ABHINANDAN SINGH - 08070121202 MAYANK KISHORE PATHIKRIT GUHA - 08070121224 - 08070121232

Under the Guidance of

In partial fulfilment of
B.Tech ( E& TC )




This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Abhinandan Singh _ , Roll No. _ 08070121202 _, is record of

bonafide work carried out by her/him , under my guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University.

Date :

Place :

Prof. Mrudang Shukla
Guide , Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.

Prof. Dr. Narayan Pisharoty
Head, Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.




This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Mayank Kishore _ , Roll No. _ 08070121224 _, is record of

bonafide work carried out by her/him , under my guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University.

Date :

Place :

Prof. Mrudang Shukla
Guide , Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.

Prof. Dr. Narayan Pisharoty
Head, Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.


Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115. Date : Place : Prof. _ 08070121232 _. Prof. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University. is record of bonafide work carried out by her/him . 4 . Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115. Dr.4 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Pathikrit Guha _ . Roll No. Narayan Pisharoty Head. under my guidance. Mrudang Shukla Guide .

______________________________________ 2.08070121202 Mayank Kishore . Examiners: 1.5 The Project entitled “LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE” By Abhinandan Singh .08070121224 Pathikrit Guha . _______________________________________ Date : Place: 5 . Pune.08070121232 Is approved for the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING – Electronics & Telecommunication Symbiosis International University.

Symbiosis Institute of Technology. Symbiosis Institute of technology. Narayan Pisharoty. 6 . inspiration ad help provided to us by various personalities. Assistant Professor. Pune for his valuable guidance in carrying out this work under his effective supervision. encouragement. We would have never succeeded in completing our task without the cooperation. With deep sense of gratitude we express our sincere thanks to our esteemed and worthy supervisor Mr. enlightenment and cooperation. Above all we render our gratitude to the ALMIGHTY who bestowed selfconfidence. Department of Electronics & Telecommunication. Pune who has been a constant source pf inspiration for us throughout this work.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The real spirit of achieving a goal is through the way of excellence and austere discipline. ability and strength in us to complete this work. We are also thankful to all the staff members of the Department for their full cooperation and help. We shall be failing in our duties if we do not express our deep sense of gratitude towards Dr. Mrudang Shukla. Head of the Department of Electronics & telecommunication.

Components Chapter 6. 8.3 Convert image into binary.1 Project Background 3. 8. Literature Survey Chapter 2. Introduction 3. Imaging Hardware Chapter 7.2 Conversion of RGB Images to Binary Images 7 Page no. Algorithm 8.1 Problem Statement 2. Problem Definition 2.2 Image Processing 4.3 Objectives 3.6 Commercial Products Chapter 4 Platform / Technology 4. Development History Chapter 8.6 Save to file in given format Chapter 9.5 Various Types of Vehicle License Plate 3.2 Features of project Chapter 3.4 Constraints 3.4 Segmentation 8.2 How the Vehicle License Plate System works 3.3 Comparison Between MATLAB and Artificial Intelligence Chapter 5.1 Introduction to matlab 4.2 Input Image from file.7 Table of Contents Contents List of Figures Abstract Chapter 1. Image Acquisition 9.1Image Cropping 9.1 Algorithm for ANPR system 8.5 Number identification 8. 10 11 12 14 14 14 15 15 15 17 18 20 22 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 37 37 38 .

2 Global Thresholding 11.2 Database Chapter 14 Character Recognition 14.2 Template Matching Chapter 15 Analysis of Result 15.1 Imcomplement 10.2 Binary Area Open(Bwareaopen) 12.8 9.2 Vehicle Quantization and Equalization 15.3 Filtering of Digits 12.1 Algorithm to extract digits 17.2 Discussion Chapter 19 Difficulties and Recommendations 8 40 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 48 48 49 50 50 50 52 52 53 53 55 57 57 58 58 61 61 63 65 .1 Extracting of Individual Digits 15.3 Colour Image Processing Chapter 10.3 Adaptive thresholding Chapter 12 Image Noise 12.2 Medfilt2 Chapter 11 Thresholding 11.3 Checking and verification of the Static Chapter 16 List of Functions Used Chapter 17 Code 17.1 Feature Extraction from Digital Image 13.1 Normalization 14.2 Algorithm to normalisation of characters 17.3 Algorithm to read characters Chapter 18 Result Analysis 18. Image Enhancement 10.1 Experimental results 18.1 Threshold Selection 11.4 Identify and remove away the small connected objects Chapter 13 Image Segmentation 13.1 Filtering 12.

9 Chapter 20 Critical Review and Reflection Chapter 21 Conclusion and Future scope Annexure A: Project Planner and Progress Report References 67 68 71 72 9 .

......................2 Captured image of vehicle2...............................4 Histogram of light object with dark background....53 15...................................41 12............54 15...........37 9...............20 4......................................38 9.....................18 3.......................................1 Comparison of MATLAb with other softwares....3Morphologically open binary image.............................2 A car approaching a License Plate Recognition System.....................................53 15.............................................1 Binary image with noise.....................24 4................36 9........................................8 Binary image of the vehicle...............................2 Binary image after filtering......2 Cropped image of the vehicle.4 Morphologically open binary image.................37 9.......................................................................................................................................................................................19 3..............................4 System Block Diagram............................................39 9...........................1 Original image of the vehicle...................17 3...40 9..........................................................................................41 9.....................1 Captured image of vehicle1..25 8............7 Captured image of the vehicle.............................5 Histogram of object and background which is close...............................2 Block diagram of Image processing system........................................................1 Segmented image...........................................5 Commercial and Private vehicle license plate...........47 12.......................................................55 10 ........3 Indian car license plate..........................................48 13............16 3..............................................................50 15.............1 Overview of the vehicle license plate system.......10 List Of Figures 3...........................................................................3 Characteristic function of binary image..1 Automatic Number Plate Recognition System....................39 9..................................6 RGB schematic block diagram...........

 Evaluating the performance of the algorithm and compare the performance with other reported work. border and customs checkpoints. For extracting the plate region. processing them and using processed data for further processes like storing. In segmentation part.  Character Segmentation/Recognition: Resample and threshold in order to isolate the license plate and vehicle license plate character. This system helps in the functions like detection of the number plates of the vehicles. segmentation of characters and recognition of plate characters.11 ABSTRACT Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) has many applications in traffic systems (highway electronic toll collection. We used neural network for recognition of vehicle license late character. This system also helps to conduct the graphic images of the vehicles which can be further stored in the database in text format reducing size of data to be stored. numbers and characters Keywords     Character recognizer license plate recognition Segmentation Cropping 11     template matching Median Filter Connected Components Masking. etc.). The neural network will be trained off-line with the characters and numbers. Based on the experimental results. we noted that our algorithm shows superior performance in car license plate recognition. The general algorithm involves the following steps:  Image Processing : The image captured is pre-processed and reduction in the contrast. filtering and some algorithms are used. This system is based on the image processing system. In this study. The proposed algorithm consists of three major parts: Extraction of plate region. And finally statistical based template matching is used for recognition of plate characters. red light violation enforcement. . a smart and simple algorithm is presented for vehicle‘s license plate recognition system. License Plate Recognition is an effective form of AVI systems. edge detection algorithms and smearing algorithms are used.  Plate localization and extraction: To obtain the vehicle plate sub image. allowing vehicle to pass or to reject vehicle.  Implementing a file management system or database for storing the images of vehicle license plate. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on real images.

License plate identification/recognition (LPI/R) is one form of ITS technology that not only recognizes and counts vehicles. symmetry. and resulting in an image formed of edges. The problem of automatic VNP recognition is being studied since the 90‘s. To add the further mile for this step we have presented a License plate recognition software . etc. It is basically use for traffic and security purposes. Today in the developed countries more than 90% of the job is done by automated system and this is due to the accuracy. but distinguishes each as unique. such as Hough transform. Another approach was based on the morphology of objects in an image.12 1 LITERATURE SURVEY It is almost known that the world is nowadays being more dependent in the computer than the human manpower. Vehicle License Plate Recognition is an image processing system whereby it is used to recognize the vehicles by identifying the license plate. such as electronic toll collection and red-light violation 12 . to detect lines. All of the systems discussed above have some kind of limitations for example they are plate size dependent. nuclear plants. This approach focuses on some salient properties of vehicle plate images such as their brightness. In the developed western countries many big factories. Eventually. Due to these features. number of edges. The third approach was based on statistical properties of text. and could well be used for discovering and designating candidate number plate areas as they include alphabets and numerals. couples of 2-parallel lines were considered as a plate-designate. communication centers all of them are under the control of the computer because that‘s not the place where human hand can reach up. In this approach. The input image being first processed to enrich and enhance boundary line-information by using such algorithms as the gradient filter. This approach was commonly used in finding text in images. edge densities in the region. reliability and versatile nature of the computer. this method could be used to detect the similar properties in a certain image and locate the position of number plate regions. color dependent. angles. The image thus processed was converted to its binary counterpart and then processed by certain algorithms.The project is based on image processing technology using popular software MATLAB. text regions were discovered using statistical properties of text like the variance of gray level. work only in certain conditions or environment like indoor images etc. etc. contrast. For some applications. The early approaches were based on characteristics of boundary lines.

License plate recognition (LPR) is a new tool for automatic vehicle and traffic monitoring by using digital image processing. breaking speed limits . For implementing LPR system we have used digital image processing technique. occupying lanes reserved for public transport. In others.13 enforcement. The LPR system can be used to traffic control management for recognize vehicles that commit traffic violation. like commercial vehicle operations or secure-access control. etc. LPI/R records a license plates alphanumeric so the vehicle owner can be assessed the appropriate toll or fine. 13 . crossing red light. a vehicle's license plate is checked against a database of acceptable ones to determine whether a truck can bypass a weigh station or a car can enter a gated community or parking lot. such as entering restricted area without permission .

ANPR can be used to store the images captured by the cameras as well as the text from the license plate.1 Problem statement: Automatic car license plate recognition (CLPR) system is implemented to help the human to automatically detect plate number without human supervision. Previously. So this project is developing to replace human to monitor the car and automatically capture the image.14 2 Problem Definition 2. They can use existing closed-circuit television or road-rule enforcement cameras. high error rates. Systems commonly use infrared lighting to allow the camera to take the picture at any time of the day. They are used by various police forces and as a method of electronic toll collection on pay-per-use roads and cataloging the movements of traffic or individuals. and increased government spending. the system can automatically display the status of the car which it will compare between the car plate numbers recognized with the database. human is needed to observe and list the user car plate number manually. misidentification. or ones specifically designed for the task. Concerns about these systems have centered on privacy fears of government tracking citizens' movements. 2. 14 .2 Features Automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance method that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates. owing to plate variation from place to place. Besides that.[ANPR technology tends to be region-specific. with some configurable to store a photograph of the driver.

When a vehicle later exits the place through the gate.15 3 INTRODUCTION 3. or by special intelligent equipment which is be able to recognize vehicles by their number plates in a real environment and reflect it into conceptual resources. number plates are used to identify the vehicles. This can be achieved by a human agent. this technology is used in many companies to grant access only to vehicles of authorized personnel. Vehicle License Plate Recognition is an image processing system whereby it is used to recognize the vehicles by identifying the license plate. The cycle will start when the vehicle steps over the detector. In traffic control. It will have mechanism to detect the opened and closed door. 3. vehicles can be directed to different lanes for a better congestion control in busy urban communications during the rush hours. access and border control. the vehicle will stop at the car gantry. Automatic number plate recognition systems can be used in access control. Each vehicle can be registered in a central database and compared to a black list of stolen vehicles. or tracking of stolen cars. . there was also a need to transform information about vehicles between the reality and information systems. number plate is automatically recognized and stored in database and black-listed number is not given permission. It also will have capacity to park in the given parking area. various recognition techniques have been developed and number plate recognition systems are today used in various traffic and security applications.1 Project Background Massive integration of information technologies into all aspects of modern life caused demand for processing vehicles as conceptual resources in information systems because a standalone information system without any data has no sense. number plate is recognized again and paired with the first-one stored in the database and it is taken a count. It will activate a signal to the Vehicle License Plate System of the presence of the vehicle. When a vehicle enters an input gate.2 How the Vehicle License Plate System works Firstly. For example. In entrance gate. such as parking. In some countries. 15 . Automatic Line Tracking Robot (ALR) is used in this project as a vehicle which contains circuitry for moving in a guided track. ANPR systems installed on country borders automatically detect and monitor border crossings. Because of this.

The system will read the information pixels of the vehicle and run the recognition process. the Vehicle License Plate Recognition also provide an advantage by keeping the image of the vehicle in which it will be useful for crime fighting. Below are the non-constant variables which will affect the accuracy of recognition:  Speed of the vehicle 16 . the system will try to match the recognized vehicle plate number with the car plate database. locating the vehicle plate position and extract the characters from the vehicle plate.16 Secondly. Lastly. Next. the characters will be recognized by using Neural Network. the images will be enhance. Next. There are difficulties for Vehicle License Plate Recognition in which it will affect the efficiency and accuracy of the system. Besides analyzing. It is essential and important to determine the facts which will able to influence the operations and recognition proficiency. Camera can also focus on the face of the driver and save it for security reason. the system will apply certain algorithm to analyses the vehicle image. the gantry will open and allowed the vehicle to pass through. Thirdly. we also need to look into other facts of variables that are not constant. Diagram is illustrate in Fig 1. If ―Access Granted‖. illumination (infra-red) will be activated and images of the front picture of the vehicle will be taken. Fig 3.1 Besides.

In the past. The system will be based on a Personal Computer such that it will generate report on the vehicle license plate it has captured. Bent type) Vehicle license plate orientation Type of vehicle fonts character. Thus.2 A car approaching a License Plate Recognition System 3. the system can also serve as a security purpose whereby it can spot on any wanted or stolen vehicles. there has been similar project implemented but had poor accuracy. Fig 3. I 17 . we would need to improve or rewrite the algorithm to improve the accuracy. Besides. the characters will be recognized and displayed on the Graphical User Interface.17       Weather condition Type of Vehicle Distance between vehicle license plate and the camera Type of plate ( Rectangular.3 Objectives The overall objective of the project is to develop a system to recognize vehicle license plate from a car at a gate entrance of a parking lot. Once the vehicle license plate is captured. The software could lead to a cheaper and faster way of enhancing and determined the performance of the recognition system.

The constraint is listed as below:           Image taken only when vehicle is stationary. The vehicle license plate position should be captured centred. Fig 3. it is not advisable for me to cover all aspects in this project. The image should be taken with the height of 50cm to 70 cm above the ground level. due to the limited time frame given.18 will address a set of constraints and focus on the design of the algorithm to extract the vehicle license plate in order to improve the accuracy.3 18 . Try on zoom in image of the car and image consists of headlamp.4 Constraints Due to limited time that we possess and dealing with image vision software. Thus. Deal with only Indian Car License Plate with Times new roman font. Thus. we managed to come up with the progress guideline as to what need to be included in this project. Captured image of vehicle at fixed angle. we have to set a list of constraints to make the project more systematic and manageable. Take only the front view image of the car. There will be no motion capture image. Captured images on location where light is proportional. 3. it is not advisable to include all of the possible cases. However. There is definitely a lot more room for further improvement on this project. Captured image of vehicle at fixed distance. in discussion with my tutor.

4 19 .19 System block Diagram Fig 3.

the numbers were given to the RTO offices of registration as well. 22 UN 14). The next two digit numbers are the sequential number of a district.  Format Vehicle owner who register the car as private vehicle have a white background and black text. The third part is a 4 digit number unique to each plate. Instead they have the Emblem of India in gold embossed on a red plate. A letter(s) is prefixed when the 4 digit number runs out and then two letters and so on.5 Various Types of Vehicle License Plate  What is Car license Plate Car license Plate is a rectangular metal plate which consists of a combination sequence of alphabet characters and numbers issued by the government for identification purpose of registered vehicle. Commercial vehicles such as taxis and trucks have a yellow background and black text (e. The President of India and state governors travel in official cars without licence plates.g. This scheme of numbering has some advantages:   the State or District of registration of a particular vehicle In the case of a police investigation of an accident or vehicle-related crime..  Current Format The current format of the registration index consists of 3 parts    The first two letters indicate the state to which the vehicle is registered. DL 2C 0001). Fig 3. Due to heavy volume of vehicle registration.g.5 20 . Vehicles belonging to foreign consulates have white lettering on a light blue background (e. witnesses usually remember the initial area code letters — it is then quite simple to narrow down suspect vehicles to a much smaller number by checking the database without having to know the full number.20 3.

CD or CC. trucks. this prevents the number being read wrongly in case the plate (and/or the vehicle bearing it) is upside down. the others being a valid insurance certificate. taxis and auto-rickshaws. Diplomatic Corps or Consular Corps respectively. which stand for United Nations. Diplomatic plates Vehicle belonging to foreign missions bear the plates UN. The numbers are registered by the Ministry of Defence in New Delhi. a pollution under control (PUC) certificate and the driver's licence. a vehicle bearing the number 77 CD xxxx in India refers to a vehicle owned by either the United States mission in India or by a person working with the mission.21 Military vehicles Military vehicles have a unique numbering system unlike any other licence numbers. probably a country close to the letter A or B. For example. 21 . during which the owner must register the vehicle in the controlling RTO of the area in which the owner is residing to get a standard licence plate. taxis and pick-up vans. The permanent registration certificate is one of the four important documents a vehicle plying on the road should always have. This is valid for one month. where a Motor Vehicle Inspector will verify the applicant's address and other details. confirm that the engine and chassis numbers are identical to what is written in the application and issues a permanent registration certificate which is usually valid for 20 years. the dealer of the vehicle issues a temporary licence sticker known colloquially as a TR (To Register) number. Temporary numbers As soon as a vehicle is purchased. A diplomatic plate numbered 13 CC xxxx would refer to country 13. The next two digits (or the two preceding the arrow) signify the year in which the Military procured the vehicle. This mechanism is used for unique identification. For public utility vehicles like buses. The first (or the third) character is always an arrow pointing upwards. To register a vehicle. The numbers are registered by the organization which run the services and are usually printed on the side of the vehicle. Other numbering Other numbering includes the special numbers allotted to public transportation such as buses. The letter ending after the serial number indicates the class of the vehicle. it has to be presented to the RTO's office. The next is the base code. there are a number of additional documents like a roadworthiness certificate and a transportation permit. followed by the serial number.

captures and identifies a vehicle's license plate data and makes a read decision. however.6. • Automatic and within milliseconds. 22 . Features of this LPR technology includes.6. It is a high performing robust system that gives consistent results under all weather conditions.3 Vehicle Identification System for Parking Areas (VISPA) PPI's Vehicle Identification System for Parking Areas (VISPA) [28]. combined template and neural network recognizers. uses video imaging for better recognition. Current LPR system read Latin (A-Z) and Korean (Hangul) letter and Arabic number (09).6 Commercial Products The various products in the market today are described briefly below.2 Perceptics Perceptics [27] is the world leader in license plate reader technology. • Reads accurately at highway speeds. 7 days a week.22 3. 3. With milliseconds the LPR system locates. The system's reliability and flexibility allow it to accommodate some of the most stringent needs in some of the worst conditions. the LPR can be programmed to read any language or symbol in any alphanumeric combination or context on both retro and non-retro reflective plates. it automatically locates vehicle license plates and reads the numbers accurately each time every time. Using advanced image processing and artificial intelligent techniques such as AI best first breadth-wise search algorithm. 3.1 IMPS (Integrated Multi-Pass System) An IMP [26] is a Singaporean commercially developed license plate recognition system. fuzzy logic and an arsenal of image processing tools.6. • Works 24 hours a day. VISPA provides for state-of-the-art video technology. 3. easy installation and has accessories and features for most parking security surveillance needs. identification and improved security. • Reads accurately in most weather conditions.

Available as a complete system which is based on a background Windows application. 23 . or 16 cameras automatically identifies the license plate from the video image and stores it in a database. The image will be linked to the ticket. The license plate can then be encoded on the ticket. Windows DLL or Linux library. or in form of different special-task systems.23 Features are • Open architecture to most common video-systems. Available as complete systems. SeeCar License Plate Recognition:. • Can be customized according to specific user needs.crane mounted Container recognition system. SeeContainer Identification System:. Enhanced Version:. • Compatible with standard hardware and software. There product includes. traffic surveillance.6. The basic system version connects to 4 cameras and can be upgraded to 8 cameras. or to a client process. VISPA is available in two forms Basic Version: . or SeeCrane . and transmits the ID string to the port or gate computer.An image of the car and/or the driver (depending on the location of your camera) will be taken as soon as the car approaches the triggering device. the system read the camera images and extract the identification data from the images. 3. the records include both the image plus the extracted result. 8. This is the main advantage of vision based recognition. There technology is based on computer vision.Detects and reads Vehicle license plates for parking. access control.a recognition system for the Tracks and Containers. such as SeeGate . The VISPA controller with an integrated frame grabber card for 4.4 Hi-Tech Solution Hi-Tech Solutions [29] is a system and software company that develops cutting edge optical character recognition (OCR) solutions by implementing the company's unique image processing software and hardware in a wide range of security and transportation applications. as a stand-alone turn-key version. The recognition result is then logged together with the images.License Plate Identification.Tracks and reads Shipping container identification marking. law enforcement and security applications.

24 . The table below show images/graphs format that is supported by ―imread‖ with MATLAB. Besides.24 4 Platform/Technology 4. The task is to construct the algorithm and recognizes can be done using MATLAB. The advantages of MATLAB can be classified as follows: Platform independence.1 INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB MATLAB is chosen as the main development for the license plate recognition application. MATLAB is also very efficient as it have built-in-function tools for neural network and image processing. Comparison of MATLAB with other program is shown in the below diagram. predefined function and deviceindependent plotting. Graphical User interface and MATLAB compiler. Fig 4.1 MATLAB read images using the function ―imread‖.

Graphic Interchange Format Windows bitmap Portable network Graphics X Window Dump Extension . Engineering.xwd 4.2 Image Prcessing Image Processing generally involves extraction of useful information from an image.Jpg .png . This useful information may be the dimensions of an engineering component.2 25 . Block Diagram of Image Processing Steps Fig 4. size of diagnosed tumour.bmp . The main areas of application of Image Processing are Bio-Medical. or even a 3D view of an unborn baby. Quality Control. .gif .tif. Face Detection. Traffic Control etc.tiff .25 Format Name TIFF JPEG GIF BMP PNG XWD Description Tagged image file format Joint photographs Expert Group. .Jpeg .

. 26 . Algorithm used in MATLAB can be converted to use in hardware. Data can be represented in terms of matrices or vectors. Unpredictable. Slow response. The system will perform faster when using “Matrix Approach”. We can changed and add individual rules. 2.  Disadvantage of Artificial Intelligence: 1. MATLAB coding is shorter and simpler. 2. Good for solving complex problems where humans or programmer have expert knowledge in it.3 Comparison Between MATLAB and Artificial Intelligence  Advantage of Artificial Intelligence: 1. MATLAB possess power graphic visualization tools. 2. 3.26 4. 4. 4. 5. Not good in common sense reasoning. 3. 3. Non-programmers can easily understand the rules of artificial intelligence.  Advantage of MATLAB 1. There are difficulty in getting expert knowledge and putting it in used in the system. Expensive. 5.

lane identification. such as those found in the London congestion charge project. date-time. the information captured of the plate alphanumeric. It first uses a series of image manipulation techniques to detect. there are typically large numbers of PCs used in a server farm to handle high workloads. and any other information that is required is completed in somewhere around 250 milliseconds. When done at the lane site. there is a requirement to forward images to the remote server. now small data packets. and this can require larger bandwidth transmission media. In the other arrangement. Often in such systems. and then optical character recognition (OCR) to extract the alphanumeric of the license plate. or stored at the lane for later retrieval. This information. ANPR systems are generally deployed in one of two basic approaches: one allows for the entire process to be performed at the lane location in real-time. can easily be transmitted to some remote computer for further processing if necessary.27 5 COMPONENTS The software aspect of the system runs on standard home computer hardware and can be linked to other applications or databases. 27 . normalize and enhance the image of the number plate. and the other transmits all the images from many lanes to a remote computer location and performs the OCR process there at some later point in time.

License plate capture cameras can now produce usable images from vehicles travelling at 120 mph (190 km/h). especially if the camera is much higher up than the vehicle. giving a high level of contrast with the reflective background in any lighting conditions. A camera that makes use of active infrared imaging (with a normal colour filter over the lens and an infrared illuminator next to it) benefits greatly from this as the infrared waves are reflected back from the plate. Shutter speeds of 1/500 of a second can cope with traffic moving up to 40 mph (64 km/h) and 1/250 of a second up to 5 mph (8 km/h). and so cameras used for other purposes must rely more heavily on the software capabilities. To maximize the chances of effective license plate capture. Many countries now use license plates that are retro reflective. slower shutter speeds could result in an image which is too blurred to read using the OCR software. installers should carefully consider the positioning of the camera relative to the target capture area. This returns the light back to the source and thus improves the contrast of the image. Factors which pose difficulty for license plate imaging cameras include speed of the vehicles being recorded. however. Since the car is moving. License plate capture is typically performed by specialized cameras designed specifically for the task. varying ambient lighting conditions. or when the camera is at a lower level and the vehicle is at an angle approaching the camera. Further. In some countries. Most dedicated license plate capture cameras will incorporate infrared illumination in order to solve the problems of lighting and plate reflectivity. In slow-moving traffic. the characters on the plate are not reflective. headlight glare and harsh environmental conditions. 28 . To avoid blurring it is ideal to have the shutter speed of a dedicated camera set to 1/1000 of a second. when a full-colour image is required as well as use of the ANPR-retrieved details it is necessary to have one infrared-enabled camera and one normal (colour) camera working together. Manufacturers have developed tools to help eliminate errors from the physical installation of license plate capture cameras. This is only possible on dedicated ANPR cameras. the shutter speed does not need to be so fast. Exceeding threshold angles of incidence between camera lens and license plate will greatly reduce the probability of obtaining usable images due to distortion.28 6 IMAGING HARDWARE At the front end of any ANPR system is the imaging hardware which captures the image of the license plates.

a British company operating a premier global marketplace for shipbrokers and charterers. the heart of London‘s financial district (1993 Bishops gate bombing. 2006). The results of this initial study indicated that officer productivity increased primarily due to the officers not having to spend as much time waiting for hits after they typed in a plate. As a part of its intelligence network. In addition. the time and date of the scan. 10 times the national average (PA Consulting Group. scanning up to 5 million plates a day (Pughe. Instead. a JPEG image of the plate is produced. there are 3. 2003). The United Kingdom is at the forefront in the use of plate recognition technology. i. 1992. 2006). As of 2001. and police forces were provided with computers that were able to store ANPR information in real time (Pughe. Almost a year later on April 24.000 cameras across the United Kingdom. the United Kingdom evaluated the use of ANPR with nine police forces. 2008). Approximately four seconds after a plate is read by the camera. 1993. 2008). if it had been involved in another crime. In 2002 to 2003. killed one person.29 7 Development History The United Kingdom: In 1992. all 43 police forces in England and Wales were provided with vans equipped with automated number plate technology (ANPR1): ANPR cameras were mounted in vans. the Irish Republican Army bombed the Baltic Exchange. and injured 44 others. On April 10. stationary (roadside) and mobile (mounted on police cars). officers were able to spend more of their time investigating hits. NADC stores plate data and lists of suspect vehicles (Pughe. This resulted in an increase in arrests to 100 per year. When a plate is photographed by an ANPR camera. The bombing was massive in size and destroyed several buildings with many others suffering shattered windows. such as whether the car was stolen. is stored at the National ANPR1 This term is synonymous with ALPR and will be used interchangeably 3 Data Center (NADC) in London. The central ANPR system. partially destroying the façade of the Exchange‘s offices and extensively damaging the rest of the building (Baltic exchange. as well as a video image of the plate and a video of the vehicle occupants (Pughe. or if it was uninsured (Pughe. 2006). the patrol officer is provided with information regarding the vehicle. ALPR technology was developed at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom in response to terrorism. the Irish Republican Army detonated a truck bomb at Bishops gate. 29 .e. 2006). The blast caused approximately £1 billion in damage. 2006). and the GPS location of the camera is created. the databases. a text file containing information on the car registration number.

3% for theft of or from a vehicle. 2004). the data also highlighted the limited ability of the intercept teams to respond to the volume of hits they received. ANPR technology continues to be used across the United Kingdom. volume crime.000 pounds total). 180. and five instances of recovery of other stolen property (PA Consulting Group. however. 2003). arrests were made in nearly 4-8% of the vehicle stops. In total. the intercept team took some action (e. The results of this evaluation also demonstrated that the ANPR technology contributed to a substantial increase in arrests (Pughe.000 stolen vehicles were recovered over this period (PA Consulting. In nearly two-thirds (61 per cent) of these stops. and the number of vehicles owned or operated by persons of interest (PA Consulting Group. A further 16. Over this one year period. 30 . In effect. 10. 2007). 2006). the Hampshire Constabulary uses ANPR to prevent and detect terrorism. enforced an arrest). an average. uninsured. police were only able to respond to 13% of hits (PA Consulting Group. two seizures of weapons and/or firearms. On an annual basis. workload concerns continued to exist. For instance. One-quarter of the arrests were for disqualified. A second evaluation was conducted between June 2003 and June 2004 with 24 police forces (PA Consulting Group. equivalent to approximately one stop per hour. again suggesting a need for policy outlining a response priority scheme.300 pounds total). the number of vehicles used in the commission of other criminal offences. 2003). serious crime. over 1. In effect.499 arrests. 2004). ANPR was beneficial to police forces by providing better efficiency in the deployment of officers. and 8. on average. seven instances of drug seizures (equivalent to approximately 3. This initial study also provided the Home Office with descriptions of the quantity of vehicles on the road violating insurance or other traffic regulations.8% of arrests were made for theft or burglary offences. The Metropolitan Police Service operates four ANPR units who work across London. 2003).30 In total. The results also indicated that the police could expect a substantial increase in the amount and value of goods they recovered. a constable using ANPR technology could expect to encounter: the recovery of 11 stolen vehicles (equivalent to approximately 68. and fatal and serious injury road traffic accidents (Hampshire Constabulary. 200 arrests per month (Metropolitan Police Service.543 vehicles were stopped by intercept teams resulting in 13.2% for drug offences. In 2005 and 2006. three instances involving the recovery of other stolen goods (equivalent to approximately 23. There are deployment teams who are used to assist in targeting hot spots for vehicle and other crime. The results of this study were similar to the first study. Currently. approximately one out of every 200 cars photographed by the ANPR cameras was stopped by an ANPR intercept team. or prohibited drivers. However. these units made.g. no date).000 pounds).

. The London congestion charge is an example of a system that charges motorists entering a payment area. 150 American cities utilized this technology to catch those who drove through red lights. The United States Over the past several years.500 cameras. which use Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) technology. More recently. 2006). A recent study of ALPR technology in the state of Ohio emphasized 31 . on vehicles going both in and out – this gives up to four chances to capture the number plates of a vehicle entering and exiting the zone. and 6:00 p. A reduced fee of £9 is paid by vehicle owners who sign up for the automatic deduction scheme. 2007). in several jurisdictions. This technology will also be used. primarily in the form of ―red light cameras‖ (Jenkins. A second data centre provides a backup location for image data. leave or move around within the congestion charge zone between 7 a. the United States has also introduced plate recognition technology. These offenders have a photograph taken of their plate by the ALPR cameras and receive a ticket in the mail.m. 2007). Monday to Friday. doubling to £120 per infraction thereafter. This list is then compared with a list of cars whose owners/operators have paid to enter the zone – those that have not paid are fined. The registered owner of such a vehicle is looked up in a database provided by the DVLA. There are currently 1. In 2007. Transport for London (TfL) uses ANPR systems and charges motorists a daily fee of £10 paid before 10pm if they enter. It is estimated that around 98% of vehicles moving within the zone are caught on camera. to catch drivers who violate speed limits (Jenkins.31 Charge zones – the London congestion charge The London congestion charge scheme uses 230 cameras and ANPR to help monitor vehicles in the charging zone. The US has also used plate recognition technology at border crossings with Mexico and Canada to track auto theft (Canadian Press NewsWire. There are also a number of mobile camera units which may be deployed anywhere in the zone. ALPR has been used to track potential terrorists. Fines for traveling within the zone without paying the charge are £60 per infraction if paid before the deadline.m. Both front and back number plates are being captured. The video streams are transmitted to a data centre located in central London where the ANPR software deduces the registration plate of the vehicle.

have outstanding warrants. The United Kingdom established a central data warehouse in London containing information from insurance. As previously discussed. ALPR was introduced in British Columbia as part of a pilot study in 2006. Over the four month period. The state of Ohio studied the effectiveness of ALPR technology over a four month period in 2004. 2004). whether in the form of additional police on the roads utilizing this technology or the hiring of additional staff to assist in confirming hits. and increases in positive public perceptions of the police (Schuurman. By driving through traffic corridors in cities across Canada.000 (McClellan. ALPR technology has been used in Toronto for toll-collection purposes. did not provide information on unlicenced. British Columbia. therefore.32 the recovery of two stolen trailers demonstrating the technology‘s potential utility for homeland security (McClellan. Still. and maintaining ALPR technology.000 in federal funding. the technology also offers police a potentially useful tool for identifying and recovering stolen vehicles. in addition to the cost of buying. It allows drivers to use the express route for a toll fee that is recorded electronically. and/or conducting further searches of licence plates. ALPR has the potential to allow Canadian police forces to engage in proactive policing. and other agencies that is linked with the ALPR technology in police cruisers. must be weighed against the costs recovered through the use of this system. including reductions in criminal activity. criminal justice. no date). uninsured. use civilian volunteers. for instance. recovery of stolen goods. Using information obtained through 32 . It is important to note that the ALPR technology used in this study was only linked to databases on stolen vehicles and wanted persons and. These results were 50% higher than results during the same time period one year previous. or are driving uninsured vehicles. installing. or prohibited drivers. police can use ALPR technology linked to criminal justice and insurance databases to identify those drivers who. beginning in August 2004. wherever possible. are prohibited from driving. One way to offset these resource increases may be to. 2007). 2004). Nearly one-third (30 per cent) of the tolls are tracked through licence plate recognition technology allowing for faster movement of traffic as the need to stop and physically pay the toll is eliminated (Commission for Integrated Transport. updating the databases. Canada ALPR technology in Canada has only recently been implemented for use with traffic and other criminal violations. Schuurman (2007) recently produced an analysis of the use of this technology in parking lots in Surrey. The cost of warehousing this data. The Highway 407 Express Toll Route was introduced in 1997. there are several issues that must be considered prior to the widespread use of ALPR technology in Canada. Additional staffing costs may also be incurred. using $61. the state highway patrol apprehended 23 criminal suspects and recovered 24 stolen vehicles valued at US $220.

9 per cent). one unmarked patrol vehicle drove through 31 Surrey parking lots scanning the licence plates of parked cars over the period of one week. 21. The current study intends to provide some initial data regarding the use of ALPR technology in British Columbia. In fact. prohibited drivers.4 per cent). 2007). The Hot Lists were for unlicenced vehicles. Given that there is limited information available to date on the use of ALPR technology.7 per cent) of the scans accurately captured the car‘s licence plate. To collect the data for this initial study. and stolen vehicles. and stolen cars (1. four hits every hour (Schuurman. 2007). prohibited drivers (4. on average. research must be conducted to determine the extent to which such technology is useful to Canadian police forces. in determining whether it is more beneficial to have police equipped with ALPR technology drive their usual patrol routes or travel exclusively within known ―hot spots‖ (Schuurman. lists of vehicles of interest2 were populated on a daily basis and uploaded to the patrol car‘s onboard computer. Nearly three-quarters (72 per cent) of the hits occurred between 3pm and 7pm.6% of scanned plates resulted in a ‗hit‘. 33 . The remaining hits were for unlicenced (i. for example. nearly all (97. Of these. Over the course of this study. Such research can be used to inform deployment strategies. Scanned plate images were compared to the CPIC and MVB databases.8 per cent) of hits were for unlicenced drivers. especially to locate and recover stolen vehicles.e.876 licence plates were scanned. uninsured drivers.33 the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) and the Motor Vehicle Branch (MVB). Schuurman‘s (2007) results indicated that 1. and over two-thirds (69. uninsured) vehicles (23. Canada.8 per cent). It was concluded that using the technology in a stationary format along major intersections or installing it in mobile units that patrolled the jurisdiction‘s main roads would likely be more effective for identifying stolen vehicles. Schuurman (2007) concluded that the deployment of ALPR technology exclusively to parking lots would not be the most efficient use of the system. there were.


8 Algorithm
8.1 Algorithm for ANPR system 1. Input image from webcam. 2. Convert image into binary. 3. Detect number plate area. 4. Segmentation. 5. Number identification. 6. Save to file in given format. 8.2 Input Image from file. 1. Capture image from webcam. 2. Store the captured image into a image file for further processing. 8.3 Convert image into binary. 1. Identify the intensity of the image. If image intensity = high Reduce intensity Else if intensity = low Increase intensity Else No change. 2. Convert image into grayscale. 3. Calculate appropriate threshold value for the image. 4. Convert the image into binary image using the calculated threshold. 8.4 Segmentation 1. Crop the image. 2. Filter the noise level present in the image. 3. Clip the plate area in such a way that only numbers of plate area extracted. 4. Separate each character from the plate. 8.5 Number identification 1. Create the template file from the stored template images. 2. Resize image obtained from segmentation to the size of template.


3. Compare each character with the templates. 4. Store the best matched character. 8.6 Save to file in given format 1. Open a text file in write mode. 2. Store the character obtained from the number identification process to text file in given format. 3. Close the file.



Overview of the Vehicle license plate System

Fig 8.1

37 9 Image Acquisition The initial phase of image processing for Vehicle License Plate Recognition is to obtain images of vehicles.2 : Cropped Figure 37 . For this project. webcam etc can be used to capture the acquired images. Next. The figure below shows the copping of image: Fig 9. we might proceed in using the Matlab function to convert the vehicle JPEG image into gray scale format. vehicle images will be taken with a Panasonic FX 30 digital camera. this cropping process will highly increase the speed of image processing.1 Image Cropping Image cropping is a recognition process whereby it will extract the smallest rectangle which will contains the edge of the license plate and license plate itself. Electronic devices such as optical (digital/video) camera. As the license plate surrounding is of no importance. The images will be stored as colour JPEG format on the camera.1: Original Image Fig 9. 9.

1 What is Binary Images It is an image which quantatised into two values representing 0 and 1 or in pixel values of 0 and 255 representing the colour black and white. Each pixel in the image has a brightness value which is known as grey level. The pixel of grey level above the threshold will be set to 1 (equal to 255.2. Binary images is the simplest process and has apply to many other application.38 9. Binary Images are obtained by converting the input image into grayscale format.3 38 . then by converting the grayscale image to binary image by thresholding. The characteristic function for the image object is classify below: Fig 9. It is useful as the information we need can be obtained from the silhouette of the object. the image obtain is being converted to Binary Image. The conversion is done by using the toolbox in MATLAB (im2bw).2 Conversion of RGB Images to Binary Images In order facilitate the next process smoothly and reducing the processing time. 9. The application is as:  Text interpreting  Identify the object orientations Next. We will obtain white object with black background or vice versa. The image is made up of a matrix squares which is called Pixel. white) and the rest will be set to 0 (black).

Frequency Fig 9.4: Histogram of light object with dark background.39 Below will illustrate different type of histogram images Fig 9.5 : Histogram of object and background which is close 39 .

9. The cube vertex consists of the primary colour (Red. Fig 9.6 40 .3 Colour Image Processing RGB Colour Space The RGB image is made of colour pixels of an M x N x 3 array. Magenta and Yellow).The schematic of the RGB cube that illustrate both the primary and secondary colour at each vertex is shown below. Green and Blue) and the secondary colour (Cyan. there is difficulty in choosing the threshold as the histogram is no more bimodal This root cause is due to the variations of light or colours in the images.40 In this circumstance. The colour space is normally graphically shown as RGB colour cube.

8 : Binary mage 41 .7 : Original Image Fig 9.41 Fig 9.

10. The pixel value obtained by the differences will be used in the output image. black will becomes white and white will be come black .2 MEDFILT2 Median filtering is a nonlinear operation often used in image processing to reduce "salt and pepper" noise. 42 .42 10 IMAGE ENHANCEMENT The aim of this process is to increase and improve the visibility of the image. reducing noise. IM can intensity.1 IMCOMPLEMENT Imcomplement will compute the complement image(IM). the value of each pixel will be subtracted by the maximum pixel value which is supported by the class. For the complement binary image. color image processing and image segmentation as well. binary or true color image. 10. Image Enhancement techniques consists process of sharpening the edges image. A median filter is more effective than convolution when the goal is to simultaneously reduce noise and preserve edges. Therefore. contrast manipulation. the light areas will become darker and the darker area will become lighter. For the complement of the true color image. zeros will become ones or ones will become zeros.

y) = 0 for background of the object and T = threshold. F (x. Representing F (x. 43 . A more sophisticated approach might be to create a histogram of the image pixel intensities and use the valley point as the threshold. It also transform the input image(K) into an output binary image (F) which is being segmented. is the following iterative method: 1. Several different methods for choosing a threshold exist. which is known as automatic thresholding . the mean or median will work well as the threshold. they should also be brighter than the average.y) = 1 if K (x. 11. often making the selection of an accurate threshold difficult. It is still greatly used in applying on the applications in the market due to certain reason. The histogram approach assumes that there is some average values for both the background and object pixels. as mentioned earlier). The value of threshold (T) is being selected and compare with the pixel of the image. = 0 if K (x. this will generally not be the case. A simple method would be to choose the mean or median value.y)>=T. and is robust against image noise.1 Threshold Selection The key parameter in the thresholding process is the choice of the threshold value (or values. the rationale being that if the object pixels are brighter than the background. In a noiseless image with uniform background and object values. Thresholding is one of the oldest segmentation method. users can manually choose a threshold value. In such cases a unimodal threshold selection algorithm may be more appropriate. or a thresholding algorithm can compute a value automatically. However. An initial threshold (T) is chosen. The regions of the images are classified by the reflectivity and absorption of light on its surface.y) =1 for image object. but that the actual pixel values have some variation around these average values. One method that is relatively simple. One of the simplest process will be the Gray-level thresholding. does not require much specific knowledge of the image. this can be done randomly or according to any other method desired. F (x. this may be computationally expensive.43 11 Thresholding Image thresholding enjoys the central position of any application in the process of image segmentation. and image histograms may not have clearly defined valley points. however. Fast and cheap.y) < T.

its can solve the disadvantages of the global thresholding as it computes the value of the threshold for every pixel separately using the neighborhood. By using the adaptive thresholding. until convergence has been reached). The threshold value which is selected is use to reduce the intraclass variance between the white and black pixels.n):f(m. This iterative algorithm is a special one-dimensional case of the k-means clustering algorithm.3 Adaptive Thresholding The vehicle number plate can be partially illustrated. The average of each set is computed. The image is segmented into object and background pixels as described above. If the histogram is bimodal. creating two sets: 1. The value of the gray level varies from the darkest (0) to the brightest (255). The threshold defines the value of the gray level in which the baseline boundary is in between the foreground pixels and the background. keep repeating until the new threshold matches the one before it (i. 44 . 11. 11.n)>T} (object pixels) 2.. 1. G2= {f(m. T‘ = (m1+m2)/2 5. A new threshold is created that is the average of m1and m2 1.n):f(m. f(m. We can use the graythresh toolbox function to calculate the threshold value by using Otsu‘s method. m2= average value of G2 4. This is a common reason why global thresholding fail.n) is the value of the pixel located in the mth column. in which the modes are overlapping.e. G1= {f(m. the value of the threshold will be taken in the middle of the bimodal. which has been proven to converge at a local minimum— meaning that a different initial threshold may give a different final result. now using the new threshold computed in step four. nth row) 3. For other cases. Image is form up of square matrixes called pixels and each pixels in the image have a brightness level known as gray level.44 2.2 Global Thresholding This is a method whereby the histogram of the image is being partitioned using a single threshold value. Go back to step two.n) T} (background pixels) (note. the threshold will try to reduce the error of taking the background pixels as object pixel and vice versa. m1= average value of G1 2.

12. blurring with liner/non liner filter is able to achieve noise reduction. we need longer time for the image sensor for collection of weak signal. The reason of noise contamination on the image is categorised as below:  There will be not enough light source for proper exposure to activate in a low light area/ Therefore. filtering process is used for blurring and for noise reduction and thus resulting a more sharpen image. Blurring is used in the preprocessing step which involved in removing and cleaning up of small patches and details from the image prior to object extraction. From the amplification of the signal.45 12 IMAGE NOISE Digital camera with long exposure time setting and high ISOs will produced images with lots of noise. 12. Thus.P).2 Binary area open (Bwareaopen) The MATLAB toolbox function provide a bwareaopen function in which it removes the connected component which have fewer than P pixel. We will be enlarging the signal from the received light photons when we are using the digital camera with a higher ISO setting. softening is often applied to the low pass filter and it will affect the image to become blurring. we have managed to obtain the black and white image of the Vehicle License Plate. Next. Noise in the images is appears as the colour speckles whereby there should not be any. The syntax is as bellowed: BW2 = bwareaopen(BW. the electrical noise in the background is also being amplified. It has been cropped to a rectangular shape in which it enhances the algorithm to be more uniformed in the further stages. We can apply convention techniques such as softening and sharpening. 12.3 FILTERING OF DIGITS Now. 45 .1 Filtering In this pre-processing stage. In this circumstance. the electrical noise from the background will be higher than the signal. it will reproduce another binary image. In order to reduce the background noise. bridging of gaps in curves and lines.

The pixel of 0 represents the background and pixel of 1 will make up the first object. Lastly. The component can have a value of either 4-connected or 8-connected.1 : Binary image with Noise For the above image. 141 connected components are found in the BW image. 46 . water droplet. we need to identify the connected components. object or substance which is not digits/characters such as screws. we are able to remove or filter out the unwanted substances or noise that is not a character or digits. so on and so for. The 2 stages for the algorithm is as follows: 1) Remove out the small objects or connected components. frame lines. Below illustrate an example of filtering process. After the component has been labelled. By Filtering. they will obtain a unique number. 12.4 Identify and remove away the small connected objects For this stage. The elements of labels (stated in the algorithm) contains integer values that will be greater than or equal to 0.46 The non-digits substance which appears in the image is caused by the noise (quantization that will transform to ‗Black‘). sand. effects on JPEG compression. Fig 12. 2) Identify the frame line that is connected to the digits and separate it. In this algorithm. we use 8-connected (8 specify 8-connected objects). the pixel of 2 will label the second object. the image is only left with characters and digits in which we are interested.

we have apply the median filter and bwareaopen (Image Processing Toolbox) whereby it will remove all the connected components from the binary image that have value less than P pixels. Therefore. in which it will produce another binary image.2 : Binary Image after Filtering. components with less than 6000 is classify as non digits components and need to be taken away. 47 .47 Fig 12. Next.

Firstly is the global Knowledge of an image. If we classify the similar character into classes. the process need to partition the image into different parts that will have a strong correlation with the objects. The process of the feature extraction is to transform the bitmap data into a form of descriptor in which more suitable for computer. img_r=same_dim(~n1). 13. The normalized character description is based on the external characteristics as we only work for properties on the shape of the character. For this project. Secondly is the boundary-based segmentation. imshow(~n1). The color or texture of the image is basically the internal representation whereas the external representation is based on the characteristic of the shapes. Lastly will be the edge-based segmentation. The feature of the image is represented by a histogram. The process uses the edge detection to obtain the region contours and the objects will construct from the obtain contours. The algorithm below will represent how the extraction is being carried out and extracted figure is illustrated as below.c] = find(L==n). n1=imagen(min(r):max(r). letter=read_letter(img_r). vertical or diagonal edges etc. disp(Ne).min(c):max(c)). The descriptor vector includes the characteristics as the number of lines.1 FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM DIGITAL IMAGE The digital image description is depends on the external and internal representation.48 13 Image Segmentation Image segmentation plays an important and critical step that lead to the analysis of the processed image data. end 48 . which is by using threshold. word=[word letter]. [L Ne]=bwlabel(imagen). Segmentation process can be categorized into several parts. we will be trying out first category segmentation method. In order to extract and analyzed the object characteristic. for n=1:Ne [r. This will lead to a success in pattern recognition process. the descriptor of the character from the same class is close to each other in the vector space.

49 Plotted Bounding Box Fig 13. it will be compare with data set in the database and provide an output if the image is recognized correctly. contents and images.1 13. If the class has match correctly. 49 .2 Database It is a collection of information or data which it is being orderly organize. The class recognition will check if the computed ratio is correct. Database is needed to make sure that the image space can contained enough characters which have been extracted and the vehicle license plated number stored in the excel sheet for the purpose of comparison. The database would be enlarged in order to improve the accuracy and better chances of obtaining the correct result. thus it can be accessed easily and updated. It will ignore the class if the image thresholding is too low. Database can be in the form of text.

each character is normalized to the size of (42x24) binary image and then follow by reshape to standard dimension before sending the data set to the next for comparison with the templates.1 Cross Correlation The use of cross-correlation for template matching is motivated by the distance measure (squared Euclidean distance) . (where f is the image and the sum is over x.v). The new algorithm in some cases provides an order of magnitude speedup over spatial domain computation of normalized cross correlation. For this reason normalized cross-correlation has been computed in the spatial domain. 14. Textbook presentations of correlation describe the convolution theorem and the attendant possibility of efficiently computing correlation in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform.y under the window containing the feature t positioned at u. Unfortunately the normalized form of correlation (correlation coefficient) preferred in template matching does not have a correspondingly simple and efficient frequency domain expression.2 Template Matching The correlation between two signals (cross correlation) is a standard approach to feature detection as well as a component of more sophisticated techniques. several inexact but fast spatial domain matching methods have also been developed. see Lewis . In the expansion of d2 50 . Due to the computational cost of spatial domain convolution. An algorithm for obtaining normalized cross correlation from transform domain convolution has been developed. For the project.50 14 Character Recognition 14.1 Normalization In this phase. 14.2. the extracted characters are resized to fit the characters into a window.

51 the term is constant. If the term constant then the remaining cross-correlation term is approximately is a measure of the similarity between the image and the feature. 51 .

For instance. Fig 15.1 Extracting of Individual Digits Determine the angle of the Vehicle License Plate.52 15 ANALYSIS OF RESULT Tests are conducted according to the modular form 15. the figure illustrate below lead to wrong recognition of the character.2 : Recognition: MH01AX7946 52 .1 Recognition : D6LH4CNEB800 Fig 15. It is generally important when capturing the vehicle image.

Equalization and quantization allow to obtain a gray scale image with improve contrast between digit and the background.53 To improve in the cropping of image.2 Vehicle Quantization and Equalization For some rare cases. I have experience loosing out character when performing the extracting process. To improve on the performance of the character recognition. After much study the MATLAB toolbox syntax. we can also include an algorithm where we can change the image of the four coordinates to a standard rectangle size or manually crop the image.3 53 . such as very dark image. Next. we can make the difference between the digits and background inside the license plate. high contrast image. we can improve on the accuracy of capturing of vehicle image. Fig 15. figure.6000). 15.imshow(imagen). Below illustrate a example of the scenario: Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects) imagen = bwareaopen(imagen. we have managed to make adjustment on the value and apply the skill of binary area open (BWAREAOPEN) in which help to remove the small object too. 15.3 Checking and Verification of the Statistic In the midst of trying out other car plate. the binarized image do not allow to make the difference between the background and the digits. low contrast image. This will result fail recognition of the vehicle license plate.

Fig 15.imshow(imagen). figure.54 Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects) imagen = bwareaopen(imagen.7000).4 54 .

returns in num the number of connected objects found in BW.Global image threshold using Otsu's method. In the complement of a binary image.Bwlabel . based on threshold. create the cropped image by double-clicking the left mouse button or by choosing Crop Image from the context menu. 10. imcrop returns the cropped image 7. Imcomplement . Im2bw .computes the complement of the image. Fopen . 55 . 4. Size .Convert image to binary image. zeros become ones and ones become zeros. 3. black and white are reversed. 12.Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects). 6. Using the mouse. 9.Convert RGB image or colormap to grayscale. called the target image. You can move or resize the crop rectangle using the mouse. When the Crop Image tool is active. Graythresh .returns the sizes of each dimension of an image in matrix a and b. you specify the crop rectangle by clicking and dragging the mouse. Imcrop . The output image BW replaces all pixels in the input image with luminance greater than level with the value 1 (white) and replaces all other pixels with the value 0 (black). resizable rectangle that you can position interactively using the mouse. 5.55 16 List of functions used 1. the pointer changes to cross hairs when you move it over the target image. 8. Rgb2gray .measures a set of properties for each labelled region. Imread : Read image from graphics file. 11. When you are finished sizing and positioning the crop rectangle.creates an interactive Crop Image tool associated with the image displayed in the current figure. Medfilt2 . or obtain information about open files.Regionprops .Open file. 2. The Crop Image tool is a moveable.Performs median filtering of the matrix A using the default 3by-3 neighborhood.Bwareaopen .

Rectangle . 14.Determine whether array is empty. 20.Min . 56 .2-D correlation coefficient. 21. 19.Corr2 .1.draws a rectangle with Position [0.Resize image.Imshow . 16.Display image.Write text to device.1] and Curvature [0.Disp .56 13. 22.Isempty . without printing the array name.Find indices and values of nonzero elements.Fclose . 18. 17.displays an array.Close one or more open files.Max.Fprintf . 23.. no curvature).Smallest elements in array. 15.Find .Largest elements in array.Resize .0] (i.e.0.

image=imread('exp4. hold on for n=1:size(propied. title('INPUT IMAGE WITH NOISE') % Convert to gray scale if size(image.2) end hold off pause (1) 57 .'g'. image =~im2bw(image.imshow(~image). image = medfilt2(image).%Storage matrix word from image fid = fopen('log.1) rectangle('Position'. 'at'). title('INPUT IMAGE WITHOUT NOISE') word=[].BoundingBox.'EdgeColor'.'LineWidth'.threshold). disp(num). % Remove all object containing fewer than 6000 pixels image = bwareaopen(image.txt'.6000). end % Convert to binary image threshold = graythresh(image). % Show image binary image figure.imshow(image).57 17 CODE 17.imshow(image).propied(n). [L num]=bwlabel(image). figure.m).%Opens a text for append in order to store the number plates for log. propied=regionprops(L. % Show image figure.'BoundingBox').jpg').3)==3 % RGB image imagen=rgb2gray(image).%pause(10).title('binary image'). pause(1) image = imcrop(image).1 Algorithm to extract characters ( extractdigit.

img_r=same_dim(~n1). if vd==1 letter='A'.min(c):max(c)).m) function letter=read_letter(imagn) comp=[]. elseif vd==3 58 .58 figure for n=1:num [r.word).'Extraction Success').imagn).c] = find(L==n).'. letter=read_letter(img_r).txt file to see the stored number. 17. comp=[comp sem].[42 24]).date).3 Algorithm to read letters (read_letter. 17.\nSee the log. fprintf(fid. elseif vd==2 letter='B'.word. word=[]. figure. n1=image(min(r):max(r). msgbox(sprintf('Number Plate Extraction successful. end vd=find(comp==max(comp)).n}.\nExtracted Number plate:.2 Algorithm of Normalisation of characters (same_dim.imshow(~n1).'------------------------------------\n'). fclose(fid).5) end fprintf(fid. word=[word letter].%s . load templates for n=1:36 sem=corr2(templates{1. pause(0.'Number Plate:-%s\nDate:-%s\n'.m) function img_r=same_dim(imagen_g) img_r=imresize(imagen_g.

elseif vd==12 letter='L'. elseif vd==4 letter='D'. elseif vd==17 letter='Q'. elseif vd==24 letter='X'. elseif vd==14 letter='N'. elseif vd==8 letter='H'. elseif vd==16 letter='P'. 59 . elseif vd==13 letter='M'. elseif vd==9 letter='I'. elseif vd==15 letter='O'. elseif vd==19 letter='S'. elseif vd==21 letter='U'.59 letter='C'. elseif vd==10 letter='J'. elseif vd==22 letter='V'. elseif vd==11 letter='K'. elseif vd==7 letter='G'. elseif vd==18 letter='R'. elseif vd==23 letter='W'. elseif vd==6 letter='F'. elseif vd==20 letter='T'. elseif vd==5 letter='E'.

elseif vd==28 letter='2'. end 60 . elseif vd==29 letter='3'. elseif vd==26 letter='Z'. else letter='0'. elseif vd==34 letter='8'. elseif vd==33 letter='7'. %*-*-*-*-* elseif vd==27 letter='1'. elseif vd==30 letter='4'. elseif vd==35 letter='9'.60 elseif vd==25 letter='Y'. elseif vd==31 letter='5'. elseif vd==32 letter='6'.

61 18 Result Analysis and Discussion 18.1 Experimental results Extracted Number plate: MH12EM2587 Extracted Number plate: MH12FF7461 Extracted Number plate: MH12DM3909 61 .

62 Extracted Number plate:LMH12CD9736 Extracted Number plate:LK00A53N6523 Extracted Number plate: MH12HN0389 62 .

the current results suggest that this capability is significantly overstated in actual road tests. but traffic volume and the design of Surrey streets may impede this read rate. The initial analysis of parking lot data produced by Schuurman (2007) suggested that parking lot 63 . Perhaps the most important conclusion reached from this study is that the utility of ALPR depends on volume.000 plates per hour.63 Extracted Number plate: MH14CS7710 Extracted Number plate:MH12DE94 Extracted Number plate: MH01AX7946 18. The technology may have the capacity to read more plates.2 Discussion Although ALPR technology has been promoted as being capable of reading in excess of 3.

As a consequence. In both cases. these statistics were not improved in the current analysis. this result should not have been unexpected. and. the same conclusions applied to this road test of the technology. A large advertising campaign can inform the public about the nature and use of this technology which may result in the public being less willing to violate traffic regulations. Despite the promise that ALPR technology holds for catching stolen vehicles. was not effective in locating stolen vehicles. However. as currently operated in Surrey. considering the results of this phase of the project. the greater the number of raw hits. it may be more beneficial to use stationary cameras along a large number of intersections. Rather. ALPR requires a meeting in time and space between the police cruiser and the stolen vehicle. substantiating which calls are valid and which must receive priority attention to lessen the burden on patrol officers. 64 . it was all about the number of hits. In other words. the hit list that the ALPR-enabled vehicle searched against was 24 hours old. An important consideration raised by this research has to do with prioritizing responses and the allocation of scarce resources. the current study results also indicated that stolen vehicles represented a very small proportion (approximately one per cent) of all licence plate hits. There are two main reasons why ALPR. as suggested above. The likelihood of this scenario occurring is extremely low. until such time as ALPR-enabled vehicles have access to real-time data and there are many more ALPR-enabled police cruisers on the road at the same time. remove the variable of a roving ALPR which likely reduces success. it may be possible. for a stolen vehicle to be detected by an ALPR-enabled vehicle. if the objective is to identify stolen vehicles as this will. Importantly. the frequency of hits exceeded what a typical patrol unit could respond to during a shift. police forces operating ALPR technology may want to focus on high volume traffic corridors during the day shift. for the most part. in order to maximize efficiency. at least. Given this. Second. the fact that officers could expect several hits per hour requires the design of a response priority scheme and increase patrol units to manage the increased workload. the more cars scanned. along one of the four traffic corridors assigned for that day. the stolen car had to be on the road in Surrey. First. detachments must design response schemes to prioritize which hits officers respond to. Unfortunately. and at the exact location where a moving ALPR-enabled vehicle could photograph its licence plate. at least 24 hours after the car had been stolen. the nature of hits was basically uniform for all of the assigned traffic corridors and the proportions held when considered by time of day or day of month. to train volunteers who can assist the police in filtering through database hits. However. If patrol officers are faced with a significant increase in the number of hits as a result ALPR deployment. In effect.64 deployment was dependent upon the number of vehicles in parking lots and. for the most part.

usually because the plate is too far away but sometimes resulting from the use of a low-quality camera. Blurry images. A different font. it is primarily left to the hardware side of the system to work out solutions to these difficulties. This is because the likelihood of an unauthorized car having such a similar license plate is seen as quite small. However. popular for vanity plates (some countries do not allow such plates. eliminating the problem). Some small-scale systems allow for some errors in the license plate. quite often a tow bar. While some of these problems can be corrected within the software.65 19 Difficulties and Recommendations There are a number of possible difficulties that the software must be able to cope with. On some cars. Two cars from different countries or states can have the same number but different design of the plate. this level of inaccuracy would not be acceptable in most applications of an ANPR system. These include:        Poor image resolution. Bikes on bike racks can also obscure the number plate. An object obscuring (part of) the plate. it is able to detect and recognize some of the zoom in car vehicle license plate but fail on the image of cars with headlights. "bike plates" are supposed to be fitted. Australia. When used for giving specific vehicles access to a barricaded area. reflection or shadows. particularly motion blur. these are the steps which are recommended:  Modification is needed to be done on the offset of detecting the rectangular plate or by applying other technique to the system. the decision may be made to have an acceptable error rate of one character. For the future works and suggestion on improvements. 65 . Lack of coordination between countries or states. When running the main. such as Victoria.m file. though in some countries and jurisdictions. Poor lighting and low contrast due to overexposure. such as the adjusting for the increased skew of the plate. or dirt on the plate. Circumvention techniques. tow bars may obscure one or two characters of the license plate. Increasing the height of the camera may avoid problems with objects (such as other vehicles) obscuring the plate but introduces and increases other problems.

66  We only use the black and white image of the Vehicle license plate. we can use RGB to HSV or RGB to CMY method to deal with other type of colour license plate.  There should be improvement on the decision of the algorithm and ways to detect error. 66 . the recognition system should refuse to make the decision. For future implementation. When the probability of recognition guess is correct but falls below the threshold.

The problem encountered during the progress of the project include the selection of suitable method such as : sourcing of car images. 67 . After doing much research and absorbing more knowledge into MATLAB toolbox. research and with the help and understanding from the tutor.67 20 Critical Review and Reflection The development of the project is considered quite successful although we still faced some problems during the progress of the project we managed to solve the problem by doing more reading. methods on detection. we also encountered problems in detection. the problem encountered is the selection of software program. segmentation. Next. recognition of vehicle license plate characters. problems were resolved by using the suitable syntax and methods. After doing much reading and research. method of segmentation and recognition of vehicle license plate character and writing of simulation program. we chose MATLAB software as it is easier to implement. During the initial project and development stage.

some limitations inherent in the use of such advanced technology. but to other calls for service. The technology also allows the police to identify uninsured vehicles. This increases the potential for the recovery of stolen goods as well as convictions. With an increased number of ―hits‖. The ALPR technology offers several benefits to police forces. With the potential for an increased number of hits. detachment-specific schemes may need to be developed. prohibited drivers. This system can be redesigned for multinational car license plates in future studies. officers may miss plates that are. impeding their ability to efficiently respond not only to ALPR hits. Finally it is proved to be %96 for the segmentation of the characters and %80 for the recognition unit accurate. namely. an officer‘s workload substantially increased. or successful matching between a scanned plate image and a database of interest. increased police efficiency. Research in the United Kingdom suggested that in responding to the sheer number of hits identified through ALPR. police are better able to identify more persons of interest. As a consequence. There are. The use of ALPR technology might also result in safer police driving as officers would no longer have the added distraction of turning away from the road periodically to manually type in licence plates of interest .68 21 Conclusion & Future Scope In this report. Most importantly. Given that officers cannot check all the licence plates they encounter while on shift. in fact. then we separated the plate characters individually by segmentation and finally applied template matching with the use of correlation for recognition of plate characters. Firstly we extracted the plate location. such as having an officer physically type in a licence plate to scan. as the profile of crime is different in jurisdictions. The ability of ALPR to scan a large number of plates allows for more plates to be scanned faster and more efficiently. While officers currently employ a set of indicators. it is highly plausible that through this process. and unlicensed drivers much more quickly than previous police strategies. they are compelled to make a series of decisions concerning which plates to search. This system is designed for the identification INDIAN license plates and the system is tested over a large number of images. However. however. police must develop strategies that enable officers to prioritize their responses.57% recognition rates. In other 68 . identified through experience. with which to select those plates that appear more suspicious. ALPR has the ability to quickly and efficiently scan a large number of licence plates without any officer intervention. we presented application software designed for the recognition of car license plate. giving the overall system performance 92. officers could become overwhelmed by the increase in the number of problematic cars to respond to. untoward. Research with ALPR has shown several benefits. ALPR also offers an objectivity that may benefit police.

In effect. it is important that officers to retain the ability to investigate the plate more fully and to follow their instincts when observing a suspicious vehicle. The efficiency of ALPR technology is entirely dependent upon the successful coordination of agencies. to better respond to priority hits. drivers that have been prohibited or have lost their licence. Schuurman 69 .g. They noted that one company sells a clear spray (US $30 per can) that the manufacturers claim can make licence plates invisible when read by a camera. may not be feasible. Concerns in Canada already exist regarding the use of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in public (Schuurman. police forces may find it necessary to increase the number of officers on the road which. and the specific needs of the community. For instance. Concerned citizens may accuse police or the government of using the technology to track law-abiding citizens. Moreover. other criminal justice agencies. Citizens may equate the use of ALPR technology to ―fishing expeditions‖. lists are updated as cars or plates are reported stolen or it can be updated every 24 hours. Much of the work involved in implementing ALPR technology involves building these initial relationships between agencies. Without the provision of data by which to compare scanned plates. privacy concerns are also a limitation to the use of ALPR technology. Gordon and Wolf (2007) reported that since the advent of ALPR. invading their right to privacy. priority schemes may need to be individualized. where police simply scan all plates until they get a hit. as the police develop new technologies. those using ALPR technology must have access to data that details information about stolen plates or cars. more recently. ALPR cannot possibly identify plates of interest. in the event that a plate is not read correctly and the officer deems the plate suspicious. Either way. Information can either be provided in real time. without the successful coordination between police forces and agencies. While advances in technology allow for the successful use of systems. Deisman (2003) identified that there are limits to the extent that police in Canada can engage in continuous and non-selective monitoring of citizens. In the past. However. or drivers who are uninsured. Again. Yet. Lastly. such as insurance companies. ALPR technology simply will not succeed. research suggested that the ALPR technology reads plates correctly 95% of the time. e. given current fiscal realities in many detachments in Canada.69 words. it also provides new methods with which to avoid being screened by such technology. such as licence plate recognition. 2007). 2007). vehicles that have been involved in other criminal activity. as opposed to specifically searching out particular plates based on prior intelligence. some companies have begun to sell products to thwart the technology. and the motor vehicle branch. there will be those who develop the means to defeat these techniques. recognition software has produced extremely low successful recognition rates (Gordon and Wolf. depending on the geographic location of hotspots. the number of officers on patrol.

Also. However. the results of this study suggest that ALPR technology offers several substantial benefits to the police. more research needs to be conducted in order to determine how ALPR technology can be balanced with respect to citizens right for privacy and civil rights. Citizens may also have concerns with respect to the maintenance of data in warehouses. or yearly basis. This work can be further extended to minimize the errors due to them. weekly. Future Scope Though we have achieved an accuracy of 80% by optimizing various parameters. Citizens may fear the potential for breaches in security. there may be concerns regarding who has access to this data . monthly. Therefore to achieve this. the issues like stains. further optimization is required. blurred regions & different font style and sizes are need to be taken care of. policies may be put in place that regulate the deleting of collected data on a daily. Essentially. although further research is needed to determine the extent to which ALPR increases the rate of arrest and has a deterrent effect. In addition. ALPR does have a specific utility as its strategic deployment will assist police departments to more effectively response to a variety of auto and driving-related offences. How to adequately respond to this situation will require careful thinking and planning on the part of the police. In responding to concerns of privacy. Still. therefore. . rather than the few offenders the police are able to find during their routine activities. In conclusion. It is. it is required that for the task as sensitive as tracking stolen vehicles and monitoring vehicles for homeland security an accuracy of 100% cannot be compromised with. and thus make any firm conclusions on its general utility. extremely important that considerable thought is given to the safe storage of data and strict regulations regarding who has access to the databases.70 (2007) also noted that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that privacy rights of citizens are breached by indiscriminate video surveillance without cause. it is difficult to assess the impact of ALPR on police resources and workloads. The overriding benefit of ALPR is that it brings a far larger number of offenders to the attention of the police. smudges. 70 .

we have drafted out the project schedule to follow up closely. it is important to choose the type of model and syntax that are suitable for Matlab is taken into consideration. Thus. Task 4 Testing and Fine Tuning (30 March 2012 to 24th April 2012)  Fine tune on the filtering and calculation of connected components.71 Annexure A: Project Plan & Progress Report For developing the project. Task1 Research (24 Jan 2012 to 10 Feb 2012)        Research on various methods used for Vehicle License Plate Recognition Conversion of Images Image Thresholding Noise filtering Vehicle License Plate Detection Vehicle License Plate Extraction/Segmentation Vehicle License Plate Recognition Task 2 Development (11 Feb 2012 to 23 Feb 2012)  Determine the value of pixel need for filtering  Determine algorithm for plate detection  Determine algorithm for extraction/segmentation  Determine algorithm for plate recognition. Task 3 Construct Matlab software for simulation (24 Feb 2012 to 20 Mar 2012)  Writing and create algorithm for extraction of vehicle license plate character  Writing and simulate the block by integrating all the written algorithm together  Version R2008a for editing.  Fine tuning of the integrated block algorithm Task 5 Reporting Writing (28 April 2008 to 1 May 2012)  Allocate at least 1 week for writing the final report. There is interconnected link between the research work and the designing and Implementation process. 71 .

A Report on the Utility of the Automated Licence Plate Recognition System in British Columbia 72 . ― International Edition Digital Image Processing Second Edition‖  John C. Author ONDREJ MRTINSKY  Lecture notes  Mathworks. Darryl Plecas. Richard E. Dr. Cohen. Gonzalez and Richard E. and Amanda V. ―The Image Processing Handbook‖  Adrian A.com/access/helpdest/help/techdoc/mathlab_product_page2.ht ml  Matlab software version R2008a. LINDA MEROLA.  CYNTHIA LUM.‖An Engineer‘s Guide To Matlab‖  ALGORITHMIC AND MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES OF AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS.Edward B. Gonzalez. JULIE WILLIS. AND BREANNE CAVE .ht ml#printable_pdf. Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy.‖Intelligent Systems for Engineers and Scientists‖  William J. Eddins. LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY (LPR) IMPACT EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT . ―Digital ImageProcessing using MATLAB‖  Rafael C. Woods.com/access/helpdesk/help/toolbox/nnet/nnet_product_page.72 References  Rafael C. McCormick SCHOOL of CRIMINOLOGY and CRIMINAL JUSTICE University College of the Fraser Valley. Russ. It is a very user friendly device as it will guide and explain to us on the specific toolbox in which we will be using. Palm III. ―Introduction To Matlab 7 For Engineers  Magrab. George Mason University . Irwin M.  Mathworks.Hopgood. Woods and Steven L.  Dr.

3 1 Aug-2 Sept. M. Morgan. Pluim. February 16. Yang ―Test bed for number plate recognition applications‖. Proceedings of First IEEE International Workshop on Electronic design.H.W.035. Bird. and Ergun Ercelebi.P. ―Automatic NumberPlate Recognition.6/1-6/6.‖ Proceedings of VNIS‘94 Vehicle Navigation and Information System Conference. B. A.S. 1994. IEEE Computer Society.  A. L. Aprl.Serkan Ozbay. Test and Applications ( DELTA‘02 ).anpr. D. 1990.A. Irecki. V01.wikipedia. and AS.73  D. 1990.K.  http://en. 2002.A. Lim and L. 1995.G. ―Number-plateMatching for Automatic Vehicle Identification. ―Automatic Number-plate Recognition : Neural Network Approach.‖ Proceedings of the IEE Colloquium on Image analysis for Transport Applications. J. Spaanenburg.org/wiki/Automatic_number_plate_recognition  http://www. Westenberg.wikipedia. 1990. Lotufo. M. Venema.‖ IEE Colloquium on Electronic Image and Image Processing in Security and Forensic.info/ 73 . R. 1994  J.  R. Johnson.platerecognition.A. K. ―Car License Plate Automatic Vehicle Identification by Plate Recognition Author . Johnson. Fahmy.M.A. Helmholt.org/wiki/Vehicle_registration_plates_of_India  http://en.G. Bailey.net/  http://www. Nijhuis.M. pp.  M.M. B.D.S. 1990. Ter Brugge.

74 74 .

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