Hand gesture controlled wireless robot using accelerometer Introduction

An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration, also called the four-acceleration. For example, an accelerometer on a rocket accelerating through space will measure the rate of change of the velocity of the rocket relative to any inertial frame of reference. However, the proper acceleration measured by an accelerometer is not necessarily the coordinate acceleration (rate of change of velocity). Instead, it is the acceleration associated with the phenomenon of weight experienced by any test mass at rest in the frame of reference of the accelerometer device. An accelerometer thus measures weight per unit of (test) mass, a quantity of with dimensions of acceleration that is sometimes known as specific force, or g-force (although it is not a force). Another way of stating this is that by measuring weight, an accelerometer measures the acceleration of the free-fall reference frame (inertial reference frame) relative to itself (the accelerometer). This measurable acceleration is not the ordinary acceleration of Newton (in three dimensions), but rather four-acceleration, which is acceleration away from a geodesic path in fourdimensional space-time. Single- and multi-axis models of accelerometer are available to detect magnitude and direction of the proper acceleration (or g-force), as a vector quantity, and can be used to sense orientation (because direction of weight changes), coordinate acceleration (so long as it produces g-force or a change in g-force), vibration, shock, and falling (a case where the proper acceleration changes, since it tends toward zero). Micro

machined accelerometers are

increasingly present in portable electronic devices and video game controllers, to detect the position of the device or provide for game input. An accelerometer at rest relative to the Earth's surface will indicate approximately 1 g upwards, because any point on the Earth's surface is accelerating upwards relative to the local inertial frame (the frame of a freely falling object near the surface). To obtain the acceleration due to motion with respect to the Earth, this "gravity offset" must be subtracted and corrections for effects caused by the Earth's rotation relative to the inertial frame.

Conceptually, an accelerometer behaves as a damped mass on a spring. When the accelerometer experiences an acceleration, the mass is displaced to the point that the spring is able to accelerate the mass at the same rate as the casing. The displacement is then measured to give the acceleration. Accelerometers are very important in the sensor world because they can sense such a wide range of motion. They're used in the latest Apple PowerBooks (and other laptops) to detect when the computer's suddenly moved or tipped, so the hard drive can be locked up during movement. They're used in cameras, to control image stabilization functions. They're used

They're used in gaming controls to generate tilt data. In transmitter circuit we are using accelerometer to sense hand gesture. Transmitter and receiver circuit. The received data is processed by the microcontroller for the specific movement and Hbridge DC motor drive actuates this data. gait meters. microcontroller and H-bridge Dc motor driver. Possible uses for accelerometers in robotics:        Self balancing robots Tilt-mode game controllers Model airplane auto pilot Alarm systems Collision detection Human motion monitoring G-Force Detectors As our final year project we are going to present an innovative robot based on Accelerometers. and other exercise and physical therapy devices. Block diagram: . to control airbag release when there's a sudden stop. In This project we have two parts.in pedometers. They're used in automobiles. microcontroller to process the data and FSK transmitter to transmit the data to the Receiver (Robot) In receiver circuit we have FSK receiver. There are countless other applications for them.

Accelerometer Analog to digital converter PIC Microcontroller HT12E Encoder 433 MHZ Transmitter Block diagram: .

433MHZ Receiver HT12D Decoder Light sensor Obstacle Detector PIC Microcontroller H-bridge driver DC motor Circuit diagram: .



The border between both approaches shifts continuously. via an “intelligent” integration of components. etc. Robots are called “intelligent” if they succeed in moving in safe interaction with an unstructured environment. cognitive science. influenced by sensing. For example. Hence. planned. Research in artificial intelligence robotics is top-down: assuming that a set of low-level primitives is available. character animation. since also its “core” ideas. concepts and algorithms are being applied in an ever increasing number of “external” applications. the boundaries of robotics cannot be clearly defined. to a very large extent. and. artificial intelligence. This definition implies that a device can only be called a “robot” if it contains a movable mechanism. Research in engineering robotics follows the bottom-up approach: existing and working systems are extended and made more versatile. as more and more “intelligence” is cast into algorithmic. how could one apply them in order to increase the “intelligence” of a system. machine design. while autonomously achieving their specified tasks. actuated and controlled. they did not belong to A. computer science. In addition. it belonged to A.I. such as systems and control.I. biomechanics. Later it was shown that many sensor-based tasks such as surface following or visual tracking could be formulated as control problems with algorithmic solutions. cognitive science or biomechanics. for example) are becoming crucial components in more and more modern robotic systems. biology.Robotics develop man-made mechanical devices that can move by themselves. sensed. From then on. core technology from other domains (vision. all about system integration. computer vision. the response of a robot to sensor input was considered “intelligent behavior” in the late seventies and even early eighties. and actuation and control components Robotics is. achieving a task by an actuated mechanical device. and whose motion behavior can be influenced by “programming”. system-theoretic form. many of which it shares with other domains. vice versa. planning. whose motion must be modeled. any more .

this means your robot device is perfectly level and balanced. If your robot is a biped.' This is the maximum g force your sensor can report. if your robot is moving at 1g upwards. your accelerometer will always be subject to a -9. But if say another robot rammed into it from the side (the Y direction).81 m/s^2. As Such. then that means you sensor will detect 2g. This means with a single axis measured. or 9. So why not just get the highest rating possible? The lower the rating. For most robotics applications a 2g rating will be fine. It is always a good idea to have at least 2 axes (more than one axis). but not all. or axis of acceleration. Gravity Gravity is an acceleration. So if say your X-axis accelerometer endowed robot was running around and ran into a wall (in the X direction). you can only know the force in either X. Y. just simply use a 2-axis accelerometer. and you want it to always remain balanced and standing up. your robot would be oblivious to it. your robot can detect what angle it is in respect to gravity.Axis of Acceleration The tiny micro-structures can only measure force in a single direction. or Z directions. Because of this. you will notice it saying something like 'rated at 2g' or '3g accelerometer.81 m/s^2 acceleration (negative means towards the ground). For example. As long as the X and Y axes detect zero acceleration. Accelerometers Rated G When you buy your accelerometer. the more sensitive it will . There are many other situations where a single axis would not be enough. Gravity accelerates objects at 1g. Your robot could detect this collision.

but if you reverse the equation you can calculate the angle by knowing the detected force: . more sensitive sensors are more affected by vibration interference. Calculate Acceleration and Angle with respect to Gravity To calculate the magnitude of acceleration for a single-axis accelerometer acceleration_max = sqrt(x^2) = x 2-axis accelerometer acceleration_max = sqrt(x^2+y^2) 3-axis accelerometer acceleration_max = sqrt(x^2+y^2+z^2) To calculate the detected force on an accelerometer due to gravity: Force_gravity = -g*cos(angle) (depends on starting axis of sensor) Chances are you would have no need to measure the force. But then again.be to changes in motion. You will always have a more fine tuned sensor the lower the rating.

CMOS Technology Low Stand by Current. Ternary address setting Capable of Decoding 12 bits of Information 8 ~ 12 Address Pins and 0 ~ 4 Data Pins Received Data are checked 2 times.4V ~ 12.0V Low Power and High Noise Immunity. Operating Voltage : 2. The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. The 212 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. Built in Oscillator needs only 5% resistor VT goes high during a valid transmission Easy Interface with an RF of IR transmission medium Minimal External Components Transmitter: For controlling robot we have used RF transmitting remote.cos(sensor_value*conversion_constant / -g)^-1 = angle HT12E Decoder • • • • • • • • • 18 PIN DIP. For Rf transmission we have used HT12E Decoder IC. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12_N data bits. Each address/ data input can be set to one of the two logic states. The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E or a DATA trigger on the HT12A further enhances the .

This 5V source is connected to all ICs and relays.4V ~ 12V Low Power and High Noise Immunity CMOS Technology Low Standby Current and Minimum Transmission Word Built-in Oscillator needs only 5% Resistor Easy Interface with and RF or an Infrared transmission medium Minimal External Components Obstacle sensor: . For the proper working of this local control section a permanent 5V back up needed continuously. Bridge rectifier. The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. Encoder • • • • • • • 18 PIN DIP Operating Voltage : 2. HT^12 E is 2^12 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. RF Receiver: For RF transmission purposed it is needed to encode the signal generated at computer parallel port with the help visual basic code. The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E enhances the application Flexibility of the 2^12 series of encoders. This is achieved by using a 230V to 12V transformer. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12_N data bits. Each address/ data input can be set to one of the two logic states. The HT12A additionally provides a 38kHz carrier for infrared systems.application flexibility of the 212 series of encoders. capacitor filter and 5V regulated power supply from a voltage regulated IC 7805. For signal encoding purpose we have used HT 12E encoder.

If pin no 2 is positive then negative output is available on the pin no 3. In the infrared sensor we use IC 555 as a main component. 34. When positive output is available on the pin no 3 and with the help of this voltage NPN transistor is on and npn transistor provide a negative voltage as a pulse to the microcontroller (pin No 33. 36) Light sensor: An LDR is used to sense light. One capacitor is grounded from the pin no 5 for noise cancellation. . Pin no 1 is connected to the negative voltage. and is inputted into the base of transistor . So in the normal mode when temperature is below 60C the output or LM358 is not sufficient to drive transistor BC 548. Now when any body interrupts the light then there is no light on the photodiode and pin no 2 is now gets its voltage from only 33 k ohm resistor. If pin no 2 is become negative then output is shifted to the pin no 3. Sensor is connected to the pin no 2. Output is available on the pin no 3. Pin no 4 and pin no 8 is connected to the positive supply. When temperature raises above 60C the output of LM358 is about 3V which is sufficient to drive transistor thus microcontroller get positive voltage. In the case of infra red sensor Pin no 2 is negative bias through the 33k ohm resistor and pin no is positively biased through the photodiode.The temperature sensitivity adjusting the gain of an operational amplifier by VR.The infrared intruder sensor is used to sense some unknown person like thief entering in your house without your permission. One infrared transmitter led is focused to the photodiode. 35. Infra red led is directly connected to the positive and negative supply through the 330ohm resistor. The output voltage of a LRD is amplified by an operational amplifier. In normal stage when light is focusing on the photodiode then pin no 2 is positively biased photodiode.

As shown in the circuit diagram in H Bridge two NPN and two PNP transistors is used.775 MHz with 25 kHz channel spacing. . Frequency of 433MHz is used in low power devices. In some countries. for a total of 69 channels. The H-Bridge is widely used in Robotics for driving DC motor in both clockwise and anticlockwise. voice is not allowed over LPD. Let us consider microcontroller provide high at pin No 13 and low at Pin No 14 thus right side NPN transistor conducts and left side PNP transistor conducts. LPD devices must only be used with the integral and non-removable antenna. licence free communication devices authorized for use in many parts of the world. 433 MHz radios are short range. however. They operate in the UHF band from 433. This means M12 is 12v and M11 is grounded thus motor rotate clockwise Again let us consider microcontroller provide low at pin No 13 and high at Pin No 14 thus right side PNP transistor conducts and left side NPN transistor conducts.DC motor driver: The H-Bridge is used for motor driver. LPD was introduced to reduce the burden on the channels over shorter ranges (less than 1 km). These devices are frequency modulated(FM) with a maximum legal power output of 10 mW.075 MHz to 434. this means M12 is grounded and M11 is 12v thus motor rotate anticlockwise.

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