisenberg spin chain.

69

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