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PLANT STRUCTURE AND GROWTH 9.1.1 Tissue and Stem of a Dicotyledonous Plant (Refer to drawing book) 9.1.

2 Outline three differences between the structures of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. Monocotyledonous Dicotyledonous One cotyledon Veins parallel Fibrous root system Two cotyledon Veins branched Usually taproot

9.1.3 Explain the relationship between the distribution of tissues in the leaf and them functions of these tissues. Palisade Mesophyll on upper surface of leaf as it is the main photosynthetic pigment. Spongy Mesophyll is near the stomata, as it provides the main gas exchange surface. Upper Epidermis on the upper surface, it is a waxy layer, and so prevents water loss. Xylem Transports water to the leaf to replace losses due to transpiration. Phloem transports products of photosynthesis from the leaf. Stoma a pore that allows for the diffusion of photosynthetic gases. 9.1.4 Identify modifications of roots, stems and leaves for different functions: bulbs, stem tubers, storage roots and tendrils. Bulbs modification of the leaf for food storage in the dormant plant (onions, tulip) Stem Tubers modification of the stem used by the plant for energy storage (potato) Storage Roots modification of the root for food storage (carrot) Tendrils modification of the leaf that allows it to climb over other plants and objects to get to more light (sweet pea) 9.1.5 State that dicotyledonous plants have apical and lateral meristems. Dicotyledonous plants have apical and lateral meristems. 9.1.6 Compare growth due to apical and lateral meristems in dicotyledonous plants. Apical meristems cause primary (vertical) growth from regions behind root tips and shoot tips. The roots elongate to penetrate the soil, and shoots elongate to reach sunlight and also produce new leaves and flowers. Lateral meristems cause secondary (thickening) growth in the vascular cambium. As the cells in this region divide, it pushes secondary phloem towards the outside, forming bark, and secondary xylem to the inside, forming woody tissue with the help of lignin and cellulose. 9.1.7 Explain the role of auxin in phototropism as an example of the control of plant growth. When a plant is exposed to sunlight, the receptor in the plant tip regulates the release of auxin. Auxin then travels down the plant. More auxin is sent down the side that is in the shade, whereas less is sent down the side exposed to the sun. The auxin causes the elongation of cells, and therefore the shaded side will have it's cells elongated to a greater extent. This differentiation in growth causes the shoot the bend in the direction of the shorter cells, and hence the direction of the light source.

TRANSPORT IN ANGIOSPERMOPHYTES 9.2.1 Outline how the root system provides a large surface area for mineral ion and water uptake by means of branching and root hairs. In order to allow absorption of water and mineral ions, plant roots have many structural features this purpose. They include: branching of the roots growth of root hairs have a large surface area of cortex cell walls 9.2.2 List ways in which mineral ions in the soil move to the root. There are three major processes: diffusion of mineral ions mass flow of water in the soil carrying these ions Aid provided by fungal hyphae (mutualism) Active transport 9.2.3 Explain the process of mineral ion absorption from the soil into roots by active transport. If there is a higher concentration of ions inside the pant than there is in the soil, then active transport will be needed. To do this root hair cells have mitochondria and protein pumps in the plasma membrane, which allow lipid insoluble ions to enter the plant. 9.2.4 State that terrestrial plants support themselves by means of thickened cellulose, cell turgor and lignified xylem. Plants support their mass by three methods: thickened cellulose wall lignified xylem cells cell turgor as maintained by pressure from water inside the xylem 9.2.5 Define transpiration . Transpiration is the loss of water vapour from the leaves and stems of plants. 9.2.6 Explain how water is carried by the transpiration stream, including the structure of xylem vessels, transpiration pull, cohesion, adhesion and evaporation. The transpiration stream refers to water and dissolved ions being passively transported through the xylem from the roots to the stems/leaves. It relies on root pressure, as ions accumulate in the xylem, water enters by osmosis, pushing the sap upward ahead of it. Cohesion due to the hydrogen bonding in water allows for a continuous stream of water from the leaves to the roots. There is also adhesion of the water molecules to the cellulose in the xylem cells. 9.2.7 State that guard cells can regulate transpiration by opening and closing stomata. Guard cells can regulate transpiration by opening and closing stomata. 9.2.8 State that the plant hormone abscisic acid causes the closing of stomata. The plant hormone abscisic acid causes the closing of stomata to conserve water in times of

stress. 9.2.9 Explain how the abiotic factors light, temperature, wind and humidity, affect the rate of transpiration in a typical terrestrial plant. Light The higher the light intensity, the higher the rate of transpiration, because stomatal opening increases. Temperature higher temperatures increase the rate of evaporation, therefore they increase the rate of transpiration. Wind increased wind speed increases transpiration, because it removes water from around the leaf, therefore increasing the water vapour gradient. Humidity high humidity results in less transpiration, because it reduces the water vapour gradient. Lowering humidity increases transpiration to a point. 9.2.10 Outline four adaptations of xerophytes that help to reduce transpiration. Xerophytes are plants that have adapted to dry environments, so that they can conserve water. These include: Thickened Waxy Cuticle prevents water loss through the cuticle. Reduced Number of Stomata this decreases the pores through which water can escape. Stomata Enclosed in Pits this means that the air surrounding the stomata is mostly stagnant, so the isn't any wind to remove moisture from the plant. Deep Roots where the roots grow very deep into the soil where there is some moisture for the plant to use. 9.2.11 Outline the role of phloem in active translocation of sugars (sucrose) and amino acids from source (photosynthetic tissue and storage organs) to sink (fruits, seeds, roots). Translocation is the movement of sucrose and amino acids from the source to the sink through the phloem vessels. Companion cells load sucrose into the phloem via active transport. This in turn causes a concentration gradient, and water moves into the vessel via osmosis. This pressure gradient at the source causes the sap to be pushed through the phloem to the sink, where companion cells actively unload the organic molecules. Current hypotheses do not account for the resistance of the sieve plate or the purpose it serves.

REPRODUCTION IN ANGIOSPERMOPHYTES 9.3.1 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a dicotyledonous animal-pollinated flower. (Refer to drawing book) 9.3.2 Distinguish between pollination , fertilisation and seed dispersal . Pollination the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma Fertilisation the formation of a zygote by the fusion of the male and female gametes inside the ovule. Seed Dispersal Seeds move away from the parental plants by way of wind, animals, etc. 9.3.3 Draw and label a diagram showing the external and internal structure of a named dicotyledonous seed. (Refer to drawing book) 9.3.4 Explain the conditions needed for the germination of a typical seed. Water is required to rehydrate to dry tissues of the seed. Oxygen must be available for aerobic cell respiration. A suitable temperature is required to allow for adequate enzyme activity. 9.2.5 1. 2. 3. Outline the metabolic processes during germination of a starchy seed. Absorption of water and rehydration of tissue The hormone gibberellin is produced in the cotyledons of the seed Gibberellin stimulates production of amylase, which catalyses the digestion of starch into maltose in the food stores of the seed 4. Maltose is transported to the growth regions of the seedling (shoot and root) 5. Maltose is converted to glucose, used in aerobic cell respiration or to synthesise cellulose or other substances required for growth Once leaves have reached light, seed is no longer needed. 9.3.6 Explain how flowering is controlled in long-day and short-day plants, including the role of phytochrome. Flowering is controlled by the length of darkness that they receive. The substance phytochrome (Pr) in inactive, however in red light, it converts to Pfr. It converts back to Pr in darkness. So the longer the plant is exposed to light, the more Pfr there is. This leads to the suggestion that in long-day plants, Pfr inhibits flowering, whereas in short-day plants, Pfr promotes flowering.