EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Project Title Audubon Trail Contact Person, Applicant Information Ellen Fennell, 501.244.

2229 Audubon Arkansas 4500 Springer Boulevard Little Rock, AR 72206 Mission Statement Audubon Arkansas aims to create a 1-mile, ADA-approved trail on oak-savanna habitat behind the Audubon Center in southeast Little Rock, giving Granite Mountain citizens, tourists, and other visitors an exciting and educational excursion into nature. Problem Statement Residents of the Granite Mountain community, a low-income neighborhood in southeast Little Rock, have limited public access to nature. Only one park, Granite Heights Park, exists nearby for solace in the outdoors. In contrast, environmental concerns abound in the neighborhood vicinity: a nearby rail system, Little Rock National Airport, and the I-530 and I-440 interstates create noise and air pollution, while Granite Mountain Quarries mine consistently. Project Summary The proposed project will provide a new amenity to Audubon Arkansas‘ campus: a one-mile ADA-accessible trail, furnishing Granite Mountain citizens with a much-needed green space. The trail will give hikers a number of opportunities to enjoy viewing birds, butterflies, and other wildife on the Audubon Center property, which boasts a 400-acre tract of unspoiled land that is a rarity in the Granite Mountain neighborhood. An attractive gate will provide security and welcome visitors to the trailhead. A nearby kiosk will showcase the area‘s wildife, especially birds, indicating the type of habitat where visitors should look for particular species. The location of the trail itself is a hill, the highest point of which spectacularly overlooks the City of Little Rock. A boardwalk, essentially a level platform with benches, will be built at the highest point, allowing visitors to watch wildlife with binoculars and scopes. Expected Results The trail‘s close-to-home location and ADA-accessibility means that all Granite Mountain citizens will gain the benefits of nature enjoyment and cultivate pride in their local floura and fauna. Audubon expects to gain 200 visitors to the trail within six months of its opening. Our Investment Audubon Arkansas has secured outside funds with a collective value of $24,000. Funding Request Audubon Arkansas requests $99,995 to cover amenity and construction costs. 1

PROJECT SUMMARY This proposal is to apply for funds to develop a one-mile ADA-approved trail behind the Audubon Arkansas center in southeast Little Rock to provide a much-needed green space for the local Granite Mountain community, as well as to create a tourism attraction. A kiosk at the trailhead will showcase the area‘s birds, indicating the type of habitat where visitors should look for particular species. The location of the trail itself is a hill, the highest point of which dramatically overlooks the City of Little Rock. A boardwalk, essentially a level platform with benches, will be built at the highest point, allowing visitors to watch birds with binoculars and scopes. Ultimately, the trail will give hikers an opportunity to enjoy viewing birds, butterflies, and other wildife on the Audubon campus.

The view of the Little Rock metropolis from the proposed trail site.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT Granite Mountain community lacks green space Residents of the Granite Mountain community, a low-income neighborhood in southeast Little Rock, have limited access to nature. Within this community mainly comprising singlefamily and multi-family housing units (Swanigan, 30), only one public natural area, Granite Heights Park, exists for solace in the outdoors. In contrast, environmental concerns abound in the neighborhood vicinity: a nearby rail system, Little Rock National Airport, and the I530 and 1-440 interstates generate noise and air pollution, while Granite Mountain Quarries mine regularly, disturbing wetlands (45). Nature is critical to our well-being Granite Mountain‘s lack of accessible green space leads to many problems. In fact, research reveals that nature is crucial to our well-being. Richard Louv, journalist and co-founder of the Children and Nature Network, has observed signs of a nature deficit disorder in society, stating as follows: Nature-deficit disorder describes the human costs of alienation from nature, among them: diminished use of the senses, attention difficulties, and higher rates of physical and emotional illnesses. The disorder can be detected in individuals, families and communities. Nature deficit can even change human behavior in cities, which could ultimately affect their design, since long-standing studies show a relationship between the absence, or inaccessibility, of parks and open space with high crime rates, depression, and other urban maladies. (36) One such urban malady for adults is workplace stress, and studies have shown how nature offers restorative relief from ‗psychological wear and tear‘ (104). In 2001, a Swedish professor conducted a study in which participants completed tasks designed to deplete their directed-attention capacity. After completing the tasks, participants were randomly assigned to one of three activities: walking in a local nature preserve, walking in an urban area, or sitting quietly while reading magazines and listening to music. Participants who had walked in the nature preserve reported more positive emotions and less anger, and they performed better than other participants on a standard proofreading task (105). This is just one of many studies that demonstrate nature‘s restorative capacity to fix frazzled nerves. Regarding children, studies show that play in nature enhances physical fitness while quelling Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and depression symptoms, according to Clare Lowell, assistant professor of education at Marymount Manhattan College in New York City. Yet despite these benefits, children are spending increasingly less time outside: From 1977 to 2003, the proportion of 9-12 year-olds who dabbled in outdoor activities like hiking, fishing, beach play, and gardening declined by 50% (Lowell, 220). As time indoors soars for these youngsters, so do their waistlines — in fact, Arkansas children are among the heaviest in the U.S., as the state harbored the seventh-highest rate of overweight youths at 20.4% in 2009 (Trust for America‘s Health NP). Clearly, children and adults alike need regular exposure to natural settings to renew their minds and bodies.

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Audubon Arkansas wants to link Granite Mountain community to nature Desiring to connect Granite Mountain residents to nature, Audubon Arkansas built its LEED-certified (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Audubon Center within the community in 2009. Since then, Audubon staff have led hikes and canoeing outings on their 400-acre campus that encompasses forests, glades, oxbow lakes, wetlands, and grassland habitats — virtually unspoiled land that is a rarity in the neighborhood. Because of its quality habitats, the Audubon campus offers a wealth of biological diversity. Biologists have detected 134 bird species on the property, a high number considering Little Rock‘s metropolis is only 3.5 miles away (Scheiman). A variety of butterfly species like Southern Dogface, Sleepy Orange, and Eastern-tailed Blue have also been cataloged on the Audubon campus, included among 292 insect species (Kelley). Moreover, a globally rare nepheline syenite glade ecosystem is on the Audubon property, augmenting the land‘s worth. This ecosystem consists of nepheline syenite rocks and the plants and animals that depend on them. In a 1990 survey, The Nature Conservancy deemed this ecosystem a ―globally critically imperiled [community] with fewer than five known occurrences‖ (The Nature Conservancy). Additionally, Pulaski County declared the area the number one priority for preservation in the county (Fennell). Problem: Audubon Arkansas lacks public access to its property Audubon Arkansas desires to create public access to its natural habitats for the betterment of Arkansans and to enrich its educational programs. However, access to these places is severely limited — the road to the forested portion of the Audubon campus, which contains a series of rustic trails, is blocked off. Obstacles in other portions of the campus beset visitors, too: tall grass hinders walking, muddy spots develop after rainstorms, and the terrain is hilly and therefore difficult to navigate. If the Granite Mountain community does not gain access to Audubon Arkansas‘ varied ecosystem, residents will have to continually drive elsewhere to enjoy nature‘s benefits, and many will neglect the positive role nature can play in their lives. Further, Granite Mountain residents will remain oblivious to their rich natural heritage existing just beyond their doorstep, as will visitors to the Audubon Center such as seniors and youth engaged in volunteer projects and internships. If the public-at-large continues to be ignorant of Granite Mountain‘s natural treasures and recreational prospects, the neighborhood will remain an underprivileged community with outstanding economic needs. According to the 2000 census, 51% of residents within the 72206 zip code (which includes Granite Mountain) have an average household income of less than $29,000 per year, and the area is a designated Economic Empowerment Zone. However, if access were created and visitors flocked to the Audubon Center grounds to recreate, positive change would be witnessed: Audubon‘s programs would be strengthened, giving the Granite Mountain community a higher profile in Little Rock, and more visitors would translate into a higher demand for food services, outdoor stores and hotels.

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Access could lead to land preservation In totality, public access to the Audubon campus would calm nature-deficit symptoms present in Granite Mountain residents and the greater metropolitan area. The Audubon campus offers something for everyone — for birders of all ages, walkers, tourists wanting a view of local flora and fauna, photographers eager to capture a vista of the city, families craving nature close to home, and people simply seeking solace. It would be utterly tragic if this patchwork of habitats were kept under lock and key, a hidden treasure with worth known only to few. Indeed, a lack of awareness could very well lead to the property‘s ecological demise, making it vulnerable to development. However, when natural places are showcased and set aside for visitors to enjoy, they are simultaneously preserved, as evidenced in Arkansas‘ 52 state parks (Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism). Thus, access to the Audubon grounds would preserve this valuable land for future generations.

Rocks of the globally rare nepheline syenite glade.

This oak-savanna habitat is home to many grassland bird species year-round.

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION The mission of the Audubon Arkansas Trail project is to create a 1-mile, ADA-approved trail behind the Audubon center, furnished with benches, kiosks, and other educational or supplemental features, to give Granite Mountain citizens, tourists, children, and other visitors an exciting and educational excursion into nature. To create a viable project, the following steps must be taken and will be described in detail: 1. Constructing the ADA-approved trail path and boardwalk. 2. Furnishing the trailside with amenities. 3. Enhancing the trail with an educational kiosk, smaller signs and an entry feature/security gate. 4. Maintaining the trail. Constructing the ADA-approved trail path In project month one, McGeorge Contracting Company, Riggs Tractor volunteers and Audubon staff will construct the trail path. They will clear brush, remove tree stumps, and install drainage structures, steel edging and drainage pipes. Erosion control via seeding will also be established. Older trees will be shielded from trail construction and heavy equipment, ensuring that they will continue to offer nesting and roosting sites for birds. Finally, they will fill the trail path with compacted gravel. All of the aforementioned steps will comply with ADA guidelines, as prescribed by the landscape architect. Furnishing the trailside with amenities Amenities such as benches, a drinking fountain, picnic tables, picnic table pads, regulatory signs, and trashcans will enhance the trail and make it much more enjoyable for hikers, especially for parents with young children who have more needs. Six Leopold benches will be installed along the trail. A drinking fountain will be installed near the trailhead. Four picnic tables and their pads will be installed and placed near the top of the hill. Regulatory signs such as handicap and directional signs will be placed along the trail where appropriate. Audubon staff will place two trashcans along the trail for the benefit of hikers and volunteers/Audubon staff who maintain the trail. Finally, a boardwalk (50 feet long, 8 feet wide) will be built atop the hill to cover the muddiest part of the trail and provide a viewing platform for birders with binoculars and scopes. The following amenities already exist on the trail site:  Parking lot in front of Audubon Center  Rain garden at trailhead  Rental binoculars in Audubon Center  Bird and butterfly garden behind Audubon Center  Elaborate feeder system for birds behind Audubon Center  Dutch oven fire pit (constructed by Boy Scouts) in middle of trail  Large rocks for resting and gathering, installed at trailhead Enhancing the trail with an educational kiosk, smaller signs and an entry feature/security gate One colorful, informational kiosk will be placed at the trailhead. This kiosk will showcase the area‘s bird life, indicating the type of habitat where the visitor should look for particular 6

species. Four smaller signs will illustrate specific bird species in their ideal habitats. For example, a sign will be placed within the grasslands and depict an Eastern Meadowlark, which favors this habitat. A local professional artist will design the kiosk and signs using the content Audubon Arkansas provides. These will then be fully assembled, and Audubon staff will install the kiosk and signs at their designated locations. Tom Fennell will design the entry feature and gate and assist with installment. Cut-out iron meadowlark figures (the entry feature) will be installed atop each rock post of the security gate. Maintaining the trail Audubon staff will perform maintenance on a monthly basis. A maintenance schedule that includes inspection and a checklist will be prepared and implemented by designated Audubon staff. Audubon staff have the experience and equipment to perform maintenance properly. The prominence of the trail to the Center and the prospect of its frequent use will deter any slowness in maintaining the facility. Audubon Arkansas will create a line item specifically for this project in its budget. Local citizens and volunteers will be incorporated into all aspects of trail maintenance. Master Naturalist volunteers will erect and maintain Eastern Bluebird nest boxes, and Together Green volunteers will tend the native-plant butterfly garden and rain garden currently existing near the trailhead. In short, Audubon Arkansas is responsible for all of the Audubon campus in cooperation with the city of Little Rock and in collaborative efforts with volunteers.

Master plan of the trailhead area.

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GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Mission: The mission of the Audubon Arkansas Trail project is to create a 1-mile, ADAapproved trail behind the Audubon center, furnished with benches, kiosks, and other educational or supplemental features, to give Granite Mountain citizens, tourists, children, and other visitors an exciting excursion into nature.

Goal 1
What? Construct the ADAapproved trail. What approach? Contractor, volunteers, landscape architect, and Audubon staff will do this, following ADA rules and the architect‘s blueprint. How will it happen? (method) Brush will be cleared, tree stumps removed, and drainage structures, steel edging and drainage pipes will be installed. Erosion control will be added. Compact gravel added. What approach? Contractor, volunteers, landscape architect and Audubon staff will do this. When? Project month 1. For how many/much? To serve the Granite Mountain community and other visitors. Outcome Trail created under ADA regulations.

Objective 1 What? Establish the trail path amid savanna.

Who will do it? Contractor, Riggs Tractor volunteers, landscape architect, Audubon staff.

For how many/much? 1 one-mile trail.

With what benefit? Trail created under ADA regulations.

Goal 2
What? Furnish the trailside with amenities. When? After completion of trail path. For how many/much? To serve the Granite Mountain community and other visitors. Outcome Trail equipped with benches, water fountain, etc. to make hike more enjoyable.

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Objective 1 What? Place Leopold benches alongside trail. Objective 2 What? Install drinking fountain at trailhead.

How will it happen? (method) Six Leopold benches will be installed along trail by placing bench legs in ground and filling in spaces with cement. How will it happen? (method) Professional installment.

Who will do it? Audubon staff, volunteers, contractor.

For how many/much? 6 benches.

With what benefit? Trail equipped with benches to make hike more comfortable. With what benefit? Trail equipped with drinking fountain to make hike more comfortable. With what benefit? Trail equipped with picnic tables to make hike more enjoyable. With what benefit? Trail equipped with regulatory signs to make trail navigable.

Who will do it? Contractor.

For how many/much? 1 drinking fountain.

Objective 3 What? Install picnic tables.

How will it happen? (method) Concrete will be poured to make picnic table pads. Once the pads are dry, the picnic tables will be placed on the pads.

Who will do it? Contractor will create the pads; Audubon staff, contractor will place tables.

For how many/much? 4 tables.

Objective 4 What?

How will it happen? (method) Place Handicap and regulatory directional signs will signs along be installed along the trail. trail where appropriate.

Who will do it? Contractor, Audubon staff, landscape architect.

For how many/much? As needed.

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Objective 5 What?

How will it happen? (method) Place Cans will be carried trashcans to the appropriate along trail. installment sites along trail.

Who will do it? Audubon staff.

For how many/much? 2 trashcans.

With what benefit? Trail equipped with trashcans to aid cleanup. With what benefit? Muddiest part of trail covered; birders gain amenity. Outcome Trail equipped with kiosk, signs, entry feature to make hike more fun, instill Arkansans with pride in local flora and fauna. With what benefit? Kiosks, signs designed so that their construction, installment can follow.

Objective 6 What? Build boardwalk atop hill.

How will it happen? (method) It will be professionally built with wood.

Who will do it? Contractor.

For how many/much? 1 boardwalk.

Goal 3
What? Enhance the trail with a kiosk, smaller signs and an entry feature/ gate What approach? Artist, Audubon staff, architect Tom Fennell will accomplish this. When? After completion of trail and installment of aforementioned amenities. For how many/much? 1 kiosk, 4 smaller signs, one entry feature/gate.

Objective 1 What? Design kiosk, signs.

How will it happen? (method) Artist will craft kiosk, sign designs with content provided by Audubon Arkansas‘ director of education.

Who will do it? Local artist.

For how many/much? 1 kiosk, 4 smaller signs.

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Objective 2 What? Construct kiosks, signs; place design on them. Objective 3 What? Install kiosk, signs: kiosk at trailhead, signs along trail. Objective 4 What? Design, construct, and install entry feature/ security gate.

How will it happen? (method) Professional construction.

Who will do it? Artist‘s company.

For how many/much? 1 kiosk, 4 smaller signs.

With what benefit? Kiosk, signs constructed so that installment can follow.

How will it happen? (method) Staff will install kiosk, signs along trail at designated locations.

Who will do it? Audubon staff.

For how many/much? 1 kiosk, 4 smaller signs.

With what benefit? Kiosks, signs installed so that hikers can learn about Arkansas plants and animals. With what benefit? Visitors young and old will excitedly anticipate the adventure beyond the artistic gate.

How will it happen? (method) Architect Tom Fennell will design and construct the entry feature and gate and assist with installment. Cut-out iron meadowlark figures (the entry feature) will be installed atop each rock post of the security gate.

Who will do it? Tom Fennell, Audubon staff.

For how many/much? 1 entry feature/gate.

Goal 4
What? Maintain trail. What approach? Audubon staff, volunteers will groom trail and maintain amenities. When? For how many/much? Regularly, after For entire length complete of trail, establishment of including the trail and trailhead and supplemental encompassing features. gardens. 11 Outcome Trail will always be in optimal shape for hikers‘ use.

[Placeholder for BUDGET SUMMARY]

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BUDGET JUSTIFICATION 1. Paving/surface material (donation)……….….…………………………..$16,000 600 tons of surface material are necessary to cover the trail with a 10-foot width and 4-inch depth. At $26.66 per ton, 600 tons of material total ~$16,000. 2. Hauling and placing………………………………………..…..…………..$8,500 McGeorge Contracting Company, Inc. estimates that hauling and placing of the surface material on the trail site will cost $8,500. 3. Clearing and grubbing (donation)……………………….……….……..…$5,000 McGeorge Contracting Company, Inc. estimates that clearing and grubbing (uprooting trees, stumps) the trail path will cost $5,000. 4. Entry feature and security gate…………………..……………….………$10,500 Architect Tom Fennell of Fennell | Purifoy Architects estimates that the creation and installation of a security gate with decorative iron meadowlark cutouts (the entry feature) will cost $10,500. As a whole, the entry gate will be a special and distinctive feature, attracting young and old to the birding adventure awaiting them beyond the trailhead. 5. Design of security gate (donation)…………..…………………………….$3,000 Tom Fennell will design the security gate, a service valued at $3,000. 6. Regulatory signage………..……………………………………………..…$2,360 Regulatory signage, such as handicap and directional signs, is an ADA requirement. McGeorge Contracting Company, Inc. estimates that the number of signs needed to comprehensively cover the 1-mile trail length will cost $2,360. 7. Drainage structures………….……………………………….……………..$2,150 Drainage structures (in conjunction with drainage pipes) are vital to divert rainwater from the trail site. Audubon Arkansas requests 5 drainage structures that are 4feet long. Five structures at $430 each total $2,150. 8. Drainage pipes…….………………………………...………….…………..$1,475 5 pipes that are 15 feet long are needed for proper drainage. Five pipes at $295 each total $1,475.

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9. Steel edging………………………………………………….……………..$13,840 Steel edging holds gravel in place on the trail so rain does not wash it away. Each foot of edging costs $1.52. A total of 9,100 feet of edging is needed to cover both sides of the 4450-feet trail length. 9,100 feet at $1.52 per foot totals ~$13,840. 10. Erosion control/seeding…………..……………….………………………$4,500 During construction of the trail, erosion control will ensure that the grassland habitat is kept intact. According to McGeorge Contracting Company, Inc., this service is estimated to cost $4,500 to cover the trail site. 11. Tree protection…………...………………….…………..…………………$1,500 Tree protection ensures that older trees will be shielded from trail construction and heavy equipment. Such trees are important because they offer nesting and roosting sites for birds, the main wildlife highlighted on the trail. McGeorge Contracting Company, Inc. estimates that $1,500 will protect the site‘s older trees. 12. Picnic tables………..…………………………….…………………………$5,000 4 picnic tables on the south side of the trail will allow families to enjoy meals in a scenic locale. At $1,250 each, 4 tables cost $5,000. 13. Concrete pads for tables………..………………….………………….……$6,500 Concrete pads will be installed beneath each picnic table. At $1,625 each, 4 pads total $6,500. 14. Benches………..………………….……………….……………………..…$4,500 6 benches scattered throughout the site will give children and seniors a chance to sit and watch wildlife comfortably. At $750 each, 6 benches total $4,500. 15. Trashcans………..…………………………….…………...……………….$1,000 Two trashcans will facilitate trail cleanup. At $500 each, 2 heavy-duty trashcans total $1,000. 16. Drinking fountain………..………………...……………………………….$2,000 A drinking fountain near the trailhead will ensure that visitors stay adequately hydrated. The fountain and installation cost $2,000.

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17. Educational signage: 1 kiosk, 4 smaller signs…………………….…..….$21,500 A kiosk at the trailhead will showcase the area‘s wildife, especially birds, indicating the type of habitat where the visitor should look for particular species. Four signs along the trail will illustrate the bird species characteristic of a particular habitat. The kiosk will cost $5,000 to design, create and install, while the smaller signs will cost $4,125 each. 1 kiosk at $5,000 plus 4 signs at $4,125 each totals $21,500. 18. Landscape architect………..………………………………………..……...$7,000 A landscape architect will create the trail with an ADA-approved slope and adherence to other regulations. This service is valued at $7,000. 19. Boardwalk/viewing area for wildlife.………………………...……...….....$7,670 A boardwalk, essentially a level platform with benches, will be built at the highest trail point, allowing visitors to comfortably watch birds with binoculars and scopes. Audubon will loan binoculars and birding books at the Audubon Center to visitors wishing to ascend the boardwalk for viewing and birding. (A deposit such as a driver‘s license may be required to ―borrow‖ the binoculars.) The 50‘ x 8‘ boardwalk requires 400 total feet of wood material plus wood for railings, steps and other features. McGeorge Contracting Co, Inc. estimates that complete construction of the boardwalk (materials plus labor) will cost $7,670. GRAND TOTAL……………………...……………………………….....$123,995

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CONTINUATION PLAN Once the trail is finished, Audubon staff will maintain the trail on a monthly basis. A maintenance schedule that includes inspection and a checklist will be prepared and implemented by designated Audubon staff. Audubon staff have the experience and equipment to perform maintenance properly. The prominence of the trail to the Center and the prospect of its frequent use will deter any slowness in maintaining the trail site. Audubon Arkansas will create a line item specifically for this project in its budget. Also, local citizens and volunteers will be incorporated into all aspects of trail maintenance. Master Naturalist volunteers will erect and maintain Eastern Bluebird nest boxes, and Together Green volunteers will tend the native-plant butterfly garden and rain garden currently existing near the trailhead. Additionally, Audubon Arkansas‘ future plans include adding a connector trail between the proposed trail and a network of rustic trails that already exist on the Audubon campus, in Gillam Park (albeit far from public access). This connector trail would lead hikers to other habitat types — oxbow lakes, nepheline syenite glades, wetlands, and deciduous forests — and therefore enhance their experience in nature, allowing hikers to see a wider diversity of birds, insects, and other wildlife.

A connector trail would link hikers to more habitat types and therefore, more wildlife, like this Gulf Fritillary.

This connector trail will give the lake site a higher profile, and the Center would welcome more anglers and fishing programs. The following sport fish have been found in an 11-acre oxbow lake on the Audubon campus where fishing is allowed and marked rustic trails provide access to the lake:             Spotted Gar Bowfin Spotted Sucker Chain Pickerel Green Sunfish Warmouth Sunfish Bluegill Sunfish Dollar Sunfish Redear Sunfish Redspotted Sunfish Bantam Sunfish Largemouth Bass 16

EVALUATION PLAN Audubon Arkansas will consider the trail a success if it gives tourists, Granite Mountain citizens, and other visitors an exciting, educational excursion into nature. Therefore, a waterproof Rite in the Rain guestbook (protected in a case from the elements) will be attached to the entry kiosk at the trailhead for guests to sign the date and their name, city of residence, and comments about the trail. Although not all hikers will sign the book, it will give us a fair idea of the demographics of users. The Audubon Center is expected to bring in up to 1,000 visitors this year. If Audubon is awarded the trail grant, our goal is that 200 more visitors will come to the Center to enjoy the trail within six months of the trail‘s opening, as documented by the guestbook. This guestbook evaluation plan is modeled after the guestbook usage at Stuttgart Airport (Arkansas), where a guestbook records birders visiting to bird-watch between the runways.

The trail site as it overlooks the Audubon Center.

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MANAGEMENT PLAN After the trail is constructed and amenities are installed, Audubon Arkansas‘ Management Plan will be implemented. Acting as project manager, Ellen Fennell, Audubon Arkansas‘ interim director will be responsible for overseeing trail management in all its intricacies. Fennell will ensure that all paperwork pertaining to this grant (especially the budget) is kept together in the same file. She will also ensure that trail maintenance — trimming and pulling of weeds along the path, ongoing erosion control and trash pickup — is executed at least monthly or as needed. She will oversee volunteers and Audubon staff such as Brent Kelley, Audubon Arkansas‘ field programs coordinator, who will conduct trail maintenance. Fennell will ensure that the trail checklist and inspection forms are filled out completely. Fennell is well qualified for managing this wildlife trail, as she boasts 19 years of experience in managerial positions for non-profit organizations in the agricultural and environmental sectors, both domestic and international. She has held managerial positions at Heifer International, Winrock International and The Nature Conservancy. Mary Smith, Audubon Arkansas‘ director of education, will oversee all youth programs that utilize the trail, which include the following:  Audubon Common Ground Field Science projects (over 30 projects with Arkansas schools) - Teams learn native plants and animals in forest, grassland, glade and wetland habitats. o Training is at the Center throughout the school year for school partners. (20112012) o After- school projects are weekly on Mondays with student interns. Students work on the trails, rain garden, and video projects. o Little Rock School District teachers undergo teacher training. (November and February) o Family science event occurs with Washington and Carver Elementary. (October 2011) Stem Leadership Academy – (June 28-30 and July 12-14, 2011) Intensive training at the Audubon Center with educators across the state in geology, botany, ornithology, limnology, and GIS/GPS. Audubon Bio-Blitz with Central Arkansas High School – (April 28, 2011) Central Arkansas High School will participate in a daylong event that includes collecting water samples, soil samples, and specimens (plant/animal); photography; and service projects. Audubon Summer Camp with urban underserved teens – (June 20-24, 2011) Teens will participate in hiking, birding, drawing, journaling, kayaking and use field tools like microscopes, binoculars, etc. 18

Additionally, Smith will oversee any youth volunteers maintaining the trail, such as Together Green volunteers and Boy Scouts. Smith has extensive experience facilitating outdoor educational events for youth. She has worked as an administrator and teacher for over 23 years in Arkansas schools. Before joining Audubon Arkansas, she was the director of environmental education policy for the National Audubon Society and served as Special Assistant to the U.S. Secretary of Education. Finally, Dan Scheiman, bird conservation director for Audubon Arkansas, will conduct quarterly inspections of the trail site to see if any improvements to wildlife habitat, especially for birds, is needed. Scheiman holds a Ph.D. in ornithology from Purdue University and is a well-known state expert on birds and their habitats.

Interim Director
Director of Education Bird Conservation Director
Field Programs Coordinator

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KEY PERSONNEL BIOGRAPHIES Ellen Fennell is the interim director of Audubon Arkansas. If awarded the grant, Mrs. Fennell would act as project manager. She is well qualified for managing this wildlife trail, as she boasts 19 years of experience in managerial positions for non-profit organizations in the agricultural and environmental sectors, both domestic and international. She has held managerial positions at Heifer International, Winrock International and The Nature Conservancy. Mrs. Fennell specializes in communications, public relations, strategic planning, and development; this means she has the skills necessary to manage and keep the trail in top condition. Mrs. Fennell participates in the following professional activities:  Arkansas Conservation Coalition (representative)  Tree Streets (board member) Finally, Mrs. Fennell holds a B.A. in English from Rhodes College at Memphis.

Acting as the trail‘s youth director, Mary Smith, Audubon Arkansas‘ director of education, will oversee all youth programs that utilize the trail in some capacity. Mrs. Smith is already managing over 30 projects with Arkansas schools and will align some of those projects with the trail once it is completed. She is also coordinating the Stem Leadership Academy, Audubon Bio-Blitz with Central Arkansas High School, and Audubon Summer Camp with urban underserved teens, and once the trail is complete, these events will expand to include the trail. Mrs. Smith has 23 years of experience working to connect Arkansas students, teachers, and communities with their natural environments. Mrs. Smith has also worked as Special Assistant to the U.S. Secretary of Education, further revealing her expertise in youth education. Mrs. Smith participates in the following professional activities:  North American Association for Environmental Education (secretary)  Arkansas Environmental Association (board member)  Ozark Society (member)  Arkansas Native Plant Society (member)  Arkansas Master Naturalists (member) Lastly, Mrs. Smith holds a B.A. and M.A. in English, and an M. Ed. in Gifted and Talented Education.

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Dan Scheiman, bird conservation director for Audubon Arkansas, will act as the project‘s habitat monitor. Mr. Scheiman has over 20 years of bird research experience and is expertly familiar with habitats suitable for optimum bird life, as he has assessed grassland habitat for Bobolinks, abandoned lots for Bewick‘s Wrens, and other habitats for many other species, especially on marshbird and prairie surveys. Mr. Scheiman participates in the following professional activities:  Arkansas Audubon Society Trust (board member)  Audubon Society of Central Arkansas (vice president)  eBird (data reviewer for Arkansas) Mr. Scheiman has a B.S. in natural resources from Cornell University, an M.S. in biological sciences from Eastern Illinois University, and a Ph.D. in forestry from Purdue University.

Scheiman has seen many Red-tailed Hawks above the trail site and thus deems the locale ideal for birders.

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PROJECT TIMELINE Activity Month 1 Blaze physical trail. Month 2 Finalize physical trail. Month 3 Construct boardwalk. Month 4 Install amenities such as benches, drinking fountain, etc. Contractor, volunteers, Audubon staff Month 5 Add kiosk, 4 smaller signs to the trail. Audubon staff Month 6 Install gate; open trail by end of month. Architect, Audubon staff

Personnel

Contractor, volunteers, Audubon staff

Contractor, volunteers, Audubon staff

Contractor

Once the trail is open, volunteer youth will enjoy the trail and use it to complete projects (e.g. trash cleanup, bird I.D. projects, etc.). Here, youth film an environmental video.

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Works Cited Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. ―Overview.‖ Parks. Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism, 2011. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. <http://www.arkansas.com/state-federal-parks/>. Fennell, Ellen. Well-known Facts about Audubon Center. 18 Mar. 2011. Raw data. Audubon Arkansas, Little Rock. Louv, Richard. Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin of Chapel Hill, 2008. Print. Lowell, Clare. ―Beyond ‗The Lorax?‘ The Greening of the American Curriculum.‖ Phi Delta Kappan 90.3 (2008): 218-22. Print. Kelley, Brent. Insects Collected from Gillam Park. 2008. Raw data. Audubon Arkansas, Little Rock. Scheiman, Dan. Audubon Center bird list. Raw data. Audubon Arkansas, Little Rock. Swanigan, Tatiana, comp. Community Profile: Granite Mountain. Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation. Print. The Nature Conservancy. Granite Mountain Glades: A Description of the Nephline Syenite Ecological Communities. Rep. Print. Trust for America's Health. ―F as in Fat: How Obesity Threatens America's Future 2010 – Trust for America's Health.‖ Trust for America's Health - Preventing Epidemics. Protecting People. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. <http://healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity2010/>.

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