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Fuzzy Logic

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What is Fuzzy Logic? How is it different from conventional methods? Why to use FL? How is FL used? Linguistic variables. Membership functions. Fuzzy logic operators. Basic components of fuzzy system. Possible areas of applications. An example of decision making using FL.

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**You Must Know
**

• The idea of fuzzy logic has had a profound impact on Artificial Intelligence research, because human intelligence is quite fuzzy.

What is Fuzziness?

• According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word fuzzy means:

– Blurred – Fluffy – Frayed – Indistinct

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**The Idea of Fuzzy Logic (FL)
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Lotfi A. Zadeh (1965). Fuzzy Sets, Information and Control 8, 338-353. A crisp set is a set for which each value either is or is not contained in the set. Fuzzy sets are functions that map a value, which might be a member of a set, to a number between zero and one, indicating its actual degree of membership. A degree of zero means that the value is not in the set, and a degree of one means that the value certainly belongs to the set.

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Continued…

• Presented not as a control methodology but presented as a way of processing data by allowing partial set membership rather than crisp set membership. • This approach to set theory was not applied to control systems until the 70's due to insufficient computer capability 70 s capability. • Do not require precise, numerical information as input. • Capable of highly adaptive control. • If feedback controllers could be programmed to accept noisy, imprecise input, they would be much more effective and easier to implement.

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only much faster. otherwise program the rules into the FL H/W engine. In Brief… • FL was conceived as a better method for sorting and handling data but has proven to be a excellent choice for many control system applications since it mimics human control logic. networked. systems • It can be implemented in hardware. • It can be built into anything from small. break the control problem into a series of IF X AND Y THEN Z rules (the complexity of rules depend on the number of input parameters and the number fuzzy variables associated with each parameter). evaluate the results. noise‐free inputs. What you do in the shower if the temperature is too cold? 8 How Does FL Works? • FL requires some numerical parameters in order to operate. ambiguous. • An example of temperature control in a system: – T =500F. • It is implemented in systems ranging from simple. but exact values of these numbers are usually not critical unless very responsive performance is required in which case empirical tuning would determine them. or a combination of both. – These terms are imprecise and yet very descriptive of what must actually happen. • Test the system. tune the rules and membership functions. noisy. The output control is a smooth control function despite a wide range of input variations. • Using the rule‐based structure. embedded micro‐controllers to large. • Create the necessary pre‐ and post‐processing FL routines if implementing in S/W. rule‐based (IF X AND Y THEN Z) approach to solve a control problem rather than attempting to model a system mathematically. Defining the rule‐base quickly is complex if too many inputs and outputs are chosen. • FL's approach to control problems mimics how a person would make decisions. small. i i i l – Sensors are inexpensive and imprecise keeping the overall system cost and complexity low. It would be better to break the control system into smaller chunks and use several smaller FL controllers distributed on the system. each with more limited responsibilities. New sensors can easily be incorporated into the system simply by generating appropriate governing rules. • The FL model is empirical based. • It is very robust and forgiving of operator and data input and often works when first implemented with little or no tuning. 210C <T <220C – IF (process is too cool) AND (process is getting colder) THEN (add heat to the process) – "IF (process is too hot) AND (process is heating rapidly) THEN (cool the process quickly)" are used. and retest until satisfactory results are obtained. – FL controller processes user‐defined rules that can be modified easily. • Create membership functions that define the values of Input / Output terms used in the rules. • FL provides a simple way to arrive at a definite conclusion based upon vague. T <1000F.What is Fuzzy Logic? • FL is a problem‐solving control system methodology. 7 How is FL Different from Conventional Methods? • FL incorporates a simple. imprecise. • It uses an imprecise but very descriptive language to deal with input data more like a human operator. or missing input information. – FL can control nonlinear systems. multi‐ channel PC or workstation‐based data acquisition and control systems. 11 How is FL Used? • Define the control objectives and criteria. 9 10 Why to Use FL? • FL offers several unique features: – It is inherently robust since it does not require precise. software. – Rule‐based operation can process a number of inputs and outputs. hand‐held products to large computerized process control systems systems. • Determine the minimum number of inputs to the FL engine. 12 .

There are different types of membership functions. • Variables used in fuzzy systems to express qualities such as height. and exponential are also used. Crisp Membership Function 15 16 An Example Graphical Representation 17 18 . “short” or “very tall”. they are defuzzified into a crisp output which drives the system.Linguistic Variables • Professor Zadeh proposed the concept of linguistic or "fuzzy" variables in 1973.5 deg C Oh! It was very humid and really hot. which can take values such as “more”. but bell. Example of Linguistic Imprecision How was the weather like yesterday? Oh! It was rainy with 98% humidity and hot with temperature of 35. scaled. Once the functions are inferred. • Think of them as linguistic objects or words. triangular. rather than numbers. Fuzzy logic can handle such linguistic imprecision whereas other techniques can’t. trapezoidal. 13 14 Membership Functions • The membership function is a graphical representation of the magnitude of participation of each input. “tall”. and combined. “less”. • SHAPE – linear is common. It determines an output response.

Membership Function • • • • • Basic Components of a Fuzzy System Crisp Input Fuzzification Rules Defuzzification Final Decision 19 20 Fuzzification An Example 21 22 Fuzzification of Height Fuzzification of Weight 23 24 .

Rules Rules Function 25 26 Fuzzified Decision Fuzzy Rules Table 27 28 Defuzzification Membership of Height 29 30 .

Membership of Weight Membership Values 31 32 Perform Min Operation The Decision Function Value 33 34 Compute Final Decision Decision: Maximum Method 35 36 .

Decision: Centroid Method Fuzzified Decision 37 38 .

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