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SHIRPUR, Dist. DHULIA (M.S) -425405.
PARLIAMENT OF INDIA
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the 2nd Year B.Tech. MECHANICAL Trimester VI
SANDESH M. TOLUMBIA KALPESH M. KHAIRNAR SACHIN S. PARDESHI AMAN SINGH
(2011 – 2012)
Department of MECHANICAL Engineering
VISHAL FEGADE Associate Dean Dr. M. Shirpur during the academic year 2011-2012 (Trimester-V). DATE: PLACE: Guide Prof. SACHIN.V. under the guidance of Prof.(ADV.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the seminar entitled CONSTITUTION OF INDIA has been submitted by SANDESH.) Bahiram Vijay Yuvraj in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering of MPSTME.Deshpande . Bahiram Vijay Yuvraj H.D Prof.O. KALPESH. AMAN. Dr. NMIMS University.
.I also thank our honorable Dean..Deshpande and Prof.Acknowledgements With deep sense of gratitude I would like to acknowledge the inspiring guidance of my co-guide.O. Bahiram Vijay Yuvraj for his valuable help.D.Vishal Fegade for giving us the opportunity.V.M.respected I would also like to thank our H. Prof.
1967. The Constitution of India came into force on January 26. the Tenth Lok Sabha in June. the Seventh Lok Sabha in January. 2009. 1971.Introduction: The Constitution of India which came into force on 26 January 1950. 1989. Fourteenth Lok Sabha in May. 1991. 2004 and Fifteenth Lok Sabha in April. The first general elections under the new Constitution were held during the year 1951-52 and the first elected Parliament came into being in April. . the Sixth Lok Sabha in March. the Second Lok Sabha in April.PARLIAMENT OF INDIA 61. the Ninth Lok Sabha in December. 1996. 1999. 1962. 1957. the Fifth Lok Sabha in March. 1950. the Third Lok Sabha in April. 1980. Parliament is the supreme legislative body of India. provides for a bicameral Parliament consisting of the President and the two Houses known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). The President has the power to summon and prorogue either House of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. 1952. 1977. 1984. the Eighth Lok Sabha in December. the Eleventh Lok Sabha in May. the Fourth Lok Sabha in March. The Indian Parliament comprises of the President and the two Houses-Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). Thirteenth Lok Sabha in October. 1998. the Twelfth Lok Sabha in March.
12 are nominated by the President for their special knowledge or practical experience in such matters as literature. art and social service. It consists of two Houses .External website that opens in a new window and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The President of India has the power to summon and prorogue either of the two Houses of Parliament or to dissolve the Lok Sabha.2. The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of our country. socialist. Though the President of India is a constituent part of Parliament. however. he does not sit or participate in the discussions in either of the two Houses. The President summons and prorogues the two Houses of Parliament from time to time.Council of States (Rajya Sabha) The Rajya Sabha is to consist of not more than 250 members. The remaining seats are allocated to the various States and Union territories. each State is.The Two Houses of Parliament India is a sovereign.External website that opens in a new window. democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government. roughly in proportion to their population. His assent is essential for a Bill passed by both Houses of Parliament. 3.The President The President of the Republic is elected by an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies (popular Houses) of the States. When the Parliament is not in Session and he is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action. represented by at least one member. There are certain constitutional functions which he has to perform with respect to Parliament. While the Rajya Sabha is a continuing body. Of these. 3.Lok Sabha (House of the People).1. the power to dissolve the Lok Sabha vests in the President. science. secular. the President can promulgate Ordinances having the same force and effect as laws passed by Parliament. The total .
2. The Lok Sabha at present consists of 545 members. The allocation of seats to the States and the Union territories is as under: Name of State/Union Territory I.House of the People (Lok Sabha) The Lok Sabha. The qualifying age for membership of the Lok Sabha is 25 years. The maximum strength of the House envisaged by the Constitution is 552 – upto 530 members to represent the States. The minimum age for membership of the House is 30 years. onethird of its members retire as soon as may be on the expiration of every second year in accordance with the provisions made in that behalf by Parliament by law.number of seats in the Rajya Sabha at present is 245. 3. but as nearly as possible. The representatives of each State in Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. the same for all States. in his opinion. that community is not adequately represented in the House. The normal term of office of a member of Rajya Sabha is six years from the date of election or nomination. upto 20 members to represent the Union territories and not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian Community to be nominated by the President if. including 12 members nominated by the President. The total elective membership of the House is distributed among the States in such a way that the ratio between the number of seats allotted to each State and the population of the State is. The Rajya Sabha is not subject to dissolution. Andhra Pradesh 2. Arunachal Pradesh Total Number of Seats 42 2 . is composed of representatives of the people chosen by direct election on the basis of adult suffrage. as the name itself signifies. so far as practicable. The representatives of the Union territories are chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe.States 1.
6. 9. continues for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and the expiration of the period of five years operates as dissolution of the House. 12. 5. unless sooner dissolved. 8. 18. 4. 23. 3. 11.3. while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation. However. 8. 21. 25. 2. Union Territories Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu The National Capital Territory of Delhi Lakshadweep Pondicherry Anglo-Indians (if nominated by the President under article 331 of the Constitution) Total 14 40 11 2 26 10 4 6 14 28 20 29 48 2 2 1 1 21 13 25 1 39 2 5 80 42 1 1 1 1 7 1 1 2 545 The Lok Sabha. 13. Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal II. 16. this period may be extended by Parliament by law for a period not . 5. 15. 20. 24. 1. 7. 4. 22. 28. 14. 27. 19. 6. 7. 26. 10. 17.
The principal Union subjects are defence. The Second Lok Sabha met for the first time on 10 May 1957. the Fourth Lok Sabha on 16 March 1967. the Eighth Lok Sabha on 15 January 1985. the Fifth Lok Sabha on 19 March 1971. Parliament acquires the power to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List. the Tenth Lok Sabha on 9 July 1991. insurance. communications. the Sixth Lok Sabha on 25 March 1977. the Ninth Lok Sabha on 18 December 1989. and a Proclamation of Emergency is made by the President. Following the first General Elections held in the country in 1952. This apart. Apart from the wide range of subjects allotted to it in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. under certain circumstances. the Seventh Lok Sabha on 21 January 1980.exceeding one year at a time and not exceeding in any case beyond a period of six months after the Proclamation has ceased to operate. Broadly speaking. the Third Lok Sabha on 16 April 1962. the Eleventh Lok Sabha on 22 May 1996. even in normal times Parliament can. Similarly. Union subjects are those important subjects which for reasons of convenience. the Thirteenth Lok Sabha on 20 October 1999 and Fourteenth Lok Sabha on 2 June. . the powers of the Legislature of that State become exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament. foreign affairs. assume legislative power over a subject falling within the sphere exclusively reserved for the States. efficiency and security are administered on all-lndia basis. in the event of the failure of the constitutional machinery in a State. the Twelfth Lok Sabha on 23 March 1998. the First Lok Sabha met for the first time on 13 May 1952. etc. census. income tax. in times of grave emergency when the security of India or any part thereof is threatened by war or external aggression or armed rebellion. banking.Functions The main function of both the Houses is to make laws. customs. atomic energy. railways. Every Bill has to be passed by both the Houses and assented to by the President before it becomes law. excise duties. 4. The subjects over which Parliament can legislate are the subjects mentioned under the Union List in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India. 2004. currency and coinage. Further.
The Presiding Officers Each House of Parliament has its own Presiding Officers. Disagreement between the two Houses on amendments to a Bill may be resolved by both the Houses meeting in a joint sitting where questions are decided by majority vote. 6. Besides passing laws. In the Lok Sabha. 5. discussions. The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha is. this provision of joint sitting does not apply to Money Bills and Constitution Amendment Bills. the Rajya Sabha has a special role in enabling Parliament to legislate on a State subject if it is necessary in the national interest. exercise control over the administration of the country and safeguard people's liberties. however. In other respects.. the Lok Sabha has supremacy in financial matters. In the Rajya Sabha. etc. system of committees. However. the Vice-President of India is the ex officio Chairman.Relative Roles As between the two Houses. He is elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both the Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. motions for adjournment. questions addressed by members to Ministers.the Constitution also vests in the Parliament the constituent power or the power to initiate amendment of the Constitution. the Constitution proceeds on a theory of equality of status of the two Houses. i. On the other hand. It has a similar power in regard to the creation of an All-India Service common to the Union and the States. elected by the members of the Rajya Sabha from amongst themselves.e. It is also the House to which the Council of Ministers drawn from both Houses is collectively responsible. . the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker are elected from amongst its members. Parliament can by means of resolutions. both the Presiding Officers.
when the Prime Minister is not a member of the Lok Sabha. The senior-most Minister. is appointed by the Prime Minister as the Leader of the House in the Rajya Sabha. by the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha or the Speaker of the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister. who is a member of the Lok Sabha. 1977 defines the term ‘Leader of the Opposition’ as that member of the Rajya Sabha or the Lok Sabha who. functions as the Leader of the House in the Lok Sabha except when he is not a member of the Lok Sabha.Leader of the House Each House of Parliament has a Leader. he appoints/nominates a Minister. . 8. In the case. is the Leader of that House of the Party in Opposition to the Government having the greatest numerical strength and recognized. who is the Leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha. to be the leader of the House in the Lok Sabha.Leader of the Opposition Each House of Parliament has a Leader of the Opposition. as such. who is a member of the Rajya Sabha. for the time being.7. The Salary and Allowances of Leaders of Opposition in Parliament Act.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: References Cabinet Ministers of India Cabinet Ministers of India are the custodians of the National laws. It is the State Legislature which frames laws for the states. Fundamental Duties Fundamental Duties were added in the Constitution of India by the 42nd Amendment Act and are identified as the moral obligations of the civilians State Legislature In India State Legislature in India comprises Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. Mathrubhumi Mathrubhumi. Malayala Manorama Malayala Manorama is a Malayalam language newspaper published in Kerala. Kesava Menon. They are responsible for the routine execution and administration of national laws. played crucial roles in the social reformation movements like Vaikom Satyagraha and Guruvayur Satyagraha. . This news paper which is now treated as an encyclopaedia has a readership of over 16 million. a Malayalam newspaper founded by K. P.