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Physics Fall Semester Practice Multiple Choice

Part 1
1. A stationary cart accelerates with a constant nonzero acceleration along a straight line. Which graph best represents the relationship between the distance the cart travels and time of travel? (A) (B) (C) (D)

Name _________________________ Period _____


13. A 0.15-kg ball moving at 20 m/s is stopped by a catcher in 0.010 second. The average force stopping the ball is (A) 0.03 N (B) 3 N (C) 30 N (D) 300 N 14. The diagram shows a 4.0-kg object accelerating at 10 m/s2 on a rough horizontal surface. Acceleration = 10 m/s2

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The graph represents the relationship between speed and time for an object moving along a straight line.

What is the frictional force Ff acting on the object? (A) 5 N (B) 10 N (C) 20 N (D) 40 N 15. A spring with a spring constant of 80 N/m is displaced 0.3 m from its equilibrium position. The potential energy stored in the spring is (A) 3.6 J (B) 12 J (C) 7.2 J (D) 24 J 16. Which vector diagram best represents a cart slowing down as it travels to the right on a horizontal surface? (A) (B) (C) (D)

What is the distance traveled during the first 4 s? (A) 5 m (B) 20 m (C) 40 m (D) 80 m Questions 3-6 A projectile is fired from the ground with an initial velocity of 250 m/s at an angle of 60o above horizontal. 3. What is the vertical component of the initial velocity? (A) 125 m/s (B) 217 m/s (C) 250 m/s (D) 500 m/s 4. How long is the projectile in the air (assume the projectile lands at the same elevation that it was fired)? (A) 22 s (B) 38 s (C) 43 s (D) 51 s 5. What is the horizontal component of the initial velocity? (A) 125 m/s (B) 217 m/s (C) 250 m/s (D) 500 m/s 6. How far did the projectile travel horizontally before it struck the ground? (A) 5400 m (B) 7200 m (C) 9300 m (D) 11000 m 7. A 20-N force due north and a 20-N force due east act on an object. What is the magnitude and direction of the resultant force? (A) 20 N, northeast (B) 28 N, northeast (C) 20 N, southwest (D) 28 N, southwest 8. Two 30-N forces act on an object at the same time. In which diagram would the resultant force have the largest magnitude? (A) (B) (C) (D)

17. An object is dropped from rest from a certain height. Air resistance is negligible. After falling a distance d the object's kinetic energy is proportional to which of the following? (A) 1/d (B) d (C) d (D) d2 18. Which graph best represents the relationship between energy and mass when matter is converted into energy? (A) (B) (C) (D)

19. In the diagram, a block of mass M initially at rest on a frictionless horizontal surface is struck by a bullet of mass m moving with horizontal velocity v.

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A 400-N girl standing on a dock exerts a force of 100 N on a 10,000-N sailboat as she pushes it away from the dock. How much force does the sailboat exert on the girl? (A) 25 N (B) 400 N (C) 100 N (D) 10,000 N 10. A skier on waxed skis (k = 0.05) is pulled at constant speed across level snow by a horizontal force of 40 N. What is the normal force exerted on the skier? (A) 700 N (B) 750 N (C) 800 N (D) 850 N 11. What is the magnitude of the force needed to keep a 60-N rubber block moving across level, dry asphalt ( = 0.67) in a straight line at a constant speed of 2 m/s? (A) 40 N (B) 51 N (C) 60 N (D) 120 N 12. A vertical spring 0.10 m long is elongated to a length of 0.12 m when a 1-kg mass is attached to the bottom of the spring. The spring constant of this spring is (A) 10 N/m (B) 100 N/m (C) 120 N/m (D) 500 N/m

What is the velocity of the bullet-block system after the bullet embeds itself in the block? (A) (M + v)m/M (B) (m + v)m/M (C) (m + M)v/M (D) mv/(m + M) 20. A truck weighing 30,000 N is driven up a hill that is 800 m above the starting point in 480 s. What is the minimum power required? (A) 5.0 x 104 W (B) 1.2 x 1010 W (C) 1.0 x 105 W (D) 2.3 x 1010 W 21. A 40-N block is released from rest on an incline 8 m above the horizontal.

If 50 J of work is done by friction as the block slides down the incline, the maximum kinetic energy of the block at the bottom of the incline is (A) 50 J (B) 270 J (C) 320 J (D) 3100 J

22. A child applies a constant 20-N force along the handle of a wagon which makes a 25 angle with the horizontal.

How much work does the child do in moving the wagon a horizontal distance of 4 m? (A) 5 J (B) 34 J (C) 73 J (D) 80 J 23. An object is projected vertically upward from ground level. It rises to a maximum height H. If air resistance is negligible, which of the following must be true for the object when it is at a height H? (A) Its speed is half of its initial speed. (B) Its kinetic energy is hall of its initial kinetic energy (C) Its potential energy is half of its initial potential energy. (D) Its total mechanical energy is half of its initial value. Questions 24-25 The graph represents the relationship between vertical height and gravitational potential energy for an object near Earth's surface.

28. An object of mass M travels along a horizontal air track at a constant speed v and collides elastically with an object of identical mass that is initially at rest on the track. Which of the following is true for the two objects after the impact? (A) The total momentum is Mv and the total kinetic energy is Mv2. (B) The total momentum is Mv and the total kinetic energy is less than Mv2. (C) The total momentum is less than Mv and the total kinetic energy is Mv2. (D) The momentum of each object is Mv. 29. A 2 kg object initially moving with a constant velocity is subjected to a force of magnitude, F, in the direction of motion. A graph of F as a function of time, t, is shown.

What is the increase in the velocity of the object during the time the force is applied? (A) 2.0 m/s (B) 3.0 m/s (C) 4.0 m/s (D) 6.0 m/s 30. A particle P moves around the circle of radius R under the influence of a radial force of magnitude F.

What is the work done by the radial force as the particle moves from position 1 to position 2 halfway around the circle? (A) zero (B) RF (C) RF (D) 2RF Questions 31-32 Two blocks of wood, each of mass 2 kg, are suspended from the ceiling by strings of negligible mass. 24. What is the gravitational potential energy of the object when it is 2.25 m above the surface of earth? (A) 50 J (B) 55 J (C) 60 J (D) 65 J 25. The mass of the object is closest to (A) 1.5 kg (B) 2.0 kg (C) 2.5 kg (D) 3.0 kg Questions 26-27 A ball is thrown straight up by a student at rest on the surface of earth. A graph of the position y as a function of time t, in seconds is shown. Air resistance is negligible.

31. What is the tension in the upper string? (A) 10 N (B) 20 N (C) 40 N (D) 50 N 32. What is the force exerted on the upper block by the lower string? (A) 10 N upward (B) 10 N downward (C) 20 N upward (D) 20 N downward Questions 33-34 Two pucks are moving on a frictionless air table. The 1.5 kg puck is moving east at 2.0 m/s. The 4.0 kg puck is moving north at 1.0 m/s.

26. Which of the following best describes the acceleration of the ball? (A) It is downward and constant from 0 to 6 s (B) It is upward and constant from 0 to 3 s, then downward and constant (C) It is downward and decreases in magnitude from 0 to 3 s. then increases. (D) It is upward and decreases in magnitude from 0 to 3 s, then increases 27. What is the initial speed of the ball? (A) 30 m/s (B) 45 m/s (C) 60 m/s (D) 90 m/s

33. What is the magnitude of the total momentum of the twopuck system? (A) 1.0 kgm/s (B) 3.5 kgm/s (C) 5.0 kgm/s (D) 7.0 kgm/s 34. What is the total kinetic energy of the two-puck system? (A) 5.0 J (B) 7.0 J (C) 10 J (D) 11 J

35. A boy of mass m and a girl of mass 2m are initially at rest at the center of a frozen pond. They push each other so that she slides to the left at speed v across the frictionless ice surface and he slides to the right.

42. A 60-kg physics student would weigh 1560 N on the surface of planet X. What is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of planet X? (A) 0.038 m/s2 (B) 9.8 m/s2 (C) 6.1 m/s2 (D) 26 m/s2 43. The diagram represents two satellites of equal mass, A and B, in circular orbits around a planet.

What is the total work done by the two children? (A) zero (B) mv (C) mv2 (D) 3mv2 36. The gravitational force is the only force between a pair of particles X and Y, with masses mX and mY = 2mX. If particle X accelerates at 2.2 m/s2, what is the acceleration of particle Y? (A) .55 m/s2 (B) 1.1 m/s2 (C) 2.2 m/s2 (D) 4.4 m/s2 37. An object initially at rest is subjected to a constant net force. Measurements are taken of its velocity v at different distances d from the starting position. A graph of which of the following should exhibit a straight-line relationship? (A) d2 versus v (B) d2 versus v (C) d versus v (D) d versus v2 38. A disk slides to the right on a horizontal, frictionless air table and collides with another disk that was initially stationary. The figures below show a top view of the initial path I of the sliding disk and a hypothetical path H for each disk after the collision. Which figure shows an IMPOSSIBLE situation? (A) (B)

Compared to the magnitude of the gravitational force of attraction between satellite A and the planet, the magnitude of the gravitational force of attraction between satellite B and the planet is (A) half as great (B) twice as great (C) one-fourth as great (D) four times as great 44. The diagram shows a 5.0-kg bucket of water being swung in a horizontal circle of 0.70-m radius at a constant speed of 2.0 m/s.

(C)

(D)

39. A car of mass 900 kg is traveling at 20 m/s when the brakes are applied. The car then comes to a complete stop in 5 s. What is the average power that the brakes produce in stopping the car? (A) 1800 W (B) 3600 W (C) 7200 W (D) 36,000 W 40. The figure shows a cart of mass M accelerating to the right with a block of mass m held to the front surface only by friction. The coefficient of friction between the surfaces is .

The magnitude of the centripetal force on the bucket of water is approximately (A) 5.7 N (B) 29 N (C) 14 N (D) 200 N 45. Increasing the amplitude of a sound wave produces a sound with (A) lower speed (B) higher pitch (C) shorter wavelength (D) greater loudness 46. A police car approaching a stationary pedestrian at a speed of 30 m/s sounds its siren, which has a frequency of 1000 Hz. What frequency does the pedestrian hear? (Velocity of sound is 330 m/s.) (A) 30 Hz (B) 100 Hz (C) 909 Hz (D) 1090 Hz 47. The graph represents the relationship between wavelength and frequency of waves created by two students shaking the ends of a loose spring.

What is the minimum acceleration a of the cart such that the block will not fall? (A) g (B) g/ (C) gm/((M + m)) (D) gM/(M + m)

Part 2

41. A car rounds a horizontal curve of constant radius at a constant speed. Which diagram best represents the directions of the car's velocity, v, and acceleration, a? (A) (B) (C) (D)

What is the speed of the waves generated in the spring. (A) 2 m/s (B) 5 m/s (C) 7 m/s (D) 10 m/s 48. Two boxes of different masses in an orbiting space station appear to float at restone above the otherwith respect to the station. An astronaut applies the same force to both boxes. Can the boxes have the same acceleration with respect to the space station? (A) No, because the boxes are moving in orbits of different radius. (B) No, because the box of greater mass requires more force to reach the same acceleration. (C) Yes, because both boxes appear weightless.

(D) Yes, because both boxes are accelerating toward Earth at the same rate.

49. An object of mass, m, hanging from a spring of spring constant, k, has the same period as a simple pendulum. What is the length of the simple pendulum? (A) mk/g (B) mg/k (C) kg/m (D) k/mg 50. 22688Ra decays into 22286Rn plus a (A) proton (B) neutron (C) helium nucleus (42He) (D) deuteron (21H) 51. A spherical planet has mass and radius that are greater than that of earth. The weight of an object on that planet compared with its weight on earth is which of the following? (A) larger (B) the same (C) smaller (D) Cannot be determined without knowing mass and radius. 52. On a day when the speed of sound is 340 m/s, a ship sounds its whistle. The echo of the sound from the shore is heard at the ship 6 s later. How far is the ship from the shore? (A) 56.7 m (B) 113 m (C) 1020 m (D) 2040 m 53. All photons in a vacuum have the same (A) speed (B) energy (C) wavelength (D) frequency Questions 54-55 The figure shows a transverse wave traveling to the right at a particular instant of time. The period of the wave is 0.2 s.

54. What is the amplitude of the wave? (A) 4 cm (B) 5 cm (C) 8 cm (D) 10 cm 55. What is the speed of the wave? (A) 4 cm/s (B) 25 cm/s (C) 50 cm/s (D) 100 cm/s 56. A meter stick of negligible mass is placed on a fulcrum at the 0.60 m mark, with a 2.0 kg mass hung at the 0 m mark and a 1.0 kg mass hung at the 1.0 m mark. The meter stick is released from rest in a horizontal position. Immediately after release, the magnitude of the net torque on the meter stick about the fulcrum is most nearly (A) 4 mN (B) 12 mN (C) 8 mN (D) 16 mN 57. A standing wave pattern is created on a guitar string as a person tunes the guitar by changing the tension in the string. Which of the following properties of the waves on the string will change as a result of adjusting only the tension in the string? I. Speed of the traveling wave that creates the pattern II. Frequency of the standing wave III. Wavelength of the standing wave (A) I only (B) II only (C) I and II only (D) I, II and III 58. Correct statements about the binding energy of a stable nuclide include which of the following? I. It is the energy needed to separate the nuclide into its individual protons and neutrons. II. It is the energy liberated when the nuclide is formed from protons and neutrons. III. It is the energy equivalent of the loss of mass when the nuclide is formed from protons and neutrons. (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) I, II, and III

59. A platform of mass 2 kg is supported by a spring of negligible mass. The platform oscillates with a period of 3 s when the platform is pushed down and released. 2 kg

Questions 70-71 The diagram represents a ray of light in air (n = 1) incident on flint glass (n = 1.5).

What must be the mass of a block that when placed on the platform doubles the period of oscillation to 6 s? (A) 1 kg (B) 4 kg (C) 6 kg (D) 8 kg 60. The acceleration of a satellite of mass, m, in a circular orbit of radius, R, around a planet of mass, M, is equal to which of the following? (A) GM/R2 (B) Gm/R2 (C) GmM/R2 (D) GmM/R 61. A tuning fork is used to create standing waves on a guitar string. A resonance is heard when the string is a certain length. The next resonance is heard when the string is shortened by 0.05 m. If the speed of sound is 340 m/s, the frequency of the tuning fork is (A) 1700 Hz (B) 2260 Hz (C) 3400 Hz (D) 6800 Hz 62. A ringing bell is located in a chamber. When the air is removed from the chamber, why can the bell be seen vibrating but not be heard? (A) Light waves can travel through a vacuum, but sound waves cannot. (B) Sound waves have greater amplitude than light waves. (C) Light waves travel slower than sound waves. (D) Sound waves have higher frequencies than light waves. Questions 63-64 A radio wave has a wavelength of 6 x 10-7 m. 63. What is the frequency of the radio wave? (A) 3 x 108 s-1 (B) 180 s-1 (C) 5 x 1014 s-1 (D) 2 x 10-15 s-1 64. What is the energy of a photon of the radio wave? (A) 4.0 x 10-40 J (B) 3.3 x 10-19 J 10 (C) 5.4 x 10 J (D) 5.0 x 1014 J Questions 65-66 The spectrum of visible light emitted by an element is composed of blue, green, red, and violet lines 65. What characteristic determines the color of light? (A) amplitude (B) phase (C) frequency (D) velocity 66. Which color of light has the shortest wavelength? (A) blue (B) red (C) green (D) violet 67. What is the best explanation for the apparent bending of a straight glass rod when is placed in a beaker of water? (A) The water is warmer than the air. (B) Light travels faster in water than in air. (C) Light is reflected at the air-water interface. (D) Light is refracted as it crosses the air-water. 68. Which is the correct formula for calculating the angle of refraction, R? (A) sin35 = (1.5)sin R (B) (1.5)sin35 = sin R (C) sin55 = (1.5)sin R (D) (1.5)sin55 = sin R 69. The speed of a photon of light traveling through the flint glass. (A) 1.5 x 108 m/s (B) 2.0 x 108 m/s 8 (C) 3.0 x 10 m/s (D) 4.5 x 108 m/s

70. Which of the following is true about the refracted light ray? (A) Ray bends toward normal and frequency is less (B) Ray bends toward normal and frequency is unchanged (C) Ray bends away from normal and frequency is less (D) Ray bends away from normal and frequency is unchanged 71. Which of the following is true about the reflected light ray? (A) The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence and the ray undergoes a phase shift. (B) The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence and the ray does not undergo a phase shift. (C) The angle of reflection is greater than the angle of incidence and the ray undergoes a phase shift. (D) The angle of reflection is less than the angle of incidence and the ray undergoes a phase shift. 72. A beam of white light is separated into separate colors when it passes through a glass prism.

Red light is refracted through a smaller angle than violet light because red light has a (A) slower speed in glass than violet light (B) faster speed in glass than violet light (C) slower speed in the incident beam than violet light (D) faster speed in the incident beam than violet light 73. If one of the two slits in a Young's double-slit demonstration of the interference of light is covered with a thin filter that transmits only half the light intensity, which of the following occurs? (A) Bright and dark lines are all darker. (B) Bright and dark lines are all brighter. (C) Dark lines are brighter and bright lines are darker. (D) Bright lines are brighter and dark lines are darker. 74. Two monochromatic light beams, one red and one green, have the same power. How does the energy of each photon and the number of photons per second in the red beam compare with those of the green beam? Energy of Photon Number of Photons (A) Greater for red Less for red (B) Greater for red Greater for red (C) Less for red Less for red (D) Less for red Greater for red

75. A ray of light in glass that is incident on ice is partially reflected and partially refracted. The index of refraction n for each of the two media is given in the figure.

How do the angle of reflection and the angle of refraction compare with the angle of incidence ? Angle of Reflection Angle of Refraction (A) Same Larger (B) Same Smaller (C) Smaller Same (D) Smaller Smaller Questions 76-77 An object O is located at point P to the left of a converging lens. F1 and F2 are the focal points of the lens.

76. If the focal length of the lens is 0.40 m and point P is 0.30 m to the left of the lens, where is the image located? (A) 1.2 m to the left of the lens (B) 0.17 m to the left of the lens (C) 0.17 m to the right of the lens (D) 1.2 m to the right of the lens 77. Which of the following characterizes the image? (A) Real, inverted, and smaller than the object (B) Real, inverted, and larger than the object (C) Virtual, upright, and larger than the object (D) Virtual, upright, and smaller than the object 78. The work function for a metal is . What is the threshold frequency of incident light required for the emission of photoelectrons from a cathode made of that metal? (A) /h (B) h/ (C) h (D) /hc 79. In an x-ray tube, electrons striking a target are brought to rest, causing x-rays to be emitted. The maximum frequency of the emitted x-ray is fo. If the electron energy is doubled, the maximum frequency is (A) fo/2 (B) 2fo (C) fo/2 (D) 2fo 80. A ray of light in air is incident on a 30-60-90 prism, perpendicular to face ab. The ray enters the prism and strikes face ac at the critical angle.

What is the index of refraction of the prism? (A) (B) 3/2 (C) 2/33 (D) 2