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KIZIBA INVESTMENTS LIMITED P.O. BOX 70093 KAMPALA
Table of Contents ACRONYMS…………………………………………………………………………….3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………..4
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY………………………………………………….6 1.2 METHODLOGY……………………..…….……………………………..………....10 1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………12 1.4 FIELD STUDY, MARKET AND INSTITUTIONAL ALYSIS…….…………...….14
CHAPTER TWO: DAIRY SUB SECTOR STATUS QUO
2.1 BACKGROUND TO THE DAIRY SECTOR……………………….……….…….21 2.2 TRENDS AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SECTOR…….……………….………22 2.3 MILK PRODUCTS……………………………………………….............................25 2.4 MARKETING STRUCTURE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS………………………..….27 2.5 CHALLENGES FACING THE SUBSECTOR………………………………..……30
CHAPTER THREE: THE SUBSECTOR DYNAMICS
3.1 GLOBAL AMRKET ANALYSIS…………………….……….……………..……..32 3.2 NATIONAL SUB SECTOR ANALYSIS………………………..……………...….32 3.3 KEY MARKET PLAYERS……………………………….…………….…...….…..35 3.4 DAIRY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICES……...…………….………..…38
CHAPTER FOUR: SUBSECTOR VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS
4.1 THE VALUE CHAINANALYSIS……………………………………..……..……41 4.2 SCTOR VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS………………………………..………..…..42 4.2.1 SEGMENTS RECOMMENDATIONS..……………………..…….….....45
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………………..……..…49 5.2.1 Generic recommendations towards multi stakeholders……. …........49 5.2.2 Specific recommendations to POs…………………….… .…..…...51 ANNEXES Service providers………………………………………………………………………...54 Key sector players………………………………………………………………………..60 Small scale milk providers (retailers)……………………………………………………61 Machinery needed for milk cooling and processing……………………………………..62
ASPS BUDS DCL DANIDA DDA DIA GDP KADP Moroto MAAIF NARO NDDB NGOs PSFU UDPA UHT UMA UNBS UNDATA UNDFA UNFFE UIA SOCADIDO
Agriculture Sector Program Support Business Uganda Development Scheme Dairy Corporation Limited Danish International Development Agency Dairy Development Authority Dairy Industry Act Gross Domestic Product Karamoja Agro-Processing Development Programme, Moroto Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries National Agricultural Research Organisation National Dairy Development Board Non Governmental Organisations Private Sector Foundation Uganda Uganda Dairy Processors Association Ultra Heat Treated Uganda Manufacturers Association Uganda National Bureau of Standards Uganda National Dairy Traders Association Uganda National Dairy Farmers Association Uganda National Farmers’ Federation Uganda Investment Authority Soroti Catholic Diocese Integrated Development Organisation
The government also put in place strategies for development of support services like extension and breeding. the Government of Uganda with assistance from the Danish Development Agency (DANIDA) developed “A Master Plan for the Dairy Sector” with three major recommendations. The DDA took over the development and regulatory functions of the dairy industry and DCL is to be divested. DCL was consequently divested and its now called Sameer Agriculture and Livestock Limited. the dairy industry is estimated to contribute 40 to 50%. other players joined the market and there are currently over 10 large-scale processors.2% (DDA. In Soroti. The first Dairy Industry Act of 1967 set up Dairy Corporation as the government body responsible for development. This is because the production levels rise. government is encouraging the revival of co-operative societies as well as promoting the export drive. loses in the 4 . In 1993. Of the livestock GDP. In addition. This is largely attributed to marketing constraints. that milk marketing should be liberalized. marketing and regulating the industry. Total national milk production has grown from an estimated 365 million liters in 1991 to 900 million liters in 2001 to 1. The history of the dairy industry of Uganda dates back to the sixties when the post independence governments started stocking exotic dairy breeds through a number of projects in order to increase milk production. a Dairy Board be created to oversee the liberalized industry and that Dairy Corporation should be privatized.100 million litres in 2003 with the main milk production areas in the southwest contributing 38. It is estimated that mixed farming smallholders and pastoralists together own over 90% of the national cattle herd. However. This is due to the increase in the grass and fodder. Thus the Dairy Industry Act 1998 created the Dairy Development Authority (DDA) and a purely commercial company the Dairy Corporation Ltd (DCL). farmers gave scenarios where they pour milk in rivers because they have too much of it. the major cause of milk losses is limited demand for milk. farmers have a big amount of milk to sell in a relatively short time.Executive Summary In Uganda the livestock sub-sector contributes 17% to 19% of the agricultural GDP and 7 to 9% of the National GDP. Milk losses are a major constraint affecting the efficiency of production in Uganda. Overall. With the increase in production. Losses are highest during the flush (rainy) season. 2004). As a result of liberalization of the market. very little milk is lost. In the formal milk market however. can not get a market for it and yet they have to go and milk the cows again for more milk! It is estimated that up to 50% of milk produced during the rainy season is left at the farm unsold. with dairying as an integral part of the agricultural system in most parts of the country.
lack of negotiating skills and lack of collective organisations are other impediments to dairy sub-sector market access. Unprocessed milk marketed through the informal channels has the highest demand followed by processed packaged milk. Hence. Remoteness results reduced farm-gate prices for dairy products. Dairy products consumed include: yogurt. A major constraint to increasing the welfare of small holder dairy farmers is their inability to access markets. the most commonly consumed types of milk are unprocessed raw milk. taste and preference. This problem has been recognised in the overall context of the importance of marketing considerations not only in stimulating increased milk production but also in raising dairy farm incomes and living standards and improving the nutritional well-being of the population in rural as well as urban areas. any additional marketing costs like the purchase of bicycles to take milk to town centres are cutting back on the expected 5 . For example. In Uganda. Therefore. sweet and sour cream. one of the most critical problems facing dairy farmers in Uganda has been recognised as that of marketing their milk. proximity to milk distribution outlets. ice cream. Other influencing factors include nutritive value. Average national per capita consumption of fresh milk is 40 liters (2001 DDA estimate). Enhancing the poor farmers to reach markets and actively engage in them is one of the most pressing development challenges. cultural. Income level is an important determinant of milk and dairy products consumption and higher per capita milk consumption is observed in well-to-do households. Since the 1960s. in Uganda the development of milk marketing infrastructure has been inextricably linked with the development of the dairy industry. ghee. Marketing costs are high due to the fact that farmers sell milk in its primary state. Transaction costs such as lack of access to information about markets. This leads to a reduction in the incentives to participate in dairy economic transactions and results in subsistence rather than market-oriented production. cheese. the prevalence of thinness in milk markets. butter. This is probably due to the mishandling and adulteration practices rampant in this sector. domestically processed packaged milk (pasteurized and UHT) and boiled unpackaged milk. the existence of high marketing costs for fluid milk in Uganda.informal sector although not documented are likely to be very high. and indigenous fermented milks. and the risks of perishability of the dairy products especially with lack of cooling and refrigeration services mean that there is need to focus on revising the dairy sub sector marketing strategy.
The Access to Markets Capacity Building Programme is a 3 year project that began in January 2005 and is being implemented by FIT Uganda. The purpose of this report is to develop a market Chain analysis of the dairy subsector in Uganda. The company has been coordinating the Access to Markets Capacity Building Program on behalf of CORDAID for some of its Ugandan partners.profits. The specific objectives of the CBP are. HIV/AIDS and Conflict perspective. To strengthen the organizational planning and management capacity for ATM of partner organizations within the first year of the CBP. FIT Uganda also provides capacity building for service providers to enable them provide services to their target client who are mainly the MSEs. To improve knowledge and skills of staff in sub sector market development with a gender. CHAPTER ONE: 1. therefore. is how to expand the market participation of both smallholder dairy producers and institutions in the dairy sub-sector. giving a market value chain analysis and making recommendations on best marketing practices and business development services. To improve partners’ strategic plans with respect to ATM and related gender. 6 . To improve knowledge and skills of staff of partner organizations in market research with a gender perspective. The big question.1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY FIT Uganda Ltd is a Business Development consulting company with a history of success is based on delivering sustainable business models that incorporate community development programs. The overall objective of the programme is to develop the technical capacity of the partners to effectively facilitate access to market for their target beneficiaries. To improve knowledge and skills of staff in market information sourcing. processing and dissemination. HIV/AIDS and conflict situation concerns. giving an evaluation of the Dairy sub sector. To improve the knowledge and skills of staff of partner organizations in development of market opportunities with a gender perspective. • • • • • • • To improve partner’s understanding and knowledge of market dynamics and related gender issues.
Suffice to this. The principles of a market-focus approach to BDS are in line with FIT Uganda’s core program area of strengthening institutional structures for poor people in order to eradicate poverty. 1. marketing and trading linkages and potential scale up ventures in the Dairy sub-sector. Enhancing supporting the known millennium development goal of Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger (MDG-I). constraints and opportunities. The study described and analyzed the structures of the Dairy sub sector within Uganda with a view of identifying the general marketing inefficiencies. FIT Uganda Ltd has other initiatives working in collaboration with Match Maker Associates of Tanzania to develop Value Chain Development Trainings. and how the value chain structure or characteristics can be designed to better benefit and include MSMEs.2 Purpose and Objectives of the report The overall purpose of the report was to lead FIT Uganda in clearly understanding the analytical picture of all the firms. evaluation and customised training in Access to Markets. offers consulting services in project management. The report looks at the market trends and projections. different relationships of the different actors (large and small). the study will also bring out how MSMEs can play more lucrative roles in the value chain. To strengthen the knowledge and skills of staff of partner organizations in lobby and advocacy for rural producers’ access to markets with a gender perspective. To have a well managed and monitored implementation process for the Capacity Building Plan (CBP). markets and activities vertically related to the Dairy Sub Sector using a combination of both a rapid and in depth analysis. conceptual development. channels. and to choose appropriate partners at the different points of intervention. consumption and Uganda Industry profitability).1. All these initiatives are designed to advance a Market Development Approach (MDA) to the delivery of support services to SMEs among the poor and marginalized people. 7 . governance and geographical coverage extending to global trends (production. This report will help FIT Uganda to better identify points of intervention along the Value Chains. To strengthen the skills of staff of partner organizations in facilitating their target groups to access business financing.• • • • To improve the skills and knowledge of staff of partner organizations in business management.
In this regard, FIT Uganda procured the services of Kiziba Investments Limited to develop an expert sub-sector report for the Dairy sub sector. This report is based on the findings of the study and the recommendations thereof. 1.1.3 Objectives of the Study:
Hence, in order to attain the purpose of this study the following objectives were addressed:
To study the general quantitative and qualitative data of the Dairy sub sector, especially with respect to number of MSMEs
To assess and understand the Product Markets and Market Trends for the Dairy sub sector.
To describe functions of the actors and assess their level of collaboration within the value chain. This would include selling and buying and beyond (i.e. beyond selling and buying), and the structure of transactions (e.g. subcontracting)-using graphic presentations.
To identify overall constraints and assess opportunities for growth nationally and internationally including; technology and product development, market access and development, organisation, policy, finance, input supply etc., for the Dairy sub sector.
To demarcate the geographical coverage for the Dairy sub Sector. To assess the level of cooperation among participants within the value chain, their degree of interaction including selling and buying and beyond, and the structure of transactions (e.g. subcontracting).
To analyse issues of management and organisation within the Dairy sub sector; this would entail answering key questions like who determines what is produced, how the rules are of trade determined, what associations they are and who is charge of what in the production and marketing chain.
To focus on understanding the market conditions, and within it place the actors that assume market leadership. In most cases, the smallholders are not the one dealing with the final market, hence in this report deliberate attempt
has been made to involve the strategic large-scale actors who may be the market champions. 1.1.4 Scope of the Study:
The Expert Studies covered the major regions were the CORDAID partner organizations operate, hence nationally. Specific to this report, the key CORDAID areas were Teso in Eastern Uganda and Western Uganda. 1.1.5 Specific tasks of the consultancy
The prime deliverable of the assessment was a detailed sub sector study report analyzing the structure and functioning of the Dairy sub sector in Uganda consisting of recommendations on possible BDS and finance products to be developed, market potentials that could enhanced, and appropriate influence on policy and operating environment. The analysis provided: i. A detailed structure of the sub sector operations in Uganda, by identifying; • The channels through which the products flow from the categorized producers to the market • And including a typology of the different firms involved in the sub sector • ii. And the linkages between them
Identified key points of leverage and opportunities for stimulating the growth of the sub sector, especially with respect to BDS and Finance products to be development, markets and influencing policy and the operating environment.
Identified contacts of individuals or organizations who would be willing to promote market linkages.
Identified potential service providers (based on technical knowledge) at the different levels who will be able to undertake the interventions
Identified and prioritized constraints faced by the identified actors and service providers.
Proposed detailed action plan (time frame) for the respective interventions, while clearly identifying the starting time.
Proposed methods of measuring the impact of interventions suggested. Based on the above analysis, identify a niche area in the value chains developed where FIT Uganda could advise the CORDAID partners to focus or facilitate in the promotion of the sub sector.
Proposed a detailed approach to information update with regard to the trends in each the identified sectors.
A Market, Marketing and Marketing costs A market is where a buyer and seller exchange commodities for money. It can be located anywhere from the milking kraal to the markets. Marketing is when transactions between sellers and buyers are made involving commodities. It is the delivery of products and services to meet customer satisfaction at a profit. Marketing costs are expenses incurred in the process of finding and benefiting from the best price for a commodity. Therefore, suppliers need to know the demand in the market, where the supply is coming from and how much supply is needed to meet the demand. Market channels are the various distribution channels used to enable customers to get the product and at the same time maintain a desirable price, both for seller and buyer. Dairy Market chain The dairy market chain is the movement of commodities right from the dairy farmer’s home to the consumer. The dairy products, starting with milk, go through a chain, and generally at each stage, the quality improves and the price increases. In the marketing chain, there are many actors whose activities influence the value of the goods and services exchanged from producer to consumer. The market chain is interlinked right from milk production, farm-gate selling, processing, and marketing up to consumption.
dairy farmers can sell to bigger markets and earn more money – they would even possess greater harnessed bargaining power! It is common for milk buyers to practice price discrimination on farmers. This is because of the continuity associated with sustainable milk supply.Milk production – Farm Gate sales – Off-Lorry or delivery to the milk collection centre – Wholesale which includes value addition in form of pasteurization and packaging – milk processing and value addition to produce butter. All the players in the sub sector were involved. they would ensure a minimum sustainable amount of milk. including the Partner Organisations under the CORDAID umbrella.1 Meeting with FIT Uganda The consultant had an inception meeting with FIT Uganda on which the Terms of Reference were agreed upon. By bulking produce.2 METHODOLOGY As per the Terms of Reference of this assignment. Group marketing is the best mode of attaining volumes that can enter big markets. acaricides. The consultant also agreed with FIT Uganda on the various 1 . its analysis and recommendations thereafter was of an integrated nature so that a comprehensive analysis of the Dairy sub sector was possible. Therefore. Producers should know at what point of the market chain they should enter the market and Farmers should know the location. it is advisable for him to sell at farm gate or in the local sub-county market to avoid other marketing costs like transport. prices paid and quantities bought at different markets in the marketing chain. there are still smallholder farmers who will need to sell as individuals. and would access more stable prices.2. 1. This description helps in understanding functions of different inter-linkages and opportunities that exist within the market chain. To address the objectives. cheese. the methodology that was used in the collection of data. market dues and handling. etc) . However. so as to determine which ones to target. ghee – Retail (offering the final milk products onto the market for sale). if farmers grouped together. Dates of submission of the prime deliverables of the assignments were agreed upon and FIT Uganda availed to the consultant relevant literature that would be reviewed to contribute to the comprehensiveness of the sub sector report. 1.Different stages of market chain Inputs (feeds. But how much produce do they have to sell? Produce determines a market for a supplier. a market chain approach was used which involved tracing the distribution channel from the farmers (milk producers) down to the final consumers. For example if a dairy farmer has a daily output of 10 litres.
1 Field interviews and survey A sample selection was done in such a way that the areas selected were representative of their respective regions. This selection was based on several factors including demand. Meetings were held with among others players like the 1 . especially to the milk suppliers. Extraction of data from existing databases.2 Meeting with partner Organizations and data collection The consultant had planning meetings with FIT Uganda and the CORDAID Partners (SOCADIDO – Teso Fresh Dairies . Interviews were held with various officials at the Ministry of Agriculture. income.stakeholders. actors and players in the Dairy sub sector that would be consulted during the course of development of this report. These meetings garnered support for the assignment and the POs contributed in information gathering. Analysis of current documents on the subject.2. Animal Industry and fisheries (MAAIF). 1. 1. and potential market. The interviews were undertaken on site at the premises of the POs so that there was comprehensiveness in the on-site analysis that was part of this evaluation. NAADS. A number of data collection methods were used in this endeavor. key of which is the face ft face interview with the POs. position in the country.3 The field survey instrument was designed with diligence and was intended to cover CORDAID's POs and bring out all the key issues in the diary market chain. the preferred solutions and recommendations thereafter. This meeting was also used to iron out any gaps that were inherent in the first draft methodology draft submitted by the consultant. Meetings with Dairy sub sector stakeholders.and ADP Fort Portal) to agree on the importance and benefit of the report to them as Partner Organizations (POs).2. The consultant gathered information and hard copy literature for integration into the final report. Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture (PMA).2. Discussions were held with the task holders on the market chain. Focus was on Western Uganda. National Agricultural Advisory Center (NAADS). eastern Uganda and Central Uganda as the key Dairy areas in the country. Other data collection methods used included: • • • • Field questionnaires. etc.3. Various research survey tools were used by the consultant to generate information on the market efficiency and competitiveness of the POs. the constraints therein. Interview administration 1.
3. and fridges used to cool The capacity (in litres) of the cold chain facilities. Dairy corporation and Dairy development Authority.1 Analysis of the retail market A total of 422 interviews were done in up country stations and in Kampala. 10 sampling points were identified and 25 dairy outlets were visited. Perception towards the recent processor promotion activities at the retail outlets. The data collection instrument focused on collecting information on the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Brands/type of milk and milk products in stock Brands/type of milk and milk products out of stock Monthly averages (stocks. In order to avoid crowding of interviews in one location. among other things.. freezers. LITERATURE REVIEW The consultant collected information from CORDAID POs and other stakeholders on the dairy sub-sector. etc. the source of milk they offer for sale. The names of the Dairy retailers are appended to this report in the annex section. 1. In Kampala alone. A structured questionnaire was designed and it had questions that were adequate to meet the outlined objectives of the study. 1. marketing statistics. the consumption capacity of the market. Availability of cold chain facilities such as coolers. etc. The Amount of milk the outlets forecasted to sale. These sampling points were chosen based on population density and skewed towards areas with a high concentration of people. sales volumes. purchase patterns. the willingness to pay of the end-consumers. Only one interview was conducted per outlet and eligible respondents were either the owners of the outlet or people in charge of purchasing and sales. 1 . Key documents were annual reports. pricing of various Brands/type of milk and milk products) Pack trends (stocks. Presence of processor promotional activities at the retail outlets. This was analysed in related to the Dairy sub sector market chain. leaflets and other product promotional packages. the researchers skipped 4 outlets after each outlet where the interview was conducted. These could include flyers. The amount bought per day on average.3. among others.Uganda Dairy Association. Meetings were held with milk vendors in Kampala. preference) Sources of the products in stock – local. imported.
They then waited for a consumer to buy milk. More so. This is because milk production from goats has not developed to reach a commercial scale. The main dairy sub-sectors products looked at included the following: • Farm Fresh milk • Boiled unpacked milk • Pasteurised milk • Yoghurt • Flavoured milk (ultra heat treated) • Ghee • Butter • Ice cream • Cheese • Cream The study team found out that farm fresh milk is the most commonly dealt in product. especially before value addition. Institutional companies like Teso Fresh Dairies under SOCADIDO buy farm fresh milk and pasteurise it before packing it for resale. Researchers positioned themselves near outlets selling milk and milk products. The interviews were conducted near a broad spectrum of outlets such as supermarkets. milk consumers were interviewed at the point of purchase. etc. Most consumers buy milk when it has left the producer's farm gate because it is still relatively cheap. This product is also put on the market for sale. 1. markets.3. A 1 . Therefore. The person interviewed was screened to ensure that they made the decision on the brand of milk to buy. groceries.2 A brief consumer survey as a way to understanding their demand side perception of the market for Dairy products The consumer survey focused on understanding of the purchase decision and what influences it. there are a number of milk producers without a steady market who would be willing to sell at low prices. A total of 103 interviews were done with household consumers and 81 with institutional consumers – these are appended to this report. the vast dairy products are cow milk products.Qualified well-trained and experienced interviewers administered the structured questionnaires to identified respondents. These were face-to-face interviews conducted at workplace with the respondents. It is worth noting that although there are milk producing goats in the area.
1 .3 FIELD STUDY. This largely explains why the marketable surplus is not massive. On determining the appropriate person. The chicken are provided with a shelter and cows are only provided with natural grass. 1. The data collected from the consumers focused on: • Brands bought and reasons for this preference • Key influencers to purchase • Dairy products ever tried • Reasons for not trying other dairy products • Who consumes the product • Problems with the current supply chains • recommendations for better marketing. etc.. However. The 2004 census estimates give population as being 26 million with an average household population of 4. maize feeds. 2004).1 Major farming activities The 2002 household census holds that up to 77% of the total employment is provided by the agricultural sector for persons aged 10 years and above. MARKET AND INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS 1.7 (UBOS. The consulting team noted that most of the production is for subsistence consumption. bran. Table 2: Focus on livestock and dairy farming Type of livestock farming Rating Poultry 1 Goats 2 Cattle 3 Pigs 4 Sheep 5 Source: Field survey It is very clear that families do not undertake any specialized farming. are not considered because the cattle and/or dairy farming undertaken is largely not commercial. with the excess taken to the market.screening questionnaire was used to eliminate those who were sent by others and do not make the decision on the brand. Inputs for cattle like lick blocks. the researcher then proceeded with the interview. women provide the bulk of farmlabour. The consulting team also noted that both the Chicken and cattle kept are of a traditional nature and do not need any inputs.3. using the predetermined data collection instrument.
the quality of milk produced is outstanding. Dairy producers sell their milk by two methods. but they are said to produce high quality milk. Therefore. Milk Production The traditional dairy sub sector forms an important source of milk for human consumption. The first one is the farm sales methods where people walk in to the home of the milk producer and they buy at his gate after the milking process. They have a secondary level marketing role in the marketing of milk and milk products. through the establishment of village artificial insemination points. 1 .2 Simple marketing attributes There is still a large information gap between the milk producer (farmers) and milk processors and end-users. This sells very little milk and the bulk of it remains. Milk Marketing and Processing Collection and marketing of milk in the North-eastern region is the responsibility of both the producers and the milk-buying institutions. Some farmers do not have access to agricultural extension workers. but milk yields are relatively low. Of recent. 1. Inasmuch as the cattle is of a local breed. institutions like Teso Fresh Dairies are trying to introduce newer breeds of cattle to the area. Small scale dairy farmers are concentrated in high rainfall areas. Zebu cattle are small. This is especially true when one considers the distribution of traditional herds in the up country regions as compared to improved and pure bred animals. and others are so individualistic in their operations. Milk collection centres like SOCADIDO's Teso Fresh Dairies look for milk suppliers. market prices and/or better technologies. first at their farm gates. add value to their milk and then offer it for sale. with a high fat content. milk off-take from this sub-sector is very small.The cows kept also do not produce a lot of milk. hardy and well adapted to local conditions. and then later on at the milk collection centres or other clients like hotels. This is because the amount of body fat possessed by the animals is quite low and the local breed does not consume a lot of water on a daily basis. This is because the traditional zebu cows are lean and do not have a lot of body fat. The latter group is confined to high rainfall areas where wet weather conditions favour dairy production. The milk producers are tasked with the responsibility of marketing their milk. do not belong to any dairy farmers’ groups. This translates into the fact that these farmers do not get information on newer and better farming options including inputs.3. The poorest get their information from other farmers and radio.
under the local governments and the central governments. This land is both under traditional free hold systems.3 Dairy marketing information management in the region A number of issues stand out when analyzing the availability of marketing information and resources to facilitate marketing. either to a milk collection centre or to clients like hotels. there are expanses of land for agricultural development in Uganda. Respondents tell tales of milk producers not only offering it at a huge discount (with an additional free litre) but also tell of milk producers pouring the milk in rivers and ditches because they have run out of marketing options. It is a common phenomenon to see a milk producer riding a bicycle with milk can headed for the town centre every morning and evening. and also under the holding of cultural institutions.The second and more popular sale method is the delivery of milk to the town centre. It must be noted that most poor farmers do not offer their products in the market for sale because they do not know where to take their products for sale. the poor marketing trends are clearly highlighted as in the figure below: 1= Poorest 2=Poor 3= Least poor Source: NAADS Soroti Baseline Survey 1. In a baseline survey undertaken by NAADS in Soroti. schools. This is worse in the rainy season when the quantity of milk produced exponentially rises. hospitals and individual clients. 1 . To begin with.3.
This information can be availed to dairy farmers to boost their market understanding. both for dairy and beef (blood) production. rural dairy farmers have no record keeping skills. The development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has not trickled down beyond the basics to help farmers benefit from e-commerce tools. With the removal of the Cooperative System. The District Planning Units have statistical units which collect market information and also undertake market forecasts based on this information. Ugandans have been involved in dairy farming for a long time. Much as the local council system is supposed to have a system for keeping records for farmers. the 1 . Under the Investment Act 1991 and the Uganda Communications Act. The removal of the Cooperative system further affected farmers as the Cooperatives were in charge of information generation and record keeping. these societies acted as buffer and stabilization funds under the direct backing of the central government. Government policy to attract young graduates as Community Development Officers to help in agri-business have not fully taken off as graduate prefer white-collar jobs based in the major cities and municipals of Uganda. nomadic pastoralism has always been in place. In the Karamoja region. The District Trade departments are mandated to develop databases of market information in the district. farmers became individual again and lost the harmonious marketing that they had under the cooperative arrangement. This mean that farmers were always assured of good prices and a market for their dairy products. In western Uganda. In the extreme cases. the cultural institutions in place over 7 centuries ago all largely had dairy farming systems. Part of this is done through the collection of investment opportunities in the district and the collection of market information. Nowadays. Districts can and should take promotional activities to attract investments into their districts.To note also is the fact that this land is relatively flat and is ideal for mechanization and commercialization. The cooperative societies that were in place before their abolishment by the NRM Government were responsible for providing farmers with information on markets and market prices. In this regard. this is terribly lacking. The key feature across the range is that there was always a small commercialization and production for the market component in the dairy farming. Information options The current local government set-up has inbuilt structures for generating and disbursing information to the farmers.
These should harness their partnership with agricultural extension workers so that they have an enhanced capacity for dairy market information collection and dissemination.000 – 25. Entebbe and Jinja being marginally analysed. Due to missing and/or unrecorded data.000 Not marketed at the moment The consultants found out that farmers have very small scale units. sub-county and household levels. The study was undertaken over all the divisions of Kampala. with the districts of Mbarara. with very little external input except for acaricides for cattle. The GBK Dairy plant in Mbarara has a capacity of 90. markets for all major agricultural enterprises. production costs. This would ensure that the producers make informed decisions on what product enterprises to undertake. for both raw and processed milk. the consultant was not able to fully analyse the productivity of these animals. Information needs The study identified an urgent need for information about all aspects of Milk production and marketing at the district.5 The lead Dairy market and its trends This section takes a closer look into the demographics of consumers of dairy products in Kampala. There is need to ensure market information reaches the producer level and market opportunities are available.000 litres and this in itself is more than enough for the area. Mbarara produces the biggest amount of milk in Uganda and milk consumption is very high. There is need for setting up an information system that can help farmers access information on outputs per season (especially creating a link between the dry and rainy season). A partnership in this range could also provide dairy-advisory services to the players along the value chain. totalling approximately 240 . Dairy and livestock productivity Item Price of animal Price of milk Cattle 120.480 liters per cow per year. Prices in Mbarara are also very low.3.District Planning Units have potential to improve the marketing option of Dairy sub-sector players.000 200 – 500/litre Goats 12. with cattle providing an average of only one to two litres of milk per animal. The livestock kept were mostly local breeds. 1. Civil Society players in agricultural promotion and agri-business value addition have increased. 2005). Jinja. However. most of the 1 . Entebbe and Mbarara where over 70% of the milk produced nationally is consumed (DDA.
Milk production is very low in the two market areas. The distribution of population by divisions is given below. This is a clear indication that the two divisions have the highest household sizes. with population sizes of children in the ages of 0-4 and 5-9 years. Questions on dairy products were loaded on the questionnaire and the data analysed to provide the profile of the users and usage patterns of various dairy products. Makindye. It is noted that the population size for the different divisions vary with Rubaga. Alternatively. milk is purchased by the processing firms from the farmers and end-users just buy it from the processing firms prior to processing. Consumers were asked which dairy products they buy and how often they use the dairy products. Population by Division The social economic conditions of a population are determined through their sources of income. Data based on the 1999/2000 Uganda national household surveys indicates that Kawempe and Makindye have the highest monthly household expenditure and the highest per capita expenditure. household monthly income and household expenditure. the same divisions i. Likewise.milk consumed in Mbarara is directly bought from the farmers who supply it to the end-users directly. Kawempe and Makindye divisions having the highest population.1 Overview of the Kampala’s population Kampala District has population of about 1. and that of (20-44). The former are main consumers of milk and milk products while the latter make the purchasing decisions.3.2 million persons. Nakawa and Rubaga have the largest administrative units overall. superseding that of the rest of the other divisions. Jinja and Entebbe. 1. 2 . The population density across the divisions has notable reflection on some of the key findings of this study. data available from the Uganda All Media Products Survey 2004 has been used to provide insights into the population demographics and gauge usage patterns of dairy sub sector products. In addition.5.e. as commercial and business areas also have a booming dairy business but the market is largely composed of packaged milk and unprocessed milk bought in cooling plants (retailers).
8 2. The population in Kampala has an almost equal split across male.236 4.Respondents were selected at random in this household survey and were spread across different ages between fifteen and forty-five.female.8 1. In Kampala. Market level Farm Primary collector Secondary collector Transporter Bulk milk pasteurizer/small scale processors Wholesaler/retailer Retailer Total Source: DDA. There is low knowledge and consequently low usage of these products.6 5 4 Cost of Loss Value of (Ushs/Lt) loss Ushs ‘000.548 2. milk shake. 2004 % loss 5.000 200 10.968 13.382 41. Yoghurt is one of the milk products commonly purchased. while along the marketing chain.187 400 Value of loss US$ ‘000 5. Usage of Dairy Products The dairy products that had high levels of awareness also have high consumption levels.8% of milk is wasted at farm level. only a few of them buy it use these products on a regular basis. While some of the respondents have ever bought powder milk. Post-harvest losses in milk and milk products Studies by the DDA under the FAO Post Harvest Losses project indicates that up to 5.920 542 5.473 300 975 350 9.7 4 450 500 5. there is a slightly higher number of people in the 25-34 years age cluster than the rest of the divisions. flavoured milk and cream.435 23. 11%is spilt and 10% undergoes spoilage.007 2 . In Kawempe and Makindye. This translates into an average daily loss of 27% of the milk produced and 21% of the marketable milk. There are more men in Central. 94% of the consumers interviewed have ever bought pasteurised milk while 82% use it more than any other dairy product. especially in peri-urban areas. This is attributed to the large university and other college students.400 250 3. Yoghurt is largely bought in these areas because it is ready to drink and is very hygienic.5 0. Kawempe and Nakawa divisions while the rest have slightly more women.412 3.426 8. a reflection of the national population.316 7. are like Nakawa and Makerere have a high yoghurt purchase rate.
cattle population has increased steadily from 5.6 million by end of 2001 (UIA. income generation through the sale of animals and also for household prestige.CHAPTER II 2. milling fish and meat processing) contributes approximately 4. The population of goats has also increased by an average of 3. Families own a few cows.8 per cent per annum since 1995.8 million in 1997 to over 6.50 million in 1996 to 6. 2005). 2005).15 million with the indigenous lot accounting for 95 percent (5.3 million) (UIA. a public company.5 per cent that is an average of 5. According to the Dairy Development Authority. The food processing industry in Uganda (comprising of soft drinks. 2.0 per cent from 5. Because of the high productivity associated with intensive dairy farming methods such as zero grazing of improved breeds.1 Developments in the Industry: Policy Regulations and Plans The Dairy Corporation. The Government programme under the first Poverty Eradication Project PAPSCA where Government trained families and then distributed zero grazing cows also helped increase the animal population and the quality.1. most farmers have adopted modern farming techniques at various levels of production.85 million) while the exotic and crosses accounting for the balance (0. monopolised the formal market for pasteurised milk and other dairy products.2 per cent per annum. Liberalisation and the 2 .3 % to the national GDP and the dairy industry accounts for an estimated 20 per cent of this.1 Background to the Dairy Sector Between 1997/98 and 2001/02 the agricultural sector grew by 22. The total cattle population is comprised of non traditional indigenous cows and improved breeds. for many years. This is due to a number of factors including general improved animal health as result of the nation wide disease control. improved breeding programmes and better management practices. with most of the growth coming from the dairy industry (UBOS and DDA). dairy products.15 million in 2001. This report notes that improved breeds are mostly kept for commercial milk production e.g. The establishment of milk processing plants and Government intervention in form of the importation of improved animal breeds has also had a positive impact. both for subsistence milk production. The cattle population in Uganda today is 6. The output from the livestock sector has grown at an average rate of 2. 2005). Over the same period the composition of agriculture in the total GDP reduced marginally from 42. Jesa farm and indigenous animals are mostly owned by families.2 to 41 per cent (UIA.
DCL has consequently been taken over by Sameer Agriculture and Livestock Limited.divestiture of the public enterprises in the dairy sector has led to substantial growth and increased private sector participation. The food industry in turn contributes about 4. Though small. The DDA’s overall objective is to provide proper coordination and efficient implementation of all government policies which are designed to achieve and maintain self-sufficiency in the production of milk in Uganda by promoting production and competition in the dairy industry. the dairy sub sector’s framework was based on the Dairy industry Act of 1967. the dairy sector currently contributes about 20% to the food processing industry. Strengthen the capacity of dairy stakeholders.2. The Dairy Act of 1998 reformed the organisational. 2.3% to the national GDP. which now requires industry players to observe best practices as well as the tense competition introduced in the industry forcing some companies to edge out.2 Legal framework The Dairy Development Authority (DDA) Prior to 1997. • Promote increased milk production: • Increase processing and improve marketing of milk and milk products.1 Contribution of the Dairy Sector According to data and statistics by the Uganda Investment Authority (UIA). 2 . 2004). This is under the favoured Public-Private partnerships (PPPs). • 2. It should be noted that the declining trend in the performance of the dairy sector is a result of the adjustment period due to the active involvement of the DDA in dairy activities. institutional and policy framework of the sub-sector. • Strengthen linkages with the various stakeholders in development at national and local government levels.1. an arrangement that is favoured by Government. monitoring the market for milk and dairy products and carrying out regulatory functions in the sector (DDA. The DDA is mandated to: Improve the quality of milk and milk products. The DDA was established by the Dairy Industry Act of 1998 and is mandated to take up regulatory and developmental functions of the Dairy sector.2 Trends and Performance of the Dairy Industry 2. this contribution to the GDP is steadily increasing. Table 4 shows the index of industrial production of food processing and dairy processing for the period 19972001.
adoption of improved breeds and improved animal health and support services. Holstein.1 per cent has been experienced over the last five years as shown in Table 5.2 135. In terms of milk production. 2003). An average growth rate of 3.2.5 1999 99. Guernsey.4 2000 95 2001 88 Source: UBOS. Friesians.9 2. Statistical Abstract 2002 Index for food processing 100 110 123. The growth has been attributed to the increasing demand for milk by consumers and milk processing plants.Table 4: Index of industrial production for food processing and dairy processing Year Index of dairy processing 1997 93.3 Dairy Farming and Milk Supply Uganda. The exotic breeds include the Jersey.000 in 1995. with a population of 26 million.5 million head of cattle. Ashyire and the Brown Swiss. it is cattle that are of economic value in this regard. Consequently. The exotics and cross-breeds proportion of the dairy herd countrywide increased to about 300.000 in 2002 from an estimated 220. 2 . the national milk production levels have increased as shown in figure 5 from less than 600 million litres in 1994 to over 900 million litres by end of 2001.6 118. people has about 6. Table 5: Livestock numbers (‘000 animals): 1997-2001 2. UNFFE is encouraging farmers to work harder and increase the national herd for both milk and meat production ends. However.2.9 1998 109. according to recent surveys (UNFFE).2 Cattle population The national cattle population over the last ten years has experienced steady growth. better herd management. representing 5% of the total dairy herd.
002 raw milk dealers and processors. Kotido. Bushenyi.025 132. hospitals. The DDA has thus far registered more than 1. Kamuli.000 ‘000 litres Source: UBOS. Ntungamo. 2003). food and dairy processing plants. The demand for milk from processing plants and other consumers is expected to increase. 239 coolers and categorised 763 (DDA. Moroto. catering institutions. in that order (UIA. Mbale.2001) Year 1998 1999 2000 162.000 2 . The demand for processed milk is estimated at 400 million litres per year. Statistical Abstract. Mukono. Kabarole. Masaka.The leading districts in dairy production are Mbarara. Table 7: Per capita consumption of fluid milk over the last three years The demand for milk in Uganda comes from households. Table 8: Production of processed fluid milk (1994 . 2005).470 385. 2002 2001 400. schools.
Alpha Dairies 4. are involved in the production of pasteurised milk. Currently. SMA and its varieties.3 Milk Products Uganda produces a variety of milk products but a substantial amount of processed milk products is also imported indicating that the domestic production is not sufficient to meet market demands – the absorption capacity of the Ugandan market is not yet being targeted to full capacity as one goes up to the complex levels of the value chain. both technically and financially. UHT Milk Sameer Agriculture and Livestock Limited. Of the local milk produced.2. most of which come from the Scandinavian countries and South Africa. NAN. to process milk to milk powder and yet to be able to favourably compete with these imported varieties. This is also because consumers purchase milk powder products largely due to their proven quality and reputation. because it is relatively expensive due to the advanced technology packaging. Jesa Dairies 6. a big component of which is infant powdered milk. Table 9: Dairy processing companies in Uganda Dairy company Location Installed capacity(‘000 litres) 130 90 50 30 20 20 1. S26. Examples include NIDO. It was noticed that most of the milk products imported are complex processed products with focus on milk powder. Kampala 2. which are spread all over the country. This is largely attributed to the fact that the local milk producers and processors lack the capacity. Most of this milk is consumed by the elite class. together with GBK Dairies produce a combined capacity of an estimated 150. among others. Country taste 5. GBK Dairies 3. Mona Foods Mbarara Mbarara Mbarara Busunju Kampala 2 . over 12 firms.000 litres of UHT per day. a portion of both fresh and pasteurised milk is exported to the regional markets. Pasteurised milk The production of pasteurised milk is the largest processing activity in the dairy Industry. Sameer Agriculture and Livestock Ltd. About 80 per cent of processed milk goes into the production of pasteurised milk. with Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo being the leading destinations.
A number of small and medium scale dairy processors have started producing and marketing yoghurt. Jesa Farm and Sameer Agriculture and Livestock are the leading producers but the production of yoghurt has continued to increase due to the growing market for this product. It is then packed in polythene bags in a ready- 2 . Sameer Agriculture and Livestock Limited produces 3. but also due to the trendsetting attachment by the youth. Gouda Gold 14. Ice cream is normally marketed and sold in supermarket chains among others. Anifarm 12. Many firms in urban areas including multi-national fast food chains produce and market ice cream. East African foods 13. which it uses in the production of ice cream. especially Paramount Dairies and Gouda Gold are also involved in cheese production. Maddo Dairies Location Kamuli Kampala Jinja Kisoro Entebbe Kampala Kampala Mbarara Soroti Masaka Installed capacity(‘000 litres) 10 10 10 8 6 6 5 3 3 2 Source: Dairy Development Authority. Sunshine Dairies 9.Dairy company 7. Kaisa Dairies 8. Annual Report 2004. This are poses a good investment opportunity as there is still a high consumption gap. Teso Fresh Dairy 16. Yoghurt The yoghurt produced in the country is mainly the set and drinking type. Though consumption levels are still low. Cheese Although cheese is produced locally. It should be note that the demand for ice cream has exponentially increased largely due to the realisation of its nutritional and refreshing functions. Uganda still continues to import this product. Birunga Dairy 11. Cream and Ice cream A few firms produce cream but this is mainly an input product. Sameer Agriculture and Livestock produces substantial amounts of cream. White Nile Dairies 10. the key producing companies have embarked on vigorous public awareness campaigns and consumption levels are rising arithmetically. Paramount Dairy 15.0 metric tonnes/year while other firms. A few other private dairy processors produce cream for sale on the market.
epically supermarket chains. Despite this. Cultured Milk This is a relatively unknown product as its supply and marketing largely depends on an existing niche market. Further information on prices was accessed from DDA. distribution and marketing of milk and milk products is now being attended to by a number of players including the Uganda National Dairy Farmers’ Association.to-drink state. 2. Butter and Ghee Production is led by the Sameer Agriculture and Livestock with a capacity of 1. yoghurt is sold in supermarket chains and other stores.1 Pricing of Milk and Milk Products This information was generated during the field market study by the consultants. Sameer Agriculture and Livestock Limited and retailers. The prices are responsive and tend to an average. Commercial cultured milk is newly developed from indigenous cultured milks and is largely consumed by those persons that have known it for a long time. especially for processing firms.4 Marketing Structure of Dairy Products The production. Jesa Dairy Farm Ltd. the western region of Uganda continues to remain a low cost-producing region of the country reflected in relatively low prices of the final products. These groups influence standards as well as market conditions in terms of supply and demand for the products. Farmers produce ghee mainly on a small scale which for domestic consumption and sale. In the central region. 2004). the prices of milk and therefore its marketing are largely determined by the forces of demand and supply.5 metric tonnes/year (DDA. 2. colleges and schools. At the farm level. especially in areas where there are high population densities. In terms of input costs. 2 . the cost of packaging material for UHT milk is seen to be a significant cost factor. the market will further open and widen. and the Uganda Dairy Processors’ Association. Due to liberalisation of the markets in Uganda. especially areas that have universities. This is common in the western cattle corridor and eastern Uganda where ghee has always been a traditional product. The butter demand and production is expected to increase. and other private companies have started producing butter. its market is also rising and with marketing of opportunities associated with is production. This is the case because most of the yoghurt produced locally by SMEs does not have a long shelf life. the Uganda National Dairy Traders’ Association.4. Annual report.
at least in the short run.500 Cheese per kg 6. It brings milk is closer to the consumer. Dairy Sector report.000 Central rural 312 400 550 4.000 7.500 Yoghurt per litre 700 900 Cream per kg 890 900 Favoured milk per litre Butter per kg 5. If the milk is not boiled in the morning prior to going to the market area.100 Source: Dairy Development Authority Central urban 367 433 700 600 3. The argument posted here is that a milk vendor can stay on the open market for a full day.000 2003 1. because it was boiled already. It provides an alternative outlet for milk that cannot enter the formal market. post-harvest losses are reduced because any milk that remains can not go bad.4. 2001 Table 10: National milk sales estimates Year Estimated National production (in million litres) 2000 700 2001 900 2002 1.000 Source: Land O’Lakes.000 4. In Soroti for example. On the farmers’ side. the chances of 2 .2 Marketing systems of Small Scale Dairy producers Informal Market The informal market presents the following arguments in its favour: • • • • It creates income for many people. This ensures that those buying it can drink it on the spot.000 800 800 - Processed milk 98 126 140 154 Total milk sales (million litres) 490 630 700 770 2. It provides consumers with affordable milk.Table 9: Milk products and prices Milk product Western Eastern Raw milk in wet season 150 242 Raw milk in dry season 346 338 UHT milk per litre 600 650 Pasteurised milk/litre 350 550 Ghee per kilogram 2.500 700 700 650 7. it was observed that farmers boil their milk by the roadsides and sell it the whole day. after which the remaining milk is taken home and boiled again.
Moreover. 3 . mainly Kampala. 2. In this regard. primary. Not only do these produce value added milk that has been pasteurized but they may also produce other milk products like butte. Using open vans and pick-ups. Domestically processed packaged milk (pasteurized and UHT). These are bulk milk pasteurizers and/or small scale/large scale processors. ice cream.4. The pooling centers are quite often under a tree. they buy milk from secondary vendors. which has been added to increase profit margins. The worst and most serious scenario is that raw milk vendors interfere with the milk’s compositional integrity. Boiled unpackaged milk.it going bad after 7 hours in the open are pretty high. Some secondary vendors also boil and /or cool milk and operate retail outlets. This is the case in Eastern Uganda where is lack of milk collection centres. and no taxes are paid. identifies three tiers in the informal sector. Masembe Kasirye (June 2003). ghee. Tertiary vendors on the other hand are in urban areas. These entities normally have centrally located milk collection units and enforce a strict standards policy. the most commonly consumed types of milk are: • • • Unprocessed raw milk. In her report “A Review of the Small Scale Dairy Sector – Uganda” Dr. boil it and sell it at various “candlelit” nightspots after boiling and chilling or while still warm. cream. It is difficult to estimate with certainty the amount of milk that is traded through the informal market sector nationally. Secondary vendors buy milk from roadside milk pooling centers. milk is collected in 20-liter plastic jerry cans from various centers until the van is full. Those opposed to the informal market claim that it is responsible for the constricted milk market due to the fact that a large proportion of the milk sold in the informal market is diluted. secondary and tertiary vendors. The most commonly used vans have varying capacity of 80-120 twenty-liter jerry cans each. which provides shade for the vendors and their milk while waiting for secondary vendors from urban areas. The Formal Market These are at a more complex level along the value chain. which could endanger the safety of the consumer. The primary vendor buys milk from a farmer and sells it directly to the consumer or to another vendor at roadside pooling centers or to a milk collection center. farmers prefer to first boil it prior to marketing. Florence N. most categories of milk vendors incur very little overheads as no value is added to the milk. etc.3 Milk and milk products consumption patterns In Uganda.
77 1.55 Total 1.93 201.42 621. Cream and Fermented milk enjoy the lowest market.012 1. Table 12: National consumption and forecast rates of milk and milk products Region Year 1999 2000 2005 2010 Northern 66.91 688. yoghurt has a big market.236.The most commonly consumed dairy products include: • Yoghurt and indigenous fermented milks • Ghee • Butter • Cheese • Ice cream • Sweet and sour cream The most frequently consumed milk products Source: FAO.390. 2003 As mentioned before.16 (national) Source: Land O’Lakes Dairy Sector Study 2000.51 84. 3 .17 175.103.58 1.71 Central 564.74 Eastern 154.000 75.23 415.18 363. followed by ice cream.12 Western 319.
much of the yoghurt is consumed in urban areas. and distributing produced milk from rural to major consumer centers in urban areas is greatly lacking. In Uganda. which increase on the losses. which may result in stiff competition which may stifle growth of the sub-sector Low purchasing power: Most consumers complain of lack of money to purchase milk due a low disposable income. It can be seen that total national consumption is rising and this should be met with an increase in production and an improvement in the quality of the products. cooling. This is compounded by the fact that most farmers do not keep records on whose basis the performance of their milk production businesses could be gauged. there is inadequate knowledge and information about both the local and distant markets. This is in turn determines there supply planning processes. On the supply side. Suppliers do not also access information on markets abroad. extension and credit services: There is lack of extension/advisory services. 2. Poor and inadequate infrastructure: The infrastructure for transporting. Lack of strong farmers’ organizations: With the abolition of the here is lack of farmer and supplier organization for collective marketing of milk and milk 3 . For example. like any sector under agriculture is faced with a number if challenges and these include: Small markets: Markets for milk and milk products are mainly in urban areas where 15% of the Ugandan population lives.The above table shows forecasts for milk and milk products consumption. consumers do not actually know the nutritional values of the milk products. For example. This means that awareness building is one of the much needed activities to boost the dairy sub-sector. In some areas. moving milk from Kisoro to Kampala is not easy because of the bad murram road from Kisoro. apart form big institutions that have the capacity to undertake foreign market searches on their own. Low levels of training. This makes the target market small. In other cases.5 Challenges of the Dairy sub sector The Dairy sub-0sector. most farmers do not have access to credit because they lack collateral and credit institutions regard agriculture as a risky business. Inadequate market information: The performance of any firm or individual largely depends on the market information they have. both secondary and transports of milk do not have cold storage systems.
to achieve a higher bargaining power and to receive certain services which they can not access as individual farmers. especially in the areas of business planning and marketing. otherwise it can cause an environmental problem in the future. powdered milk and cheese. The lack of producer marketing groups makes it difficult for the dairy farmers to make unified strategies.products. Increasing urban farming Intensive farming is carried out in the urban and peri-urban areas on very small plots. This is being reversed with even Government supporting the revamp of the cooperative societies. CHAPTER III: SECTOR DYNAMICS 3 . Ugandan products cannot compete with these products on quality. The introduction of cost-sharing BDS schemes in the development of business and marketing plan prior to accessing lines of credit would go along way in solving this challenge. This means that players in the sub sector find it too expensive to access better technology like milk coolers. etc. Where such credit lines are available. This needs to be planned for. where there are limited facilities for manure disposal. the terms attached to them impinge greatly on the returns of the milk investors. even if their (imports) prices may be higher. This also necessitates the need for BDS services. Milk imports: Imports of milk in Uganda are mainly in form of UHT milk. pasteurizers. Lack of Credit and High cost of borrowing Most players along milk value chain lack access to cheap lines of credit.
the market widens tremendously. It is imperative that these players be given information but also be trained in ways of using this information to harness their market potential. 3. The East African market has about 85 million people and tariffs across the region have been removed.2.0. There is an availability of land in which both the milk production and processing can be undertaken. This gives an extra incentive to the players in the value chain. have opportunities they can take up. Especially. consumption of milk has risen to an average of 30 litres of milk (the World Health organizations recommends 200 litres per year).1 National Dairy Sub sector analysis Market Access The various players along the value chain have needs in form of information on markets and market entry points. With the start of the East African Community (Rwanda and Burundi inclusive).1 THE DAIRY SUB SECTOR DYNAMICS MARKET ANALYSIS Market opportunities in form of demand are very high. Ugandan dairy producers do lack machinery for the processing and packaging of this to increase its shelf life. The inclusion of the COMESA market stretches the market to over 367 million people. however. 3. In Uganda. This presents a great market opportunity before one even thinks of production for a market in Europe or the Caribbean. Dairy sub sector players are faced with a need for Business Development Services in form of advisory and financial support services. covering over 20 countries.2 3.3. The study realized the following: • There are many players along the value chain. One of the reasons why the marketing chain is not conducive to milk vendors is because they market a primary product with a high perishability ratio. Milk and milk products have potential for being marketed. right from milk producers to processors. • • 3 . the supply side of milk is assured with good market envisioning. Dairy players and actors along the value chain. This is coupled with the fact the per capita consumption rates are rising.
The grasslands structure in both Western and eastern Uganda is also suitable for Dairy production. The quality of milk produced is of good quality. largely due the fact that there is a combination of local and exotic breeds.• There is a good policy environment in Uganda and players in the chain can come together seeking better market shares and other collective advantages. The current traders and producers associations are an exhibit of this. The establishment of the Dairy Development Authority is also an indication of Government’s efforts to put in place an investment climate and an incentive framework that promotes Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). • 3 .
This is when small scale milk processors do not have the capacity to undertake regular servicing and the repair of the milk processing machinery.75 4.50 4. The current power outage in the country is also affecting the processing function of small scale milk processors. This affects the role of small scale milk processors. 3. Related to the above is the fact that there is a poor chain of technology transfer.50 Source: UNBS and supplemented by data from DDA It is worth noting that key players in the dairy sub sector are not regularly involved in undertaking promotional activities. he does not possess enough capacity to maintain the machine. One of the POs.00 1.00 0.40 0. This is due to the must-procurement of 3-phase diesel generators by the processing companies. SOCADIDO. SOCADIDO (Teso Fresh dairies) has had its pasteurising machine not working for some time.85 3. Inasmuch as the have a technical person on site. The study found out that most dairy players and actors believe that milk consumption decisions cannot be marginally affected by advertising.75 3.54 0. • • 3 .2. both mass media and community outreach campaigns.00 4. largely due to the competition that is coming up and also due to the narrowness of the current market.Table 13: Milk ingredient INGREDIENTS COW MILK Water Solids Casein Albumen Fats Sugar 87. powers the milk processing complex using a 3-phase diesel generator.2 Technology traits The study on the sub sector identified the following as the key technology traits: • There is a prevalence of us of old machines or total lack of processing machines. This is because the overhead costs involved with processing milk have risen.70 GOAT MILK 87. However. leading player like Jesa and DCL are starting to advertise. This has led to the company having to transport the machinery to Kyambogo University for overhauls.40 3. for example.
partnership and a sense of responsibility towards the processors. More so. the practice has been banned by the Dairy Development Authority. Milk suppliers do not regularly keep details of the amounts of milk they produce. Apart from the fact that this is not hygiene. Milk suppliers sometimes don’t trust processors who pay after a period of time and not on a daily basis. There is need for more cooperation and partnership along the market chain so that processors provide an extra incentive in form of milk cans to milk suppliers. The irregularity of milk supply is attributed to a number of factors: i. Country taste 3 . In such cases. the key players in the processing of milk and milk products are: a.3 Key market players As mentioned earlier. The milk suppliers lack facilities for milk collection. milk suppliers may supply diluted milk to institutions like hotels since the end-users do not have the capacity to test the quality of milk. ii. This basically means that processing houses are never full to capacity due to poor milk collection facilities. Some milk suppliers depend on milk for their household incomes. Sameer Agriculture and Livestock Limited b. This means that when these people need money. GBK Dairies c. This means that their absorptive capacities are below capacity and yet the overheads are the same. they choose to supply other institutions like hotels that will pay on delivery. Alpha Dairies d. This will ensure good quality milk but will also ensure continuity in the supply as the suppliers will have a sense of belonging.• There is a challenge of lack of facilities in terms of milk collection centres and other cooling outlets. The milk processors identify the problem of poor record keeping as a hindrance to the process of milk estimation. 3. This deja vu also affects the marketing chain as the aggressiveness in it is lost. • All players and actors in the market agree that there is irregular supply of milk to the processors. they can get it by just supplying to the processors. It is common knowledge for the farmers to take milk to milk collection centres or other end-users in jerrycans.
Paramount Dairy o. East African foods m. Birunga Dairy k. However. Jesa Dairies f. Mona Foods g. There are key institutions that are players in the dairy sub sector and these include: i. Kaisa Dairies h. UNBS follows the various International Standards Organisation series. In the dairy sub sector. Uganda Export Promotion Board This is the statutory body charged with promoting exports to the outside world. They are at a level above the milk production level. White Nile Dairies j.e. After value addition. Uganda National Bureau of Standards This is a body set up to check the standards of product produced in Uganda and those imported into the country. Gouda Gold n. ii. Teso Fresh Dairy p. the players also have distribution areas where they may offer retail products to the public. UEPB also collects and collates information on market opportunities outside of Uganda for local entrepreneurs. Uganda Manufacturer’s Association 3 . iii. Maddo Dairies These are also bulk milk processors. They offer both advisory and facilitatory services to legal entities in Uganda who are interested ion production for the export market. Sameer Agriculture and Livestock and GBK are the market leaders in milk processing while Paramount Dairies and Gouda Gold are the leading players in the production of cheese. UNBS is responsible for maintaining quality assurance in the production of milk and milk products. These are institutions that buy milk from farmers or from secondary players and add value to it. Sunshine Dairies i. Anifarm l. the above firms are largely identified with wholesaling as they will sale the milk products to retailers.
In milking by hand. it is very expensive. & poor quality milk. Private Sector Foundation Uganda iv. UNFFE is involved in advocacy. Milking The profitable operation of a dairy herd depends in a large part upon how well you milk your cows. ix. It was formally the Uganda National Farmers Association (UNFA). Other institutional support institutions for the sub-sector include: v. This causes low production. vii. lobbying and networking on behalf of the farmers. the Private Sector Foundation 3. or undertaking general advocacy for the improvement of the Dairy sector. Although machine milking is rapidly gaining reputation. An important part of milking cows is to produce the cleanest possible milk. cows must be carefully prepared to produce high quality milk.This is a body that brings together manufacturers in Uganda. The process below is undertaken by all small scale milk processors in Uganda. For example. Uganda National Farmers Federation (UNFFE) This is the apex body for farmers in Uganda. x. viii.3. Processing. The advocacy is both for improving the sector and for the provision of Business Development Services.1. mastitis. Cooling and milk storage 3 . UMA is the apex body for manufacturers where they get to network and lobby with Government and other foreign entities. packaging and handling of the Dairy sub sector The manufacturing process for Dairy milk is started with the milking cows by hand (at small scale) & milking cows by machine (at large scale commercial farms like at Jesa Farm Dairies). xi. and many dairymen still use their hands. Over 90% of the milk suppliers use their hands to milk cows and goats. vi. Dairy Development Authority Uganda Small Scale Industries Association Land O’Lakes Uganda Dairy Processors Association Uganda National Dairy Farmers Association Uganda National Dairy traders association Uganda Dairy Stakeholders Association These institutions are targets for networking and lobbying.
In the informal market. Pasteurisation In this process. Storage Tanks made of stainless steel are employed for storing the raw milk. This is done to destroy all pathogenic bacteria. both pasteurized and UHT milk is through the plastic pouches of capacity 1/2 kg. the milk is fed to pasteurizer and heated to the required temperature & held there during the holding period (usually at 145oF and for at least 30 minutes). In this process. These may be plastic pouches but tetra packs are now preferred because they even have a longer shelf life and are hard to be tampered with. milk filling & pouch sealing machines with a printing provision. Refrigeration or cooling system After the complete processing of milk it is to be stored in a cold up-to-chilling condition so that no unwanted micro-organisms/pathogenic organism can be developed in the processed milk. cold water is circulated through the jacket or coil of the pasteurizer. Whole milk should be stored at 50oF to prevent spoilage. At this point the heated flavour will not continue to develop. When product is cleared from testing or quality control section. Temperature of the milk may be quickly lowered 10o to 15oC. At the end of the holding period. Most companies like DCL. it is common to find foreign matters or undesired materials in milk due to non-filtration. All small scale processing firms have shown that they filter the milk before it is stored in cooling machines. Milk filled and sealed in pouches is now ready for dispatch & distribution for marketing 3.1 Dairy sub sector business development and support Access to finance 4 .The careless handling of milk between milking and delivering to the plant causes high bacteria counts to develop in the milk. then it is ready for packing & distribution & send to packing section. It is stored until delivered for packing in Sachets or pouches. testing may be done prior to storage under freezing conditions. Testing The testing of milk is an essential for the quality control purposes. Alpha Dairies all have Automatic pouch making. Jesa Farm Dairies. However. excessive heating of any part of the milk & a consequent "cooked” flavour is prevented. 1 kg.4 3. The problem in Uganda is that small scale processors lack the funds to establish community milk collection and cooling centres.4. and 2 kgs packs. Packaging The most common method for packing milk. Suppliers have just started forming marketing groups and thus don’t yet have the capacity to set up these structures.
4. The same institution also lacked a bankable business plan that would justify accessing a line of credit. an institution that offers capacity building services in enterprise development could be targeted under this component. This could be in form of farmer sensitization. The Enterprise Uganda. The Uganda National bureau of Standards (UNBS) and DDA do not have testing laboratories spread over the country and yet dairy processors are spread over the country. Teso Fresh Dairies under SOCADIDO could not access a line of credit from a certain financial institution when they wanted to expand their processing plant! This was partly because. especially in the areas of milk processing and packaging. There is also lack of affordable and practical training courses for the dairy players. Land O’Lakes has provided support to many dairy players but there is need for intervention in this area. The Private Sector Foundation Uganda is running the biggest 4 . organizational development for dairy marketing groups. among others.Like any business. There is also a problem of lack of qualified production experts. they did not have information on their suppliers. it is normally very hard for such entrepreneurs to access lines of credit. among others.2 Business Development support Lack of inexpensive and competent business development consultants is also a problem to the Dairy sub sector players. investments in the Dairy sub sector need capital investments which are normally over and above what a normal average Uganda can put up from their individual savings. quality assurance and management. So they could not guarantee that they would be collecting milk every day over and above a certain margin. 3. There is need for marketing groups and produce associations to pool resources to develop these units as part of improving the quality of milk and milk products so that it is easier to market. However. long breakeven points and other factors. The study has also analysed the players in the market and it has found that they lack testing laboratories for the milk and milk products. These are examples of hindrances for the acquisition of lines of credit. One of the biggest challenges faced by the sub sector is the lack of BDS services across the range. because of little experience in business planning. The challenge always makes the players’ costs rise overriding their competitiveness. capacity building for staff of dairy players. which they could also not guarantee to sale. Yet these service providers would go along way in improving the image and internal processes of dairy sector players. This needs that investors must always try to access lines of credit from financial institutions.
ii. among others. Most actors spoken too express the view that consultants charge too much money due their time rate charges. or in some instances. Under BUDS. There are other facilities like Strengthening the Competitiveness of Private Enterprises (SCOPE). UMACIS Uganda Manufacturers Association Communications and Information Service provide consultancy services in business developing in the manufacturing industry. Key of the identified service providers include: i.4. marketing. however. among others. consultants spoken too also say that dairy small scale actors pay poor professional fees.000 each for consultancy services and value addition. The firm also provides BDS services in business development. There is need to fully use the services offered by these BDS services providers to increase the capacity of players in the dairy market chain. there is a Technology Acquisition Fund (TAF) where dairy sub sector players can get grants of up to US$50. UMACIS can develop project reports and also provide information on accessing lines of credit and machinery. This is a cost-share grant support targeting all SMEs and offers advisory as well as financial support. players in the dairy sector can get cumulative grants of up to US$50. Rural SPEED.3 The role of and bias against Commercial service providers Commercial service providers (consultants) appear too expensive to dairy actors. Premium Consulting Premium Consulting is an established business development firm thqat has implemented a number of BDS projecs in Uganda.scale BDS scheme. 4 . Under the BUDS scheme. promotes exporting and this is on of the eligibility criteria for accessing funding.000 for the acquisition of better and improved technology. The portfolio of small scale dairy actors is not very large thus there is always hesitancy in procuring the services of independent contracts to develop strategies like a marketing plan or a comprehensive bankable business plans. The TAF scheme. However. 3. do not pay at all! This dilemma needs to be solved by publicizing information on the existing BDS services that can benefit small scale actors who want to utilize the services of independent service providers (annexed is a list of competent service providers who have undertaken research in business development and planning in the dairy sub sector). Firms can get grants for the acquisition of processing and packaging machinery under TAF. the Business Uganda Development Scheme (BUDS).
product launches. etc.iii. sourcing for machinery. vi. record keeping. 4 . development of market strategies. investment and trade promotion. business to business matchmaking. etc. Entrep Uganda Entrep Uganda is an entrepreneurship development consulting group that provides BDS services in idea selection. Enterprise Uganda Enterprise Uganda is a national body that promotes entrepreneurship and SMEs in Uganda. v. market development. Entrep Uganda can assist POs in accessing joint venture partners. etc. The institution provides BDS services under the consulting component but also provides capacity building services in business planning and management. The Ssemwanga Centre Under the Ssemwanga Group of Companies. of which the dairy sub-sector is a major component. Kiziba Investments Limited Kiziba Investments provides business development services in the agricultural sector in areas like business planning. access to finance. iv. the Ssemwanga Centre has a specialized BDS unit focusing on agricultural improvement. A full list of competent service providers is appended to this expert report. among others. business planning.
how this margin spreads across the suppliers. 4 . value addition (processing and marketing). can not perform all activities from milk production. wholesale (milk collection centres). Therefore. Nevertheless. and final sale (retail sale) to the final user by itself. there is only a certain value of profit margin available. value chain analysis covers the whole value system in which a milk and milk products farmer operates. This is the difference of the final price the customer pays and the sum of all costs incurred with the production and delivery of the milk product/. it evaluates which value each particular activity adds to the organizations products or services. and other elements of the value system. customers. Only if these things are arranged into systems and systematic activates it will become possible to produce something for which customers are willing to pay a price. and relates them to an analysis of the competitive strength of the organization. Each member of the system will use its market position and negotiating power to get a higher proportion of this margin. processors. Within the whole dairy value system. The value chain analysis describes the activities the organization performs and links them to the organizations competitive position. Value chain analysis describes the activities within and around an organization. equipment. Porter argues that the ability to perform particular activities and to manage the linkages between these activities is a source of competitive advantage. A single company. Therefore. distributors. This idea was built upon the insight that an organization is more than a random compilation of machinery. members of a value system can cooperate to improve their efficiency and to reduce their costs in order to achieve a higher total margin to the benefit of all of them.CHAPTER IV: DAIRY SECTOR VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS 4. people and money. THE VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS The term ‘Value Chain’ was used by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining superior Performance" (1985). farm-gate sale. It depends on the structure of the value system.1. however.
milk collection and cooling. The dairy Sector value chain In the context of the dairy sub sector analysis. the quality improves and the price increases. processing.2 The Dairy Market chain The market chain is the movement of milk and milk products right from the farmer’s home to the consumer.1. post-harvesting. A milk product goes through a chain. and marketing up to consumption. 4. 4 . The market chain is interlinked right from production. processing into various products and the offering of the processed milk and other milk products for sale to the final end-user. the market value chain segment is composed of Dairy Milk Production. there are many actors whose activities influence the value of the goods and services exchanged from producer to consumer.4. In the marketing chain. and generally at each stage.2.
Increased milk production. Increased incomes for dairy farmers. Dairy processing The liberalisation of the dairy sector has led to an increase in the private dairy processors in Uganda Small size of operation. Strengthen cooperatives. flavourings and sugar for niche market production. small scale dairy processors. Critical Concerns Interventions Targeted Beneficiaries Expected Impact The supply of milk is affected by poor marketing outlets. Increased production of high value dairy products. strengthen cooperatives and support small-scale dairy processors through incentives.2. infrastructure and lack of cooling points for smallscale dairy farmers. Inability to collect milk from producers in all the milk producing zones – lack of Dairy farmers. Provision of business Dairy farmers. Increased milk production and processing. The good weather and the tendency to commercial farming. Availability of other ingredients like fruits. Provide information on market entry points. 46 . and improved quality of marketed milk.1 Dairy Market Value Chain Factor Strengths Value chain segment Input supply The state of dairy production in Uganda. especially smallscale farmers. NGOs. leading to high level of wastage of unprocessed milk. private dairy processors. Encourage development of local collection and cooling points Investment in cooling plants in milk producing areas. Improve infrastructure.4.
reducing their collection capacity. 47 . Incentives for more private dairy processors and diversification of dairy products. Concentration on a few dairy products.community milk collection centres. Most small processors cannot afford cooling plants in milk producing areas. Availability of financial services through lines of credit targeting dairy processing. This also affects milk quality. Source: UNIDO and other dairy sources development services by the state and dairy promotion agencies.
Strengths Critical Concerns Interventions Target Beneficiaries Expected Impact Small scale processors Higher quality dairy products Support organizations Poor infrastructure for milk marketing Improvement on infrastructure.4. Lack of extension system to link research and farmers. Agricultural research institutions also provide additional strength in the learning systems Relevant government ministries and departments Lack of financial support for research institutions.2. and milk marketing. Incentives for Farmers and Private milk processors. Improve training opportunities for processors Farmers Higher returns for farmers and private processors. Strengthen the link between research and farmers through extension. Higher returns for farmers and private processors 48 .2 Recommended interventions Factor Systems of support Innovation and learning system Relevant training opportunities at universities and higher-level agricultural colleges.
Industrial governance In Uganda. and processors and the general economy Increased incomes in the dairy sector and the economy. Farmers. Farmers and processors Reduced duplication of effort Policy and strategy To some extent. Apparent limited coordination with other relevant ministries. other dairy development agencies and research institutes are also involved Existence of Poor Improve policy government implementation of implementation ministries and line policies agencies dealing with dairy production. private milk processors out in place. the ministry of agriculture. 49 . livestock and Animal industry is the main supporter of the sector. Improve coordination with other relevant ministries and players in the sector.
DDA and research institutions. Efforts to revive cooperative societies. Poor government ability to implement policies. Increased dairy production and value addition in the sector Institutional framework Processors. Improve coordination between the relevant ministries and other players like NGOs.Context History and general characteristics Experience in dairy production. Poor storage and marketing infrastructure. Improve rural infrastructure in the form of roads and cooling plants for milk. leading to high wastage in milk. low wastage. farmers 50 . high potential agricultural land for milk production The necessary supportive institutional framework for the sector is present in the form of government ministries. Private processors. The problems affecting the development of cooperatives. farmers and consumers Low cost of milk transport. high incomes for producers.
There should be promotion of small-scale rural-based dairy processing plants. Conclusions Where as it is seen that the dairy sub sector has developed over the last decade. Support institutions like DDA. On the part of the CORDAID POs. processing and packaging alternatives that can be afforded by the majority of the population. Setting up a processing plant in Western Uganda for example. This will enable farmers take farming seriously in order to be able to reap more from the enterprise. Farmers should be advised to take advantage of the various refinance schemes available. This will not only involve regular provision of information on marketing opportunities but will also involve provision of capacity building and organisational development support to dairy sub sector actors. At the farm level. there is need for further market-oriented interventions so as to increase the level of market participation by the dairy sector players along the value chain. UDPA should train stakeholders at various levels to create a harmoniously operating system along the entire chain from primary production to consumption. There is need therefore to explore use of low-cost production. This will help in prolonging the shelf life of milk. Technology transfer According to FAO. the market in Uganda is small and fragmented. there is need to organise the suppliers.1. there is need for training in management of dairy farms as business enterprises. localization of processing plants should be promoted. For most consumers. This will in the end boost the quality of the products put on the market. Partnerships with Civil Society institutions should be promoted so that services are available at the grassroots. An example is the recently launched DFCU credit facility that promotes value addition at very subsidized rates. provide them with incentive and ensure a steady supply of good quality milk.CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. choice of the product is dictated by price not quality. is relatively cheaper than setting up in central Uganda since there are less transportation costs attached to milk collection. The partner organisations also need to be availed with industry best practices information so that they can better package their milk and milk products. This is partnership with DANIDA under the Agriculture Sector Programme Support (ASPS) With farmers and small scale milk processors having problems accessing lines of credit. 51 . Poverty and weak purchasing power prevails in the country.
and what price and packaging is required. Such surveys may focus on each region each region (since all have their different levels of competitiveness). 5. butter and yoghurt. Periodic market assessments and needs-based analyses should be undertaken by stakeholders including DDA.2 5. Information delivery Most of the operators in the small-scale and to a large extent the large-scale processors. 52 . why there is demand. For example. There should be milk promotion and awareness campaigns. the provision of telephony or community telecentres helps in providing information on milk prices such that over head costs are cut. but also by support institutions like DDA.1 Recommendations Generic Recommendations Government agencies The Ministry of Agriculture and the Dairy Development Authority are mandated to improve the dairy sub sector.In order to address the poor quality of raw milk there is need to integrate quality assurance across the entire production chain. NGOs and the private sector at large. not only by the value chain players. operate with very little capital and have no access to reasonably cheap credit facilities. especially those making ice cream.2. the following are recommended: Government has played a big role in the establishment of supportive infrastructure for the dairy sectors. This activity’s scope should be widened so that a bigger area is covered under quality assurance and standards. In this regard. what the stakeholders’ demands are. Campaigns to educate consumers on the benefits of consuming milk and the various dairy products such as a Milk Consumption Week. The DDA should be more vigilant in monitoring quality of milk and dairy products and the culprits should be reprimanded accordingly. Local products’ samples are still collected and tested for compliance with standards and reports on results are made for stakeholders. This could also be in partnership with the private sector. Government and NGOs should consider availing credit facilities for to the abovementioned because they are instrumental for accessing markets in the dairy sub-sector. mass media campaigns and community outreach campaigns should be undertaken. The government also has to improve on the quality of infrastructure like roads so that transporting milk does not take long time leading to en-route spoilage. The DDA has been doing quality assurance and reports for quality assurance and products are regularly submitted to its laboratories. with eCommerce.
small scale processors and traders in Uganda. This hinges on the provision of marketing information and the provision of capacity building on the use of this information and analyse markets. forecasting.There should be regular testing on the quality of milk produced in the rural outside of the normal player’s’ tests. There is need for the attainment of an internationally recognized quality certifications for all dairy processing companies and the development of a national quality standards for all dairy farmers. Investment promotion agencies like the Uganda Investment Authority should assist existing dairy processing plants in searches for joint venture partners. This would further give the opportunity to local dairy processors into additional dairy value addition. financial accounting. government should put in place tariffs on imported milk products from Europe. The DDA. The marketing groups and trading blocks should also lobby government for the provision of business development services. better target regional and global markets. The DDA should also produce literature on production guidelines. This plan would be used as a benchmark in the provision of capacity building services for dairy sub sector players. Such facilities can be managed by the DDA or any other independent entity. including the provision of cost sharing grants. Marketing groups Farmers should collate together and form competent marketing groups (cooperatives) which can be used as bargaining blocks. These entities would ensure better prices for the milk suppliers and would also ensure continuity in the supply of the milk. This should boost the portfolios of the parent companies and make them more competitive. It would also boost their abilities to even procure machinery for the processing of milk and milk products. This would further improve the quality of milk produced. hygiene standards and quality information for end-users. Groups should also lobby service providers like Land O’Lakes for the provision of capacity building services in milk collection. This should also include the improvement of domestic markets. 53 . This will ensure that dairy actors have both advisory and financial support for the development of marketing chain. partnership with local or municipal councils should regularly register and license milk traders and processors to ensure quality. An example is the planned website by the East African Export Promotion Council’s website on market information on regional and global markets. among others. As part of government incentives supporting local investors. Boost the processing of milk and milk products so that the productivity of farmers and the incomes of dairy farmers are increased. Lead government agencies and line ministries should undertake a capacity building review of dairy subs sector players and come up with a capacity building plan.
In addition to this. In this regard. but also apply to other POs involved in the dairy sub-sector. In this regard. The above recommendations also do apply to them. Teso Fresh Dairy covers a large area of Teso and thus its milk suppliers travel long distances to deliver milk twice everyday. the partners could undertake the following as specific interventions: Teso Fresh Dairies (SOCADIDO) Teso Fresh Dairies is under SOCADIDO and yet SOCADIDO is a registered NGO under the Soroti Catholic Diocese. An arrangement can also be worked out such that farmers give one litre per day in lieu of payment for the milk cans. This added incentive will inevitably increase the number of milk suppliers to Teso Fresh dairies. The Dairy traders. among others. including SOCADIDO.Dairy subs sector players Dairy subs sector players owe themselves the obligation to improve their market conditions. dairy processors should provide milk cans to milk producers on a diminishing payment rate so that farmers do not fail to pay due to high up front costs. KADP Moroto. It is also recommended that Teso Fresh dairies encourages farmers to be members of the company to be formed as this will generate a spirit of belonging and will lead to sustained milk supply. One wonder whether this set up is good for the development of the private sector or if Teso Fresh Dairies may in the process stifle other dairy players in the region due to its set up as the “baby” of an NGO. ADP Kyenjonjo. Teso Fresh Dairies is one of the income generating projects under SOCADIDO. Teso Fresh Dairies should be registered and incorporated with the Registrar of Companies so that it has the independence of a liability company. Additionally. especially KADP Moroto and ADP Fort Portal. 5.2. All these incentives will make the supplier produce more milk and ensure that the milk is maintained in one market chain. processors should provide milk producers with milk collection and cooling facilities that are near the farmers’ homes. In this regard. The recommendations here are specific to Teso Fresh Dairies because of its advanced state in milk collection and processing. Part of this can be done by getting access to the World Wide Web.2 Recommendations to CORDAID Partners This is focusing on CORDAID partners. This means that decisions will be made on that basis and this will promote competitiveness. 54 . Teso fresh Dairies should put in place Parish milk collection centres that so that farmers do not have to traveling distances to deliver milk. collection centres and processing houses should develop databases of market information that can be updated regularly so that they do not always have to rely on another entity for this information.
Teso Fresh Dairies should also provide market information to its farmers. the role of book keeping. both on prices and available marketing options. farmers transport milk in jerry cans and yet these were banned by the DDA as being unhygienic. Discussions on this with Teso Fresh Dairies have led to Teso Fresh Dairies approaching Land O’Lakes for funding to engage the consultant to develop the business plan. 55 . Due to the low per capita income in Teso region. Teso Fresh dairies should undertake a serious campaign promoting Artificial Insemination so that the suppliers of milk (farmers) cross breed and improve the quality of their animals. build the capacity of its farmers in book keeping. Teso Fresh Dairies should also. recommended that Teso Fresh Dairies procures milk cans and offers then to farmers. The resurgence of cooperative groups would go along way in increasing the production abilities of communities as far as milk production is concerned. Teso region relies on indigenous cows for the production of milk. especially production records.Related to the above. Therefore. It is. This diligence will mean that farmers will have the chance to explore their options and make production decisions based on this. information that dairy farmers can easily access. This information will not only guide farmers in making production planning and marketing decision but will also help Teso Fresh Dairies in planning for production increases or reductions. The request has since been approved and work has started. under its capacity building programme. This information should be updated regularly. ADP Fort Portal and KADP Moroto ADP Fort Portal has not yet started a fully fledged dairy unit but is distributing improved goats to farmers. Teso Fresh Dairies should develop a bankable business plan for the above expansionary plan for the accessing of funds to implement the activity. ADP Moroto and ADP Fort Portal should put in place a dairy market information database. This will also boost the morale of the farmers and will in the long run also target other farmers. All Partner Organisations should also promote the formation of marketing blocks among their suppliers. This component should also be incorporated into the expansionary business plan. This could also include lobbying the district veterinary departments to set up artificial insemination points in the districts. In addition to the above recommendations. either on pre-arranged credit terms or as a concession. therefore. Yet indigenous cows do not produce a lot of milk. etc. the inputs needed to boost milk production. ADP Fort Portal and KADP Moroto should boost the capacity of farmers in terms of their needs as dairy farmers in terms of the quality of animals kept.
O.com email@example.com meassoc@utlonline. Kampala P.com or arthur@infocom. Box 0113 Kampala P. Box 9 Entebbe P.O.ug Tel: 041320559. Box 796 Kampala P.O. Box 22-74 Kampala P.co. Box 4052 Kampala. Susie house. 077650998 Fax: 041320364 Tel: 041340824/5.ug markejangu@hotmail.O.O.co.ANNEX 1: Service providers SOME UGANDAN DAIRY SUB-SECTOR CONSULTANTS Service provider UMA Consulting and Information Services (UMACIS) 1 M & E Asociates 2 E3G 4 Baguma Zachary 5 Andama Godfrey 6 Komakech Hans Charles Mugisha Denis 7 Kamoga Vincent De Paul 8 Kiiza John Sunday 9 Mark Erastus Ejangu 10 12 GMAK-BWC Engineering Enterpises Address Phone Email address P.ug Tel: 077461251 56 . Ggaba road. Entebbe. P.O Box 6438 Kampala P.O. Box 889 Entebbe Tel: 041 234 879 Tel:041 501894. Fax: 041 501893 umaci@starcom. Box 994 Kampala Station Road 5.O Box 3342 Kampala P.O.co.O. Fax: 041340826 Tel: 077601544/077602829 Tel: 077624479/077412905 Tel: 075875818 Tel: 041230755/236838/259356 Tel:071524500/041285679 zacharybaguma@hotmail. P. Box 20172 Kampala P.co.O. Box 9048 Kampala Renewable Energy Development Center.
Finance and Management 30 Consultants 33 Margaret Banga 34 Asiimwe Loy Business Development Consults international 35 Ltd. P.O. J.O.O.ug dkakinda@yahoo.B. Plot 12 Ternan Avenue. Fax:041505041 Tel: 071 747811 Tel: 077446171 /231928 Tel: 041342198 /041346456 Tel: 077670110 /041348279 allenluyima@hotmail. Box 70997 Kampala C/O/ Rank Consult.O.O.O.com P.O. P.O.com or dkakinda@schoolnetuganda.O. Box 4483 Kampala P. box 33469 Kampala P.ug P.co. or 0774623978.K.co.14 Barigye Maurice Allen Nansubuga 15 Luyima 17 Elisha Gimei Wasukira Kakinda Danile Lugudde 18 Sigma Consult (William 19 S.O. 031260740/1. Box 4778 Kampala P.com budecointug5414@yahoo. Fax: 041567159 firstname.lastname@example.org 57 .ug email@example.com revenuemonitors@yahoo. Mob: 077454974 Tel: 077820167 Tel: 041220373. Box 23203 Kampala Plot 1031 Kanyange Road.O.O. Ssekibala Ferdsult Engineering 27 Services Rural Energy and 28 Business Consult Ltd.O. Box 9524 Kampala P. Box 7062 Kampala P. Box 4483 Kampala P. Box 4059 Kampala P. Kalema) 20 Charles Ntale 21 Timothy Kabaza 23 Martin S.co. Box 29883 Kampala Tel: 041234467 /077402691 Tel:071860367 /041541558 Tel: 077428079 /077503837 Tel: 077482334. Box 30956 P. Box 70997 Kampala Tel: 077518329 Tel: 077362373 Tel: 041 259424.com firstname.lastname@example.org. Box 9833 Kampala P.ug ferdsult@utlonline. Box 35938 Kampala tkabaza@hotmaill.O. P.com wasulira@rankconsult.
or 077899109.com 077430731/075348800 P. Box 3027 Kampala P.O. Box 4059 Kampala P.K. Box 6344 Kampala Plot 47b. Kampala. Box 3068 Kampala Ambassador house.O. Kampala road.co. MTN Uganda Plot 12 Ternan Avenue. or 041253783 premium@spacenet. Francis Kazinduki Elisha Gimei Wasukira 50 Benjamin M.com 58 .O. P.Sir Albert Cook Rd.O. Block 25 C5 Business Support/Consultant P. plot 56/60. Box 12305 Kampala 077461828 / 077428801 77448606 220705/223715 348151 071457048/077457048 arthurjn@techemail. 13/15 Kimathi Avenue.Kampala. P. Upper Kololo Terrace . 55 Anitah Katiti-Zikusoka 56 Andrew Ntegeka 57 Robie Kakonge 58 Arthur Jovan Niwagaba 4th Floor Impala House.O. 10 Hannington Road. .O.com ronaldkaggwa@hotmail. Box 29972 Kampala Suite 22.ug Tel: 077461116 Tel: 077889049 or 041261713 346246/077518806 230207/077425980 343846/259424 secomi2001@yahoo. Box 3925 Kampala Tel: 077731496. Ambassador House. P.O. P.O. Plot 56/60 Kampala Road. 52 Turyatemba 54 Kaggwa Ronald B.42 Premium Consulting 43 Wasikye George 44 Technology Consult Africa Limited The Ssemwanga Center 45 Ltd Tamp Consultants 46 Limited Rank Consult Limited 47 49 Eng. Box 9453 Bugolobi.Kampala Plot 240/241 .S.
org. Box 27893 Kampala P. hmrema@hotmail.O Box 7020 Kampala P. Kyomuhendo 66 David Turahi Eng. Dr. John Eric Mugyenzi 65 Eng. F. Uganda House P.O. P.ug 077752277/041221079 530632 254071 77552316 77505792 41543959 71555600 77419552 O77402 234 email@example.com naganaka@operamail. F. Box 4389 Kampala 14th Floor.co. Box 28483 kampala P. Herment A.com eai@utlonline.O.O. Box 16473 Kampala P. N.com.ug firstname.lastname@example.org. gotare@hotmail.O.59 Rachel Kadama 60 Kisembo Moses Richard MGS Financial Services 61 62 Charles Opio Owalu 64 Eng. Box 7062 Kampala P.O.ug ferdsult@utlonline.O Box 1101 Kampala P. Box 40389 Kampala P. Mrema 78 79 Jane Nakintu 84 Blyth Fred Walekwa 85 Godwin Edward Jjuko Kayondo P.O Box 7062 Kampala P.com mrema@ugandacoffee. Izael Pereira da 67 Silva 69 Dr.com O77402 234 O77962 836 O77881127 O71812431 59 . Kazinduki Eng. Karekaho Tobias 71 Ferdinard Mugisha Wrehikhe Khauka 74 Godfrey 76 Keizire Blackie Boaz 77 Fred Zake Esq.O.co.O. Box 2233 Kampala P. Box P.O. Box 11193 Kampala P. Box 7267 Kampala P.O. Tusubira 70 Eng.ug kmr@metrocomia. Box 11193 Kampala P.O.com bugala@afsat.O.co.O.O Box 4410 Kampala Plot 58 Ambassador House.com tusu@mak. Box 1923 Kampala 41540360 71772262 rka@metrocomia. Box 7422 Kampala P.O.co.
106 Maviggo Development Consult (U) Ltd. Fax: 234 168 0772 405 347 Tel: 346 261 Fax: 346 262 email@example.com.O.co.O.com ncgug@starcom. mat_kasule@yahoo. Box 6916 Kampala P.com serefaco@imul. Beta Consultants Serefaco Consultants Nordic Consulting Group P.O.O.ug. Box 26446 P.ug 60 . Box 22960 Kampala O77484652 349 845. Box 7328 Kampala P.
ANNEX 2: Key Dairy sub-sector players 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) Sameer Agriculture and Livestock Limited GBK Dairies Alpha Dairies Country taste Jesa Dairies Mona Foods Kaisa Dairies Sunshine Dairies White Nile Dairies Birunga Dairy Anifarm East African foods Gouda Gold Paramount Dairy Teso Fresh Dairy Maddo Dairies 61 .
ANNEX 3: Some small scale milk providers interviewed COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: LOCATION: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: LOCATION: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: LOCATION: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: LOCATION: Alpha Dairy Products Kampala Depot 041 345802 Not Provided PO Box 40271 Kampala Bulangiti Farm Ltd 041 236276 Not Provided PO Box 2186 Kampala Plot 9 to 11 Parliament Avenue Embassy House Dairy Bell Ltd 0483 22459 Not Provided PO Box 902 Fort Portal Dairy Bell Ltd 041 346001 Not Provided PO Box 10241 Kampala Plot 5 Nyondo Close Lwentale Ranchers Ltd 0481 20291 Not Provided PO Box 454 Masaka Not Provided Malaika Dairy Products 041 232306 Not Provided PO Box 11503 Kampala Masaka United Dairy Farmers Ltd Not Provided Not Provided PO Box 1853 Masaka Plot 50 Ddiba Street 62 .
com PO Box 10116 Kampala Plot 13B Kampala Road Sure Dairy Farm Ltd 077 501012 Not Provided PO Box 23992 Kampala Nakulabye Toro Dairy Co-operative Society 0483 22571 63 .COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: LOCATION: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: LOCATION: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: LOCATION: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: LOCATION: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: LOCATION: COMPANY: TEL: Mityana Mwera Livestock Co-op Society 046 2054 Not Provided PO Box 203 Mityana Nalubowo Building Nerika Traders 041 20635 Not Provided PO Box 25 Rushere Not Provided Ngoobe Zero Grazing Farm 0485 21644 Not Provided PO Box 780 Mbarara Paramount Dairies Ltd 0485 21048 Not Provided PO Box 1062 Mbarara Paramount Dairies Ltd 041 540383 firstname.lastname@example.org PO Box 8414 Kampala Plot 535 Kisasi Ra Milk Ltd Not Provided ram@imul.
EMAIL: POST OFFICE: LOCATION: COMPANY: TEL: EMAIL: POST OFFICE: Not Provided PO Box 303 Fort Portal Plot 16E Rukiidi III Street Karo Karungi Milk Farm Not provided Not Provided Not provided 64 .
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