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Power 8upply

Chad Levac
For: Mr. Jugandi
Power Supplies
February 21, 2003

Power 8upply Report Power 8upply Report Power 8upply Report Power 8upply Report
The Operation of a Power Supply



Power 8upply
The Operation of a Power 8upply The Operation of a Power 8upply The Operation of a Power 8upply The Operation of a Power 8upply
Transformation
The purpose of the transformer in the power supply is to step down the voltage going into
the primary of Hydro (approx. 120Vrms), to (approx. 25Vrms). This transformation allows
for the circuit to run at a safe voltage so the components have a less risk of burning up.
Transformer
Part #: 166L25
Step down centered tapped Transformer- 115 V to 25V CT @ 2A
Equal|ors:
...
3
3
2
2
1
1
= = =
n
v
n
v
n
v
v= vo|ls |r Ac

0
3 3 2 2 1 1
= + + n i n i n i
r = # ol lurrs
...
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
= = =
n
z
n
z
n
z
z= |rpedarce |r (D)
Rectification
The purpose of regulation in the pwer supply is to take the Ac voltage that comes from the
secondary of the transformer and change it into a Dc voltage. In the Power Supply that is
being built, 4 rectifier diodes are used to make a Full wave Rectifier Bridge.


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Bridge
4 diodes (1N5402)
Each diode has a voltage drop of 0.7V. Since the path that the current takes through the
bridge goes through two diodes, the voltage of the cycle is 1.4V less than the voltage
going in. (The voltage after the rectifier is shown in Figure 1).

{Figure 1}
Filtration
The purpose of filtration in the power supply is to smooth out the ripple of the DC rectified
voltage to insure better stability in the circuit. A filter in a power supply most commonly
consists of capacitors, resistors and occasionally some inductors. In the filter I am using in
the power supply I am building, two capacitors are being used for the filter. The filtration
arrangement is shown in Figure 2.
Capacitors
2200uf 35V electrolytic capacitor
0.1uf ceramic capacitor


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{Figure 2}
The voltage going into the regulator (V3) is pretty much constant because the capacitors
smoothed out the voltage waves. In other words, the flat top of the wave located in the
positive area represents the time that the capacitor is supplying load current and when the
wave is in the negative area of the curve that is when the capacitor is charging up and
driving the input of the voltage regulator.

Regulation
The purpose of regulation in the power supply is to control the voltage and current coming
from the transformer, rectifier, and filter to get the voltage that is required at the output. The
regulation section of the power supply consists of a reference voltage, error amplifier,
output sampling, control element, and current limited. In Figure 4, the schematic
representation of the voltage regulator along with the current limiter is shown.


4

{Figure 3}

Variable voltage regulation is made up of five components, that were mentioned in the
regulation introduction and they are control element, sampling circuit, reference voltage,
and error amplifier. These are illustrated in a basic block diagram is Figure 3.



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{Figure 4}
Reference voltage
The purpose of the reference voltage is to set a standard for the regulation. It is not
possible to regulate unless there is a regulation reference. The reference voltage stays
constant at any time during the operation of the circuit.
Vref. Is pin 6 of the IC 723 regulator.
Error Amplifier
The purpose of the error amplifier is to detect the error in the final voltage. This device
determines the difference between the voltage required at the output and the voltage that
is presented at the input of the voltage regulator. When the amplifier determines it tells the
current limiter to supply more or less current to achieve the correct output. The error
amplifier is the decision maker of this section or pretty much the brains of the operation.
The error amplifier is located in the variable regulator chip (723), which will be described
later on in the report.
+ input of the amplifier is pin 5 of the IC
- input of the amplifier is pin 4 of the IC
Output of the amplifier is pin 13 of the IC


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8ample Circuit
The purpose of the sampling circuit is to sample the output voltage and send it back to the
error amplifier so that the amplifier will detect the difference in the voltages. In the power
supply, this circuit consists of:
VR2 5K linear potentiometer
R11 22K W 5 % carbon resistor
Vref. Is pin 6 of the IC 723 regulator.
As shown in Figure 3.
Control Element
As shown in figure 4, the control element consists of 4 components: 1 diode, 2 transistors,
and 1 resistor.
D3 1N4003 Diode
47 - W wire wound resistor
Q2 2N4403 TO-92 PNP small signal transistor
Q3 2N3055 TO-3 NPN power transistor
Current Limiter
The purpose of the current limiter is to limit the current going into the transistor to control
the voltage going to the output. The voltage will not vary if the current limiter is turned all
the way down. This can also be seen in figure 4.
Q1 2N4403 TO-92 PNP small signal transistor
R3 0.56 1W carbon resistor
VR1 - 500 linear potentiometer
723 8eries Regulator
The purpose for the 723 variable regulator chip is to allow the circuit to vary from 0V
25V. The 723 chip consists of a voltage reference amplifier, an error amplifier, a series
pass transistor, and a current limiter. This regulator can supply up to 150mA and external
transistors can supply any desired load current. The chips operation in relation to the
voltage reference is somewhat illustrated in Figure 5.


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Equal|ors:

+ =
1
2
1
R
R
Vref

+ =
1
2
1
R
R
Vref Vout

Nole: 3|rce vrel |s l|xed lral rears lral lre currerl |s l|xed.
{Figure 5}
The Vref and the two resisters create a voltage divider allowing the voltage to vary from 0V
25V.
78XX 8eries Fixed Voltage Regulator
In addition to the variable portion of the power supply, an idea to have terminals for a fixed
+5V and a fixed +12V came into play. In order to do this we must use 78Xx series
regulators (7812, 7805). The purpose of this regulator is too provided a fixed voltage even


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if the input is voltage varies to different voltages. An example of a fixed voltage regulator is
in Figure 6 and it involves a 7815 series chip.

{Figure 6}
The last two number in the label 78XX represent the fixed voltage that the regulator supplies.
For example, 7815, supplies a fixed voltage of 15V, as shown in figure 6. Notice that the
input voltage is about 2V higher than the output voltage until the output reaches its specified
voltage. Then the input voltage keeps rising but the output remains at the required voltage.
The capacitor in front of the regulator is there for stability in the voltage going into the regulator.
The setup of the fixed voltage regulators is in the Power Schematic diagram (Figure7).


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T1
2
1 A
F1
Vreg
U1
LM7812CT
IN OUT
Vreg
U2
LM7805CT
IN OUT
1
2
4
3
D1
PL1
169.71V
120.00V_rms
60Hz
0Deg
1 A
F2
S1
Key= Space
C1
2200uF
C2
2200uF
C4
10uF
C5
10uF
C3
0.1uF
R1
3.9kohm
R2
3.3kohm
D2
Q1
R3
0.56ohm
50%
500Ohm
Key= a
VR1 D3
Q3
Q2
R6
47ohm
R4
100kohm
R5
3.9kohm
C6
0.1uF
U3
V
+
V
-
V
c V
o
V
z Comp
-
Vref
+
R9
4.7kohm
R10
82kohm
50%
5kOhm
Key= a
VR2
R11
22kohm R7
22kohm
R8
82kohm
C7
10uF R12
1kohm
J3
J4
00.000 V
+
-
00.000 A
+ -
J1
+12V
J2
+5V
J5

{Figure 7}