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Class XII: Chemistry Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life Top Concepts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Drugs are low molecular mass ( 100-500 u) substances which interact with targets in the body and produce a biological response Medicines are chemicals that are useful in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases Desirable or beneficial effect of a drug like treatment of symptoms and cure of a disease on a living body is known as therapeutic effect Proteins which perform the role of biological catalysts in the body are called enzymes Functions of enzymes:

(i)

The first function of an enzyme is to hold the substrate for a chemical reaction. Active sites of enzymes hold the substrate molecule in a suitable position, so that it can be attacked by the reagent effectively The second function of an enzyme is to provide functional groups that will attack the substrate and carry out chemical reaction Main role of drugs is to either increase or decrease role of enzyme catalysed reactions. Inhibition of enzymes is a common role of drug action. Enzyme inhibitor is drug which inhibits catalytic activity of enzymes or blocks the binding site of the enzyme and eventually prevents the binding of substrate with enzyme. Drug can inhibit attachment of substrate on active site of enzymes in following ways.

(ii) 6.

(a)

Competitive Inhibition: Competitive Inhibitors are the drugs that compete with the natural substrate for their attachment on the active sites of enzymes

(b)

Non-Competitive Inhibition: Some drugs do not bind to the enzymes active site, instead bind to a different site of enzyme called allosteric site. This binding of inhibitor at allosteric site changes the shape of the active site in such a way that substrate cannot recognise it. If the bond formed between an enzyme and an inhibitor is a strong covalent bond and cannot be broken easily, then the enzyme is blocked permanently. The body then degrades the enzyme-inhibitor complex and synthesizes the new enzyme

7.

Receptors as Drug Targets: Proteins which are vital for communication system in the body are called receptors. In the body, message between two neurons and that between neurons to muscles is communicated through chemical messengers. They are received at the binding sites of receptor proteins. To accommodate a messenger, shape of the receptor site

changes which brings about the transfer of message into the cell. Chemical messenger gives message to the cell without entering the cell

Receptors show selectivity for one chemical messenger over the other because their binding sites have different shape, structure and amino acid composition. Drugs that bind to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function are called antagonists. These are useful when blocking of message is required. Drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the receptor are called agonists. These are useful when there is lack of natural chemical messenger. 8. (i) Therapeutic action of different classes of drugs Antacid: Chemical substances which neutralize excess acid in the gastric juices and give relief from acid indigestion, acidity, heart burns and gastric ulcers Examples: Eno, gelusil, digene etc. Antihistamines: Chemical substances which diminish or abolish the effects of histamine released in body and hence prevent allergic reactions Examples: Brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane) Neurologically Active Drugs: Drugs which have a neurological effect i.e. affects the message transfer mechanism from nerve to receptor Tranquilizers: Chemical substances used for the treatment of stress and mild or severe mental diseases Examples: Derivatives of barbituric acids like veronal, amytal, nembutal, luminal, seconal

(ii)

(iii) (a)

(b)

Analgesics: Chemical substances used to relieve pain without causing any disturbances in the nervous system like impairment of consciousness, mental confusion, incoordination or paralysis etc.

Classification of Analgesics: Non-narcotic analgesics: They are non-addictive drugs Examples: Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Dichlofenac Sodium (iv) Narcotic analgesics: When administered in medicinal doses, these drugs relieve pain and produce sleep Examples: Morphine and its derivatives

Antimicrobials: Drugs that tends to destroy/prevent development or inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes such as bacteria (antibacterial drugs), fungi (antifungal agents), virus (antiviral agents), or other parasites (antiparasitic drugs) selectively

Types of antimicrobial drugs (a) Antibiotics: Chemical substances produced by microorganisms that kill or prevent the growth of other microbes

Classification of antibiotics on basis of mode of control of microbial diseases: Bactericidal Drugs that kills organisms in body Examples: Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, Ofloxacin Bacteriostatic Drugs that inhibits growth organisms Examples: Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol of

Classification of antibiotics on basis of its spectrum of action: Broad spectrum antibiotics Antibiotics which kill or inhibit a wide range of Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria Examples: Ampicillin and Amoxycillin Narrow spectrum antibiotics Antibiotics which are effective mainly against Grampositive or Gramnegative bacteria Examples: Penicillin G Limited spectrum antibiotics Antibiotics effective against a single organism or disease

(b)

Antiseptics: Chemical substances that kill or prevent growth of microorganisms and can be applied on living tissues such as cuts, wounds etc.

Examples: Soframicine, dettol (c) Disinfectants: Chemical substances that kill microorganisms but cannot be applied on living tissues such as cuts, wounds etc.

Examples: Chlorine (Cl2), bithional, iodoform etc. (v) Antifertility Drugs: Chemical substances used to prevent conception or fertilization

Examples: Norethindrone, ethynylestradiol (novestrol) 9. Food additives are the substances added to food to preserve its flavour or improve its taste and appearance

Different types of food additives: No. 1 Name of food additive Artificial Sweetening Agents: Chemical compounds which gives sweetening effect to the food and enhance its flavour Food preservatives: Chemical substances which are added to food material to prevent their spoilage due to microbial growth Food colours: Substances added to food to increase the acceptability and attractiveness of the food product Nutritional supplements: Substances added to food to improve the nutritional value Fat emulsifiers and stabilizing agents: Substances added to food products to give texture and desired consistency Antioxidants :Substances added to food to prevent oxidation of food materials Examples Aspartame, Sucrolose and Alitame Sugar, Salts, Sodium benzoate Allura Red AC, Tartrazine Vitamins, minerals etc. Egg yolk (where the main emulsifying chemical is Lecithin) Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT), Butylated Hydroxy Anisole (BHA)

3 4 5

10. Soaps: (i) Soap: It is a sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids like stearic, oleic and palmitic acid.

The process of making soap by hydrolysis of fats or oils with alkalies is known as Saponification tergents (ii) (iii) No. 2. Saponification: The process of making soap by hydrolysis of fats or oils with alkalies Types of soaps Descriptions Medicated soaps: These soaps are the soft soaps containing substances with medicinal properties. Neem soap, carbolic soaps are some common examples of medicated soaps. Shaving soaps: These soaps are potassium sodium stearates and produce lasting lather. These contain glycerol to prevent rapid drying. A gum called rosin is added in these soaps which forms sodium rosinate which lathers well Transparent soaps: These soaps are prepared by dissolving the soap in ethanol and then evaporating the excess solvent Floating soaps: These soaps float in water and are prepared by beating tiny air bubbles into the product before it hardens Soap chips: These are prepared by running a thin sheet of melted soap onto a cool cylinder and scrapping off the soaps in small broken pieces Soap granules: These are dried miniature soap bubbles Soap powder and scouring soaps: These substances contain some soap, a scouring agent (abrasive) such as powdered pumice or finely divided sand and builders like sodium carbonate and trisodium phosphate. Builders help the soaps in its cleaning action Advantages of using soaps: Soap is a good cleansing agent and is 100% biodegradable i.e., micro- organisms present in sewage water can completely oxidize soap. Therefore, soaps do not cause any pollution problems Disadvantages of using soaps:

3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

(iv)

(v)

Soaps cannot be used in hard water because hard water contains metal ions like Ca2+ and Mg2+ which react with soap to form white precipitate of calcium and magnesium salts

These precipitates stick to the fibres of the cloth as gummy mass and block the ability of soaps to remove oil and grease from fabrics. Therefore, it interferes with the cleansing ability of the soap and makes the cleansing process difficult. In acidic medium, the acid present in solution precipitate the insoluble free fatty acids which adhere to the fabrics and hence block the ability of soaps to remove oil and grease from the fabrics. Hence soaps cannot be used in acidic medium

11. Detergents: (i) Detergents are sodium salts of long chain of alkyl benzene sulphonic acids or sodium salts of long chain of alkyl hydrogen sulphates

(ii) (a)

Classification of detergents: Anionic detergents: Anionic detergents are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons. Alkyl hydrogensulphates formed by treating long chain alcohols with concentrated sulphuric acid are neutralised with alkali to form anionic detergents. Similarly alkyl benzene sulphonates are obtained by neutralising alkyl benzene sulphonic acids with alkali

Example:

Anionic detergents are termed so because a large part of molecule is an anion. Uses: They are used in household cleaning like dishwasher liquids, laundry liquid detergents, laundry powdered detergents etc. Advantage: They are effective in slightly acidic solutions where soaps do not work efficiently (b) Cationic detergents: Cationic detergents are quarternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates, chlorides or bromides as anions. Cationic parts possess a long hydrocarbon chain and a positive charge on nitrogen atom.

Example:

Cationic detergents are termed so because a large part of molecule is a cation Use: Since they possess germicidal properties, they are used as germicides Advantage: They has strong germicidal action Disadvantage: These detergents are expensive Non- ionic detergents: They do not contain any ion in their constitution. They are like esters of high molecular mass. Example: Detergent formed by condensation reaction between stearic acid reacts and polyethyleneglycol (c)

Use: Making liquid washing detergents Advantage: They have effective H- bonding groups at one end of the alkyl chain which make them freely water soluble.

12.

Biodegradable detergents: Detergents having straight hydrocarbon chains that are easily decomposed by microorganisms.

Example: Sodium lauryl sulphate 13. Non-Biodegradable detergents: Detergents having branched hydrocarbon chains that are not easily decomposed by microorganisms

Class XII: Chemistry Chapter 15: Polymers Top Concepts 1. Polymers are high molecular mass substance consisting of large number of repeating structural units. As polymers are single, giant molecules i.e. big size molecules, they are also called macromolecules 2. Simple molecules which combine to form polymers are called monomers 3. Process of formation of polymers from respective monomers is called polymerization 4. Classification of Polymers No. Classification based on Types Examples

1. Natural polymers: Polymers obtained Cellulose, starch, etc. from nature,mostly plants and animals 1. Source of availability Polymers Teflon, Nylon 6,6 , Synthetic rubber (Buna S) etc. 3. Semi synthetic polymers: Polymers Rayon (cellulose derived from naturally occurring acetate), polymers by carrying out chemical cellulose nitrate, etc. modifications 1. Linear polymers: Polymer consist of long High density polythene, and straight chains polyvinyl chloride, etc. 2.Branched chain polymers: Polymers contains linear chains having some Low density polythene branches 3.Cross linked or network polymers: Polymers in which monomer units are cross Bakelite, melamine, etc. linked together to form a 3 dimensional network polymers 1.Addition polymers 1.Homopolymers: :Polymers are formed Polymers formed by Polythene, by the repeated the polymerisation Polystyrene addition of monomers of a single with double and triple monomeric species bonds 2. Synthetic polymers: prepared in laboratory

2.

Structure of polymer

3.

Mode of polymerisation

4.

Molecular forces

2.Copolymers: Polymers formed by addition polymerisation of two different monomers Condensation polymers: Polymers formed by repeated condensation reaction between two different bi-functional or tri-functional monomeric units with elimination of simple molecules 1. Elastomers: Polymer chains are held together by weakest intermolecular forces. Polymers are rubber like solids with elastic properties 2. Fibre: Polymers have strong intermolecular force like hydrogen bonding. Fibres are the thread forming solids which possess high tensile strength and high modulus 3. Thermoplastic polymers: Polymers are held by intermolecular forces which are in between those of elastomers and fibres. These polymers are capable of repeated softening on heating and hardening on cooling 4. Thermosetting polymers: Polymers are cross linked or heavily branched molecules, which on heating undergo extensive cross linking in moulds and eventually undergoes a permanent

Buna-S, Buna -N

Nylon 6, 6, Nylon 6 Buna S, Buna N, Neoprene Nylon 6, 6, Polyesters

Polythene, Polystyrene

Bakelite, Urea-formaldelyde resins

5. Addition Polymerisation or Chain Growth Polymerisation: Most common mechanism for addition polymerisation reactions is free radical mechanism Steps involved are: Step 1: Chain initiating step: Organic peroxides undergo homolytic fission to form free radicals which acts as initiator. Initiator adds to C-C double bond of an alkene molecule to form a new free radical

Step 2: Chain propagating step: Free radicals formed by homolytic cleavage adds to a double bond of monomer to form a larger free radical. Radical

formed adds to another alkene molecule to form a larger free radical. This process continues until the radical is destroyed. These steps are called propagation steps.

Step 3: Chain terminating step: For termination of the long chain, free radicals combine in different ways to form polythene. One mode of termination of chain is shown as under:

Addition polymerisation is called chain growth polymerisation because it takes place through stages leading to increase in chain length and each stage produces reactive intermediates for use in next stage of the growth of chain 6 .Important Addition Polymers: No. Name of polymer 1 Low density polythene (LDP) Polymerisation Reaction & Uses

Uses: It is used in the insulation of electricity carrying wires and manufacture of squeeze bottles, toys and flexible pipes 2 High density polythene(HDP)

Uses: It is used for manufacturing buckets, dustbins, bottles, pipes, etc.

Polytetrafluoroethene (Teflon)

Uses: It is used in making oil seals and gaskets and also used for non stick surface coated utensils 4 Polyacrylonitrile

Uses: It is used as a substitute for wool in making commercial fibres as orlon or acrilan 7. Condensation Polymerisation or Step Growth polymerization: Polymerisation generally involves a repetitive condensation reaction between two bi-functional monomers. In condensation reactions, the product of each step is again a bi-functional species and the sequence of condensation goes on. Since, each step produces a distinct functionalised species and is independent of each other, this process is also called as step growth polymerisation. 8 .Important Condensation Polymers: 1. Polyamides: Polymers possess amide linkage (-CONH-) in chain. These polymers are popularly known as nylons. Examples: (a) Nylon 6, 6: It is prepared by the condensation polymerisation of hexamethylenediamine with adipic acid under high pressure and at high temperature.

Uses: Nylon 6, 6 is used in making sheets, bristles for brushes and in textile industry (b) Nylon 6: It is obtained by heating caprolactum with water at a high temperature

Uses: Nylon 6 is used for the manufacture of tyre cords, fabrics and ropes (2) Polyesters: These are the polycondensation products of dicarboxylic acids and diols Example: Terylene or Dacron Terylene or Dacron: It is manufactured by heating a mixture of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid at 420 to 460 K in the presence of zinc acetateantimony trioxide catalyst

Uses: Dacron fibre (terylene) is crease resistant and is used in blending with cotton and wool fibres and also as glass reinforcing materials in safety helmets, etc. 3. Phenol - formaldehyde polymer (Bakelite and related polymers) Bakelite: These are obtained by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of either an acid or a base catalyst. The initial product could be a linear product Novolac used in paints.

Novolac on heating with formaldehyde forms Bakelite

Uses: It is used for making combs, phonograph records, electrical switches and handles of various utensils 4. Melamine formaldehyde polymer: Melamine formaldehyde polymer is formed by the condensation polymerisation of melamine and formaldehyde

Uses: It is used in the manufacture of unbreakable crockery

9. Rubber (i) Natural rubber: Natural rubber is a linear polymer of isoprene (2-methyl1, 3-butadiene) and is also called as cis - 1, 4 - polyisoprene.

Vulcanisation of rubber: Process of heating a mixture of raw rubber with sulphur and an appropriate additive in a temperature range between 373 K to 415 K to improve upon physical properties like elasticity, strength etc.

(ii) Synthetic rubber: Synthetic rubbers are either homopolymers of 1, 3 butadiene derivatives or copolymers of 1, 3 - butadiene or its derivatives with another unsaturated monomer

Examples of synthetic rubber: No. Name of polymer 1 Neoprene or polychloroprene Polymerisation Reaction and uses

Uses: It is used for manufacturing conveyor belts, gaskets and hoses 2 Buna N

Uses: It is used in making oil seals, tank lining, etc. because it is resistant to the action of petrol, lubricating oil and organic solvents

Buna S

10. Biodegradable Polymers: Polymers which are degraded by microorganisms within a suitable period so that biodegradable polymers and their degraded products do not cause any serious affects on environment Examples of biodegradable polymer: 1. Poly - -hydroxybutyrate co- -hydroxy valerate (PHBV): It is obtained by the copolymerisation of 3-hydroxybutanoic acid and 3 - hydroxypentanoic acid

Uses: PHBV is used in speciality packaging, orthopaedic devices and in controlled release of drugs

2. Nylon 2nylon 6: It is an alternating polyamide copolymer of glycine (H2NCH2COOH) and amino caproic acid (H2N (CH2)5 COOH)

11. Some commercially important polymers along with their structures and uses Name of Polymer Polypropene Monomer Propene Structure Uses Manufacture of ropes, toys, pipes, fibres, etc. As insulator, wrapping material, manufacture of toys, radio and television cabinets Manufacture of rain coats, hand bags, vinyl flooring, water pipes Manufacture of paints and lacquers

Polystyrene

Styrene

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Glyptal

Vinyl chloride

(a) Ethylene glycol Manufacture of (b) Phthalic acid

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Class XI: Chemistry Chapter 14: Environmental Chemistry Top Concepts 1. Environmental pollution: It is the effect of undesirable changes in our surroundings that have harmful effects on plants, animals and human beings. 2. Pollutant: A substance, which causes pollution, is known as pollutant. 3. Pollutants can be solid, liquid or gaseous substances present in greater concentration than in natural abundance. 4. Pollutants can be natural or anthropogenic: a. Natural pollutants: These are produced due to natural happenings like volcano eruptions etc. b. Anthropogenic pollutants: These are produced due to human activities. 5. Pollutants can be biodegradable or non biodegradable: a. Biodegradable pollutants: These are the pollutants which rapidly break down by natural processes. Example: discarded vegetables b. Non biodegradable pollutants: These are the pollutants which are slowly degradable, and remain in the environment in an unchanged form for many decades. For example: DDT, plastic materials, heavy metals, many chemicals, nuclear wastes etc 6. Environmental pollution is of three types: a. Atmospheric pollution i. Tropospheric pollution ii. Stratospheric pollution b. Water pollution c. Soil and land pollution 7. Atmospheric pollution occurs when the concentration of a normal component of the air or a new chemical substance added or formed in air builds up to undesirable proportions causing harm to humans, other animals, vegetation and materials. 8. Troposphere: The lowest region of atmosphere in which the human beings along with other organisms live is called troposphere. It extends up to the height of ~ 10 km from sea level. 9. Stratosphere: Above the troposphere, between 10 and 50 km above sea level lies stratosphere. 10. Tropospheric pollution: Is because of two types of pollutants: a. Gaseous air pollutants: These are oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon, hydrogen sulphide, hydrocarbons, ozone and other oxidants.
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b. Particulate pollutants: Particulate pollutants are the minute solid particles or liquid droplets in air. These are present in vehicle emissions, smoke particles from fires, dust particles and ash from industries. Examples of particulate pollutants are dust, mist, fumes, smoke, smog etc. 11. Oxides of sulphur as pollutant: Sources: Burning of fossil fuels containing sulphur Harmful effects: Causes respiratory diseases e.g., asthma, bronchitis, emphysema in human beings. Sulphur dioxide causes irritation to the eyes, resulting in tears and redness. High concentration of sulphur dioxide leads to stiffness of flower buds which eventually fall off from plants. 12. Oxides of nitrogen as pollutant: Sources: At high altitudes when lightning strikes, dinitrogen and dioxygen combine to form oxides of nitrogen. Burning of fossil fuel in an automobile engine, at high temperature, dinitrogen and dioxygen combine to yield significant quantities of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
1483K N2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 NO (g)

2 NO (g) + O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g) Harmful effects: Damage the leaves of plants and retard the rate of photosynthesis Nitrogen dioxide is a lung irritant that can lead to an acute respiratory disease in children It is toxic to living tissues also Nitrogen dioxide is also harmful to various textile fibres and metals 13. Hydrocarbons as pollutant: Source: Incomplete combustion of fuel used in automobiles Harmful effects: Hydrocarbons are carcinogenic, i.e., they cause cancer They harm plants by causing ageing, breakdown of tissues and shedding of leaves, flowers and twigs 14. Oxides of carbon as pollutant: a. Carbon monoxide: Source: Incomplete combustion of carbon of coal, firewood, petrol, etc By automobile exhaust Harmful effects:

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It is highly poisonous to living beings because of its ability to block the delivery of oxygen to the organs and tissues. It binds to haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin, which is about 300 times more stable than the oxygen-haemoglobin complex. In blood, when the concentration of carboxyhaemoglobin reaches about 34 per cent, the oxygen carrying capacity of blood is greatly reduced. This oxygen deficiency, results into headache, weak eyesight, nervousness and cardiovascular disorder. b. Carbon dioxide: Source: Respiration Burning of fossil fuels for energy By decomposition of limestone during the manufacture of cement By volcanic eruptions Deforestation Harmful effects: Causes global warming 15. Green house effect: About 75 % of the solar energy reaching the earth is absorbed by the earths surface, which increases its temperature. The rest of the heat radiates back to the atmosphere. Some of the heat is trapped by gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbon compounds (CFCs) and water vapour in the atmosphere. Thus, they add to the heating of the atmosphere. This causes global warming. This trapping of the suns heat near the earths surface and keeping it warm is called natural greenhouse effect. It maintains the temperature and makes the earth perfect for life. If the amount of carbon dioxide crosses the delicate proportion of 0.03 per cent, the natural greenhouse balance may get disturbed. This may lead to global warming. 16. Green house: In a greenhouse, visible light passes through the transparent glass and heats up the soil and the plants. The warm soil and plants emit infrared radiations. Since glass is opaque to infrared (heat) radiations, it partly reflects and partly absorbs these radiations. This mechanism keeps the energy of the sun trapped in the greenhouse. 17. Global warming: An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes) which may be caused by additional heat being trapped by greenhouse gases. 18. Acid rain: Normally rain water has a pH of 5.6 due to the presence of H+ ions formed by the reaction of rain water with carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere.

H2O(l) + CO2 (g) H2CO3 (aq)

H2CO3 (aq) 2 H + CO3


+ 2

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Source: Burning of fossil fuels (which contain sulphur and nitrogenous matter) such as coal and oil in power stations and furnaces or petrol and diesel in motor engines produce sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. SO2 and NO2 after oxidation and reaction with water are major contributors to acid rain, because polluted air usually contains particulate matter that catalyses the oxidation.
2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2 H2O(l) 2H2SO 4 (aq) 4 NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2 H2O(l) 4HNO 3 (aq)

Harmful effects: Harmful for agriculture, trees and plants as it dissolves and washes away nutrients needed for their growth. Causes respiratory ailments in human beings and animals. Affects plant and animal life in aquatic ecosystem when acid rain falls and flows as ground water to reach rivers, lakes etc. Corrodes water pipes resulting in the leaching of heavy metals such as iron, lead and copper into the drinking water. Damages buildings and other structures made of stone or metal. The Taj Mahal in India has been affected by acid rain. 19. Particulates in the atmosphere may be viable or non-viable: a. Viable are minute living organisms that are dispersed in the atmosphere. Example: bacteria, fungi, moulds, algae etc. b. Non-viable particulates may be classified as: i. Smoke particulates: consist of solid or mixture of solid and liquid particles formed during combustion of organic matter. Example: cigarette smoke, smoke from burning of fossil fuel, garbage and dry leaves, oil smoke etc. ii. Dust: composed of fine solid particles (over 1m in diameter), produced during crushing, grinding and attribution of solid materials. Sand from sand blasting, saw dust from wood works, pulverized coal, cement and fly ash from factories, dust storms etc., are some typical examples of this type of particulate emission. iii. Mists: Are produced by particles of spray liquids and by condensation of vapours in air. Example: sulphuric acid mist and herbicides and insecticides that miss their targets and travel through air and form mists. iv. Fumes: Are generally obtained by the condensation of vapours during sublimation, distillation, boiling and several other chemical reactions. Generally, organic solvents, metals and metallic oxides form fume particles.

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20. Smog: Smoke is a mixture of smoke, dust particles and small drops of fog. 21. Smog is of two types:
Classical Smog Photochemical Smog

1. It occurs in cool humid 1. It occurs in warm, dry and sunny climate. climate. 2. It is a mixture of smoke, 2. Components of photochemical fog & sulphur dioxide. smog result from the action of sunlight on unsaturated hydrocarbons & oxides of nitrogen produced by automobiles & factories. 3. It is also called reducing 3. It is also called oxidizing smog. smog. 22. Formation of photochemical smog: Burning of fossil fuels Emission of a variety of pollutants (hydrocarbons and nitric oxide to troposphere At high levels, leads to Chain reaction between pollutants and sunlight: sunlight 2NO(g) + O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g)
sunlight NO2 (g) NO(g) + O(g)

O(g) + O2 (g)

O3 (g)

O3 (g) + NO(g) NO2 (g) + O2 (g)

NO2 and O3 are strong oxidising agents and can react with the unburnt hydrocarbons in the polluted air to produce chemicals such as formaldehyde, acrolein and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). 23. Effects of photochemical smog: Ozone and PAN act as powerful eye irritants. Ozone and nitric oxide irritate the nose and throat and their high concentration causes headache, chest pain, and dryness of the throat, cough and difficulty in breathing.
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Photochemical smog leads to cracking of rubber and extensive damage to plant life. It also causes corrosion of metals, stones, building materials, rubber and painted surfaces.

24. Control of photochemical smog: Use of catalytic converters in automobiles, which prevent the release of nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Certain plants e.g., Pinus, Juniparus, Quercus, Pyrus and Vitis can metabolise nitrogen oxide and therefore, their plantation could help in this matter. 25. Stratospheric pollution is basically due to ozone layer depletion. 26. Formation of ozone in stratosphere:
UV O2 (g) O(g) + O(g)

O(g) + O2 (g)

UV

O3 (g)

27. Depletion of ozone layer: Release of chlorofluorocarbon compounds (CFCs), also known as freons lead to their mixing with the normal atmospheric gases and eventually reach the stratosphere. In stratosphere,
UV CF2Cl2 (g) Cl(g) + C F2Cl (g)

Cl(g) + O3 (g) ClO(g) + O2 (g) ClO(g) + O(g) Cl(g) + O2 (g) This way, the chlorine radicals are continuously regenerated and cause the breakdown of ozone layer. 28. Ozone hole over Antarctica: In summer season, nitrogen dioxide and methane react with chlorine monoxide and chlorine atoms forming chlorine sinks, preventing much ozone depletion.
ClO(g) + NO2 (g) ClONO2 (g) Cl(g) + CH4 (g) C H3 (g) + HCl (g)

In winter, special type of clouds called polar stratospheric clouds are formed over Antarctica. These polar stratospheric clouds provide surface on which chlorine nitrate formed gets hydrolysed to form hypochlorous acid.
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ClONO2 (g) + H2O(g) HOCl(g) + HNO3 (g)
It also reacts with hydrogen chloride produced to give molecular chlorine. ClONO2 (g) + HCl(g) Cl2 (g) + HNO3 (g) When sunlight returns to the Antarctica in the spring, the suns warmth breaks up the clouds and HOCl and Cl2 are photolysed by sunlight.
h HOCl(g) OH(g) + C l(g) h Cl2 (g) 2 C l(g)

The chlorine radicals thus formed, initiate the chain reaction for ozone depletion. 29. Effects of depletion of the ozone layer: With the depletion of ozone layer, more UV radiation filters into troposphere. UV radiations lead to: Ageing of skin, cataract, sunburn and skin cancer etc in human beings Killing of many phytoplanktons Damage to fish productivity Affect the plant proteins which lead to the harmful mutation of cells Increases the evaporation of surface water through the stomata of the leaves and decreases the moisture content of the soil Increase in UV radiations damage paints and fibres, causing them to fade faster 30. Water pollution:
Major water pollutants Pathogens (Microorganisms) Organic wastes (leaves, grass, trash) Sources Harmful effects

Domestic sewage Domestic sewage, animal excreta and waste, decaying animals and plants, discharge from food processing factories Chemical fertilizers

Cause gastrointestinal diseases. Lead to decrease in concentration of dissolved oxygen in water and lead to death of aquatic life

Plant nutrients

Toxic heavy metals Industries and Can damage (cadmium, mercury, chemical factories central nervous nickel) liver etc Sediments Erosion of soil by agriculture and strip mining Pesticides

kidneys, system,

Chemicals used for Lead to eutrophication

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(insecticides, herbicides, fungicides) Radioactive substances Heat killing insects, fungi and weeds Mining of uranium containing minerals Water used for cooling in industries

31. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): The amount of oxygen required by bacteria to break down the organic matter present in a certain volume of a sample of water is called BOD. 32. Eutrophication: The process in which nutrient enriched water bodies support a dense plant population, which kills animal life by depriving it of oxygen and results in subsequent loss of biodiversity, is known as eutrophication. 33. Some constituents of drinking water:
Constituent Maximum concentration Harmful effects of higher concentration

Fluoride Lead Sulphate Nitrate

1 ppm or 1 mg dm3 50 ppb 500 ppm 50 ppm

Causes brown mottling of teeth Can damage kidney, liver, reproductive system etc Causes laxative effect Causes disease such as methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome)

Metals Fe Al Mn Cu Zn Cd 0.2 ppm 0.05 ppm 0.2 ppm 3.0 ppm 5.0 ppm 0.005 ppm

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34. Pesticides: They are basically synthetic toxic chemicals with ecological repercussions. 35. Herbicides: They are used to kill weeds or undesirable vegetation. Example: sodium chlorate (NaClO3), sodium arsinite (Na3AsO3) 36. Strategies to control environmental pollution: a. Water management Segregate the water as biodegradable and non- biodegradable waste: Biodegradable waste: Generated by cotton mills, food processing units, paper mills, and textile factories. Management: are deposited in landfills and are converted into compost Non biodegradable water: Generated by thermal power plants which produce fly ash; integrated iron and steel plants which produce blast furnace slag and steel melting slag Management: - Recycling -Toxic wastes are usually destroyed by controlled incineration c. Green chemistry: Green chemistry is a strategy to design chemical processes and products that reduces or eliminates the use and generation of hazardous substances. The chemical reactions should be such that the reactants are fully converted into useful environmental friendly products by using an environment friendly medium so that there would be no chemical pollutants introduced in the environment. 37. Green chemistry in daily life:
Purpose Dry cleaning of clothes Earlier Tetrachloroethene (Cl2C=CCl2) which contaminates the ground water Chlorine gas Now Liquefied carbon dioxide, with a suitable detergent

Bleaching of paper

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with suitable catalyst

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