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2 Cotton Cotton is a soft, staple fiber that grows in a from known as a boll around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to tropical and sub tropical regions around the world, including the Americas, India and Africa. The fiber most often is spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. Cotton is the oldest and the most important of the textile fibers. It has been used in the East and Middle East for thousands of years and was found in use in America when the continent was discovered. Despite the increase variety of manufactured fibers available to the textile industry, demand for cotton remains high because of its suitability on the basis of price, quality and comfort across a wide range of textile products.
Fig : 3 2.2.1 Fiber Morphology 188.8.131.52 The Macro-Structure of Cotton
Fig : 4
Under the microscope, a cotton fiber appears as a very fine, regular fiber, looking a twisted ribbon or a collapsed and twisted tube. Theses twists are called convolutions. There are about sixty convolutions per centimeter. The convolutions give citton an uneven fiber surface, which increases inter-fiber friction and enables fiber cotton yarns of adequate strength to be spun.
Fig : 5
Fig : 6
The appearance of the cotton fiber’s cross section is referred as being kidney-shaped (Fig:06). These convolution and kindly- shaped cross section of cotton fiber contributes :
which is immediately underneath the cuticle. Compared with the normal hexagonal plant cell. forms the bulk of the fiber. . concentric layers of spiraling cellulosic fibrils of about 10 nm think and undefined length. Fig : 7 : A morphological diagram of cotton fiber The cuticle is very outside of skin of the cotton fiber. well developed primary and secondary walls and a lumen. It is composed of a waxy layer (cotton wax) only a few molecules thick. Sea Island and Egyptian Cotton) shows more luster. They have a length from about 10 mm to 65 mm. The fiber length to breadth ration of cotton ranges from about 6000 1 ׃to 350 1 . Secondary cell wall The secondary cell wall.● Random contact with the skin which is more compatible with human skin physiology and therefore more comfortable.1. is about 200 mm thick and composed of very fine threads of cellulose. make up the secondary cell wall. Like the growth rings of trees. Cotton fibers are amongst the finest in common use. Its cross section is oval. This spiraling imparts strength of primary cell wall. The fibrils spiral about 70º to the fiber axis . ● Increase the moisture absorbency due to the countless minute air spaces because of these convolutions & kidney-shape and thus husk make more comfortable to wear. yearns from greater fiber length (i.2 The Micro-structure of Cotton Cuticle The cotton fiber is a single plant cell. The spiral angle is about 20º30º to the fiber axis and widens to about 20º-45º nearer the lumen. hence the primacy cell wall can be visualized as a sheath of spiraling fibrils.e. depending upon the quality and diameter in range from about 11μm to 2μm. 2. Moreover. The greater the ׃ ration.2. Cotton has distinct cuticle. Primary cell wall The primary cell wall. called fibrils which are 20 mm think (their length is yet unknown). beneath the primary cell wall. the more readily can the cotton fibers be spun into yarn.
The repeating unit in the cotton polymer is cellubiose which consists of two glucose units. The lumen was once the central vacuole of the growing cotton fiber and full of cell sap. running the length of the fiber. sugars.0 Carbohydrates Primary Wall . minerals and cell-waste products. its constituents contribute the color of the cotton fiber. is called the lumen. cotton’s cellulosic fiber of DP 5000 The most important chemical group on the cotton polymer are the hydroxy1 groups (-OH). temperature. It is about 5000 nm in length and about .. Its degree of polymerization (DP) is about 5000. cellulose of (65-70)% crystalline and correspondingly (3035) % amorphous. growing environments (soil. The noncellulosices are located either on the outer layers (cuticle and primary cell wall) or inside the lumens of the fibers whereas the secondary cell wall is purely cellulose. The specific chemical compositions of cotton fibers vary by their varieties. sugars. and the less inside pressure than the atmosphere resulting is kidney-shaped cross-section of the cotton fiber.2. 2. aqueous solutions of proteins.Lumen The hollow canal. Less significant Van der wall’s forces also occur. pet etc) and maturity.2 .8 nm thick. which is composed of dilute. Relative Component Main Location Amount (%) Cellulose Secondary wall 86.5 Proteins Lumen 1. Fig : 8 : The chemical structure of cellulose polymer. Typical composition of raw cotton. concentric layovers of spirals of the secondary cell wall. its walls are the innermost. which are also present as methylol groups (-CH2OH).7 Pectins Primary Wall 1. When the sap evaporated. 2.2.3 Chemical Composition of Raw Cotton Cotton fiber are composed of mostly a-cellulose. minerals an cell wall. aqueous solutions of proteins.2 The Polymer System of Cotton The cotton polymer is a linear. Their polarity gives rise to hydrogen bonds between the OH-groups of adjacent cotton polymer. Waxes Cuticle . The lumen was once the central vacuole of the growing cotton fiber and full of cell sap.8 Oils. which is composed of dilute.
hydrogen the glucoside linkage of oxygen atom. for short time. (b) Waxes.Salts Water Other Lumen - 1. (d) Free fatty acids and (e) Traces of soaps.0 During manufacture of cotton materials. hydrolyze fats and proteins and solubilize mineral salts.54 Others Resiliency Abrasion Resistance Dimensional Stability : : : Low Mediam Mediam 2.54 3.5 1. which serves to emulsify waxes.0 6.0-8.4 Fiber properties Fiber length Specific Gravity Dry Tenacity (g/denier) Wet Tenacity (% of Dry) Tensile Strength (PSIx10+) Elongation at Break (%) Elastic Recovery (% Recovery) Stiffness (g/denier) Moisture Regain Refractive Index : : : : : : : : : : 1-5 cm 1.4.2. which are saponified with difficult oils and fats.0-4. The oil and waxes of cotton consists of (a) Glycerides. which are readily specifiable oils and fats.9 100-110 60-120 3-11 75-45 57-60 7. (c) Unsaponifiable oils. This alkaline treatment gives a loss in weight of around 7%. 2.2.8 2. Concentrated Nitric acid.1 Chemical Properties of Cotton Effect of acid Cotton is weaken and destroyed by the effect of acids. cause some shrinkage and increase strength and dye ability. . they are boiled with solutions of NaOH. Some low molecular weight non-cellulosic carbohydrates are also removed.
cotton is in fishnet. While many fabric are made completely of cotton. Effect of sunlight Affected by infrared cause deteriorates color becomes yellow. tents. elongation etc. The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber. used to make highly absorbent bath towels and robes. Dry ability Azoic. Effect of heat Conductive ironing temperature150ºC. Effect of bleach All kinds of bleaching agents have its action on cotton. Ignition temperature 39ºC. Decompose at 240ºC. Fire hoses were once made of cotton. In addition to the textile industry. These include terrycloth. as it can be blended with elastine to make a stretcher thread for knitted fabrics and apparel such as stretch jeans. some materials blend cotton with other fibers. and in bookbinding. chambray popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts (from which we get the term “blue-collar”) and corduroy. cotton paper. Reactive Sulphur and Vat dyes are applicable to cotton substrates. Direct. including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester. when boiled in presence of O2. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Effect of organic solvent Cotton is resistant of organic solvent. used to make blue jeans.Effect of alkali Normally resistant. . and cotton twill. Weaving or cutting process. Liquid ammonia treatment increase strength. gunpowder (see Nitrocellulose). Attack by mildew Untreated not easily but starches and gums increase activities. So dry wash is possible. Uses of Cotton Cotton is used to number of textile products. Treatment with 20% NaOH increase strength and dye ability. NaOCI and Na-per borate are common. socks. Both of solution is used as mercerizing liquor. denim. It can either be used in knitted or woven fabrics. Fabric also can be made from recycled or recovered that otherwise would be thrown away during the spinning. Cotton also used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. Coffee filters. H2O2 is least harmful. oxycellulose form. seersucker. Attack by moth No. underwear and most T-shirts are made from cotton.
The cotton seed which remains after the cotton is ginned is used to produce cotton seed oil. after refining. This. Cotton seed hulls can be added to dairy cattle rations for roughage. cotton root bark was used in a folk remedy as an abortifacient. Egyptian cotton is more durable and softer than American Pima cotton. The tern also may apply to the longer textile fiber staple lint as well as shorter fuzzy fibers from some upland species. with heavy European investment. can be consumed by human like any other vegetable oil. In South Asia. cotton is widely used in mattresses. The cotton seed meal that is left generally is fed to ruminate livestock. . During the U.S. its hydrophobic property of not easily taking up water makes it unfit for the purpose of bath and dish towels (although examples of these made from shiny cotton are seen).S Civil War. However. These curly fibers typically are less than 1/8 in (3mm) long. silky fibers which adhere to the seeds of the cotton plant after ginning. that is to provoke abortion. Shiny is a processed version of the fiber that can be made into cloth resembling stain fir shirts and suits. which is why it is more expensive. which are the most common type of mattress used in that region. Pima cotton is American cotton that is grown in the southwestern states of the U. Cotton linters are fine. Egyptian-growing cotton became a major alternate source for British textile mills. the gossypol remaining in the meal is toxic to monastic animals. The term Egyptian cotton refers to the extra long staple cotton grown in Egypt and favored for the luxury and up market brands worldwide. Linters are traditionally used in the manufacture of paper and as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose. During the American slavery period.
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