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2008 年考研英语模拟试题二 Directions: Section I Use of English Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)  Egyptian wine has an extensive history within the history of Egyptian civilization. Grapes were not 1 to the landscape of Egypt, rather the vines themselves are 2 to have been imported from the Phoenicians, 3 the actual origins remain in 4 . What is known, is that 5 the third millennium BC, Egyptian kings of the first 6 had extensive wine cellars, and wine was used extensively in the temple ceremonies. The main 7 of wine in Egypt, took place between the king, nobles, and the priests in temple ceremonies, and is 8 by numerous painted relief's, and other 9 evidence. The vineyards of ancient Egypt, were quite different from the modern methods of wine making today. 10 viticulture (or wine making), ceased to 11 an exclusively ceremonial purpose, the Egyptians began to experiment with simple structures for their vines to train on, 12 found a way to train their vines so they were easy low 13 bushes, and found ways for the soil to 14 more moisture for the vines. Egyptian wine making experiments included the use of different wine presses, adding heat to the must (the grape juice ready for fermentation) 15 make the wine sweet, and differences in vat types and materials. The 16 finished product of wine, was poured through a cloth filter, and then into earthenware jars, 17 they would be sealed with natural tar and left to 18 . The Egyptians kept accurate records of their vintages, and 19 of their wines, each jar of wine was clearly 20 with it's own vintage, and quality. 1.A. born B. native C. grown D. planted 2. A. proved B. believed C. hypothesized D. established 3. A. though B. if C. as D. when 河南考研网 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 15 4. A. dispute B. debate C. discussion D. argument 5. A. since B. after C. by D. to 6. A. generation B. dynasty C. sovereignty D. empire 7. A. cost B. expense C. exhaustion D. consumption 8. A. implied B. demonstrated C. evidenced D. aided 9. A. archeological B. architectural C. artistic D. anthropological 10. A. As B. For C. After D. Since 11. A. act B. serve C. work D. reach

12. A. as long as B. as well as C. as soon as D. so long as 13. A. maintenance B. protection C. care D. attention 14. A. maintain B. retain C. contain D. attain 15. A. rather than B. but C. and D. in order to 16. A. final B. end C. eventual D. ultimate 17. A. which B. when C. where D. and 18. A. protection B. ferment C. taste D. drink 19. A. quality B. quantity C. nature D. aura 20. A. marked B. written C. labeled D. recorded

Part A Directions: Section II Reading Comprehension Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1 Global warming could cause drought and possibly famine in Malaysia, the source of much of Singapore's food, by 2050, a new report predicts. Singapore could also be at risk from flooding as sea levels rose. The report recommends building sea-walls around low-lying areas such as the new port and airport reclamations. Published by the World Wide Fund for Nature, the report, which includes work by members of the Malaysia Academy of Meteorological Sciences, uses the most recent projections on climate change to point to a gloomy outlook for Malaysia.     By 2050 about 30 to 40 per cent of the country will experience changes in the type of vegetation it supports, with tropical and sub-tropical forest conditions shifting northward and hot desert conditions rising in the west where currently

the desert is temperate. Crop-growing areas will expand but any benefit is expected to be negated by increased evaporation of moisture, making it too dry to grow crops such as rice. The growing season also is expected to alter, becoming shorter in southern and central Malaysia, the mainland's breadbasket. The rapid changes make it unlikely that plants could adapt. " Malaysia will produce smaller crops. In the central and northern areas, and the southern part, there will be decreased production because of water limitations," Dr. Rik Leemans, one of the authors of the report, said during a brief visit to the territory yesterday. Famine could result because of the demands of feeding the population - particularly if it grows - and the diminished productivity of the land. "It looks very difficult for the world as a whole" he said. Global warming is caused by the burning of large amounts of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, which release gases that trap heat in the atmosphere. World temperatures already have increased this century by about 0.6 degrees Celsius and are projected to rise by between 1.6 degrees and 3.8 degrees by 2100.    Dr. Leemans said Malaysia 's reliance on coal-fired power for its industrial growth did not bode well for the world climate. "I think the political and economic powers in Malaysia are much greater than the environmental powers, and (greenhouse gas emissions) could accelerate," Dr. Leemans said. " Malaysia is not taking the problem seriously yet, although it is trying to incorporate this kind of research to see what is going to happen." The climate change report, which will be released tomorrow, focuses on Malaysia but Mr. David Melville of WWF -Singapore said some of the depressing scenarios could apply to the territory. Food supplies, for instance, could be affected by lower crop yields. "Maybe we could afford to import food from elsewhere but you have to keep in mind that 16 河南考研网 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 the type of changes experienced in southern Malaysia will take place elsewhere as well," he said. Sea levels could rise as glaciers melted and the higher temperatures expanded the size of the oceans, threatening much of developed Singapore which is built on reclaimed land. Current projections are that sea levels worldwide will rise by 15 to 90 centimetres by 2100, depending on whether action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.     " Singapore has substantial areas built on reclaimed land and sea level rises could impact on that the whole lot," Mr. Melville said, adding that sea-walls would be needed. Depleted fresh water supplies would be another problem because increased evaporation would reduce levels. Mr. Melville said the general outlook could be helped if Singapore used water less wastefully and encouraged energy efficiency to reduce fuel-burning. He also called on the West to help Malaysia

improve its efficiency. 21. Overall, what sort of picture is painted of the future effects of global warming? A. disastrous B. potentially disastrous C. relatively optimistic D. on balance things are going to be satisfactory

22. Mr. David Melville suggests that in future more food could be imported into Singapore. He thinks these measures could be: A. efficient B. sufficient C. insufficient D. inefficient

23. The main point of paragraph 2 is to describe: A. effects of changes in the climate of Malaysia on food production B. future changes in the climate of the Mainland C. effects of changes in the climate of China on the growing season D. projected future changes in the climate of China

24. How would you describe Dr. Leeman's attitude towards Malaysia: A. mainly favorable B. critical C. supportive in theory D. admiring

25. Why does the writer add the information in brackets in paragraph 5? A. Because the quote is from a second language user whose command of English is not perfect B. Because, although they are not part of the original quote, the additional information given is necessary to understand the statement C. Because the writer is quoting from another source D. Because the writer wants to emphasize the meaning of these words Text 2     Large, multinational corporations may be the companies whose ups and downs seize headlines. But to a far greater extent than most Americans realize, the economy's vitality depends on the fortunes of tiny shops and restaurants, neighborhood services and factories. Small businesses, defined as those with fewer than 100 workers, now employ nearly 60 percent of the work force and are expected to generate half of all new jobs between now and the year 2000. Some 1. 2 million small firms have opened their doors over the past six years of economic growth, and 1989

will see an additional 200,000 entrepreneurs striking off on their own.     Too many of these pioneers, however, will blaze ahead unprepared. Idealists will overestimate the clamor for their products or fail to factor in the competition. Nearly everyone will underestimate, often fatally, the capital that success    河南考研网 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 17 requires. Midcareer executives, forced by a takeover or a restructuring to quit the corporation and find another way to support themselves, may savor the idea of being their own boss but may forget that entrepreneurs must also, at least for a while, be bookkeeper and receptionist, too. According to Small Business Administration data, 24 of every 100 businesses starting out today are likely to have disappeared in two years, and 27 more will have shut their doors four years from now. By 1995, more than 60 of those 100 start-ups will have folded. A new study of 3,000 small businesses, sponsored by American Express and the National Federation of Independent Business, suggests slightly better odds: Three years after start-up, 77 percent of the companies surveyed were still alive. Most credited their success in large part to having picked a business they already were comfortable in. Eighty percent had worked with the same product or service in their last jobs.     Thinking through an enterprise before the launch is obviously critical. But many entrepreneurs forget that a firm's health in its infancy may be little indication of how well it will age. You must tenderly monitor its pulse. In their zeal to expand, small-business owners often ignore early warning signs of a stagnant market or of decaying profitability. They hopefully pour more and more money into the enterprise, preferring not to acknowledge eroding profit margins that mean the market for their ingenious service or product has evaporated, or that they must cut the payroll or vacate their lavish offices. Only when the financial well runs dry do they see the seriousness of the illness, and by then the patient is usually too far gone to save.   Frequent checks of your firm's vital signs will also guide you to a sensible rate of growth. To snatch opportunity, you must spot the signals that it is time to conquer new markets, add products or perhaps franchise your hot idea. 26 . According to the Text, the main difference between a multinational corporation and a small business lies in A.the proportion of work force B.the frequency appeared on the headlines C.the number of the workers D.the way of opening a business 27.We may conclude from the Text that________ A . the future of the small businesses is promising and undoubtedly encouraging. B . all those who leaves their jobs will be a boss of a small business C.everyone should look before they leap when they decide managing small business D.the success of small business solely depends on the bosses who perform their last jobs. 28.When opening small businesses, the most important thing for small-business owners to do is

A. to make a thorough analysis on the market B.to invest much more money in small business C.to cut down the workers’ wages D.to think carefully about the internal specific conditions in the small enterprises 29.In a recent research, after three years, small enterprises will be alive among 3,000 small businesses. A.more than 60 B. more than 51 C. more than 2310 D. more than 2400 30.he author’s attitude towards the development of small businesses is A.worried B. unconcerned C. optimistic D. cautious Text 3 July 2002. Narina Anwar and her two siblings were tricked into travelling from their home in England to a village in Pakistan – where, it transpired, Miss Anwar was supposed to wed an illiterate cousin. Fortunately the sister managed to make off in disguise, incurring death threats, to the British High Commission in Lahore, which protected and repatriated them.   It ought not to be controversial for governments to confront a practice so egregious as forced marriage. Yet these are sensitive times. American and British politicians trod delicately when outlining their strategy to combat it last week – insisting, that they had no quarrel with Islam. But the phenomenon of those undesired unions inevitably raises questions about the rights and responsibilities of minorities in the West.     In the year 2001, the Foreign Office helped 50-odd actual or potential victims of such unwanted marriages to travel home, mainly from the Indian subcontinent, and assisted more than 200 such people in all. Voluntary groups say the problem is much bigger. More young women are resisting coercion, because the education that enhances their marriage ability also makes them less docile. In response, British police forces are liasing with their counterparts in the regions their local populations come from: West Yorkshire Police have friends in Mirpur, Pakistan, while Greater Manchester Police    18 河南考研网 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 have contacts in Sylhet, in Bangladesh. Consular and immigration officials have been given special training in order to properly deal with the situation. Furthermore, foreign brides undergoing conjugal misery in Britain will also get help: it will be easier for them to get accommodation, and to stay in the country even if they desert their husbands.    Community leaders condemn forced marriages. Nevertheless, many worry that the issue has been used to stigmatise Muslims. Habib Rahman, of the Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants, detects an undertone of cultural supremacism, which, he says, has become more pronounced since The World Trade Centre in New York was attacked.    Arguably, though, British politicians have exercised too much, rather than too little, sensitivity when addressing traditions. This week, for instance, minister meticulously distinguished forced marriages from arranged ones, to which many young Asians consent. In reality, the distinction is as fragile as the concepts of duress and consent are slipperythough to say so would have seemed incompatible with respecting cultural diversity. But not all diversity is good diversity. The government sometimes has to adjudicate between individual rights on the

one hand, and cultural traditions on the other. The British Home Secretary recognised this when he recently wrote that practices violating personal autonomy should be challenged, even if that involved “questioning deeply held beliefs and prejudices”. Other countries have been more assiduous in doing so: France forbade schoolgirls to wear headscarves.    Arranged marriage is also a cause of the biggest problem with the way Britain has managed diversity. Most immigrant groups become less insular over time, as their children set up stable relationships with locals. That has not happened with Pakistanis and Bangladeshis, partly because wives are often imported. An obvious drawback – among others – is that children whose mothers speak little or no English start their education at a disadvantage. They often, therefore, do badly at school, and consequently suffer higher rates of unemployment. These two factors – segregation and unemployment – helped to produce ugly race riots in several northern cities only too recently.

31. We can learn from the text that , A. when Narina left Pakistan she escaped death. B. the Pakistani authorities did not move a finger to help the Anwars. C. it was because they were holders of British passports that the Anwars could escape. D. the Anwar girls traveled to Pakistan in order to get married.

32. The article indicates that A. governments do not dare face up to a practice so negative as forced marriage. B. a practice so unpopular as enforced marriage should not pose controversy for any government. C. every government should be constrained to act against personal rights. D. it does not seem plausible that any government should prefer not to take action in the issue of forced marriage.

33. The writer states that A. there is no relation between the needs of voluntary groups and those of the police force. B. the Foreign Office is reluctant to cooperate for fear of retaliation from abandoned husbands. C. Consular Officials have the responsibility of helping immigration forces to keep away foreign brides. D. foreign brides will have access to the help of specially trained personnel should the necessity arise.

34. The text suggests that A. an overwhelming majority of young Asians willingly go for arranged marriages. B. the distinction between “forced” and “arranged” is so slippery that many young girls are tricked into accepting the deal. C. politicians have recently agreed to prosecute anyone breaking marriage arrangemets.

D.

a certain amount of sensitivity should be exercised when addressing traditions.

35. The author might most probably agree with which of the following statement? A.all practices violating personal autonomy should be challenged B. whenever beliefs and prejudices are at stake the government should take steps to eradicate superstitions. C. when individual rights and cultural traditions take different ways societies have to decide what is best. D. whenever beliefs and prejudices are in jeopardy the government should be granted the means to defend tradition. 河南考研网 Text 4 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 19

   In the dimly lit cyber-café at Sciences-Po, hot-house of the French elite, no Gauloise smoke fills the air, no dog-eared copies of Sartre lie on the tables. French students are doing what all students do: surfing the web via Google. Now President Jacques Chirac wants to stop this American cultural invasion by setting up a rival French search-engine. The idea was prompted by Google's plan to put online millions of texts from American and British university libraries. If English books are threatening to swamp cyberspace, Mr Chirac will not stand idly by. He asked his culture minister, Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, and Jean-No?l Jeanneney, head of France's Bibliothèque Nationale, to do the same for French texts—and create a home-grown search-engine to browse them. Why not let Google do the job? Its French version is used for 74% of internet searches in France. The answer is the vulgar criteria it uses to rank results. “I do not believe”, wrote Mr Donnedieu de Vabres in Le Monde, “that the only key to access our culture should be the automatic ranking by popularity, which has been behind Google's success.”

This is not the first time Google has met French resistance. A court has upheld a ruling against it, in a lawsuit brought by two firms that claimed its display of rival sponsored links (Google's chief source of revenues) constituted trademark counterfeiting. The French state news agency, Agence France-Presse, has also filed suit against Google for copyright infringement.    Googlephobia is spreading. Mr Jeanneney has talked of the “risk of crushing domination by

America in defining the view that future generations have of the world.” “I have nothing in particular against Google,” he told L'Express, a magazine. “I simply note that this commercial company is the expression of the American system, in which the law of the market is king.” Advertising muscle and consumer demand should not triumph over good taste and cultural sophistication.

The flaws in the French plan are obvious. If popularity cannot arbitrate, what will? Mr Jeanneney wants a “committee of experts”. He appears to be serious, though the supply of French-speaking experts, or experts speaking any language for that matter, would seem to be insufficient. And if advertising is not to pay, will the taxpayer? The plan mirrors another of Mr Chirac's pet projects: a CNN à la fran?aise. Over a year ago, stung by the power of English-speaking television news channels in the Iraq war, Mr Chirac promised to set up a French rival by the end of 2004. The project is bogged down by infighting.

France's desire to combat English, on the web or the airwaves, is understandable. Protecting France's tongue from its citizens' inclination to adopt English words is an ancient hobby of the ruling elite. The Académie Fran?aise was set up in 1635 to that end. Linguists devise translations of cyber-terms, such as arrosage (spam) or bogue (bug). Laws limit the use of English on TV—“Super Nanny” and “Star Academy” are current pests—and impose translations of English slogans in advertising. Treating the invasion of English as a market failure that must be corrected by the state may look clumsy. In France it is just business as usual. 36.President Jacques Chirac wants to set up a French search engine to ______. A. compete with the American rival “Google”. B. protect French students from American invasion C. preserve the integrity of the French culture D. stop standing idly by when being threatened.

37.Mr Donnedieu de Vabres is against Google because he _________. A.disagrees with the way Google lists its results B.resents Google’s popularity around the world

C.does not believe Google’s commercial success 20 河南考研网 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 D.hates Google’s access to the French culture

38.The real conflict behind French resistance to Google is actually the one between______.

A.the French law and the American law

B.the commercial value and the cultural value C.the traditional views and the modern views D.the law of market and the law of commerce 39.The phrase “bogged down”(last line, paragraph 5) is closest in meaning to _____.

A. launched

B. prepared

C. drawn D. stuck

40.The author’s attitude towards the French efforts seems to be _______. A. warmly supportive B. extremely understanding C. a little critical D. highly rejecting Part B

Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text about the development of maritime laws. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A–F for each numbered paragraph (41–45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. (10 points) A. Fist convention of Comite Maritime International B. The convention having been revised three times C. Why is unification of maritime law necessary? D. The convention with the most signature states. E. Incompatible time scale F. The salvage convention

According to Constitution: “The Comite Maritime International (CMI) is a nongovernmental international organization, the object of which is to contribute by all appropriate means and activities to the unification of maritime law in all its aspects. To this end it shall promote the establishment of national associations of maritime law and shall co-operate with other international organizations.” The CMI has been doing just that since 1897.

41 In an address to the University of Turin in 1860, the Jurist Mancini said: “The sea with its winds, its storms and its dangers never changes and this demands a necessary uniformity of juridical regime.” In other words, those involved in the world of maritime trade need to know that wherever they trade the applicable law will, by and large, be the same. Traditionally, uniformity is achieved by means of international conventions or other forms of agreement negotiated between governments and enforced domestically by those same governments.

42 It is tempting to measure the success of a convention on a strictly numerical basis. If that is the proper criterion of success, one could say that one of the most successful conventions ever produced was the very first CMI convention – the Collision Convention of 1910. The terms of this convention were agreed on September 23, 1910 and the convention entered into force less than three years later, on March 1, 1913.

43 河南考研网 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 21     Almost as successful, in numerical terms, is a convention of similar vintage, namely the Salvage Convention of 1910. Less than three years elapsed between agreement of the text at the Brussels Diplomatic Conference and entry into force on March 1, 1913. we are, quite properly, starting to see a number of denunciations of this convention, as countries adopt the new salvage Convention of 1989. It is worth recording that the Salvage Convention of 1989, designed to replace the 1910 Convention, did not enter into force until July 1996, more than seven years after agreement. The latest information available is that forty States have now ratified or acceded to the 1989 convention.

44 The text of the first Limitation Convention was agreed at the Brussels Diplomatic Conference in August 1924, but did not enter into force until 1931 – seven years after the text had been agreed. This convention was not widely supported, and eventually attracted only fifteen ratifications or accessions. The CMI had a second go at limitation with its 1957 Convention, the text of which was agreed in October of that year. It entered into force in May 1968 and has been ratified or acceded to by fifty-one states, though of course a number have subsequently denounced this convention in order to embrace the third CMI Limitation Convention, that of 1976. At the latest

count the 76 Convention has been ratified or acceded to by thirty-seven states. The fourth instrument on limitation, namely the 1996 Protocol, has not yet come into force, despite the passage of six years since the Diplomatic Conference at which the text of the was agreed.

45 By almost any standard of measurement, the most successful maritime law convention of all time: the Civil Liability Convention of 1969. The text of that convention ( to which the CMI contributed both in background research and drafting) was agreed at a Diplomatic Conference in 1969 and it entered into force six years later, in June 1975. The convention has, at various stages, been acceded to or ratified by 103 states (with two additional “provisional” ratifications). If we add to this the various states and dependencies that come in under the UK umbrella, we realize that we are looking at a hugely successful convention. Conventions and other unifying instruments are born in adversity. An area of law may come under review because one or two states have been confronted by a maritime legal problem that has affected them directly. Those sponsoring states may well spend some time reviewing the problem and producing the first draft of an instrument. Eventually, this draft may e offered to the International Maritime Organisation’s (IMO) Legal Committee for inclusion in its work program. Over ensuing years (the Legal Committee meeting every sic months or so), issues presented by the draft will be debated, new issues will be raised, and the instrument will be endlessly re-drafted. At some stage, the view will be taken that the instrument is sufficiently mature to warrant a Diplomatic Conference at which the text will be finalized. If the instrument is approved at the Diplomatic Conference, it will sit for twelve months awaiting signature and then be open to ratification and accession. The instrument will contain an entry into force requirement, which will need to be satisfied. Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)    Languages will continue to diverge. Even if English were to become the universal language, it would still take many different forms. ( 46 ) Indeed the same could happen to English as has happened to Chinese: a language of intellectuals which doesn't vary hugely alongside a large number of variants used by local peoples. We will continue to teach other languages in some form, and not just for reasons of practicality. Learning a language is good for your mental health; it forces you to understand another cultural and intellectual system. So I hope British education will develop a more rational approach to the foreign languages available to students in line with their political importance. Because so many people believe it's no longer important to know another language, I fear that time devoted to

language teaching in schools may well continue to decline. ( 47 ) But you can argue that learning another language well is more taxing than, say, learning to play chess well — it involves sensitivity to a set of complicated rules, and also to context. Technology will certainly make a difference to the use of foreign languages. ( 48 ) Computers may, for instance, alleviate the drudgery that a vast translation represents. But no one who has seen a computer translation will think it can substitute for live knowledge of the different languages. A machine will always be behind the times. (49)Still more important is the fact that no computer will ever get at the associations beyond the words associations that may not be 22 河南考研网 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 expressed but which carry much of the meaning. In languages like Arabic that context is very important. Languages come with heavy cultural baggage too — in French or German if you miss the cultural references behind a word you're very likely to be missing the meaning. It will be very hard to teach all that to a computer. (50)All the predictions are that English will be spoken by a declining proportion of the world's population in the 21st century. I don't think foreign languages will really become less important, but they might be perceived to be — and that would in the end be a very bad thing.

Part A 51.Directions: Section III Writing   Your friend Mike is a college student, and he is wondering whether he should take a part-time job in a big IT company. Write a letter to him to offer your opinions and suggestions on the issue.   You should write about 100 words on Answer sheet 2. Do not sign your name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Hua” instead. You do not need to write the address. Part B 52.Directions: A. Title: Role Of Mass Media in Shaping Our View B. Time Limit: 40 minutes C. Word limit: about 200 words D. Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below: a) The role mass media b) your explanation c) Your opinion

参考答案

本文大意: Section I Use of English   埃及的葡萄酒有悠久的历史,虽然葡萄不原产于埃及,但是考古学的证据发现,在分 公元前三千年左右,葡萄酒就用于祭祀 仪式上,后来,由于酿酒不再服务于这一目的,古 埃及人开始寻求新的方法种植葡萄树和新的酿酒方法。每一罐酒的生产年份和 质量,古埃 及人都不都有精确的记载。 1、 形容词辨析和搭配 B native 与 to 构成固定搭配指“(动植物等)源于……的;原产于……”,又如: Tobacco was native to America(烟草原产于美 国)。

2、 动词辨析 根据上下文,葡萄的真正来源尚无定论,因此葡萄进口自目非尼基(叙利亚 C 西部之古国名),只是一种假设,hypothesize(假 设,猜想)符合题意。 prove 意为“证明”; believe 意为“相信,认为”; establish 意为“建立,成立,证明 ”。

3、 语篇连贯 A 根据语篇,该空前后两个部分为让步关系,意思是:有人猜测葡萄树进口自古代的目非尼 基,虽然其真正来源尚存在争议。

4、 名词辨析与搭配 A dispute 意为“争论,争议”,与 in 搭配,如:The matter is in dispute .(这个问题存在争 议。) debate 意为“辨论”,可与 under 构成搭配, the question under debate (争论的问题); discussion 意为“讨论”,也可 under 搭配, The question is under discussion .(问题正在讨论中。) ; 与 河南考研网 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 23 argument 意为“意见不一致,争论,论据”, His honesty is beyond argument . (他的诚

实是不容置辨。) 根据第 3 题和上面分析,dispute 为最佳选择。

5、 代词辨析 此处为一个主语从句,应由 what 引导。 C 6、 名词辨析 B generation 意为“代”; dynasty 意为“朝代”; sovereignty 意为 “统治,王权”; empire 意为“帝国”。 公元前三千年,古埃及的国王属于第一个朝代,dynasty 符合题意。 7、 名词辨析 D cost 意为“花费,成本”; expense 意为“花费,费用”; exhaustion 意为“耗尽, consumption 意为 筋疲力尽”; “消费”。 本句意为:葡萄酒主要是在庙宇进行的祭祀典礼上由王公贵族和神职人员来消费,D 为最 佳答案。

8、 动词辨析和上下文重现 C imply 意为“暗示,隐含”; demonstrate 意为“显示,说明”; evidence 意 为 “ 用 证 据证明”; aid 意为“帮助,辅助”。 根据下文,大量的壁画为葡萄酒的消费情况提供了 证据,evidenced 符合题意。此外,下文重现了名词性的 evidence.

9、 形容词辨析 A 古代的壁画是一种考古学的证据,archeological(考古学的)符合题意。 architectural 意为“建筑的,建筑学的”; artistic 意为“ 艺术的”; anthropological 意 为“人类学的”。

10、A

语篇连贯 根据语篇,该句前后为因果关系,意思是:由于酿酒不再纯粹为祭 祀仪式服务,古埃及人开始试验更简单的修剪葡萄的 方法。For 不能用于句首,因此选择 as.

11、B 动词辨析和搭配 purpose 需与 serve 搭配,意为“报务于……目的“,又如: The book serves the academic purpose .这本书服务于学术目的。)

12、B

连词辨析 根据上下文,began to experiment ……与 found a way to ……是并列关系,as well as 符合 题意。 as long as 意为“只要”; as soon as 意为“一 ……就……”; so long as 意为“只要 ”。

13、A

名词辨析 根据上文,古埃及人开始寻找新的方法修剪葡萄树,使它们变得低矮, 容易维护,maintenance(维护,保养)符合题意。 又如:maintenance of a car(汽车维修) protection 意为“保护”; care 意为“照料,照顾”; attention 意为“注意”。 14、B 动词辨析与搭配 maintain 意为“保持,维护”; retain 意为 “保持,留住”; contain 意为“包含, attain 意为“获得”。 根据原文,古埃及人寻找方法使土壤留住水份以供葡萄 含有”; 树生长,retain 符合题意,可与 moisture(水份)构成搭配。 15、D 语篇连贯 根据语篇,古埃及人给发酵前的葡萄汁加热,目的是让酒更甜,因此选 in order to.

16、A

形容词辨析 四个选项都有“最后的,最终的”这个含义,但侧重点不一样。 final 意为“最后的,最终的”,如:final product(成品); end “终端,末端”,如:the end carriage (最后一节车厢); eventual 意为“结果的,最终的”,如:the eventual failure (以失败告终); ultimate “最后的,终极的”,如:the ultimate aim (最高目标)。 24 河南考研网 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 此处指葡萄酒珠最终成品,应选 final .

17、C

定语从句关系词辨析 此处是一个非限制定语从句,修饰 earthenware jars,缺少地点关系副词,因此选 where .

18、B 动词动词辨析 根据原文,将葡萄酒的成品置入罐内,用漆封上,开始发酵。 ferment(发酵)符合题意。

19、A

名词辨析与上下文重现 最后一句意为:古代埃及人准确地记载葡萄酒生产的 年份和质量,然后将其清晰地标在酒罐上。vintage(葡萄酒生产的年份) 和 quality 两词均重复出现。 20、C 动词辨析 mark 意为“标记”; write 意为“书写”; label 意为“贴标签于……”; record 意为 “记载,记录”。 根据上题分析,古埃及人将葡萄酒的生产年份和质量都用标签清晰地贴 在罐上,label 符合题意。

Part A Section II Reading Comprehension

Text 1   21.解答:推理题。 B。 选 解题时应在文章中找到一些关键词进行分析后得出合理的结论。 在文章第一段中, drought(旱灾),famine(饥荒)和 risk(危机)等等词暗示全球变暖 对人们生活的影响是负面的,因此选项【 c 】 及选项【 d 】中的 optimistic (乐观的)和 satisfactory(令人满意的)所表达的意思显然和文章基调不符。在仔细阅 读后我们又发现 第一段中的某些词,如 could,possibly 等词则暗示这种危险和灾难是潜在的而非当前的, potentially disastrous(潜在的灾难)便是正确答案。 这样有又 可以排除选项 】 因此选项【b】 【a。   22.解答:态度题。通过对题干部分的分析可将其中的关键词 food,import 等词将答案 的范围限定在文章第六 段第二句和第三句。在第二句作者说“粮食供给可能会受到粮食产 量下降的影响”,这里作者暗示全球变暖对人们 生活的影响是巨大的。作者在下一句中给 出一个解决方法,即进口粮食。但在此句后一部分中的关键语标词“ but” 和词组“keep in mind ”则说明这种方法只是一个权宜之计。四个选项中的两个关键词 sufficient 和 efficient 是 一组拼写 既相象意思又相近的两个词。 Sufficient 的意思是“足够的,充分的”,而 efficient 的意思是 “有效的,能胜任的”。 根据对上述两句的分析可以得知作者认为进口 粮食的做法是可行的但是远远不够的,因此可以排除 efficient 和 inefficient 两个词。继而推 论虽然作者认为此种方法可行,但是不够的和不充分的。据此判断符合上述条件的只有 选 项【c】insufficient(不充足的,不够的)。 23.解答:主旨题。 A。 选 题目要求在分析文章第三段后找到其段落的大意。 文章第二段讲 到“由于热带和亚 热带北移,水分蒸发加大,庄稼种植困难。而且生长季节也会发生变化, 使得作物不能适应”,因此重点全都放 在对作物的生长上,也就是“食物生产”。因此只 有 A 符合题意。

24.解答:态度题。选 B。问题是问理曼博士对马来西亚的态度。问题主要考查对文章细节中 暗示观点态度的 特殊词和特殊句型。 根据对文章结构的掌握可以首先判断理曼博士的观点主要出现在文章的 第五段,通过对其中 暗含观点的句子,如“did not bode well for the world climate.” (对于 全球的气候产生不良的影响),“Malaysia is not taking the problem seriously yet…”(马来西亚并未重视这个问题)。 分析了上述句子不难 发现理曼博士对马来 西亚的态度应是否定的,而非赞扬的。 这样,选项 b】 【 中的 critical(批 评的,批判的)正确表达作者的观点,故 选择。   25.解答:细节题。选 B。问题是问标点符号在文章中的作用。首先可以通过对英语标点 符号知识的一般了解 可以得知括号一般的作用是补充信息或附加说明。 继而分析 I think the political and economic powers in Malaysia are much greater than the environmental powers (我 发觉马来西亚经济和政治的发展远远好于其对环境的重视) , 而后括 号中的 greenhouse

gas emissions 首先不是原文中的部分,而是作者为了补全句子成分而自行加入的。据此可以 判断 四个选项中只有【b】 because, although they are not part of the original quote, the additional information given is necessary to understand the statement (尽管它并非是引用原文的一部分,但这一附加部分 是理解这句话必不可少的关键词)是唯一正确的答 案。 河南考研网 Text 2 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过 25

26.解答:事实细节题。 C。 选 在文章首句中作者先是介绍了众多跨国大公司的现状,而在之 后的句子“Small businesses, defined as those with fewer than 100 workers…” 中对美国的小型公司进行讨论。句 子中的“defined”一词 暗示大公司与小公司的不同在于其雇佣工人人数上的不同,而不是 选项 a】 【 中所说的劳动力的比例,选项 b】 所说的在媒体出镜率的多少,也不是选项 d】 【 【 涉 及的经营方式的不同,而是选项【c】所涉及的人数。   27.解答:推理题。 C。 选 解题时应在理解文章大意的基础上对其中的特殊用词和句型。 首先排除选项【a】, 因为其中的形容词“promising”和“encouraging”均表示乐观色彩,这 与文章的基调不符。选项【b】All those who leaves their jobs will be a boss of a small business (所有离职的人都会成为小公司的顾主)在文章中没有相关内容。选项 d】 【 表述的内容与文 solely 一词过于绝对,因此是错误选项。通过阅读文章第二段中 间 章大体相符,但其中的 部分“ According to Small Business Administration data, 24 of every 100 businesses starting out today are likely to have disappeared in two years, and 27 more will have shut their doors four years from now. By 1995, more than 60 of those 100 start-ups will have folded.” (根据"小企业管理署 "的数据,今日开张的每 100 家企业中,有 24 家将会在两年内消失; 另有 27 家将会在 4 年内关闭。 1995 年。 到 在开业的那 100 家企业中,60 多家将要倒闭。 ) 其中的数据表明在激 烈的竞争中小企业的生存状况并不乐观,这样可以推论出作者的写作 目的是告诫人们在经营小公司是要谨慎小心。    28. 解答:事实细节题。选 D 。首先排除选项【 b】to invest much more money in small business(对小企业投入 大量的资金)和选项 c】 cut down the workers’ wages(削减工人 【 to 的工资),其内容在文章中没有相关表述。 而选 项 a】 【 在文章中可以找到依据,但题干部分 是说“the most important thing”,因此是错误答案。 通过文章第三段 首句“Thinking through an enterprise before the launch is obviously critical.” (人们开张前对企业进行周密的考虑显然 是至关重要的。)中的“critical”一词与“the most important thing”构成语义重现,因此是正 确答案。 29.解答:推理题。选 C。在文章第二段倒数第二句“ Three years after start-up, 77 percent of the companies surveyed were still alive.”(在调查的公司中 77%在开张 3 年后仍然开着。)作者点出了小企业优胜 c 劣汰的比率,通过它可以 推算正确答案是选项【】 。   30.解答:态度题。选 D。在文章第二段前一部分“Too many of these pioneers, however, will blaze ahead unprepared. Idealists will overestimate the clamor for their products or fail to factor in the competition. Nearly everyone will underestimate, often fatally, the capital that

success requires.” (可是,这些开拓者中的很大一部分将是在无准备的 情况下发奋前进的。 理想主义者往往过高地估计人们会喧嚷地争着买他们的产品,或者在竞争中经营失败。 几乎 每个人都会低估成功所需要的资本,这往往是致命的。),其中的 “unprepared”,“fail” ,“fatally” 等词表现了文章 的基调并非“ unconcerned”(漠不关心) 和“optimistic”(乐观)。但文章的基调也不是“worried”(忧心重重), 从第三段首句中 可以推断作者对小企业的发展只是持谨慎态度,因此选项【d】cautious 表达正确。

Text 3

31.解答:推理题。 C。 选 通过文章首段第一句中的“traveling from their home in England to a village in Pakistan” 选项 a】 【 when Narina left Pakistan she escaped death.(Narina 在离开巴基斯坦之后她也逃脱了 死亡)。其次选项【b】 the Pakistani authorities did not move a finger to help the Anwars. (巴基斯坦当局没有帮助安德 沃一家)在文章中没有 相关内容的表述,也可排除。通过第二段最后一句“ But the phenomenon of those undesired unions inevitably raises questions about the rights and responsibilities of minorities in the West.”(但是那些不完美的婚姻不可避免地引发了相 关生 活在西方少数民族的权利和责任)中可以推论出她们是从巴基斯坦到英国去结婚,而不是 选项【d】the Anwar girls traveled to Pakistan in order to get married.(她们为了结婚而去巴基斯坦)所表达的内容。 从此句还可以推论出 像 Anwar 一样的人都是生活在西方的外国人,因此判断选项【c】是正确答案。 32.解答:推理题。选 D。选项【a】governments do not dare face up to a practice so negative as forced marriage. (政府不敢面对像由包办婚姻所带来的负面影响)可以通过文章第二段首句“It ought not to be controversial for governments to confront a practice so egregious as forced marriage.”中的 “confront”(正视)一词判断政府对这一事 件的处理是果断坚定的。通过此句还可以排除 选项【b 。根据文章倒数第二段第二句 “The government sometimes has 】 to adjudicate between individual rights on the one hand, and cultural traditions on the other.” 中的 “adjudicate”一词与 选项【c】中的一词 act against 表达矛盾。   33.解答:事实细节题。 选 D。 【a】 选项 是说警方与这些急需救助团体之间毫无关系,根 据文章第三段第三 句中的“ are liasing with” (与某人联系或沟通)和“ have contacts”(有 线人)可以排除其选项。选项【 b 】 that Foreign Office is reluctant to cooperate for fear of retaliation from abandoned husbands 中 的 “ reluctant” ( 犹 豫 ) 一 词 与 文 章 第 三 段 首 句 “helped 50-odd actual or potential victims…”表达矛盾,也可排除。 最后可以通过文章第三段 末句中的冒 号部分“it will be easier for them to get accommodation, and to stay in the country even if they desert their husbands.”(这    26 河南考研网 www.henankaoyan.cn 精彩不容错过

可以使她们轻易地找到安身的地方,在离开她们的丈夫后也能够留在这个国家)判断选项 【d】正确。   34.解答:推理题。 D。 选 作者在第四段首句便说“…British politicians have exercised too

much, rather than too little, sensitivity when addressing traditions” (英国的政客在涉及传统问 题时过于明感),而在之后的例子中有对代表人权 的“ forced marriages” 和代表传统的 “arranged marriages”来进行比对,这也说明其谨小细微的态度。通过对四个 选项的分析后 可以得出结论,选项【d】是正确选项。   35.解答:判断题。 C。 选 通过文章倒数第二段的前一部分可以推断选项 a】 【 的观点并非 是作者的,而是“The British Home Secretary”(英国国务大臣)提出的。 【b】 选项 和选项 d】 【 的观点文章并未涉及,也可排除。在文 章倒数第二段首句“ But not all diversity is good diversity.”(但是不是所有的分歧都是一成不变的)作者提出了观点。 而在文章最后一段首 句作者继而提出代表传统的“ arranged marriage” 也是英国社会面临的问题,因此可以推断 作 者对传统和人权的态度是谨慎的,并且认为两者之间的优劣很难判断,但在不同的社会 中必须断定孰好孰坏,因 此选项【c】是作者真正的观点。

Text 4

  36.解答:目的细节题。 C。 选 文章第一段第三句说“现在法国总理希拉克希望通过建立 一个类似的法语搜索 引擎来停止美国的文化入侵”,那么也就是为了“保护法国文化的完 整性”。

37.解答:原因细节题。 A。 选 文章第二段倒数第二句说“答案就是 Google 用来排列搜索结 果的粗俗标准”, 也就是“Google 列举结果的方式”。

38. 解答:事实细节题。选 B。文章第四段末尾强调“对武力和消费者需求的宣扬不应该超 越高尚的品味和 文化底蕴”。证明美国的 Google 代表了“经济价值”,而法国人则崇尚“品味和文化”, 因此就是“文化价值”。

39.解答:含义题。 D。 选 文章第五段最后一句说“这一计划由于内斗而被 , 该 词 组 中 有 “down”即 “下来”这个含义,那么肯定和不成功有关,四个选项只有 D stuck 表示“困住,卡住”, 因此入选。   40.解答:态度题。 C。 选 文章最后一段倒数最后两句说“把英语的入侵看成一个国家必 须纠正的市场方面的 错误可能看起来有些愚蠢,可是在法国却是家常便饭”。 由“clumsy” 这个贬义词的使用可以证明作者对法国的做 法持批判态度。

Part B 参考答案:41)C 42)A 43)F 44)B 45)D

解析: 41 )段的第一句中就提到“ demands a necessary uniformity” 与 C 选项“ why is uniformity necessary”构成关键词重 现关联。 42)段破折号前面提到“the very first CMI convention”与 A 选项构成关键词重现关联。 43)段中两次提到“the Salvage Convention”与 F 选项构成关键词重现关联。 44)段中提到了一个公约的不同版本,最新的是第四版,也就是说修改了三次。 45 )段出现关键词“ the most successful” 和“ acceded to or ratified by 103 states” 也就证明这 个公约是签署国家最 多的一个公约。

Part C (46)说真的,英语可能会出现类似汉语的情况:知识界使用的语言没发生太大的变化, 许多方言与之并存。 (47)但是你可以认为,学好外语譬如比学好象棋更费力,因为学语言不仅要对一套复杂 的规则而且要对语境 非常敏感。 (48)例如,计算机可以减轻大量翻译的劳苦。 (49)更重要的事实是,计算机永远也不可能掌握语词联系之外的联想意义,这种联想意 义虽然没有被表达出 来,但却具有很深的意义。 (50)预测一致认为,在 21 世纪,世界人口中讲英语的人的比例会越来越小。

Part A 参考范文: Dear Mike, Section III Writing

 It’s great to learn that you’ve got a good opportunity to work in a big IT company. I think you should take the opportunity.   First of all, to take a part time job can lessen the financial burden of your family. Tuition is on the rise, and it is now beyond the means of your family who is in the remote countryside. Besides, to hold part-time work is to prepare them for your future career. Through work, you can put what you have learned in school into practice and develop your social skills, which can greatly enlarge your scope of knowledge. In addition, the job can help shape your independence. On the job,

you have to handle with varieties of problems by yourself.   However, you cannot work at the cost of your school studies. Good balance should be kept between work and study. Best regards Sincerely yours, Li Hua

Part B 参考范文:

Role Of Mass Media in Shaping Our View    Mass media have become an important part of our life. They offer us not only varieties of entertainment but also all kinds of information. Most important of all, they can help shape our view towards society and life.    As we know, it is through mass media that we get to know what is going on inside in our country and in the world. No doubt, we will allow them to mould our notions and opinions of current events, different nations and people. For example, most of us never meet prime ministers or presidents, but we can form our opinion of them through mass media. When it time for us to cast our votes, we will make our decision based on how the mass media picture them. Therefore, mass media, to some degree, can make a big difference to the results of the election. In addition, through their programs and articles, mass media are also spreading culture and lifestyle. Many people follow the taste and fashion of the mass media in forming their attitude towards music, films and clothes styles. However, we must be critical about the role of mass media in shaping our view. It is a fact that some mass media can be misleading so that we can not have a true picture of what is going on. What’s more, mass media can have a bad effect on the young generation because some of the programs or articles are filled with violence, sex and bias against a certain group of people.