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**Luisa F. Polania∗, Rafael E. Carrillo† , Manuel Blanco-Velasco‡ and Kenneth E. Barner∗
**

∗ Department † Department

of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19711 ´ of Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique F´ d´ rale de Lausanne, Laussane, Switzerland e e ‡ Dept. Teor´a de la Se˜ al y Comunicaciones, Universidad de Alcal´ , Madrid, Spain ı n a with ǫ a bound on the sparsity level of s. B. Review of SαS distributions A class of SαS distributions can be characterized by their distribution having a characteristic function given by the exponential exp(iδt − γ α |t|α ), where α is the characteristic exponent restricted to the range (0 < α ≤ 2), δ is the real-valued location parameter, γ is the dispersion of the distribution (γ > 0) that determines the spread of the density around its location parameter. The characteristic exponent α controls the heaviness of the distribution tails. Thus, SαS random variables with small α values are highly impulsive. An important characteristic of SαS distributions (with α < 2) is the lack of second-order moments. Instead, all moments of order p < α are deﬁned and are called fractional lowerorder moments (FLOMs). In particular, the FLOMs of X ∼ fα (γ, δ = 0) are given by E{|X|p } = (C(p, α)γ)p , 0 < p < α where (C(p, α))p = expression for the dispersion of X,

p Γ(1− α ) cos( π p)Γ(1−p) . 2

Abstract—This paper presents a compressive sensing based method to reconstruct electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in the presence of electromyographic (EMG) noise. The symmetric αstable (SαS) distribution is used to model the EMG interference and the proposed reconstruction algorithm is based on fractional lower-order moments to efﬁciently deal with the large variance of the noise. The method is validated using real data from the MIT-BIH Noise Stress Test Database.

I. I NTRODUCTION Compressive Sensing (CS) [1] has been successfully applied to ECG signals [2], reducing the required number of samples to achieve an acceptable reconstruction for medical diagnosis. Furthermore, it has shown good results as an alternative for ECG compression in the context of wireless body sensor networks [3]. However, existing works in the area ignore the presence of real noise that severely affects the reconstruction. Of particular interest is the EMG noise whose spectral content considerably overlaps with that of the PQRST complex. A white Gaussian noise is usually used to model an EMG signal. The muscle noise shows frequently an impulsive behavior and it means that the Gaussian model may fail. As a better model ﬁtting alternative, the α-stable distribution was introduced for ECG applications [4]. In this paper, I propose to address the reconstruction of an ECG signal contaminated with EMG noise by using CS. The noise is modeled with a SαS distribution and the proposed reconstruction algorithm seeks a solution that minimizes the lp norm of the noise subject to a constraint on the l0 norm of the sparse representation of the ECG, thereby deﬁning a feasible set that diminishes the effect of gross errors. II. BACKGROUND A. Review of Compressive Sensing Let x ∈ Rn be a signal that is either K-sparse or compressible in some orthogonal basis Ψ, then x can be well approximated by a linear combination of a small set of vectors

K

(2)

From (2), we get an (3)

**γX = (E{|X|p })1/p (C(p, α))−1 III. ROBUST
**

RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHM

A. Problem formulation The additive noise model of the acquired ECG signal is x = x0 + n, where n is the EMG noise and x0 is the original signal, represented by a linear superposition of K elements of an orthonormal wavelet basis, Ψ. If we consider linear random measurements as in the traditional CS literature, then y = Φx0 +r, with r = Φn. From the properties of SαS distributions, if X ∼ fα (γX , 0) and Y ∼ fα (γY , 0) are independent SαS random variables, then cX ∼ fα (|c|γX , 0)(c = 0) and α α X + Y ∼ fα ((γX + γY )1/α , 0). Then, it follows that r is also SαS distributed with the same α as n. The dispersion parameter deﬁned in (3) is the analogue of the variance for the SαS distributions in the sense that it is a measure of the spread of the variable around the mean. From (3), we know that the dispersion depends linearly on the fractional lower-order moments. Therefore, minimizing its dispersion is equivalent to minimizing its pth FLOM, which leads to the following constrained optimization problem

s∈Rn

from Ψ, i.e. x ≈

i=1

si ψi , where K ≪ n. Let Φ be an

m×n sensing matrix, m < n. Compressive sensing deals with the recovery of x from undersampled linear measurements of the form y = Φx = ΦΨs. CS states that the signal x can be recovered from M = O(Klog(n/K)) measurements if the matrix ΦΨ meets the restricted isometry property [1]. In practical scenarios with noise, the signal s can be recovered from y by solving the following optimization problem

s∈Rn

min y − ΦΨs

2 2

s. t.

s

0

≤ ǫ,

(1)

min y − ΦΨs

p p

s. t.

s

0

≤ ǫ,

(4)

using the normalized mean square error (NMSE) as performance measure. IEEE. pp.” in DATE. 115 and 119. [2] L.. t. Cand` s and M. Gaussian sensing matrices are employed and Daubechies db4 wavelets are used as the sparsifying transform.P. C ONCLUSIONS This paper offers an algorithm to reconstruct ECG signals contaminated by real EMG noise in a CS framework. 4028 –4031.” in Proc.” e Signal Processing Magazine. r = (y − ΦΨx). and K. Mamaghanian. W (t) (ΦΨ)Γt gΓt (t) 2 2 . Algorithm An iterative hard thresholding algorithm is used to solve the problem in (5). 21 –30. thesis. A particular choice for the residual weight is the one that results in minimizing the lp -norm of the residual. no. Choosing the ith diagonal element of W as Wi = |ri |(p−2)/2 . Prague. Pander.For choosing the value of p. the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with iterative hard thresholding with partially known support (IHT-PKS) [7]. that minimizes W (y − ΦΨs) 2 at 2 each iteration is µ(t) = gΓt (t) 2 2 signals. april 2008. The algorithm is also compared with IHT-PKS when the SNR of the input signal is varied from 6 dB to 18 dB and the number of measurements is ﬁxed to m = 320. Barner. Let s(0) = 0 and use the recursion s(t+1) = HK−L (st + µg (t) ) (6) 14 16 18 (b) Averaged NMSE over the records 117. E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS Experiments are carried out over a 10-min long single-ECG lead from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. In Fig. Unlike the proposed algorithm. may 2011. 25. sept.J.” in Proc. Wakin. march 2011. Therefore. Czech Republic. pp. is shown in Fig. “A realtime compressed sensing-based personal electrocardiogram monitoring system. E. This type of noise is a serious limitation in ambulatory ECG recording systems since each movement may result in large disturbance.” in IEMBS.D.3 min W (y − ΦΨs) n 2 2 s. F. Fig. The signal is sampled and recovered using a sliding window of length n = 1024. providing more accurate information for diagnosis. The step size. Comparison of the proposed method with IHT-PKS. and D. May 2011. [7] Rafael E. and Kenneth E. “Iteratively reweighted algorithms for compressive sensing. where HK−L (·) is a non-linear operator that sets to zero all the elements but the L coefﬁcients in the low-pass approximation wavelet subband together with the largest K−L remaining elements. IV. µ is a step size and g = −∇s W (y − ΦΨs) 2 = 2 (ΦΨ)T W 2 (y − ΦΨs) is the negative gradient of the objective function. vol. The approach for dealing with this issue is to add a small ǫ > 0 to the residual. “An introduction to compressive sampling. pp. 2008. R EFERENCES [1] E. Greece. µ. the hard thresholding operator is the same as the one deﬁned in Section III-B. Modeling the noise as α-stable and introducing the lp norm in the reconstruction algorithm lead to superior recovery performance compared to l2 minimization algorithms. 1(a). the proposed algorithm exhibits superior performance even when the acquired signals are highly contaminated with EMG noise. All the results are averaged over the set of records 117. [6] R.” in Proc. 100. In the ﬁrst experiment.05 6 8 10 12 SNR (dB) Proposed method IHT−PKS Given that p − 2 will be negative.15 0. 2. (5) NMSE 0.. Atienza. 1. which is based on minimizing the standard deviation of a FLOM-based covariation estimator. Khaled. Blanco-Velasco. The SNR of the noisy input signal is set to 10 dB while the number of samples is varied.2 0. V. Iterative reweighted least squares has been successfully applied to CS problems by replacing the lp norm by a weighted l2 norm [6]. Carrillo. IEEE ICASSP. assumed to be the correct support.1 0. [4] T. 1(b). IEEE ICASSP. Let Γt denotes the support of s(t) .B. M. pp. the thresholding operator ensures the selection of the subband that accumulates the majority of the energy of the signal at each iteration. H. Mar. Barner. the problem 2 p in (4) can be reformulated as s∈R 10 0 Proposed method IHT−PKS NMSE 10 −1 200 300 400 500 600 700 Number of measurements 800 (a) Averaged NMSE over the records 117. R. IHT-PKS is based on the l2 norm minimization of the residuals y − ΦΨs. The result of this experiment. but. Ph.. “Compressed sensing based method for ecg compression. Carrillo. 2004. 1. Polania. we use the method proposed in [5]. Polania. University of Crete. 596 –599. the l2 -norm of the weighted residual becomes W r 2 = rT W 2 r = r p . In this way. The matrix of residual weights W is deﬁned as a diagonal matrix. 115. Bayesian Compressed Sensing using Alpha-Stable Distributions. Tzagkarakis.25 0. The proposed method is preferred since it outperforms IHT-PKS in the reconstruction of the ECG . B. 100 and 119 as a function of the SNR of the noisy input signal. pp. s 0 ≤ ǫ. “Iterative hard thresholding for compressed sensing with partially known support. “A suppression of an impulsive noise in ecg signal processing. 115. [5] G. 0. vol. 100 and 119 as a function of the number of measurements. The EMG noise is taken from the MIT-BIH Noise Stress Test Database. Kanoun. IEEE ICASSP. 2009. E. Chartrand and Wotao Yin. N. [3] K. 3869 – 3872. Luisa F. the weights Wi are undeﬁned whenever ri = 0. 1 –6.

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