Bulk carrier


Bulk carrier

The Sabrina I is a modern Handymax bulk carrier. Class overview Name: Freighter

Subclasses: Handymax, Handysize, Panamax, Capesize Built: Active: c. 1850–present 6,225 vessels over 10,000 long tons deadweight (DWT) General characteristics Type: Cargo ship

Propulsion: 2-stroke diesel engine and 1 propeller Capacity: Notes: up to 364,000 DWT Rear house, full hull, series of large hatches

Plans of a geared Handymax bulker

A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship specially designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal, ore, and cement in its cargo holds. Since the first specialized bulk carrier was built in 1852, economic forces have fueled the development of these ships, causing them to grow in size and sophistication. Today's bulkers are specially designed to maximize capacity, safety, efficiency, and to be able to withstand the rigors of their work. Today, bulkers make up 40% of the world's merchant fleets and range in size from single-hold mini-bulkers to mammoth ore ships able to carry 400,000 metric tons of deadweight (DWT). A number of specialized designs exist: some can unload their own cargo, some depend on port facilities for unloading, and some even package the cargo as it is loaded. Over half of all bulkers have Greek, Japanese, or Chinese owners and more than a quarter are registered

In the first method. Bulk cargo can be very dense.[7] Then.[5] History Before specialized bulk carriers existed. the problem of efficient loading and unloading has driven the evolution of the bulk carrier. Lower hopper tank. and 82% of these ships were built in Asia. The use of ships that are old and have corrosion problems has been linked to a spate of bulker sinkings in the 1990s. and "O/O" is used for combination oil and ore carriers.[6] The second method required the shipper to charter an entire ship and spend time and money to build plywood bins into the holds. and a ballasting system which used seawater instead of sandbags.[7] These methods were slow and labor intensive. Double bottom 5. Cargo hold 2. the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea defines a bulk carrier as "a ship constructed with a single deck. shippers had two methods to move bulk goods by ship. Upper hopper tank for water ballast or oil 4." "VLBC. This can present safety problems: cargo shifting. longshoremen loaded the cargo into sacks. most classification societies use a broader definition where a bulker is any ship that carries dry unpackaged goods." "ULOC. A bulk carrier's crew participates in the loading and unloading of cargo. carried nitrates. and oil.[6] The first steam ship recognized as a bulk carrier was the British coal carrier SS John Bowes in 1852. for water ballast A number of abbreviations are used to describe bulkers. stacked the sacks onto pallets. Very small bulkers are almost indistinguishable from general cargo ships. shown here in 1905." and "ULBC" for very large and ultra large ore and bulk carriers were adapted from the supertanker designations very large crude carrier and ultra large crude carrier. or liquefied petroleum gas carriers. Loading and unloading the cargo is difficult. chemical. 1. "OBO" describes a bulker which carries a combination of ore. As with the container ship. The four-masted barque Pamir. and to streamline the process of abandoning ship.[3] Multipurpose cargo ships can carry bulk cargo. corn. bulk. or abrasive. and barley. New international regulations have since been introduced to improve ship design and inspection. and they are often classified based more on the ship's use than its design."[2] However. wooden feeders and shifting boards had to be constructed. to guide the cargo through the small hatches. Cross section of a typical bulker. but can also carry other cargoes and are not specifically designed for bulk carriage. 2 Definition There are various ways to define the term bulk carrier. an ore carrier. navigating the ship. Hatch cover 3. and put the pallets into the cargo hold with a crane. corrosive.Bulk carrier in Panama. or a combination carrier. dangerous. As of 1999. The term "dry bulk carrier" is used to distinguish bulkers from bulk liquid carriers such as oil.[8] [9] She featured a metal hull. Crews can range in size from three people on the smallest ships to over 30 on the largest. and keeping its machinery and equipment properly maintained. and cargo saturation can threaten a ship. and can take up to 120 hours on larger ships. Specialized bulk carriers began to appear as steam-powered ships became more popular. spontaneous combustion.[4] The terms "VLOC. top side tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces and intended to primarily carry dry cargo in bulk.[8] These features helped her succeed . as have the bulker's large hatchways. a steam engine. important for efficient cargo handling. Korea is the largest single builder of bulkers.

[22] Very large bulk and ore carriers fall into the capesize category but are often considered separately.[8] After World War II.000 60.[3] These two segments represent 71% of all bulk carriers over 10.000 35.[24] Handymax ships are typically 150–200 m in length and 52. the maximum length that can load in the port of Kamsar in the Republic of Guinea. ocean bulkers became larger and more specialized. limestone.000 DWT with five cargo holds and four cranes. and Newcastlemax also appear in regional trade. and self-unloaders became more common to cut turnaround time. panamax. and an almost equal amount of coal. such as Kamsarmax. handysize. capesize. They are often built to be able to pass under bridges and have small crews of three to eight people. Dunkirkmax. and very large.[11] Due to the economics of this trade. a record 214 million ton of bulk cargo were moved on the Great Lakes. built in the 1970s. bulkers hauled vast amounts of ore from the northern mines to the steel mills. Setouchmax.000 – 58. which was introduced in 1905. were among the longest ships afloat and in 1979. particularly between the European countries.[3] These ships are also general purpose in nature. have a single hold.[16] 3 Categories Size categories Major bulk carrier size categories Name Size in [17] DWT 10.4M Bulkers are segregated into six major size categories: small.[24] This is partly due to new regulations coming into effect which put greater constraints on the building of larger vessels.[8] The first self-unloader was the lake freighter Hennepin in 1902 on the Great Lakes. with a maximum length of 229 meters. the United States and Japan.000 to 35. and are designed for river transport. a capesize bulk carrier approaches the Egyptian-Japanese Mini-bulkers are prevalent in the category of small vessels with a Friendship Bridge capacity of under 10.500 tons. Mini-bulkers carry from 500 to 2.[14] Two defining characteristics of bulkers were already emerging: the double bottom.[23] Other terms such as Seawaymax.Bulk carrier in the competitive British coal market. Handysize and Handymax ships are general purpose in nature.[22] Post-deepening of the Suez Canal. This greatly decreased the unloading time of bulkers by using conveyor belt to move the cargo.[8] and the triangular structure of the ballast tanks.[12] [15] In this period. on the Great Lakes.000 DWT and also have the highest rate of growth.[13] However.000 to 80.000 to 59.[3] .000 DWT. 73 million tons of iron ore was transported on the Lakes. The thousand-footers of the Great Lakes fleets.[10] The first bulkers with diesel propulsion began to appear in 1911. to maximize economies of scale.000 80. Great Lakes freighters increased in size. which was adopted in 1890. In 1929.000 and over Ships [18] Traffic [19] New Used [20] [21] price price $28M $28M Handysize Handymax Panamax Capesize 34% 37% 19% 10% 18% 20% 62% $35M $59M $34M $68.[8] [9] Before World War II. Other categories occur in regional trade. the international shipping demand for bulk products was low—about 25 million tons for metal ores[11] [12] —and most of this trade was coastal. an international bulk trade began to develop among industrialized nations. handymax. and other products were also moved.

As of 2005.) Combined carriers are designed to transport both liquid and dry bulk cargoes. (Photo: The John B.000 DWT or over. . Aird a self-discharging lake freighter.[22] Carriers of this size are almost always designed to carry iron ore.[3] Some ships on the Great Lakes Waterway exceed Panamax dimensions but they are limited to use on the Great Lakes as they cannot pass through the smaller St. these ships suffer much less [27] corrosion damage and have a much longer lifespan than saltwater ships. Recent deepening of the Suez canal to 66 ft (20 m) permits most capesize ships to pass through it. Very large ore carriers and very large bulk carriers are a subset of the capesize category reserved for vessels over 200. but their numbers have dwindled since 1990. and maintaining cranes. capesize ships could not traverse the Suez and needed to go around the Cape of Good Hope. is a BIBO bulker. like all bulkers they feature a series of holds covered by prominent hatch covers. (Photo: Edmund Fitzgerald. They have cranes. (Photo: A typical geared handysize bulk carrier.04 m. the larger bulk carriers (VLOCs) can only dock at the largest ports. (Photo: The oil pipeline and dry bulk hold aboard the Maya. The use of gearless bulkers avoids the costs of installing. operating. Bags Out" bulkers are equipped to bag cargo as it is unloaded. Combined carriers require special design and are expensive. In one hour. and a draft of up to 12.) Selfdischargers are bulkers with conveyor belts. some of these are designed with a single port-to-port trade in mind. These ships depend on shore-based equipment at their ports of call for loading and discharging.[22] 4 General types General Bulk Carrier Types Illustration Description Geared bulk carriers are typically in the handysize to handymax size range although there are a small number of geared panamax vessels. a length overall of up to 294. there were [28] 98 lakers of 10.000 DWT. a Great Lakes bulker.000 ton gearless bulker. This gives geared bulkers flexibility in the cargoes they can carry and the routes they can travel.31 m. This allows them to discharge their cargo quickly and efficiently.[26] Capesize bulkers are specialized: 93% of their cargo is iron ore and coal.Bulk carrier The size of a Panamax vessel is limited by the Panama canal's lock chambers. this ship can unload 300 tons of [29] bulk sugar and package it into 50 kg sacks. a 225.) Gearless carriers are bulkers without cranes or conveyors. or with the use of an excavator that is fitted on a traverse running over the vessel's entire hatch. they are segregated in separate holds and tanks. They range across all sizes. If both are carried simultaneously. Earlier. derricks or conveyors that allow them to load or discharge cargo in ports without shore-based equipment. which can accommodate ships with a beam of up to 32. The CHL Innovator. and that is able to move sideways as well. Operating in fresh water.[25] Capesize ships are too large to traverse the Panama canal and must round Cape Horn to travel between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. shown in the photo. (Photo:Berge Athen. Lawrence Seaway to the ocean.13 m.) Lakers are the bulkers prominent on the Great Lakes.) BIBO or "Bulk In. They were prevalent in the 1970s. often identifiable by having a forward house which helps in transiting locks.

representing less than 3% of this capacity. and China are the top three owners of bulk carriers.[37] These three nations account for over 53% of the world's fleet. Malta (435).[28] Including smaller ships.[40] The H. than any four other flag states combined.[32] Combined carriers are a very small portion of the fleet.d. Germany operates a fleet of 19 bulkers. carried a tenth of the world's bulk cargo because of the short trip distance and fast turnarounds. from 1977 to 1999 As of 2005. Malta.[1] Bulk carriers by flag state [36] (source data) Largest fleets Greece. The multinational company Gearbulk Holding Ltd. with 1. Cyprus (373). the average bulker was just over 13 years old.[32] The lake freighters of the Great Lakes.[39] Croatia's Atlantska Plovidba d.4% in terms of vessels. has over 70 bulkers. with 1. with 98 ships of 3.[42] Dampskibsselskabet Torm in Denmark and Elcano in Spain also own notable bulker fleets.041.703 ships.[38] The Fednav Group in Canada operates a fleet of over 80 bulkers. owns 10 bulkers. bauxite. and Cyprus. Japan.[45] . bulkers have a total combined capacity of almost 346 million DWT. including two designed to work in Arctic ice. Greece. has a fleet of 14 bulkers. the top five flag states also include Hong Kong with 492 ships. 33% were over twenty years old. despite forming a small fraction of the total fleet by tonnage and only operating 10 months a year. and phosphate was transported by ship. and the remaining 26% were between ten and twenty years of age. in Turkey owns a fleet of seven mini-bulkers. 1.[1] In terms of the number of bulk carriers registered.000 DWT. 1.[1] More bulkers are registered in Panama.2 million total DWT. and China (371).[43] Other companies specialize in mini-bulker operations: England's Stephenson Clarke Shipping Limited owns a fleet of eight mini-bulkers and five small Handysize bulkers. grain. iron ore.[44] and Cornships Management and Agency Inc.[28] [33] Growth of bulk carrier deadweight tonnage in green and percentage of bulkers to the entire fleet [30] in red.[37] Several companies have large private bulker fleets. Positions two through five are held by Hong Kong. the United States Maritime Administration counted 6.[41] Portline in Portugal.[31] Today.[34] All of the 98 bulkers registered in the Great Lakes trade are over 20 years old and the oldest still sailing in 2009 was 106-years old. Vogemann Group in Hamburg. and represent 40% of all ships in terms of tonnage and 39.7 billion metric tons of coal. the world's bulker fleet includes 6.000 DWT or greater worldwide.225 ships of over 10. and 979 vessels respectively.225 bulkers of 10.[34] About 41% of all bulkers were less than ten years old.326.[35] Flag states As of 2005.Bulk carrier 5 Fleet characteristics The world's bulk transport has reached immense proportions: in 2005.[1] Panama also dominates bulker registration in terms of deadweight tonnage.

ranked third. the ship's size. 1 -2nd Asst. Engr. 1 – 3. almost 700 ships were scrapped in places like Alang.[3] South Korea.[47] Hauling a panamax-sized load of aggregate materials from the Gulf of Mexico to Japan that year could cost as little as $40 per ton to as much as $70 per ton. lead. along with the type of cargo. This is often done by 'beaching' the ship on open sand. 0 – 2-QMED/Jr.[46] Taiwan. Bangladesh[48] . between $340 and $350 per LDT.000 – $70. with 509 ships.000 per day. bulkers fetched particularly high scrap prices.[48] Ship-owners and buyers negotiate scrap prices based on factors such as the ship's empty weight (called light ton displacement or LDT) and prices in the scrap metal market.[47] That year. with large shipyards such as Dalian.7% of the year's scrapping. and various chemicals. Chengxi. a dangerous operation that results in injuries and fatalities. Of the world's 6. with notable shipyards Daewoo and Hyundai Heavy Industries. India and Chittagong.[50] [51] [52] Half a million deadweight tons of worth of bulk carriers were scrapped in 2004. Seamen Engine department 1 -Chief Engineer 1 -1st Asst.[3] ranked fourth.[46] Freight charges Several factors affect the cost to move a bulk cargo by ship. The People's Republic of China.[47] Operation Crew Typical bulk carrier crew Captain/Master Deck department 1 -Chief Officer 1 -2nd Officer 1 -3rd Officer 1 -Boatswain 2 – 6-Able Seamen 0 – 2-Ord. almost 62% were built in Japan[46] by shipyards such as Oshima Shipbuilding and Sanoyas Hishino Meisho.Bulk carrier 6 Builders Asian companies dominate the construction of bulk carriers. with shipyards such as China Shipbuilding Corporation. Engr. as well as exposure to toxic materials such as asbestos.000 per day. then cutting it apart by hand with gas torches. and a Capesize for $40. accounting for 129 ships. ships are removed from the fleet go through a process known as ship breaking or scrapping. the average daily rate for a Handymax ship varied between $18. paying a daily rate instead of a set price per ton.[47] In 2005.Oiler 0 – 3-Greaser/s 1 – 3-Entry-level Steward's department 1-Chief Steward 1-Chief Cook 1-Stwd's Asst .000.000 – $30.[47] Ship breaking Generally. accounting for 4.[46] Shipyards in these top four countries built over 82% of the bulkers afloat. and Shanghai Waigaoqiao. with 643 ships. The bulk freight market is very volatile.[3] ranked second among builders. and the route traveled all affect the final price.225 bulkers. Engr. Engr 1 – 2-3rd Asst.[47] A Panamax ship could be chartered for $20.000 – $50. Moving a capesize load of coal from South America to Europe cost anywhere from $15 to $25 per ton in 2005.[49] In 1998.[47] Some shippers choose instead to charter a ship. and it fluctuates.

though smaller ships can be handled by 8. represent a widely used method.000 tons per hour.[54] Compared with the 12-hour turnarounds common for container ships. Leveling is particularly important when . Occasionally loading errors are made that cause a ship to capsize or break in half at the pier. Aboard a coastal carrier in the tramp trade. For modern gantry cranes.[56] The loading method used depends on both the cargo and the equipment available on the ship and on the dock. compared to 35 hours for a lumber carrier of similar size.[57] [58] Start-up and shutdown procedures with conveyor belts.000 tons per hour. A study of mini-bulkers found that it takes.[54] The study showed that crew performance aboard bulk carriers was the lowest of all groups studied.[59] The immense size of cargo holds and the tendency of cargoes to be physically irritating add to the difficulty of cleaning the holds. The process is planned by the ship's captain. bulker crews have more opportunities to spend time ashore. although the most advanced ports can offer rates of 16. the engineering department. This system is being replaced with faster. International regulations require that the captain and terminal master agree on a detailed plan before operations begin. bulkers spend more time in port than other ships.Bulk carrier The crew on a bulker typically consists of 20 to 30 people. less labor-intensive methods.[54] This time in port increases to 74 hours for Handymax and 120 hours for Panamax vessels.[54] Crews on better-maintained ships performed better. the deck department. routes and cargoes often vary. When the holds are clean. as did crews on ships where fewer languages were spoken. on average. is very rare today and almost non-existent on bulkers. twice as much time to unload a ship as it does to load it. though.[55] Deck officers and stevedores oversee the operations.000 tons per hour. often with assistance from the chief mate.[57] Double-articulation cranes. A ship may engage in the grain trade during the harvest season and later move on to carry other cargoes or work on a different route.[54] Among bulker crews. and to return to take the next. the crew begins to clean the holds. This is particularly important if the next cargo is of a different type. machines such as excavators and bulldozers are often used to keep the cargo in check. which can load at a rate of 1. and the steward's department. bulkers were involved in an alarming number of shipwrecks. and 26-hour turnarounds for large tankers.[58] Self-discharging ships use conveyor belts with load rates of around 1. reaching 2. the best performance was found aboard younger and larger ships.[54] A mini-bulker carries two to three deck officers.[7] As the hold is filled. are complicated and require time to carry out. cargo can be loaded with shovels or bags poured from the hatch cover. is growing. 15-hour turnarounds for car carriers.[3] Conveyor belts offer a very efficient method of loading.[57] and the use of shore-based gantry cranes. the total time of the grab-deposit-return cycle is about 50 seconds. while larger Handysize and Capesize bulkers carry four. The crew includes the captain or master. It is crucial to keep the cargo level during loading in order to maintain stability.[53] During the 1990s. deposit it at the terminal. The practice of taking passengers aboard cargo ships.[54] Liquid natural gas tankers of the same size have an additional deck officer and unlicensed mariner.[54] A mini-bulker spends 55 hours at a time in port. In the least advanced ports.[54] Loading and unloading Loading and unloading a bulker is time-consuming and dangerous. the process of loading begins.000 tons per hour. with standard loading rates varying between 100 and 700 tons per hour.[54] 7 Voyages A bulker's voyages are determined by market forces. This led ship-owners to commission a study seeking to explain the effect of various factors on the crew's effectiveness and competence.[54] Fewer deck officers are employed on bulkers than on similarly sized ships of other types. once almost universal. the crew will often not know the next port of call until the cargo is fully loaded.[57] A crane's discharge rate is limited by the bucket's capacity (from 6 to 40 tons) and by the speed at which the crane can take a load.[57] Once the cargo is discharged. Because bulk cargo is so difficult to discharge.

Densities for common bulk cargoes vary from 0. a technique called tomming is used. since cargo is more likely to shift.2. For example.[3] The ratio of length-to-height will be between 11 and 12.nl Architecture Examples of bulker architectural plans Line plan of a 1990 Capesize ore carrier. The gantry crane moves the cargo to a bin on the pier. A bulk carrier's design is largely defined by the cargo it will carry. For most designs. is the key factor. a vessel that will pass the Panama Canal will be limited in its beam and draft.[3] The overall cargo weight is the limiting factor in the design of an ore carrier. Coal carriers. The gantry crane picks up the cargo. also known as its stowage factor.[60] Extra precautions are taken.[3] . Typical midship section of a bulker with a single hull and double bottom.[3] For a given tonnage. [61] . such as adding longitudinal divisions and securing wood atop the cargo. The bulldozer pushes cargo to the center of the hold. The gantry crane removes the cargo from the ship. A bulldozer is loaded into the hold.[7] 8 A typical bulker offload 1. 3. the second factor which governs the ship's dimensions is the size of the ports and waterways it will travel to. since the cargo is so dense. 5. the ratio of length-to-width ranges between 5 and 7.6 tons per cubic meter for light grains to 3 tons per cubic meter for iron ore.Bulk carrier the hold is only partly full. since most bulkers can be completely filled with coal before reaching their maximum draft. The cargo's density. with an average of 6.[7] which involves digging out a 6 feet (2 m) hole below the hatch cover and filling it with bagged cargo or weights. Photos courtesy of Danny Cornelissen of portpictures. are limited by overall volume. 2. on the other hand.[6] If a hold is full. 4.

maintenance problems due to the supply of ungraded coal. the 1979 energy crisis. and coupled with the propeller via a gear box.[3] A . but large hatches present structural problems.74 tons/m² due to sea water.[62] Hatches A hatch or hatchway is the opening at the top of a cargo hold. The sliding hatchcovers of the Zaira. In general. This standard requires that the pressure due to sea water be calculated as a function of freeboard and speed. An alternator is coupled directly with the propeller shaft. at about 90 revolutions per minute.[59] Hatch covers can slide forwards. under the house and above the fuel tanks. Both of these options have the undesired effect of adding weight to the ship. and these areas must be reinforced.[3] As a result of the 1973 oil crisis. while a bulbous bow allows a ship to move more efficiently through the water.[22] The propeller speed is relatively low. and as a result.Bulk carrier 9 Machinery The engine room on a bulker is usually near the stern.[64] Regulations regarding hatch covers have evolved since the investigation following the loss of the MV Derbyshire. As recently as the 1950s. hatches had wooden covers that would be broken apart and rebuilt by hand.[62] This strategy gave an interesting advantage to carriers of bauxite and similar fuel cargoes. Larger bulkers. and an auxiliary generator is used. These ships were financially effective for the duration of their lives.[3] The average design ship speed for bulkers of Handysize and above is between 13. and 57% to 67% of the length of the holds.[63] Newer vessels have hydraulic-operated metal hatch covers that can often be operated by one person. The Australian National Lines (ANL) constructed 2 74. The International Association of Classification Societies then increased this strength standard by creating its Unified Requirement S21[66] in 1998. are almost universal. from Handymax up. designers lean towards simple vertical bows on larger ships. experimental designs using coal to fuel ships were tested in the late 1970s and early 1980s. or to the side. and their steam engines were able to generate a shaft-power of 19000 horsepower (14000 kW).[3] To efficiently load and unload cargo.700-ton coal-burner ships called the River Boyne and River Embely. have a two-stroke diesel engine which directly moves a single propeller.5 and 15 knots (28 km/h). backwards. rather than opened and closed. and a minimum scantling of 6 mm for the tops of the hatch covers. hatch covers are between 45% and 60% of the ship's breadth. with large block coefficients. or beam. bulkers are inherently slow. hatches must be large.[3] Also. and the resulting rise in oil prices.[66] Hull Bulkers are designed to be easy to build and to store cargo efficiently.[62] along with 2 constructed by TNT called TNT Capricornia and TNT Capentaria and renamed Fitzroy River and Endeavor River. and high initial costs.[65] The Load Line Conference of 1966 imposed a requirement that hatch covers be able to withstand load of 1. It is essential that the hatch covers be watertight: unsealed hatches lead to accidental cargo hold flooding. Comparing a ship's carrying capacity in terms of deadweight tonnage to its weight when empty is one way to measure its efficiency. The mechanical devices which allow hatches to be opened and closed are called hatch covers. lift up or fold up.[3] This is offset by their efficiency. which has caused many bulkers to sink.[3] On the smallest bulkers. bulkers are built with a single hull curvature. but suffered from poor engine yield compared to higher maintenance cost and efficient modern diesels.[58] Often. To facilitate construction. Hull stress is concentrated around the edges of the hatches. one or two four-stroke diesels are used. hatch areas are reinforced by locally increasing the scantlings or by adding structural members called stiffeners. especially for hatch covers located on the forward portion of the ship.[3] Full hulls.

Designers choose the angle of the corner tanks to be less than that of the angle of repose of the anticipated cargoes. since bulkers are already required to have double bottoms.[70] One of the advantages of the double hull is to make room to place all the structural elements in the sides.[73] This approach increases the ship's solidity at key points. A naval architect uses the correlation between longitudinal strength and a set of hull thicknesses called scantlings to manage problems of longitudinal strength and stresses.[67] Some manufacturers have preferred high-tensile steel recently in order to reduce the tare weight. such as hold-bottoms. and then can calculate the required scantlings.[75] In spite of opposition. when partially and fully loaded.[3] Great Lakes bulkers also must be designed to withstand springing. which is useful when carrying light goods: the ship may have to increase its draft for stability or seakeeping reasons. These areas must also be roomy enough to allow people safe access to perform surveys and maintenance. hatch-covers. called Hy-Con.[68] Since April 1. The primary concern is that they be high enough to allow the passage of pipes and cables.[69] Double hulls have become popular in the past ten years. from 0. and the bottoms of ballast tanks. The corner tanks are reinforced and serve another purpose besides controlling the ship's trim.[3] In larger designs. The rules apply to bulkers more than 90 meters in length and require that scantlings' calculations take into account items such as the effect of corrosion.[77] These analyses are conducted when traveling empty. add in safety factors.[13] The double bottoms are also subject to design constraints.[77] The set of dimensions of these members is called the ship's scantlings.[71] This increases the volume of the holds. the use of high-tensile steel for longitudinal and transverse reinforcements can reduce the hull's rigidity and resistance to corrosion. The upper and lower corners of the hold are used as ballast tanks.9 mm. which can cause fatigue fractures. as is the double bottom area. On the other hand.Bulk carrier small Handymax ship can carry five times its weight. seeks to combine the strengths of single-hull and double-hull construction. bulkheads between holds. or "shifting.[78] 10 . Bulker hulls are made of steel. Short for Hybrid Configuration.[3] Places subject to the largest stresses are studied carefully.[13] This greatly reduces side-to-side movement.[3] Bulkers have a cross-section typical of most merchant ships. this design doubles the forward-most and rear-most holds and leaves the others single-hulled.[3] The construction of bulker hulls using a concrete-steel sandwich has been investigated.[77] Naval architects calculate the stresses a ship can be expected to be subjected to. A recent design. double hulls became a requirement for Panamax and Capesize vessels in 2005. or developing resonance with the waves. removing them from the holds. and cleaning.[68] However.[3] Transverse partitions are made of corrugated iron.[3] Designing a vessel with double sides adds primarily to its breadth. and under conditions of temporary overloading. and dynamic stresses during loading. the harsh conditions often found in the North Atlantic. the International Association of Classification Societies has adopted the Common Structural Rules. which is done by adding ballast water. some argue that double-sided ships receive less comprehensive surveys and suffer more from hidden corrosion.5 to 0. loading and unloading. reinforced at the bottom and at connections. 2006. this efficiency is even more pronounced: Capesize vessels can carry over eight times their weight. A ship's hull is composed of individual parts called members.[76] Freighters are in continual danger of "breaking their backs"[77] and thus longitudinal strength is a primary architectural concern.[13] Forged steel is used for some ship parts. while reducing the overall tare weight. and simplifies their structure which helps in loading.[72] Double sides also improve a ship's capacity for ballasting.[74] Since the adoption of double hull has been more of an economic than a purely architectural decision. The rules also establish margins for corrosion. unloading." of cargo which can endanger the ship. usually mild steel. concerns of excess weight and wasted volume keep the double bottoms very tight spaces. such as the propeller shaft support.

The American Bureau of Shipping concluded that the losses were "directly traceable to failure of the cargo hold structure"[27] and Lloyd's Register of Shipping added that the hull sides could not withstand "the combination of local corrosion.[79] Stability problems Cargo shifting poses a great danger for bulkers. 24 bulkers sank. 99 were lost between 1990 and 1997 alone. which.Bulk carrier 11 Safety The 1980s and 1990s were a very unsafe time for bulk carriers. or trimmed. fatigue cracking and operational damage.[83] Structural problems Diagram showing the wreck of the Selendang Ayu.[82] Another sort of risk that can affect dry cargoes. and the double-bottom tank leaks. making it impossible for the crew to escape: more than 650 sailors were lost during this same period.[11] Most of these sinkings were sudden and quick. a series of international safety resolutions regarding bulkers were adopted during the 1990s. Many bulkers sank during this time. causes more cargo to shift. due to a large wave. corrosion.[64] . In 1991. 20 bulk carriers sank. etc. killing 154. the mud created at the bottom of the hold shifts easily and can produce a free surface effect. In 1990 alone.[11] Due partly to the sinking of the MV Derbyshire. since grain settles during a voyage and creates extra space between the top of the cargo and the top of the hold.[83] When very fine concretes and aggregates mix with water. is absorption of ambient moisture.[81] The practice of trimming reduces the amount of the cargo's surface area in contact with air[82] which has a useful side-effect: reducing the chances of spontaneous combustion in cargoes such as coal. a poor seal. They also required cargoes to be leveled. using excavators in the holds.[6] Cargo is then free to move from one side of the ship to the other as the ship rolls. This kind of chain reaction can capsize a bulker very quickly."[84] The accident studies showed a clear pattern:[64] 1.[83] The only way to control these risks is by good ventilation practices and careful monitoring for the presence of water. and a great deal was learned. taking with them 94 crewmen.[84] This level of loss focused attention on the safety aspects of bulk carriers. This can cause the ship to list. in turn.[6] The 1960 SOLAS Convention sought to control this sort of problem.[80] These regulations required the upper ballast tanks designed in a manner to prevent shifting. Sea water enters the forward hatch. The problem is even more pronounced with grain cargoes. and metal shavings. iron.

In December 2002. The case where two after (rear) holds are flooded is no better. If two holds in the middle of the ship are flooded. affected the seals of the hatch covers and the strength of the bulkheads which separate holds.[68] • According to Lloyd's Register. Water enters hold number two and alters the trim so much that more water enters the holds[64] 4. While the new processes are more efficient. because it is thinner than regular steel.Bulk carrier 2. a principal cause was the attitude of ship-owners. The corrosion is difficult to detect due do the immense size of the surfaces involved.[85] [86] 12 • Advanced methods of loading were not foreseen when the ships were designed.[87] The new rules adopted in the 1997 annexes to the SOLAS convention focused on problems such as reinforcing bulkheads and the longitudinal frame. forbidden from carrying certain types of cargoes) to mark their hulls with large. Other contributing factors were identified: • Most shipwrecks involved ships over 20 years in age.[89] One argument against the use of free-fall lifeboats is that the evacuees require "some degree of physical mobility. caused by an overestimate of the growth of international trade. even fitness" to enter and launch the boat.[6] The 1997 additions also required bulkers with restrictions (for instance. These unexpected shocks. for example.[90] Launch of a free-fall lifeboat.[64] 3. more stringent inspections (with a particular focus on corrosion) and routine in-port inspections.[6] This arrangement allows the crew to abandon ship quickly in case of a catastrophic emergency. occasionally resulting in overloading the ship.[6] • Corrosion. HT steel can corrode though more easily. who sent ships with known problems to sea.[90] Also. shipping companies were compelled on cost grounds to keep their aging vessels in service. injuries have occurred during launches. but did not guard against situations where two holds would flood. in the case of incorrectly secured safety belts. Chapter XII of the SOLAS convention was amended to require the installation of high-level water alarms and . A glut of ships of this age occurred in the 1980s. plus it can develop metal fatigue in choppy seas. leaving the ship without propulsion. However.[88] Crew safety Since December 2004. Panamax and Capesize bulkers have been required to carry free-fall lifeboats located on the stern. over time. the stress on the hull can become so great that the ship snaps in two. leaving little time for the crew to react. With two holds rapidly filling with water. the bow submerges and the ship quickly sinks.[58] Selendang Ayu suffered a catastrophic fracture in number 4 hold in December 2004. due to a lack of maintenance. The extra water weight in hold number one compromises the partition to hold number two. Rather than replace them prematurely. • Recent use of high-tensile steel in construction enables buildings to retain the similar strength with less material and weight. loading is more difficult to control (it can take over an hour just to halt the operation). easy-to-see triangles. because the engine room is quickly flooded.[64] Previous practices had required ships to withstand the flooding of a single forward hold. can damage the hull's structural integrity. behind the house.

2006:6. United Nations Ocean Atlas. oceansatlas. perryballard. fr/ ad210w00/ memoires/ 99/ m99dubr. [13] "IMO and the safety of bulk carriers" (http:/ / www. html) on September 4. pdf). Retrieved 2008-05-06. Le Transport maritime des céréales (http:/ / junon. Retrieved 2007-04-12. Reuters Africa. [21] UNCTAD 2006. Port of Rijeka.reuters. usace. trans-inst. Retrieved 2007-04-09. 2003.[6] In cases of catastrophic flooding. these detectors could speed the process of abandoning ship. p. [4] "Maritime Glossary" (http:/ / web. lrfairplay. . Thompson. p. The Transportation Institute. org/ Ship). This is measured in terms of the tonnage of cargo carried multiplied by the distance traveled. Thompson. doc) DOC. Retrieved 2008-05-05. [31] UNCTAD 2006. Tsuneishi Corp. [14] Steamboats & sailors of the Great Lakes (http:/ / books. eagle. tsuneishi. oceansatlas. 2008. org/ web/ 20080415134847/ http:/ / www. January 2006. asp/ data_id=7987/ BULK99. 2003:5–13. pdf). US Army Corps of Engineers. u-3mrs. archive. . 2007. [18] From Lamb. [3] Lamb. . org/ seawords. com). 1999:1. . The Rise of the Self-unloading Freighter (http:/ / www. p. 1999:6. com/ books?id=KRLZDXIEWCsC& pg=PA26& lpg=PA26& dq=great+ lakes+ ore+ 1930+ ton& source=bl& ots=Pd2uSk2sEn& sig=ERNy-XXWpnZ9GWfeWgWUZp8Pwnc& hl=en& ei=xykMS87OFtWCnQevvuDCAw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CBgQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q=great lakes ore 1930 ton& f=false). [19] From Lamb. 1999: 1. Retrieved 2007-04-12. [32] UNCTAD 2006. 3-4. American Bureau of Shipping. . for example. upgrade helps" (http:/ / af. [33] Great Lakes Navigation System: Economic Strength to the Nation (http:/ / www. google. 1911encyclopedia. [12] "Bulk Carriers" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-04-12. 42. [26] "Egypt's Suez canal H1 revenue. mil/ ETSPubs/ HFS/ Great Lakes Navigation-Economic Strength to the Nation. 28. [7] Hayler. The Nautical Institute. 1991. com/ pdfs/ curriculum_guide. eagle. This safety measure quickly alerts watch standers on the bridge and in the engine room in case of flooding in the holds. org/ regulatory/ regupdate/ msc70/ bulk. htm#o) on April 15. p. htm). [10] Shipwrecks . 26. ISBN 978-0-8143-2359-5 [15] International Maritime Organization. 2006:2. 26 July 2010.11. 11 – 12. lukarijeka. 2.. 41. co. Price for new vessel $M in 2005. traffic up.4. London: Lloyd's. . International Maritime Organization. [9] "Ship" (http:/ / www.com). Retrieved 26 March 2011. nautinst. xii. p. pp. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2003. 2006 [34] UNCTAD 2006. [29] "CHL INNOVATOR" (http:/ / www. htm). ISBN 978-0-8143-2359-5 [17] Ranges vary slightly. org/ includes/ blastDataOnly. Mark L. See also graph and table at Wikipedia commons. 2003 and the 2005 CIA World Factbook. 23. html). [28] Office of Data and Economic Analysis.Bulk carrier monitoring systems on all bulkers. [2] "Maritime Safety Committee's 70th Session. MAN Diesel Group 2005. United Nations Atlas of the Oceans. jp/ tess/ factbook. google. [30] Lloyd's Register World Fleet Statistics Tables (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Five year old ship in $M in 2005. pdf) (PDF). Mark L. com/ books?id=KRLZDXIEWCsC& pg=PA26& lpg=PA26& dq=great+ lakes+ ore+ 1930+ ton& source=bl& ots=Pd2uSk2sEn& sig=ERNy-XXWpnZ9GWfeWgWUZp8Pwnc& hl=en& ei=xykMS87OFtWCnQevvuDCAw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CBgQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q=great lakes ore 1930 ton& f=false). . org/ info/ acrnm_abbrev. army. org/ regulatory/ regupdate/ msc70/ bulk. p. . . [8] Bruno-Stéphane Duron. [5] "Acronyms and Abbreviations" (http:/ / www. reuters. . 2006:1. [20] UNCTAD 2006. 1911 Encoclopedia Britannica. The Naval Architect. January 1999" (http:/ / web. FIN.Improving Cargo Safety" (http:/ / www. 2005. [35] Office of Data and Economic Analysis. com/ article/ idAFJOE66P09P20100726). 13 Notes [1] Office of Data and Economic Analysis. UNCTAD 2006. Thomson Reuters (af. org/ seawords. [22] MAN Diesel Group. [16] Steamboats & sailors of the Great Lakes (http:/ / books. [25] Autoridad del Canal de Panamá 2005. htm).A Deep Look. 1999. 2000. p. . . org/ web/ 20070904190443/ http:/ / www. lre. html). html). htm#o). Retrieved 2007-04-12. [24] "Handysize re-vamp: the next move in bulk carriers?". [27] International Maritime Organization. trans-inst. archive. Retrieved 2007-04-09. [23] "Kamsarmax 82BC" (http:/ / www. p. The Heritage Museum and Cultural Center (HMCC) and Michigan Shipwreck Research Associates [11] International Maritime Organization. imo. [6] "Bulk Carrier . 21. and could be expressed in terms of (miles x tons). Croatia. mémoire de DESS. p. p. 1991. hr/ en/ Archive/ 2007/ july2007-1. com/ unatlas/ issues/ safety_at_sea/ bulk_carrier/ bulk_carrier. org/ unatlas/ uses/ transportation_telecomm/ maritime_trans/ shipworld/ cargo_car/ bulk/ bulk_carriers. Retrieved 2007-04-09.

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(http:/ / www. hr/ fleet/ fleet. jp/ en/ bc_lineup/ handymax.gov.. uk/ news/ world/ asia/ alang-the-place-where-ships-go-to-die-1779656. org/ includes/ blastDataOnly. . November 2005. Oshima Shipbuilding Co. imo.1. co. osy. [60] George.. .d. html). .3. Retrieved 2008-04-22. html). [57] Packard. Paul J. [51] OSHA (US Govt). Cornships Management & Agency Inc. org/ web/ 20060430004211/ http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-04-21. org/ includes/ blastDataOnly. [49] Maritime Transport Coordination Platform (November 2006). [72] Det Norske Veritas (28). php?nid=104585). 14 .. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. co. Retrieved 2009 9 12. p. . 2006:4. jp/ en/ bc_lineup/ hy-con. "Safety still missing" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009 9 12. [58] International Maritime Organization. [37] Office of Data and Economic Analysis. pdf) (pdf). [67] George. 2003:5–11. Vogemann Group. Ctg (2009-09-06). "Alang: The place where ships go to die" (http:/ / www. 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PORTLINE Transportes Marítimos Internacionais. Retrieved 2007-04-15. Retrieved 2007-05-29. co. thedailystar.D. International Maritime Organization. from the French Marine-Marchande website. aspx). 2006. imo. 2006. International Labour Organization. Retrieved 2009 9 12. com/ publications/ classification_news/ class_news_2003_02/ Oshimalooksahead. Retrieved 2007-04-10. gov/ SLTC/ etools/ shipyard/ ship_breaking/ survey_hm. portline. [64] "Improving the safety of bulk carriers" (http:/ / www. marine-marchande. [50] Staff Correspondent. [65] Byrne. . htm). Retrieved 2007-05-29. Bulk Carriers. [41] H. com/ fleet. Stephenson Clarke Shipping Ltd. freighterworld. "3: The London Tonnage Convention" (http:/ / ec. Tony (2001). html) on April 7. [56] George. "Oshima looks ahead" (http:/ / www. 344. [48] Bailey. Fairplay Publications. net/ newDesign/ news-details. org/ public/ english/ dialogue/ sector/ papers/ shpbreak/ index. scsbulk. S. 1999:7. Cardiff University. htm). [47] UNCTAD 2005. 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Ship Design and Construction Vol. 1999:7. 21–1. org/ includes/ blastData. htm). .. Notices to Shipping.S. • Lamb. D. nap. • International Association of Classification Societies (2007). Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems. MD: Cornell Maritime Press. 2005:217. (http://www. archive. .pdf). [79] "Improving the safety of bulk carriers" (http:/ / www. Thomas (2003).: World Bank.gov/MARAD_statistics/2005 STATISTICS/World Merchant Fleet 2005. [81] International Maritime Organization. eagle. U. May 2003. Marine Accident Investigation Branch. • Frankel. 2. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [86] International Maritime Organization. Retrieved 2007-04-09. eagle. html) (PDF). org/ regulatory/ regupdate/ msc71/ bulk. 1999:5. uk/ fsa/ wp5/ main. Stability and Trim for the Ship's Officer. The Naval Architect. 2007. 1999:5. Focus on IMO. United States Maritime Administration. 4)" (http:// www. Balboa-Ancon: Autoridad del Canal de Panamá. "Propulsion Trends in Bulk Carriers" (http://www. archive. Centreville. International Association of Classification Societies. Notes on Cargo Work (3rd ed. Retrieved 2007-04-10. pp. International Association of Classification Societies. . "World Merchant Fleet 2001–2005" (http://www. imo. Jack (1993). 1999:2. [85] "Formal Safety Assessment of Bulk Carriers. Queen of the Lakes.8. International Maritime Organization. 1999:4.org.manbw. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-04-10. I. Retrieved March 13. London: The Nautical Institute.pdf) (PDF). org/ web/ 20070930043825/ http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20070206175021/ http:/ / www. [87] International Maritime Organization. [89] "Pioneers of Survival" (http:/ / www. php?record_id=5798& page=261). John F. • MAN Diesel Group (2005). (1985).pdf) (PDF). (2003). [76] "Double-skin bulkers: paradise or problem?".com/files/news/ filesof5479/5510-0007-00ppr.marad. [77] George. maib. uk/ cms_resources/ Review_of_ lifeboat_and_launching_systems_accidents. .pdf) (PDF).Bulk carrier [75] "Double-Hull Tanker Legislation: An Assessment of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (1998)" (http:/ / books. • Isbester. uk/ fsa/ wp5/ main. (1994). ISBN 0853090408. 1999: 1.asp/data_id=7987/BULK99. iacs. Retrieved 2007-04-10. Retrieved 2007-04-09.uk/document/public/Publications/Unified_requirements/PDF/UR_S_pdf158.A.com/ eng/maritime/notices/n01-05.imo. 11–12. 15 References • Autoridad del Canal de Panamá (2005). pbs.C. American Bureau of Shipping. [88] "Maritime Safety Committee's 71st Session. [83] Kemp. Requirements Concerning Strength of Ships. Jersey City: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. • International Maritime Organization (September 1999). p. ISBN 0814323936. ISBN 082130531X.iacs. [82] International Maritime Organization. • Thompson. 4.). ISBN 1870077164. pp. . Unified Requirements. Kandy Publications. Bulk Shipping and Terminal Logistics. org/ regulatory/ regupdate/ msc71/ bulk. Ernst G. . "21: Evaluation of Scantlings of Hatch Covers and Hatch Coamings of Cargo Holds of Bulk Carriers. ISBN 0-87033-549-9. Mark L. gov.PDF). Ore Carriers and Combination Carriers (Rev. org/ wgbh/ nova/ escape/ pioship. March 2006. Fore-End Watertight Integrity'" (http:/ / web.6. MAN Diesel Group. William (2005). MR Notice to Shipping Number N-1-2005. asp/ doc_id=2728/ BULK. The Naval Architect. "IMO and the safety of bulk carriers" (http://www. edu/ openbook. org. ISBN 978-0-87033-564-8. Retrieved 2007-04-09. dot. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. iacs. • Office of Data and Economic Analysis (July 2006). ISBN 0-939773-40-6.FIN. [84] International Maritime Organization. Retrieved 2007-04-12. html). [78] "Implications of commons structural rules". . May 1999" (http:/ / web. org/includes/blastDataOnly.pancanal. PDF) (PDF). Retrieved 2008-04-01. William B. org. • George. Press. American Merchant Seaman's Manual. [80] International Maritime Organization. htm) on 2007-02-06. • Hayler. html) on September 30. Retrieved 2007-04-10. pdf) (PDF). 2007. NOVA. [90] "Review of Lifeboat and Launching System Accidents" (http:/ / www. Cornell Maritime Pr. (1971). Washington. Bulk Carrier Practice.

nl/web/show/id=77616) • Histories of WWII Bulkers (http://www. CT: Rutledge Books. Bethel.org/Templates/StartPage.t2tanker.org/ships/nashbulk.pdf).unctad. • United Nations Council on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2006). New York and Geneva: United Nations.htm) • Bulk Carriers at MRI Netherlands (http://www. Thomas F. New York and Geneva: United Nations. Ore-Oil Bulk: Pictorial History of Bulk Shipping Losses of the 1980s. 2006 (http://www. 2005 (http://www. ISBN 0964393778. (1996).asp?intItemID=2614&lang=1).oceansatlas.unctad.com/unatlas/uses/ transportation_telecomm/maritime_trans/shipworld/cargo_car/bulk/bulk_carriers.html) . • Zera.marin.org/en/docs/rmt2006_en. Review of Maritime Transport. 16 External links • Bulk Carriers @ United Nations Atlas of the Oceans (http://www. Review of Maritime Transport.Bulk carrier • United Nations Council on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2005).

php?title=File:Bulk_carrier_general_arrangement_english. words removed and converted to SVG by User:Haus Image:Oil-tankers-map-with-top-10.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index.jpg  License: Public domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Nsandel at en.wikipedia.php?title=File:Seledang_Ayu. Grand Ledge.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bob Campbell.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.wikipedia.5  Contributors: - License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.php?title=File:Capesize_bulk_carrier_at_Suez_Canal_Bridge.jpeg  Source: http://en.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Haus Image:Bulldozer loaded on bulk carrier.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edmund_Fitzgerald_NOAA. Licenses and Contributors Image:Sabrina I cropped.wikipedia.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Hervé Cozanet Image:Berge Athene.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Own work Image:Edmund Fitzgerald NOAA.org/w/index. Calips for clean-up Image:Bulk carrier midship section-i18.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bulker-unload-sequence-4.php?title=File:Hatch_covers_on_bulk_carrier.php?title=File:Bulldozer_loaded_on_bulk_carrier.org/w/index.svg  Source: http://en.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia. 0/ .0 Unported  Contributors: Rémi Kaupp for the original drawing.wikipedia Image:Bulk carrier general arrangement english.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Hervé Cozanet Image:Bulker-unload-sequence-4.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Danny Cornelissen Image:Maya OBO carrier 2.wikipedia.php?title=File:Number_of_bulkers_graphic.php?title=File:Capesize_bulk_carrier_lines_plan.org/w/index.wikipedia.Article Sources and Contributors 17 Article Sources and Contributors Bulk carrier  Source: http://en.svg  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en.0 Unported  Contributors: Brosen Image:Number of bulkers graphic.jpg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:Abgang_rettungsboot.0 Unported  Contributors: Rémi Kaupp Image:Hatch covers on bulk carrier.wikipedia.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Danny Cornelissen Image:Bulker-unload-sequence-3.php?title=File:Seledang_Ayu_2.php?title=File:Bulker-unload-sequence-2.wikipedia.0 Unported  Contributors: Rémi Kaupp.php?oldid=449582063  Contributors: - Image Sources.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:Brosen_chl_innovator.wikipedia.wikipedia.org/w/index.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Danny Cornelissen Image:Capesize bulk carrier lines plan.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.jpg  Source: http://en.org/w/index.0 Unported  Contributors: Rémi Kaupp and Funakoshi. Michigan Image:Brosen chl innovator.wikipedia.org/w/index. Image:Viermastbark Pamir.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bulker-unload-sequence-3.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Danny Cornelissen Image:Seledang Ayu.jpg  Source: http://en.0  Contributors: AashayBaindur Image:Bulk carrier arriving in port.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0  Contributors: Capt.php?title=File:Sabrina_I_cropped.svg  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.JPG  Source: http://en.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.jpg  Source: http://en.jpeg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: UNIFIED COMMAND PHOTO PLS ImageID 242791 Image:Abgang rettungsboot.org/w/index.gif  Source: http://en.org/w/index.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Danny Cornelissen Image:Bulker-unload-sequence-2.org/w/index.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: File:Capesize bulk carrier at Suez Canal Bridge.php?title=File:Oil-tankers-map-with-top-10.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.JPG  Source: http://en.php?title=File:Welland_canal_john_b_aird.org/w/index.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Danny Cornelissen Image:Grab unloaded into hopper.gif  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.org/w/index.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons.php?title=File:Viermastbark_Pamir.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.php?title=File:Bulk_carrier_midship_section_en.jpeg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:Grab_unloaded_into_hopper.org/w/index.org/w/index.svg  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.wikipedia.php?title=File:Maya_OBO_carrier_2.svg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:Berge_Athene.wikipedia. Jan Melchers Image:Welland canal john b aird.wikipedia. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.wikipedia.php?title=File:Bulk_carrier_arriving_in_port.php?title=File:Bulk_carrier_midship_section-i18.org/w/index.0 Unported  Contributors: Rémi Kaupp Image:Bulk carrier midship section en.wikipedia.wikipedia.jpeg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: UNIFIED COMMAND Image:Seledang Ayu 2.wikipedia.wikipedia.org/w/index. words removed by Haus.

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