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Linear Algebra

MATRICES
DETERMINANTS
Matrix Algebra
Determinants:
Elementary Row Operations:
Definitions &
-Consider the following 2x2
matrix;
Notations
a
b
c
d
1) Two matrices A and B are equal if:
Elementary Row
a) They have the same dimensions
Its Determinant is given by:
Operations& Row-
b)
All corresponding elements in the
Echelon Matrices
1)The rectangular array
matrices are equal.
2) If A & B are both mxn matrices their
Sum A+B is obtained by adding
- Consider the following 3x3
matrix;
:
1) Two rows of the matrix
may be interchanged
2) All elements of a row may
be multiplied by a non-
zero
constant.
3) A multiple of one row
could
be added to another row.
a
b
c
corresponding elements ofA and B.
a a
d
e
f
11
12
a 1n
-Matrix addition is Commutative
a a
g
h
i
a , is called an mxn matrix.
21
22
2n
where: A+B=B+A, and
Associative where: A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C
Row-Echelon Form (ref):
Its determinant is given by:
a
a
m1 a m2
mn
2) A 1xn matrix is a row vector (a)
3)A mx1 matrix is a column vector (b)
4)The elements of a row and column
vector are the components of the vector.
3) If A is an mxn matrix and s is a scalar,
sA denotes Scalar Multiplication where
every element in A is multiplied by s.
-if A=[a ij ], then sA=[sa ij ].
4) The Difference of two matrices A-B, is
obtained by subtracting corresponding
elements. That is:
det(A)=(aei+bfg+cdh)-
Let A # be an Augmented Matrix:
(idb+afh+ceg)
This matrix is said to be (ref) if:
Where:
1) If there are any rows consisting
entirely of 0's, they are grouped
together at the bottom of the matrix.
2) The first non-zero element in any
non-zero row is 1. This is called the
3) The leading entry of any row
(except
the first row) is further to the right
than the leading entry of the row
above it.
Use ERO to
get a matrix
a
b
c
a
b
d
e
f
d
e
5) If the row and column vectors of an mxn
matrix are interchanged, an mxn matrix is
obtained its Transpose (A ).
g
h
i
g
h
- A-B=[a ij -B ij ]
T
Further Prop. of Matrix add./ multip:
6) a 11 , a 22 ,
,a
mn is called the Main
a)
1 . A = A; s(A+B)=sA+sB;
Diagonal of A
7) when m=n the matrix is a Square
Matrix
8) The sum of main diagonal of a square
matrix A is called, Trace of A [tr(A)].
9) A square matrix is said to be Lower
Triangular if there are zeros everywhere
above main diagonal and Upper
Triangular if zeros below main diagonal.
10) A square matrix with all zeros above
and below main diagonal is called a
Diagonal Matrix.
11) If A T =A this is called a Symmetric
Matrix.
12) If A T =-A this is called a Skew or Anti
Symmetric Matrix
(s+t)A=sA+tA; s(tA)=(st)A=(ts)A=t(sA)
5) The Zero Matrix has all elements zero.
Properties: a) A+0=A , b) A-A=0,
c) 0(A)=0
6) a) If A=[a ij ] is an mxn matrix and b=[b i ] is
a column vector, Ab is the column vector
Properties of Determinants
1) IAI = IA T I.
2) If 2 rows/ columns of a matrix are
Reduced Row-Echelon Form (rref):
equal then,
IAI = 0.
m
3) If one row/ column is a multiple of
with components:
A matrix A # is said to be in (rref) if:
another row/ column,
IAI = 0.
n
1) Any rows consisting entirely of
zero's, are grouped at the bottom
of the matrix.
2) If row doesn't consist entirely of
zeros, its leading entry is then 1.
3) If rows i & i+1 are 2 consecutive
rows that don't consist entirely of
zero's, the leading entry of row
4) If one row/ column consists entirely of
(Ab) i = k=1  a ik b k
1< i < m
zero's,
IAI = 0.
5) If B is obtained from A by the
b) If B= [b 1 , b 2 ,
,
b p ] is an nxp matrix, the
interchanging of 2 rows or columns;
product of A & B is the mxp matrix defined by:
IBI
=
-IAI.
,
7) If A= [a ij ] is an mxn matrix, B=[b ij ] is an nxp
matrix, and C=AB, then:
AB= [Ab 1 , Ab 2 ,
Ab p ].
6) If B is obtained from A by multiplying a
row or column of A by a real # C then,
The Rank of a matrix
IBI
= CIAI.
n
i+1
c ij =
1< i < m, 1<j<p
k=1 a ik b kj
Systems of
A is the # of non-zero
rows in the matrix
ref(A # )
is to the right of the leading entry
of row i.
7) If B is obtained by multiplying a row or
column of A by C, and adding it to
Linear
another row then,
IBI = IAI.
Equations
called the Index Form of the matrix
product.
8) IABI = IAI IBI.
9) An nxn matrix is nonsingular (has an
8) The Identity Matrix is an nxn matrix with 1's
on the leading diagonal and 0's
everywhere else.
-Properties of the Identity Matrix::
inverse), i.f.f
IAI 0.
Cofactor
10) If A is nonsingular then,
IA -1 I = 1/IAI, where: IAI 0.
Consider a System of Linear Equations
Expansion
11) If A is an nxn matrix, and C is a real #
a)
a
x
b
A mxn I n = A mxn
a 11 x 1 a 12 x 2
a 21 x 1 a 22 x 2
1n
n=
1
then,
ICAI = C n IAI.
a
x
b
b) I m A mxp =A mxp
2n
n=
2
9) Properties of the Transpose:
12) If A = [a ij ], is an upper or lower
triangular matrix, then:
a
a m1 x 1 a m2 x 2
mn x n= b n
Terms & Definitions
a) (A T ) T = A
b) (A+C) T = A T +C T
IAI = a 11 . a 22
a nn , is called the
Product of the Main Diagonal.
c)
(AB) T = B T A T
-[a ij ] is the Coefficient Matrix
-
If
A is a square matrix, the Minor M , of the entry
ij
-[b i ] is the Right Hand Side Vector
a
ij
If
If [b i ]
[b i ] = 0, homogenous
is the determinant obtained by deleting the i th
row and the j th column.
0 , non-homogenous
-
The Cofactor C , of entry aij is given by;
ij
Guassian
-The process of reducing an
augmented matrix (A # ) to ref
is called Gaussian
Elimination.
-Reducing A # using ERO to
rref is called Gauss-Jordan
Elimination.
C
ij = (-1) i+j M ij . Where M ij is the minor of a ij .
Elimination
-
Let A be a nxn matrix. IAI is the sum of the entries
in any 1 row or column multiplied by their
respective cofactors.
Cramer's Rule
- If a system of n linear equations in n
variables has a coefficient matrix A
where IAI 0 the solution set is given
by:
Vector Equation:
A Solution to the system is
defined by an ordered n-
x 1 =IA 1 I
IAI
, x 2 =IA 2 I ,
IAI
, x n =IA n I
IAI
i.e Expansion along 1 st row: IAI=a 11 C 11 +
+a
1n C 1n .
Ax=b, where:
With system of equations:
-
If
all elements in an nxn matrix are replaced by
,
c n )
a
x
b
A=coefficient matrix
b=right hand side
vector
x=Vector of unknowns
tuple of scalars (c 1 , c 2 ,
when substituted for (x 1 ,
their respective cofactors, it is its Matrix of
Cofactors, (M C ) T .
a 11 x 1 a 12 x 2
a 21 x 1 a 22 x 2
1n
n=
1
a
x
b
2n
n=
2
x 2 ,
,
x n ) yields the right hand
side vector.
-
(M C ) T = adj(A), The Adjoint of A.
a
-
If
IAI 0, then
A -1 = adj(A)/IAI
a m1 x 1 a m2 x 2
mn x n= b n
b1
a
a
IA1I =
12
1n
Homogenous System (Ax=0)
Consider an mxn linear system,
Ax=b where m is the # of
equations and n, is the # of
b2 a 22
a
2n
The set is:
Consider system of equations:
bn a m2
a
-Consistent if there is
at least 1 solution
-Inconsistent if there
is no solution
-Dependent if there
are an infinite # of
mn
,Replacing each
row with the right
hand side vector
a
x
0
unknowns. Let R be the rank(A)
a 11 x 1 a 12 x 2
1n
n=
VECTOR SPACES
a
x
0
and R # the rank(A # ):
a 21 x 1 a 22 x 2
2n
n=
a
x n= 0
a m1 x 1 a m2 x 2
mn
Definition of a
Vector Space
-The solution x 1 =x 2 =
=x
n is
solutions
1) If R < R # , system is
inconsistent.
2) If R=R # , system is
consistent
called a Trivial Solution.
a) unique solution i.f.f R # =n
Inverse of a
Square Matrix
-The solution x 1 , x 2 ,
,
x n in
b) Infinite # of solutions i.f.f
which not all of x i are zero's is
called a Non-trivial Solution.
-System has infinitely many
solutions if m < n.
. If m > n then,
R
# <n.
Vector Algebra
Let v=(v1,v2), and u=(u1,u2) &
k= scalar
Definition of a Vector Space
-
Let A, B, C, be nxn matrices. if:
Vectors in R n
a) R# < n; non-trivial
if
1) u + v = (u 1 + v 1 , u 2 + v 2 )
AB = BA = I n
AC = CA = I n ,
Then B=C.
Let V be set of elements with 2
b) R# = n; tivial solution
if
2) u - v =
(u 1 - v 1 , u 2 - v 2 )
operations called Vector Addition &
3) ku = (ku 1 , ku 2 ), scalar multiplication
 called Vector Multiplication. If the
Vectors in R n Definitions & Terminology
Let A be an nxn matrix. If there
exists a matrix, A -1 satisfying,
AA -1 = A -1 A = I n
Then A -1 is the Inverse Matrix.
-
A -1 exists, the nxn system of
linear equations Ax=b, has a
Unique Solution given by:
If
1) A Directed Line Segment PQ has
initial point P and terminal point Q.
following properties are satisfied, by all
elements in V, V is then called a Vector
Space and all elements in V vectors:
x=A -1 b
- Its length is denoted by IIPQII.
- A is Nonsingular if A -1 exists.
- A is Singular if A -1 doesn't exist.
- 2 directed line segments of the
same length & direction are
Equivalent.
 V
Vector Properties
I) If x & y are elements of V then x y
is in V, (V is said to be closed under
 V
a)
x  y = y  x;
x,y
V
Properties of Inverses:
the set of all directed line segments
that are equivalent to a given
directed line segment PQ, is a
Vector V in a plane, V=PQ
- The directed line segment whose
-
Let u, v, w be vectors &
c, d be scalars:
b)
x  (y  z) = (x  y)  z;
x,y,z
c)
Exists a unique element 0
 V, such
that ; x + 0 = 0 + x = x;
x
d)
For each x
V, there exists a unique
element opposite in sign of x (-x
V)
-An nxn matrix A is nonsingular
1) A -1 is nonsingular and
i.f.f rank(A) = n.
(A
-1 ) -1 =A.
initial point is (0,0) is said to be in
Standard Form.
such that x  -x = 0.
II)
If x
 V, & c is any real # then c
x is
2) AB is nonsingular
and :
- Let A be an nxn matrix. If
Ax=b has a unique solution,
2) The Component Form of a vector
with initial point P (P 1 ,P 2 ) and terminal
in V (V is said to be closed under
multiplication).
A
-1 exists.
(AB) -1 = B -1 A -1 .
3) A T is nonsingular and:
point Q (Q 1 ,Q 2 ), is:
 V
 (x  y) = c
y
- Let A & B be nxn matrices. If
AB=I n , both A & B are nonsingular
and B=A -1 .
1) u + v = v + u
2) (u + v) + w = u + (v + w)
3) u + 0 = u
4) u + (-u) = 0
5) c(du) = cd(u)
6) (c+d)(u) = cu + du
7) c(u + v) = cu + cv
8) 1(u) = u
e)
c
x  c
PQ = (Q 1 -P 1 ,Q 2 -P 2 ) = V and,
f)
(c  d)
 x = c
x  d
x
0(u) = 0
(A T ) -1 = (A -1 ) T
V = (V 1 , V 2 )
= [V 1 ,V 2 ] =
1
g)
c
 (d
x) = (cd)
x
9) IIcuII = IcI IIuII
V
2
h)
1
 x = x
* If AB is nonsingular, both A & B
are nonsingular.
3) The magnitude of V is given by:
2
IIVII =
V 1 2 +V 2