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Prit Patel 3/01/11 Period 6

Psychology People
1. Adler, Alfred an Austrian medical doctor, a psychologist and founder of individual psychology. After he broke off from Freuds school, he enjoyed considerable success by building an independent school of psychotherapy and a unique personality theory. 2. Ainsworth, Mary an American developmental psychologist, known for her work in early emotional attachment in the Strange Situation and her Attachment Theory. In the strange situation, an infant is in a room and parents and strangers leave and enter the room and the infants reactions are observed to see whether the infant has a close attachment with his/her mother. The Attachment Theory is a psychological, evolutionary, and ethological theory concerning the relationships between humans 3. Asch, Solomon also known as Shlaym, was an American Gestalt psychologist and pioneer in social psychology. Did experiments that showed how social pressure can influence a humans choices. In his experiment, a participant would be placed in a group with 5 to 7 confederates (people who knew the aims of the experiment) and was asked to match a line with three other lines. The confederates would give the wrong answer and aim was to see whether the participant would conform to their answer or give the obviously right answer. 4. Bandura, Albert was a Canadian psychologist who specialized in social-cognitive theory and self-efficacy. He is most famous for his social learning theory. He is also performed the Bobo Doll experiment, where a child watches an adult release his anger by repeatedly punching a bobo doll and calling it names. The child then learns to release his/her anger in the same way. 5. Binet, Alfred a French psychologist and the inventor of the first usable intelligence test, known as the IQ test. His main goal was to identify students who would need extra help in coping with school curriculum. He also performed one of the first psychological studies into chess, where the players were blindfolded and asked to play the game from memory. Master chess players were able to do to do this, while amateur and intermediate players found it impossible. 6. Calkins, Mary Whiton an American philosopher and psychologist. She published writing based on both psychology and philosophy The Persistent Problems of Philosophy and The Good Man and the Good. Calkins was elected president of both the American Psychological Association and the American Philosophical Association. 7. Cattell, Raymond a British and American psychologist, whose accomplishments were in personality, intelligence, and statistics. He is best known for his 16-factor model of personality. He modeled these 16 factors into 5 broad generalizations and these are now known as the Big 5. 8. Chomsky, Naom an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, political activist, author, and lecturer. He published an influential critique of B.F. Skinners Verbal Behavior. 9. Dement, William a pioneering American sleep researcher and founder of the Sleep Research Center. He is a leading authority on sleep, sleep deprivation and on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. He proposed the measure for illustrating the severity of

sleep apnea that is still used today the Apnea/Hyponea Index (AHI). He launched the American Sleep Disorders Association, which is now known as the Academy of Sleep Medicine. He is also the author of several books, including The Promise of Sleep and The Sleepwatchers. He is still alive. 10. Ekman, Paul a pioneer in the area of emotion and their relationship to facial expressions. Using the Wizards Project, Ekman reported on microexpressions which are the nuances of facial expressions that can be used to detect lies. Through the Wizards Project, he found only 50 people out of 15,000 that could detect lies without any previous training these people were called wizards. He developed the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) to taxonomize every conceivable facial expression. 11. Ellis, Albert an American psychologist who developed rational emotive behavior therapy. 12. Erikson, Erik a Danish-German-American psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of humans. He believed that there were eight stages of social development for humans before they reached their full developmental potential. These stages are known as Eriks Stages of Psychosocial Development. 13. Eysenck, Hans a British psychologist of German origin. Though he worked in a wide range of areas, he is remembered for his work on intelligence and personality. Eysenck suggested that personality is biologically determined and is arranged in a hierarchy consisting of types, traits, habitual responses, and specific responses. A staunch critic of psychoanalysis, Eysenck maintained that the recovery rates of the emotionally disturbed were approximately equal for treated and untreated individuals, though the accuracy of his studies on the subject have been questioned in recent years. Among Eysenck's many works is The Intelligence Controversy. 14. Festinger, Leon - an American social psychologist. He is responsible for the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance and the Social Comparison Theory, as well as the discovery of the role of propinquity in the formation of social ties as well as other contributions to the study of social networks. 15. Freud, Sigmund - a Jewish-Austrian neurologist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychiatry. He is best known for his theories about the unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression. Some of Freuds ideas have been discredited and/or modified by Neo-Freudians. 16. Garcia, John and American psychologist best known for his taste aversion learning. His experiments lead to theory that conditioned taste aversion is a survival mechanism. 17. Gazzaniga, Michael professor of psychology at University of California, where he heads the new SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind. He is one of the leading researchers in cognitive neuroscience. 18. Gardner, Howard an American psychologist who is best known for his Theory of Multiple Intelligences. He maintains that there are several different types of intelligences linguistic, log-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. 19. Gibson, Eleanor an American psychologist known for her studies of perception in infants and toddlers. She forwarded the concept that perceptual learning takes place by differentiation.

20. Gilligan, Carol an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work against Lawrence Kohlberg on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics. 21. Hall, G. Stanley a pioneering American psychologist interested in childhood development and the evolutionary theory behind it. He also examined aspects of child development to learn about inherited behavior 22. Harlow, Harry an American psychologist best known for his maternal-separation and isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys. Harlows experiments were controversial because they involved infant macaques to be contained in isolation for up to 24 months, from which they emerged severely disturbed. 23. Hilgard, Ernest an American psychologist became famous for his research oh hypnosis, particularly concerning pain control. He, along with Andr Weitzenhoffer, developed the Stanford Hypnosis Susceptibility Scales. 24. James, William a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher, trained as a medical doctor. He wrote several influential books on the sciences of psychology, educational psychology, psychology o religious experience and mysticism, and the philosophy of pragmatism. 25. Janis, Irving a research psychologist at Yale University, most famous for his theory of groupthink in which he describes the systematic errors made by groups when making collective decisions. 26. Jung, Carl a Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of analytical psychology. His work has been influential in the field of depth psychology and in the countercultural movements across the globe. He was a theoretical psychologist and was well known for analyzing dreams. 27. Kagan, Jerome one of the key pioneers in developmental psychology. He showed that an infants temperament becomes stable over time and that certain behaviors during infancy follow behavior patterns of those of adolescence. 28. Kleitman, Nathaniel author of Sleep and Wakefullness, is regarded as the father of sleep psychology. Was the first to discover rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and demonstrate how it correlated with dreaming and brain activity 29. Kohlber, Lawrence an American psychologist best known for his theory of stages of moral development 30. Kbler-Ross, Elizabeth a Swiss psychiatrist who wrote On Death and Dying, where she first discussed what is now known as the Kbler-Ross Model. 31. LaBerge, Stephen a psychophysiologist and a leader in the scientific study of lucid dreaming. He developed techniques to enable himself and other researchers o enter the lucid dreaming state at will, memorably the MILD (mnemonic induction of lucid dreams), which was necessary for dream exploration. 32. Lazarus, Richard an American psychologist who was a pioneer in the area of emotion and stress, particularly in their relation to cognition. He is well-known for his cognitivemediational theory within emotion 33. Lewin, Kurt a German-American psychologist, known as a modern pioneers in the areas of social, organizational, and applied psychology. He is often recognized as the founder of social psychology and was one of the first to study group dynamics in organizational development

34. Loftus, Elizabeth - an American psychologist and an expert on human memory. She has conducted numerous information about the misinformation effect and false memories. 35. Lorenz, Konrad - an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. He studied instinctive behavior in animals, especially greylag geese and jackdaws, and rediscovered the principle of imprinting 36. Maslow, Abraham - an American psychologist that is considered the founder of humanistic psychology and is noted for the cenceptualization of the "heirarchy of human needs" 37. Milgram, Stanley - an American social psychologist most notable for his controversial "Milgram Experiment", whiche studied the relationship between authority and obedience. He also conducted the "Small World Experiment", which was the source of the six degrees of separation theory. 38. Pavlov, Ivan - was a Russian/Soviet physiologist, psychologist, and physician. He is widely known for first decribing the phenomenon known as classical conditioning. 39. Piaget, Jean - a Swiss psychologist and philosopher, who founded the theory of cognitive development. It is known as the developmental stage theory. 40. Prosser, Beverly Inez - the first African American to recieve a Ph.D in psychology. She was one of the key figures in the debate on how best to educate blac children. 41. Rescorla, Robert - Pavlovian psychologist who was a co-creator of the Rescorla-Wagner model, a model in which an animal is conditioned to learn the discrepancy between what is expected to happen and what actually happens 42. Rosenthal, Robert - his interests include self-fulfilling prophecies, which were explored in the well known Pgymalion Effect: a study on teachers' expectations of students 43. Rotter, Julian - an American psychologist known for developing influential theories, such as social learning theory and locus of control. 44. Sapir, Edward Lee - a German-born anthropologist/linguist who is a leader in structural lingistics. He was one of the creators of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, and is arguably the most infuential figure i 45. n linguistics. 46. Schachter, Stanley - an American psychologist who proposed the Two Factor Theory of Emotion. 47. Seligman, Martin - an American psychologist and author of self-help books. He as the creator of the theory of "learned helplessness". 48. Simon, Herbert - an American political scientist, economist, psychologist, and professor. He was a polymath and his research ranged over a variety of fields. He coined the terms bounded rationality and satisficing. 49. Skinner, BF - an American psychologist who came up with the operant conditioning chamber and founded his own school of experimental research psychology - the experimental analysis of behavior. He also did highly influential work on schedules of reinforcement. 50. Sperling, George - a cognitive psychologist who documented the existence of iconic memory. 51. Sperry, Roger - a neuropsychologist and neurobiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work on split-brain.

52. Stern, William - a German psychologist and philosopher who was a pioneer in the field of the psychology of personality and intelligence. He was the inventor of the intelligence quotient and created the first IQ tests, based on the work of Alfred Adler. 53. Sternberg, Robert - an American psychologist and psychometrician. He proposed a triarchic theory of intelligence and criticized IQ tests. 54. Sumner, Frances Cecil - an American psychologist who is commonly refered to as the "Father of Black Psychology". His research interests lay in how to refute the racism and bias in the theories used to conclude the inferiority of African Americans. 55. Terman, Lewis - an American psychologist, noted as a pioneer in educational psychology. He is best known as the inventor of the Stanford-Binet IQ Test. 56. Thorndike, Edward Lee - an American psychologist whose work on animal behavior and learning lead to the theory of connectionism and helped lay the foundation for the modern educational psychology. He was one of the first pioneers of active learning. 57. Titchener, Edward Bradford - a British psychologist who studied under Wilhelm Wundt for several years. He is best known for creating structuralism. 58. Tolman, Edward Chace - an American psychologist most famous for his studies on behavioral psychology. He is best known for his studies of rats learning capabilities in mazes. 59. Tversky, Amos - a cognitive and mathematical psychologist, and a pioneer of cognitive science. He was a key figure in the discovery of human cognitive bias and the handling of risk. 60. Vygotsky, Lev - a Soviet psychologist and the founder of cultural-historical psychology. He introduced the notion of the zone of proximal development. 61. Walk, Richard - he, along with Eleanor Gibson studied depth perception in infants 62. Washburn, Margaret Floy - was a leading American psychologist in the 20th century and is known for her work in animal behavior and motor development. 63. Watson, John - an American psychologist who established the school of behavioralism after studying animal behavior. He conducted the controversial "Little Albert" experiment. 64. Wertheimer, Max - a Czech-born psychologist who was one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology. 65. Whorf, Benjamin - an American linguist and the co-creator of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. 66. Wundt, Wilhelm - a German psychologist and te foudner of experimental psychology. 67. Zazonc, Robert - a Polish-born American social psychologist, who is best known for his work in the social and cognitive areas. He demonstrated the Mere Influence Effect and developed the Confluence Model. 68. Zimbardo, Phillip - an American psychologist who is best known for the Stanford prison study. 69. Clark, Kenneth - an African-American psychologist who used dolls to conduct research about kids' internal racism, etc. 70. Flynn, James - well known for the discovery of the Flynn Effect, stating that IQ scores improve every year. 71. P.T. Barnum Effect - the observation that people will give higher accuracy ratings to a list of personality traits that "tailored to them", but they actally fit a larger variety of them. 72. Phineas Gage - a construction man who got hit lightly and suffered severa personilty changes.

73. Clive Wearing - the man suffers from an acute and expensive or anterogade amnesia. 74. Genie - the pseudonym for the feral child who was isolated her entire life and lost her ability to speak and many other activities. 75. Clever Hans - a horse that claimed to be able to perform arithmetic. It was later found out that the horse was not doing these tasks, but was watchhing humans' reactions. 76. MMPI - (The Minnesota Multiple Phase Inventory) - most frequently used personality tests and are used to identify personality structure and psychopathology.