Bones- Functions

o o o o

Support Protection Movement- muscle pull on Bones. Storage – Calcium stored in Bones. Also known as Mineral Bank o Hematopoeisis - making Blood cell. - Bone narrow makes blood cells o Compact- dense and smooth bone. o Spongy- contains small flat pieces of bone= trabeculae (individual) o Long- shaft + 2 ends
 mostly compact bone  found in limbs

Bones- Classification

o Short- mostly spongy

Compact bone - limbs Bones- Classification
o Flat

in wrist and ankles - shaft + 2 ends.

 thin, flat bones with spongy bone in between =diploe ( all of them together)  Sternum, ribs, skull

o Irregular

Bones- Structure
o Long

 Vertebrae, hipbones

 Diaphysis= shaft- thick collar of bone surrounding medullary cavity- contains fat in adults  Epiphysis- end of bone- thin compact bone surrounds internal spongy bone

cover on top. However.  Functioning Growth Plate  If you break a bone – it happens in the middle.remnant of epiphyseal plate. They break down bone structure. the shape/tear process keep on going for months after wards.destroying cells= osteoclasts = come in and tear down new bone. Genic = NEW = OSTEOGENIC = New Bone PROCESS: osteoCLASTS come in and tear down new bone. 6 weeks to heal and broken bone.New cartilage. Ostim – Bone)  White double layered membrane covering outer surface of diaphysis  Outer layer is dense irregular CT ( dense – multiple layers. OsteoClasts = take calcium out of the bones everyday. Osteo = BONE.  and bone. Epiphyseal line. Irregular – multiple directions – meaning less tearing.  Growth plates are at the Ends of the bone.)  Inner layer is osteogenic layer consisting of  bone. Structure o Periosteum  Contains many nerve fibers and blood vessels. Structure o Periosteum ( peri.. nonfunctioning growth plate  PLATE: Where bones grow . Cartilage becomes bone. This process takes approx.forming cells= osteoblasts. which enter the bone through nutrient foramina  Anchored to the bone by Sharpey’s fibers (collagen fibers)  Provides anchoring point for tendons and ligaments .growth plate (ossified. OSTEOBLASTS come back to make New bone and OSTEOCLASTS come back to shape/Tear.

meaning Periostium provides blood and nerve supply the Hole in the Bone also known as the flat bones.compact bone is called lamellar bone  Collagen fibers in any lamella run parallel  Collagen fibers in next lamella run in different direction Structure.Compact bone Osteons o Inside osteon is central canal= Haversian canal.contains blood vessels and nerves . o Canals go through bone o Structural unit is osteon (Haversian system)  Consists of concentric hollow tubes.Structure o Endosteum  CT membrane covering internal bone surfaces  Covers trabeculae of spongy bone – each of trabeculae is covered by the ENDOSTEUM.contains red marrow in infantschanges to yellow marrow in adults. ( yellow marrow is FAT and doesn’t make NEW CELLS ) o Most red marrow is found in epiphyses and in diploe of flat bones (sternum) and in irregular bones (hipbones) (structure is compact)  – bone is living tissue.each tube is called lamella.  Lines canals in compact bone o Articular cartilage  Hyaline cartilage covers ends of bone Structure o Other bones consist of thin plates of compact bone with spongy bone inside. spongy layer= diploe o Medullary cavity.

You need energy for sustaining growth. Women grow gradually – they don’t eat as much as boys. lacunae osteocyte. Thyroid – regulates metabolism Thyroid producing energy necessary for growth. Boys grow fater – they eat more. Osteons o Osteocytes lie in lacunae. Blood supply starts at peristium. of fat extra on body makes the heart pump 5 more miles of blood. sOnce growth plates OSSIFY = GROWTH STOPS.o Secondary canals run at right angles to lamellae= Volkmann’s canals  Connect vascular supply of periosteum to the central canal  All canals are lined with endosteum s Pathway is peristium. s sPuberty – growth spurts.cavities at junctions of lamellae o Small canals called canaliculi connect lamellae to each other o Incomplete lamellae called interstitial lamellae fill spaces between osteons Interstitial lamellae – are in between the osteons ( THEY help STABALIZE) s1 lb. Structure. canliclus.Spongy Bone . central. volkman.

 Osteoid. Composition o Organic  Contributes to strength and flexibility of bone. glycoproteins.o Seems poorly organized compared to compact bone o Trabeculae are carefully arranged to resist stress (ie: wrists. Clavicles are collar bones.) and ossification ( changing pre-existing cartiliage into bone) begin at 6-8 weeks of age o Embryo skeleton is hyaline cartilage or fibrous membrane o Membrane bone forms from fibrous membrane. arms and legs re weight bearing bones) o No osteons – ( osteons are only for compact bone) Composition o Organic and inorganic( NON LIVING) components o Organic ( LIVING)  Cells *Osteoblasts *Osteoclasts – take calcium out of bone. and collagen ( THESE give strength and support to bone structure. . ( they break down calcium phosphate – calcium is part of a larger molecule) *Osteocytes – these are mature bone part of matrix *Contains proteoglycans. Healing bone etc.mostly Ca3(PO4 )2 Growth o Osteogenesis ( making new bone as were growing or breaking bone. ankles.process is intramembranous ossification ( forms mostly flat bones)  Skull and clavicles= flat bones. ( we can bend bones to a certain extent without breaking them) o Inorganic  Contains ( calcium phosphate )hydroxyapatites (mineral salts).

). and leaves only articular cartilage( which stays forever) and the epiphyseal plate o Growth occurs entirely at epiphyseal plate ( length wide growth continues until growth plates fill in. medullary cavity. s o Ossification proceeds.Growth o Cartilage bone  Formed from hyaline cartilage by endochondral ossification = intramembranous ossification. and two cartilaginous epiphyses – Long diaphysis – only at birth & changes in a couple months. Growth Growth plates are cartildge o At birth.  Most skeletal bones are cartilage bones  Endochondral begins later than intramembranous ossification (engochondral) -At birth the arms and legs. but bones grow in width by appositional growth ( can grow almost forever) Growth o Stops at 18 in females and 21 in males o Appositional growth can continue . (intramembranous) -Skull bones are the 1st thing to start ossify. long bones have long diaphysis surrounding spongy bone.

secreted by anterior pituitary gland – ( small gland = can’t produce much hormone. or when strength is required. sex hormones initially spur growth. They become heavier in density. get precipitation( gets solid and attaches to bones) and produces hydroxyapatite _( o Alkaline phosphatase (mineral salt. Genetics determine starting point. They are the mediator agents.calcium phosphate) is also necessary Homeostasis . product= [Ca+2]3 x [ PO4-3]2 o When product reaches threshhold.o Controlled by hormones  Growth hormone during infancy and childhood. but may involve precipitation product o Ppt.)  Thyroid hormones modify and moderate growth hormone – ( exercise raises metabolic rate. – ( when increased muscle= pulls on bones increasing them in size.) Growth o Growth hormone  triggers growth factors in liver called somatomedins  Somatomedins ( cause growth) stimulate growth plates ( they are the in-betweens pituary and the BONES & MUSCLES. o Trigger for bone deposit is unknown. and then ossification of growth plates Bone Homeostasis o 1/2 gram Ca+2 enters or leaves each day o Bone deposit and bone resorption= remodeling occurs constantly o Young adults have constant bone mass o Bone deposit occurs after injury. o At puberty.

increases blood calcium. Hormonal Control o Parathyroid hormone.) Wolff’s Law .from bones.Bone deposits Build Up Bones.. = deactivating enzyme take out calcium. muscle and nerve activity.PTH  From parathyroid gland  PTH is released when blood Ca+2 is low  Osteoclasts are stimulated by PTH to cause resorption  Resorption causes Ca+2 release from bone matrix PTH stimulates osteoclasts.  Produced by thyroid gland  Calcitonin is released when blood Ca+2 is high  Calcitonin inhibits bone resorption and causes Ca+2 deposit in bone Calcium o Calcium is needed for enzyme activity.coverted from cholesterol.D is in skin. And its broken down to an ION again. Homeostasis o Resorption ( removing calcium by breaking down bone) is done by osteoclasts o Osteoclasts secrete digestive enzymes and metabolic acids to solubilize Ca+2 salts Calcium phosphate is a SOLID. Hormonal Control o Calcitonin – lowers blood calcium by putting calcium back into bones. It also stimulates osteoblasts. membranes. (vit. o Absorption from intestines is controlled by vitamin D. causes bone resorption.

bone ends are realigned by physician’s hands (takes approx.large quantity of cell death. o Not everybody believes in this Fractures o Treated by reduction.) Fractures o Blood vessels are broken during fracture o Hemorrhaging occurs o 1: Hematoma (blood clot) occurs ( 1) blood clot in the bone o Bone cells die.restablation of blood .o Mechanism -that causes bone to grow in response to stress put upon it.realignment of the broken bone ends. o Inflammation occurs – happens anytime theres tissue damage o Lasts about four days – damage control. – blood supply is lost. the more you grow the bone..) Fractures o o o o o Four cell types are involved Endothelial cells ( inside of the bone) Fibroblasts ( makes CT proper -making fibers) Osteoblasts Osteoclasts ( sNecrosis.replacement tissue o Capillaries grow into hematoma. Fractures *( repair process) o Formation of granulation tissue. and you have to pin the pieces together.(so the bone heals straight)  Closed reduction. 6 weeks for recovery)  Open reduction. The more you use the is done and the ends are held in place with pins. ( bone is shattered. Recovery time is unlimited.

fixed via good nutrition. there is little estrogen = things break down o To counteract this.but more severe in children. ! Osteomalacia – Dietary Problem o Bones are soft.. o Fibroblasts and osteoblasts migrate into area to produce collagen fibers that span the o Macrophages enter and clean up debris. get calcium while still 25-40. o Excessive bone resorption (. o Same as rickets in children.bearing bones soften and bend.bones are still increasing in density o Exercise o Fluoridated water – biggest influence.poorly mineralized o Weight.form spongy bone o 2: Entire mass is called fibrocartilaginous callus- Fractures splints the bones (2) o Osteoblasts and osteoclasts migrate into the fibrocartilaginous callus o 3: Bony callus is formed from the fibrocartilaginous callus o Begins 3-4 weeks after the injury o 4: Remodelling then occurs over several months Diseases o Osteoporosis – hormonal problem  Occurs most often in aged women  Estrogen helps to maintain health and density of skeleton  After menopause.taking calcium away) and Paget’s Disease . because bones are still growing.legs are bent.clean up the Mess.

o o o o formation Leads to bone softening and weakening Irregular bone thicknesses and gaps Usually localized to spine. pelvis. skull Occurs after age of 40 in both sexes .

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