ABHINANDAN SINGH - 08070121202 MAYANK KISHORE PATHIKRIT GUHA - 08070121224 - 08070121232

Under the Guidance of

In partial fulfilment of
B.Tech ( E& TC )




This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Abhinandan Singh _ , Roll No. _ 08070121202 _, is record of

bonafide work carried out by her/him , under my guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University.

Date :

Place :

Prof. Mrudang Shukla
Guide , Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.

Prof. Dr. Narayan Pisharoty
Head, Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.




This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Mayank Kishore _ , Roll No. _ 08070121224 _, is record of

bonafide work carried out by her/him , under my guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University.

Date :

Place :

Prof. Mrudang Shukla
Guide , Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.

Prof. Dr. Narayan Pisharoty
Head, Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.


4 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Pathikrit Guha _ . Roll No. Mrudang Shukla Guide . Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115. 4 . Date : Place : Prof. _ 08070121232 _. is record of bonafide work carried out by her/him . Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115. Prof. under my guidance. Dr. Narayan Pisharoty Head. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University.

08070121232 Is approved for the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING – Electronics & Telecommunication Symbiosis International University. _______________________________________ Date : Place: 5 .08070121224 Pathikrit Guha . Examiners: 1.08070121202 Mayank Kishore .5 The Project entitled “LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE” By Abhinandan Singh . ______________________________________ 2. Pune.

Symbiosis Institute of Technology. Department of Electronics & Telecommunication. With deep sense of gratitude we express our sincere thanks to our esteemed and worthy supervisor Mr. Narayan Pisharoty. Symbiosis Institute of technology. Head of the Department of Electronics & telecommunication. inspiration ad help provided to us by various personalities. We would have never succeeded in completing our task without the cooperation. Mrudang Shukla. 6 . Above all we render our gratitude to the ALMIGHTY who bestowed selfconfidence. encouragement. We shall be failing in our duties if we do not express our deep sense of gratitude towards Dr. Pune for his valuable guidance in carrying out this work under his effective supervision. enlightenment and cooperation. Pune who has been a constant source pf inspiration for us throughout this work.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The real spirit of achieving a goal is through the way of excellence and austere discipline. We are also thankful to all the staff members of the Department for their full cooperation and help. ability and strength in us to complete this work. Assistant Professor.

Imaging Hardware Chapter 7.6 Save to file in given format Chapter 9.1Image Cropping 9.2 Image Processing 4. 10 11 12 14 14 14 15 15 15 17 18 20 22 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 37 37 38 .1 Project Background 3.2 Conversion of RGB Images to Binary Images 7 Page no.2 How the Vehicle License Plate System works 3. Development History Chapter 8.2 Features of project Chapter 3.3 Comparison Between MATLAB and Artificial Intelligence Chapter 5. Literature Survey Chapter 2.5 Number identification 8.7 Table of Contents Contents List of Figures Abstract Chapter 1.4 Constraints 3.5 Various Types of Vehicle License Plate 3.3 Convert image into binary. Image Acquisition 9.1 Introduction to matlab 4. Problem Definition 2. Components Chapter 6. 8.4 Segmentation 8. Introduction 3.2 Input Image from file.3 Objectives 3.1 Problem Statement 2. Algorithm 8.6 Commercial Products Chapter 4 Platform / Technology 4. 8.1 Algorithm for ANPR system 8.

8 9.2 Medfilt2 Chapter 11 Thresholding 11.2 Template Matching Chapter 15 Analysis of Result 15.2 Global Thresholding 11.3 Filtering of Digits 12.2 Vehicle Quantization and Equalization 15.1 Extracting of Individual Digits 15.3 Checking and verification of the Static Chapter 16 List of Functions Used Chapter 17 Code 17.1 Normalization 14.2 Algorithm to normalisation of characters 17.1 Threshold Selection 11.1 Filtering 12.1 Imcomplement 10.1 Algorithm to extract digits 17. Image Enhancement 10.3 Colour Image Processing Chapter 10.4 Identify and remove away the small connected objects Chapter 13 Image Segmentation 13.2 Discussion Chapter 19 Difficulties and Recommendations 8 40 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 48 48 49 50 50 50 52 52 53 53 55 57 57 58 58 61 61 63 65 .1 Feature Extraction from Digital Image 13.3 Adaptive thresholding Chapter 12 Image Noise 12.3 Algorithm to read characters Chapter 18 Result Analysis 18.2 Database Chapter 14 Character Recognition 14.2 Binary Area Open(Bwareaopen) 12.1 Experimental results 18.

9 Chapter 20 Critical Review and Reflection Chapter 21 Conclusion and Future scope Annexure A: Project Planner and Progress Report References 67 68 71 72 9 .

.......4 Histogram of light object with dark background....................................................................................................2 A car approaching a License Plate Recognition System.............................................................................17 3..........................................................2 Block diagram of Image processing system.....................................................................3 Characteristic function of binary image......................3 Indian car license plate....................................................................48 13....................................................................................19 3...........................39 9.2 Cropped image of the vehicle...1 Comparison of MATLAb with other softwares................40 9.....................................................7 Captured image of the vehicle............................................................................................5 Histogram of object and background which is close....................37 9.........2 Binary image after filtering............................................................................1 Binary image with noise..............................1 Overview of the vehicle license plate system..............................2 Captured image of vehicle2......53 15...................................4 Morphologically open binary image.50 15.....16 3.......25 8.............................................................1 Automatic Number Plate Recognition System...............................................5 Commercial and Private vehicle license plate...........6 RGB schematic block diagram.3Morphologically open binary image........................41 12....................................20 4.................................41 9.....................................1 Original image of the vehicle.1 Captured image of vehicle1......................54 15.........1 Segmented image...4 System Block Diagram.38 9..18 3...............47 12........36 9...............37 9......24 4.......10 List Of Figures 3.............39 9......55 10 .............................................................53 15.........................................8 Binary image of the vehicle.............................................................

In segmentation part. License Plate Recognition is an effective form of AVI systems.  Implementing a file management system or database for storing the images of vehicle license plate. processing them and using processed data for further processes like storing. . This system also helps to conduct the graphic images of the vehicles which can be further stored in the database in text format reducing size of data to be stored. edge detection algorithms and smearing algorithms are used. filtering and some algorithms are used.11 ABSTRACT Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) has many applications in traffic systems (highway electronic toll collection. The proposed algorithm consists of three major parts: Extraction of plate region. This system helps in the functions like detection of the number plates of the vehicles. border and customs checkpoints. allowing vehicle to pass or to reject vehicle. For extracting the plate region. In this study. The neural network will be trained off-line with the characters and numbers. Based on the experimental results. a smart and simple algorithm is presented for vehicle‘s license plate recognition system. We used neural network for recognition of vehicle license late character. segmentation of characters and recognition of plate characters. This system is based on the image processing system.  Character Segmentation/Recognition: Resample and threshold in order to isolate the license plate and vehicle license plate character. numbers and characters Keywords     Character recognizer license plate recognition Segmentation Cropping 11     template matching Median Filter Connected Components Masking. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on real images.).  Evaluating the performance of the algorithm and compare the performance with other reported work. we noted that our algorithm shows superior performance in car license plate recognition. etc. red light violation enforcement.  Plate localization and extraction: To obtain the vehicle plate sub image. The general algorithm involves the following steps:  Image Processing : The image captured is pre-processed and reduction in the contrast. And finally statistical based template matching is used for recognition of plate characters.

Due to these features. License plate identification/recognition (LPI/R) is one form of ITS technology that not only recognizes and counts vehicles. edge densities in the region. work only in certain conditions or environment like indoor images etc. such as electronic toll collection and red-light violation 12 . Eventually. reliability and versatile nature of the computer. etc. nuclear plants. this method could be used to detect the similar properties in a certain image and locate the position of number plate regions. In this approach. and resulting in an image formed of edges. but distinguishes each as unique. The image thus processed was converted to its binary counterpart and then processed by certain algorithms. etc.The project is based on image processing technology using popular software MATLAB. Today in the developed countries more than 90% of the job is done by automated system and this is due to the accuracy.12 1 LITERATURE SURVEY It is almost known that the world is nowadays being more dependent in the computer than the human manpower. This approach was commonly used in finding text in images. contrast. To add the further mile for this step we have presented a License plate recognition software . such as Hough transform. The problem of automatic VNP recognition is being studied since the 90‘s. Another approach was based on the morphology of objects in an image. couples of 2-parallel lines were considered as a plate-designate. The third approach was based on statistical properties of text. text regions were discovered using statistical properties of text like the variance of gray level. number of edges. communication centers all of them are under the control of the computer because that‘s not the place where human hand can reach up. to detect lines. The input image being first processed to enrich and enhance boundary line-information by using such algorithms as the gradient filter. The early approaches were based on characteristics of boundary lines. For some applications. It is basically use for traffic and security purposes. symmetry. color dependent. Vehicle License Plate Recognition is an image processing system whereby it is used to recognize the vehicles by identifying the license plate. and could well be used for discovering and designating candidate number plate areas as they include alphabets and numerals. angles. In the developed western countries many big factories. All of the systems discussed above have some kind of limitations for example they are plate size dependent. This approach focuses on some salient properties of vehicle plate images such as their brightness.

like commercial vehicle operations or secure-access control. License plate recognition (LPR) is a new tool for automatic vehicle and traffic monitoring by using digital image processing. For implementing LPR system we have used digital image processing technique. LPI/R records a license plates alphanumeric so the vehicle owner can be assessed the appropriate toll or fine. etc.13 enforcement. The LPR system can be used to traffic control management for recognize vehicles that commit traffic violation. breaking speed limits . occupying lanes reserved for public transport. In others. 13 . such as entering restricted area without permission . crossing red light. a vehicle's license plate is checked against a database of acceptable ones to determine whether a truck can bypass a weigh station or a car can enter a gated community or parking lot.

1 Problem statement: Automatic car license plate recognition (CLPR) system is implemented to help the human to automatically detect plate number without human supervision. So this project is developing to replace human to monitor the car and automatically capture the image. with some configurable to store a photograph of the driver. high error rates. human is needed to observe and list the user car plate number manually. Concerns about these systems have centered on privacy fears of government tracking citizens' movements. or ones specifically designed for the task. the system can automatically display the status of the car which it will compare between the car plate numbers recognized with the database. Besides that. 14 .[ANPR technology tends to be region-specific. They are used by various police forces and as a method of electronic toll collection on pay-per-use roads and cataloging the movements of traffic or individuals. Systems commonly use infrared lighting to allow the camera to take the picture at any time of the day. Previously.14 2 Problem Definition 2.2 Features Automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance method that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates. misidentification. owing to plate variation from place to place. 2. ANPR can be used to store the images captured by the cameras as well as the text from the license plate. and increased government spending. They can use existing closed-circuit television or road-rule enforcement cameras.

Because of this. In entrance gate.15 3 INTRODUCTION 3. or by special intelligent equipment which is be able to recognize vehicles by their number plates in a real environment and reflect it into conceptual resources. access and border control. For example. It will have mechanism to detect the opened and closed door. This can be achieved by a human agent. or tracking of stolen cars. such as parking. 3.2 How the Vehicle License Plate System works Firstly. vehicles can be directed to different lanes for a better congestion control in busy urban communications during the rush hours. ANPR systems installed on country borders automatically detect and monitor border crossings. number plates are used to identify the vehicles. When a vehicle later exits the place through the gate. this technology is used in many companies to grant access only to vehicles of authorized personnel. various recognition techniques have been developed and number plate recognition systems are today used in various traffic and security applications. number plate is automatically recognized and stored in database and black-listed number is not given permission. number plate is recognized again and paired with the first-one stored in the database and it is taken a count. It also will have capacity to park in the given parking area. Automatic Line Tracking Robot (ALR) is used in this project as a vehicle which contains circuitry for moving in a guided track. . When a vehicle enters an input gate. Automatic number plate recognition systems can be used in access control. In some countries.1 Project Background Massive integration of information technologies into all aspects of modern life caused demand for processing vehicles as conceptual resources in information systems because a standalone information system without any data has no sense. Each vehicle can be registered in a central database and compared to a black list of stolen vehicles. the vehicle will stop at the car gantry. The cycle will start when the vehicle steps over the detector. 15 . In traffic control. It will activate a signal to the Vehicle License Plate System of the presence of the vehicle. Vehicle License Plate Recognition is an image processing system whereby it is used to recognize the vehicles by identifying the license plate. there was also a need to transform information about vehicles between the reality and information systems.

we also need to look into other facts of variables that are not constant. the characters will be recognized by using Neural Network. the system will try to match the recognized vehicle plate number with the car plate database. the Vehicle License Plate Recognition also provide an advantage by keeping the image of the vehicle in which it will be useful for crime fighting. The system will read the information pixels of the vehicle and run the recognition process. There are difficulties for Vehicle License Plate Recognition in which it will affect the efficiency and accuracy of the system. illumination (infra-red) will be activated and images of the front picture of the vehicle will be taken.1 Besides. If ―Access Granted‖. Next. Diagram is illustrate in Fig 1. Lastly. It is essential and important to determine the facts which will able to influence the operations and recognition proficiency. Thirdly. the gantry will open and allowed the vehicle to pass through. Fig 3. Below are the non-constant variables which will affect the accuracy of recognition:  Speed of the vehicle 16 .16 Secondly. Besides analyzing. Camera can also focus on the face of the driver and save it for security reason. the images will be enhance. locating the vehicle plate position and extract the characters from the vehicle plate. Next. the system will apply certain algorithm to analyses the vehicle image.

Besides. The software could lead to a cheaper and faster way of enhancing and determined the performance of the recognition system. Bent type) Vehicle license plate orientation Type of vehicle fonts character. In the past. there has been similar project implemented but had poor accuracy. Once the vehicle license plate is captured. the system can also serve as a security purpose whereby it can spot on any wanted or stolen vehicles. The system will be based on a Personal Computer such that it will generate report on the vehicle license plate it has captured. the characters will be recognized and displayed on the Graphical User Interface.3 Objectives The overall objective of the project is to develop a system to recognize vehicle license plate from a car at a gate entrance of a parking lot. we would need to improve or rewrite the algorithm to improve the accuracy. Thus. I 17 .2 A car approaching a License Plate Recognition System 3.17       Weather condition Type of Vehicle Distance between vehicle license plate and the camera Type of plate ( Rectangular. Fig 3.

18 will address a set of constraints and focus on the design of the algorithm to extract the vehicle license plate in order to improve the accuracy. The vehicle license plate position should be captured centred. Thus. Take only the front view image of the car. we have to set a list of constraints to make the project more systematic and manageable. it is not advisable for me to cover all aspects in this project.3 18 . we managed to come up with the progress guideline as to what need to be included in this project. The constraint is listed as below:           Image taken only when vehicle is stationary. There is definitely a lot more room for further improvement on this project. There will be no motion capture image. Captured image of vehicle at fixed angle. Captured images on location where light is proportional. The image should be taken with the height of 50cm to 70 cm above the ground level. it is not advisable to include all of the possible cases. in discussion with my tutor. due to the limited time frame given. Fig 3. 3. Thus. Deal with only Indian Car License Plate with Times new roman font. Captured image of vehicle at fixed distance.4 Constraints Due to limited time that we possess and dealing with image vision software. However. Try on zoom in image of the car and image consists of headlamp.

19 System block Diagram Fig 3.4 19 .

g.20 3. The third part is a 4 digit number unique to each plate. Instead they have the Emblem of India in gold embossed on a red plate.  Format Vehicle owner who register the car as private vehicle have a white background and black text. The President of India and state governors travel in official cars without licence plates.  Current Format The current format of the registration index consists of 3 parts    The first two letters indicate the state to which the vehicle is registered. the numbers were given to the RTO offices of registration as well. Vehicles belonging to foreign consulates have white lettering on a light blue background (e. DL 2C 0001). A letter(s) is prefixed when the 4 digit number runs out and then two letters and so on.5 20 .5 Various Types of Vehicle License Plate  What is Car license Plate Car license Plate is a rectangular metal plate which consists of a combination sequence of alphabet characters and numbers issued by the government for identification purpose of registered vehicle. Fig 3. This scheme of numbering has some advantages:   the State or District of registration of a particular vehicle In the case of a police investigation of an accident or vehicle-related crime. The next two digit numbers are the sequential number of a district. Due to heavy volume of vehicle registration.. 22 UN 14).g. Commercial vehicles such as taxis and trucks have a yellow background and black text (e. witnesses usually remember the initial area code letters — it is then quite simple to narrow down suspect vehicles to a much smaller number by checking the database without having to know the full number.

Temporary numbers As soon as a vehicle is purchased. The numbers are registered by the organization which run the services and are usually printed on the side of the vehicle. confirm that the engine and chassis numbers are identical to what is written in the application and issues a permanent registration certificate which is usually valid for 20 years. probably a country close to the letter A or B. during which the owner must register the vehicle in the controlling RTO of the area in which the owner is residing to get a standard licence plate. The next is the base code. The permanent registration certificate is one of the four important documents a vehicle plying on the road should always have. 21 . the others being a valid insurance certificate. Diplomatic plates Vehicle belonging to foreign missions bear the plates UN. it has to be presented to the RTO's office. The letter ending after the serial number indicates the class of the vehicle. The next two digits (or the two preceding the arrow) signify the year in which the Military procured the vehicle.21 Military vehicles Military vehicles have a unique numbering system unlike any other licence numbers. which stand for United Nations. For example. Diplomatic Corps or Consular Corps respectively. trucks. This is valid for one month. A diplomatic plate numbered 13 CC xxxx would refer to country 13. followed by the serial number. CD or CC. Other numbering Other numbering includes the special numbers allotted to public transportation such as buses. there are a number of additional documents like a roadworthiness certificate and a transportation permit. This mechanism is used for unique identification. The numbers are registered by the Ministry of Defence in New Delhi. taxis and auto-rickshaws. the dealer of the vehicle issues a temporary licence sticker known colloquially as a TR (To Register) number. The first (or the third) character is always an arrow pointing upwards. this prevents the number being read wrongly in case the plate (and/or the vehicle bearing it) is upside down. taxis and pick-up vans. where a Motor Vehicle Inspector will verify the applicant's address and other details. a vehicle bearing the number 77 CD xxxx in India refers to a vehicle owned by either the United States mission in India or by a person working with the mission. a pollution under control (PUC) certificate and the driver's licence. For public utility vehicles like buses. To register a vehicle.

VISPA provides for state-of-the-art video technology. 7 days a week. 3.6 Commercial Products The various products in the market today are described briefly below. captures and identifies a vehicle's license plate data and makes a read decision. 22 .3 Vehicle Identification System for Parking Areas (VISPA) PPI's Vehicle Identification System for Parking Areas (VISPA) [28]. Using advanced image processing and artificial intelligent techniques such as AI best first breadth-wise search algorithm. The system's reliability and flexibility allow it to accommodate some of the most stringent needs in some of the worst conditions. the LPR can be programmed to read any language or symbol in any alphanumeric combination or context on both retro and non-retro reflective plates.6. • Reads accurately at highway speeds. 3. 3. easy installation and has accessories and features for most parking security surveillance needs. With milliseconds the LPR system locates. Current LPR system read Latin (A-Z) and Korean (Hangul) letter and Arabic number (09). identification and improved security. • Automatic and within milliseconds.6. however. uses video imaging for better recognition. fuzzy logic and an arsenal of image processing tools. combined template and neural network recognizers.6. it automatically locates vehicle license plates and reads the numbers accurately each time every time. Features of this LPR technology includes. It is a high performing robust system that gives consistent results under all weather conditions. • Reads accurately in most weather conditions.1 IMPS (Integrated Multi-Pass System) An IMP [26] is a Singaporean commercially developed license plate recognition system. • Works 24 hours a day.2 Perceptics Perceptics [27] is the world leader in license plate reader technology.22 3.

There technology is based on computer vision.Detects and reads Vehicle license plates for parking. Available as a complete system which is based on a background Windows application.Tracks and reads Shipping container identification marking. or to a client process.23 Features are • Open architecture to most common video-systems. The basic system version connects to 4 cameras and can be upgraded to 8 cameras. Enhanced Version:. the records include both the image plus the extracted result. or in form of different special-task systems.a recognition system for the Tracks and Containers.An image of the car and/or the driver (depending on the location of your camera) will be taken as soon as the car approaches the triggering device. law enforcement and security applications. 3. • Can be customized according to specific user needs. Windows DLL or Linux library. SeeCar License Plate Recognition:. access control. VISPA is available in two forms Basic Version: . 23 . and transmits the ID string to the port or gate computer. The recognition result is then logged together with the images. There product includes. 8. • Compatible with standard hardware and software. The license plate can then be encoded on the ticket. traffic surveillance. Available as complete systems. SeeContainer Identification System:. as a stand-alone turn-key version. or 16 cameras automatically identifies the license plate from the video image and stores it in a database. The VISPA controller with an integrated frame grabber card for 4.License Plate Identification.crane mounted Container recognition system. such as SeeGate . This is the main advantage of vision based recognition. or SeeCrane .4 Hi-Tech Solution Hi-Tech Solutions [29] is a system and software company that develops cutting edge optical character recognition (OCR) solutions by implementing the company's unique image processing software and hardware in a wide range of security and transportation applications. The image will be linked to the ticket. the system read the camera images and extract the identification data from the images.6.

Fig 4.1 MATLAB read images using the function ―imread‖. The task is to construct the algorithm and recognizes can be done using MATLAB.24 4 Platform/Technology 4. Graphical User interface and MATLAB compiler. 24 . MATLAB is also very efficient as it have built-in-function tools for neural network and image processing.1 INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB MATLAB is chosen as the main development for the license plate recognition application. Besides. Comparison of MATLAB with other program is shown in the below diagram. The advantages of MATLAB can be classified as follows: Platform independence. The table below show images/graphs format that is supported by ―imread‖ with MATLAB. predefined function and deviceindependent plotting.

png .tiff .25 Format Name TIFF JPEG GIF BMP PNG XWD Description Tagged image file format Joint photographs Expert Group.bmp .2 Image Prcessing Image Processing generally involves extraction of useful information from an image.gif . The main areas of application of Image Processing are Bio-Medical. Engineering. . Face Detection.xwd 4. Traffic Control etc.2 25 . This useful information may be the dimensions of an engineering component. Block Diagram of Image Processing Steps Fig 4. Graphic Interchange Format Windows bitmap Portable network Graphics X Window Dump Extension . . size of diagnosed tumour.tif. or even a 3D view of an unborn baby.Jpg .Jpeg . Quality Control.

Slow response. Good for solving complex problems where humans or programmer have expert knowledge in it. 5. 4. 3.  Advantage of MATLAB 1. 4. 26 . The system will perform faster when using “Matrix Approach”. Unpredictable. Expensive. Data can be represented in terms of matrices or vectors. 2. 3. 5. MATLAB coding is shorter and simpler.26 4. Not good in common sense reasoning. Non-programmers can easily understand the rules of artificial intelligence.  Disadvantage of Artificial Intelligence: 1. MATLAB possess power graphic visualization tools. Algorithm used in MATLAB can be converted to use in hardware. . 3. There are difficulty in getting expert knowledge and putting it in used in the system. 2. 2. We can changed and add individual rules.3 Comparison Between MATLAB and Artificial Intelligence  Advantage of Artificial Intelligence: 1.

This information. can easily be transmitted to some remote computer for further processing if necessary. there is a requirement to forward images to the remote server. 27 . or stored at the lane for later retrieval. now small data packets. Often in such systems. ANPR systems are generally deployed in one of two basic approaches: one allows for the entire process to be performed at the lane location in real-time.27 5 COMPONENTS The software aspect of the system runs on standard home computer hardware and can be linked to other applications or databases. It first uses a series of image manipulation techniques to detect. date-time. and this can require larger bandwidth transmission media. and any other information that is required is completed in somewhere around 250 milliseconds. and then optical character recognition (OCR) to extract the alphanumeric of the license plate. When done at the lane site. lane identification. such as those found in the London congestion charge project. and the other transmits all the images from many lanes to a remote computer location and performs the OCR process there at some later point in time. the information captured of the plate alphanumeric. In the other arrangement. there are typically large numbers of PCs used in a server farm to handle high workloads. normalize and enhance the image of the number plate.

A camera that makes use of active infrared imaging (with a normal colour filter over the lens and an infrared illuminator next to it) benefits greatly from this as the infrared waves are reflected back from the plate. the shutter speed does not need to be so fast.28 6 IMAGING HARDWARE At the front end of any ANPR system is the imaging hardware which captures the image of the license plates. however. Most dedicated license plate capture cameras will incorporate infrared illumination in order to solve the problems of lighting and plate reflectivity. License plate capture is typically performed by specialized cameras designed specifically for the task. Manufacturers have developed tools to help eliminate errors from the physical installation of license plate capture cameras. and so cameras used for other purposes must rely more heavily on the software capabilities. installers should carefully consider the positioning of the camera relative to the target capture area. To avoid blurring it is ideal to have the shutter speed of a dedicated camera set to 1/1000 of a second. slower shutter speeds could result in an image which is too blurred to read using the OCR software. To maximize the chances of effective license plate capture. 28 . Shutter speeds of 1/500 of a second can cope with traffic moving up to 40 mph (64 km/h) and 1/250 of a second up to 5 mph (8 km/h). when a full-colour image is required as well as use of the ANPR-retrieved details it is necessary to have one infrared-enabled camera and one normal (colour) camera working together. In some countries. Many countries now use license plates that are retro reflective. headlight glare and harsh environmental conditions. License plate capture cameras can now produce usable images from vehicles travelling at 120 mph (190 km/h). This returns the light back to the source and thus improves the contrast of the image. Factors which pose difficulty for license plate imaging cameras include speed of the vehicles being recorded. Further. giving a high level of contrast with the reflective background in any lighting conditions. In slow-moving traffic. Exceeding threshold angles of incidence between camera lens and license plate will greatly reduce the probability of obtaining usable images due to distortion. varying ambient lighting conditions. the characters on the plate are not reflective. or when the camera is at a lower level and the vehicle is at an angle approaching the camera. Since the car is moving. especially if the camera is much higher up than the vehicle. This is only possible on dedicated ANPR cameras.

2006). and police forces were provided with computers that were able to store ANPR information in real time (Pughe. Almost a year later on April 24. The results of this initial study indicated that officer productivity increased primarily due to the officers not having to spend as much time waiting for hits after they typed in a plate. ALPR technology was developed at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom in response to terrorism. As a part of its intelligence network. The bombing was massive in size and destroyed several buildings with many others suffering shattered windows. 1993. a text file containing information on the car registration number. When a plate is photographed by an ANPR camera. partially destroying the façade of the Exchange‘s offices and extensively damaging the rest of the building (Baltic exchange. a JPEG image of the plate is produced. the databases. and injured 44 others. the patrol officer is provided with information regarding the vehicle. is stored at the National ANPR1 This term is synonymous with ALPR and will be used interchangeably 3 Data Center (NADC) in London. As of 2001. Approximately four seconds after a plate is read by the camera. In 2002 to 2003. The central ANPR system.e. The United Kingdom is at the forefront in the use of plate recognition technology. 2003).29 7 Development History The United Kingdom: In 1992. 1992. 2006). 29 . such as whether the car was stolen. there are 3. 2008). 2008). stationary (roadside) and mobile (mounted on police cars). if it had been involved in another crime. The blast caused approximately £1 billion in damage. the United Kingdom evaluated the use of ANPR with nine police forces. This resulted in an increase in arrests to 100 per year. Instead. i. as well as a video image of the plate and a video of the vehicle occupants (Pughe. the time and date of the scan. 2006). killed one person. or if it was uninsured (Pughe.000 cameras across the United Kingdom. a British company operating a premier global marketplace for shipbrokers and charterers. the Irish Republican Army detonated a truck bomb at Bishops gate. 10 times the national average (PA Consulting Group. all 43 police forces in England and Wales were provided with vans equipped with automated number plate technology (ANPR1): ANPR cameras were mounted in vans. On April 10. 2006). 2006). scanning up to 5 million plates a day (Pughe. and the GPS location of the camera is created. In addition. officers were able to spend more of their time investigating hits. the heart of London‘s financial district (1993 Bishops gate bombing. NADC stores plate data and lists of suspect vehicles (Pughe. the Irish Republican Army bombed the Baltic Exchange.

On an annual basis. In total. police were only able to respond to 13% of hits (PA Consulting Group. The Metropolitan Police Service operates four ANPR units who work across London. 2003). 10. 2006). a constable using ANPR technology could expect to encounter: the recovery of 11 stolen vehicles (equivalent to approximately 68. A further 16. In 2005 and 2006. or prohibited drivers. 2003). the intercept team took some action (e.499 arrests. over 1. ANPR was beneficial to police forces by providing better efficiency in the deployment of officers. these units made. and the number of vehicles owned or operated by persons of interest (PA Consulting Group. The results of this evaluation also demonstrated that the ANPR technology contributed to a substantial increase in arrests (Pughe. 2004). the data also highlighted the limited ability of the intercept teams to respond to the volume of hits they received. on average. In nearly two-thirds (61 per cent) of these stops. approximately one out of every 200 cars photographed by the ANPR cameras was stopped by an ANPR intercept team. three instances involving the recovery of other stolen goods (equivalent to approximately 23.000 pounds total). The results of this study were similar to the first study. 200 arrests per month (Metropolitan Police Service.g. 30 . seven instances of drug seizures (equivalent to approximately 3. and 8. In effect. 2007). There are deployment teams who are used to assist in targeting hot spots for vehicle and other crime. serious crime. and five instances of recovery of other stolen property (PA Consulting Group. and fatal and serious injury road traffic accidents (Hampshire Constabulary. volume crime. One-quarter of the arrests were for disqualified.3% for theft of or from a vehicle. Currently. the number of vehicles used in the commission of other criminal offences. the Hampshire Constabulary uses ANPR to prevent and detect terrorism. For instance. no date). 2004). however. 180. workload concerns continued to exist. again suggesting a need for policy outlining a response priority scheme. two seizures of weapons and/or firearms. arrests were made in nearly 4-8% of the vehicle stops. This initial study also provided the Home Office with descriptions of the quantity of vehicles on the road violating insurance or other traffic regulations. ANPR technology continues to be used across the United Kingdom.300 pounds total).543 vehicles were stopped by intercept teams resulting in 13.000 stolen vehicles were recovered over this period (PA Consulting.30 In total. Over this one year period. However.8% of arrests were made for theft or burglary offences. 2003). enforced an arrest).000 pounds). an average. equivalent to approximately one stop per hour.2% for drug offences. uninsured. A second evaluation was conducted between June 2003 and June 2004 with 24 police forces (PA Consulting Group. The results also indicated that the police could expect a substantial increase in the amount and value of goods they recovered. In effect.

A reduced fee of £9 is paid by vehicle owners who sign up for the automatic deduction scheme. doubling to £120 per infraction thereafter.. This list is then compared with a list of cars whose owners/operators have paid to enter the zone – those that have not paid are fined. primarily in the form of ―red light cameras‖ (Jenkins. The London congestion charge is an example of a system that charges motorists entering a payment area. These offenders have a photograph taken of their plate by the ALPR cameras and receive a ticket in the mail. and 6:00 p. The video streams are transmitted to a data centre located in central London where the ANPR software deduces the registration plate of the vehicle.31 Charge zones – the London congestion charge The London congestion charge scheme uses 230 cameras and ANPR to help monitor vehicles in the charging zone. in several jurisdictions. The United States Over the past several years. There are currently 1. More recently.m. Transport for London (TfL) uses ANPR systems and charges motorists a daily fee of £10 paid before 10pm if they enter. Both front and back number plates are being captured. the United States has also introduced plate recognition technology. The US has also used plate recognition technology at border crossings with Mexico and Canada to track auto theft (Canadian Press NewsWire. 2007). 2006). There are also a number of mobile camera units which may be deployed anywhere in the zone. 150 American cities utilized this technology to catch those who drove through red lights. This technology will also be used. A recent study of ALPR technology in the state of Ohio emphasized 31 .m. Fines for traveling within the zone without paying the charge are £60 per infraction if paid before the deadline. 2007). Monday to Friday. to catch drivers who violate speed limits (Jenkins. In 2007. which use Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) technology. A second data centre provides a backup location for image data. It is estimated that around 98% of vehicles moving within the zone are caught on camera.500 cameras. leave or move around within the congestion charge zone between 7 a. The registered owner of such a vehicle is looked up in a database provided by the DVLA. on vehicles going both in and out – this gives up to four chances to capture the number plates of a vehicle entering and exiting the zone. ALPR has been used to track potential terrorists.

have outstanding warrants. ALPR was introduced in British Columbia as part of a pilot study in 2006.32 the recovery of two stolen trailers demonstrating the technology‘s potential utility for homeland security (McClellan. police can use ALPR technology linked to criminal justice and insurance databases to identify those drivers who. It allows drivers to use the express route for a toll fee that is recorded electronically. Schuurman (2007) recently produced an analysis of the use of this technology in parking lots in Surrey. ALPR technology has been used in Toronto for toll-collection purposes. Using information obtained through 32 . As previously discussed. for instance. Additional staffing costs may also be incurred. no date). By driving through traffic corridors in cities across Canada. criminal justice. and/or conducting further searches of licence plates. recovery of stolen goods. use civilian volunteers. are prohibited from driving. and maintaining ALPR technology. Still. It is important to note that the ALPR technology used in this study was only linked to databases on stolen vehicles and wanted persons and. or are driving uninsured vehicles. the technology also offers police a potentially useful tool for identifying and recovering stolen vehicles.000 in federal funding. there are several issues that must be considered prior to the widespread use of ALPR technology in Canada. and other agencies that is linked with the ALPR technology in police cruisers. 2004). These results were 50% higher than results during the same time period one year previous. 2007). ALPR has the potential to allow Canadian police forces to engage in proactive policing. using $61. Canada ALPR technology in Canada has only recently been implemented for use with traffic and other criminal violations. whether in the form of additional police on the roads utilizing this technology or the hiring of additional staff to assist in confirming hits. British Columbia. wherever possible.000 (McClellan. therefore. the state highway patrol apprehended 23 criminal suspects and recovered 24 stolen vehicles valued at US $220. beginning in August 2004. One way to offset these resource increases may be to. The United Kingdom established a central data warehouse in London containing information from insurance. must be weighed against the costs recovered through the use of this system. in addition to the cost of buying. The cost of warehousing this data. including reductions in criminal activity. 2004). installing. uninsured. and increases in positive public perceptions of the police (Schuurman. Nearly one-third (30 per cent) of the tolls are tracked through licence plate recognition technology allowing for faster movement of traffic as the need to stop and physically pay the toll is eliminated (Commission for Integrated Transport. or prohibited drivers. did not provide information on unlicenced. The Highway 407 Express Toll Route was introduced in 1997. updating the databases. The state of Ohio studied the effectiveness of ALPR technology over a four month period in 2004. Over the four month period.

uninsured drivers.e. four hits every hour (Schuurman. Such research can be used to inform deployment strategies.4 per cent). The Hot Lists were for unlicenced vehicles. nearly all (97. there were.876 licence plates were scanned. Schuurman‘s (2007) results indicated that 1.8 per cent) of hits were for unlicenced drivers. prohibited drivers. research must be conducted to determine the extent to which such technology is useful to Canadian police forces. Canada. Schuurman (2007) concluded that the deployment of ALPR technology exclusively to parking lots would not be the most efficient use of the system. and stolen vehicles. Scanned plate images were compared to the CPIC and MVB databases. and stolen cars (1. Given that there is limited information available to date on the use of ALPR technology. Of these. 2007). and over two-thirds (69. prohibited drivers (4. The remaining hits were for unlicenced (i. In fact. one unmarked patrol vehicle drove through 31 Surrey parking lots scanning the licence plates of parked cars over the period of one week. especially to locate and recover stolen vehicles. for example.7 per cent) of the scans accurately captured the car‘s licence plate. lists of vehicles of interest2 were populated on a daily basis and uploaded to the patrol car‘s onboard computer. Over the course of this study.9 per cent). 33 .33 the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) and the Motor Vehicle Branch (MVB).6% of scanned plates resulted in a ‗hit‘. uninsured) vehicles (23. The current study intends to provide some initial data regarding the use of ALPR technology in British Columbia. To collect the data for this initial study. in determining whether it is more beneficial to have police equipped with ALPR technology drive their usual patrol routes or travel exclusively within known ―hot spots‖ (Schuurman. 2007). It was concluded that using the technology in a stationary format along major intersections or installing it in mobile units that patrolled the jurisdiction‘s main roads would likely be more effective for identifying stolen vehicles. 21. on average. Nearly three-quarters (72 per cent) of the hits occurred between 3pm and 7pm.8 per cent).


8 Algorithm
8.1 Algorithm for ANPR system 1. Input image from webcam. 2. Convert image into binary. 3. Detect number plate area. 4. Segmentation. 5. Number identification. 6. Save to file in given format. 8.2 Input Image from file. 1. Capture image from webcam. 2. Store the captured image into a image file for further processing. 8.3 Convert image into binary. 1. Identify the intensity of the image. If image intensity = high Reduce intensity Else if intensity = low Increase intensity Else No change. 2. Convert image into grayscale. 3. Calculate appropriate threshold value for the image. 4. Convert the image into binary image using the calculated threshold. 8.4 Segmentation 1. Crop the image. 2. Filter the noise level present in the image. 3. Clip the plate area in such a way that only numbers of plate area extracted. 4. Separate each character from the plate. 8.5 Number identification 1. Create the template file from the stored template images. 2. Resize image obtained from segmentation to the size of template.


3. Compare each character with the templates. 4. Store the best matched character. 8.6 Save to file in given format 1. Open a text file in write mode. 2. Store the character obtained from the number identification process to text file in given format. 3. Close the file.



Overview of the Vehicle license plate System

Fig 8.1

The figure below shows the copping of image: Fig 9. we might proceed in using the Matlab function to convert the vehicle JPEG image into gray scale format. For this project. As the license plate surrounding is of no importance.1: Original Image Fig 9. The images will be stored as colour JPEG format on the camera. 9. Next. Electronic devices such as optical (digital/video) camera. webcam etc can be used to capture the acquired images. vehicle images will be taken with a Panasonic FX 30 digital camera.1 Image Cropping Image cropping is a recognition process whereby it will extract the smallest rectangle which will contains the edge of the license plate and license plate itself. this cropping process will highly increase the speed of image processing.2 : Cropped Figure 37 .37 9 Image Acquisition The initial phase of image processing for Vehicle License Plate Recognition is to obtain images of vehicles.

The image is made up of a matrix squares which is called Pixel. We will obtain white object with black background or vice versa. Binary Images are obtained by converting the input image into grayscale format. The characteristic function for the image object is classify below: Fig 9.2. 9. The application is as:  Text interpreting  Identify the object orientations Next. The pixel of grey level above the threshold will be set to 1 (equal to 255. Binary images is the simplest process and has apply to many other application.2 Conversion of RGB Images to Binary Images In order facilitate the next process smoothly and reducing the processing time. the image obtain is being converted to Binary Image. The conversion is done by using the toolbox in MATLAB (im2bw). Each pixel in the image has a brightness value which is known as grey level.1 What is Binary Images It is an image which quantatised into two values representing 0 and 1 or in pixel values of 0 and 255 representing the colour black and white.38 9. then by converting the grayscale image to binary image by thresholding.3 38 . white) and the rest will be set to 0 (black). It is useful as the information we need can be obtained from the silhouette of the object.

39 Below will illustrate different type of histogram images Fig 9. Frequency Fig 9.4: Histogram of light object with dark background.5 : Histogram of object and background which is close 39 .

The schematic of the RGB cube that illustrate both the primary and secondary colour at each vertex is shown below. 9.3 Colour Image Processing RGB Colour Space The RGB image is made of colour pixels of an M x N x 3 array. Green and Blue) and the secondary colour (Cyan. The cube vertex consists of the primary colour (Red. Magenta and Yellow). Fig 9.6 40 .40 In this circumstance. there is difficulty in choosing the threshold as the histogram is no more bimodal This root cause is due to the variations of light or colours in the images. The colour space is normally graphically shown as RGB colour cube.

7 : Original Image Fig 9.8 : Binary mage 41 .41 Fig 9.

42 10 IMAGE ENHANCEMENT The aim of this process is to increase and improve the visibility of the image. the light areas will become darker and the darker area will become lighter. reducing noise. 10. contrast manipulation. Image Enhancement techniques consists process of sharpening the edges image.1 IMCOMPLEMENT Imcomplement will compute the complement image(IM). 10. IM can intensity. The pixel value obtained by the differences will be used in the output image. For the complement binary image. A median filter is more effective than convolution when the goal is to simultaneously reduce noise and preserve edges.2 MEDFILT2 Median filtering is a nonlinear operation often used in image processing to reduce "salt and pepper" noise. color image processing and image segmentation as well. zeros will become ones or ones will become zeros. the value of each pixel will be subtracted by the maximum pixel value which is supported by the class. 42 . For the complement of the true color image. black will becomes white and white will be come black . binary or true color image. Therefore.

and is robust against image noise.y) = 1 if K (x. A simple method would be to choose the mean or median value. It is still greatly used in applying on the applications in the market due to certain reason. In a noiseless image with uniform background and object values.43 11 Thresholding Image thresholding enjoys the central position of any application in the process of image segmentation. but that the actual pixel values have some variation around these average values. the rationale being that if the object pixels are brighter than the background. One method that is relatively simple. however. A more sophisticated approach might be to create a histogram of the image pixel intensities and use the valley point as the threshold. users can manually choose a threshold value. The histogram approach assumes that there is some average values for both the background and object pixels. 11. In such cases a unimodal threshold selection algorithm may be more appropriate. = 0 if K (x. this may be computationally expensive. The value of threshold (T) is being selected and compare with the pixel of the image. Fast and cheap.y) = 0 for background of the object and T = threshold. which is known as automatic thresholding . as mentioned earlier). Several different methods for choosing a threshold exist.y) < T. 43 . is the following iterative method: 1.1 Threshold Selection The key parameter in the thresholding process is the choice of the threshold value (or values. this will generally not be the case. One of the simplest process will be the Gray-level thresholding. However. Representing F (x. does not require much specific knowledge of the image. An initial threshold (T) is chosen.y)>=T. and image histograms may not have clearly defined valley points. this can be done randomly or according to any other method desired. The regions of the images are classified by the reflectivity and absorption of light on its surface. or a thresholding algorithm can compute a value automatically. Thresholding is one of the oldest segmentation method.y) =1 for image object. It also transform the input image(K) into an output binary image (F) which is being segmented. the mean or median will work well as the threshold. often making the selection of an accurate threshold difficult. F (x. F (x. they should also be brighter than the average.

now using the new threshold computed in step four. the threshold will try to reduce the error of taking the background pixels as object pixel and vice versa.n) is the value of the pixel located in the mth column. The image is segmented into object and background pixels as described above. 1.2 Global Thresholding This is a method whereby the histogram of the image is being partitioned using a single threshold value.44 2. By using the adaptive thresholding. This is a common reason why global thresholding fail.n):f(m. Go back to step two. The value of the gray level varies from the darkest (0) to the brightest (255).e. nth row) 3. creating two sets: 1. 44 . until convergence has been reached).n):f(m. If the histogram is bimodal. in which the modes are overlapping. G2= {f(m. 11. This iterative algorithm is a special one-dimensional case of the k-means clustering algorithm. m2= average value of G2 4. m1= average value of G1 2.. its can solve the disadvantages of the global thresholding as it computes the value of the threshold for every pixel separately using the neighborhood. 11. T‘ = (m1+m2)/2 5. A new threshold is created that is the average of m1and m2 1. Image is form up of square matrixes called pixels and each pixels in the image have a brightness level known as gray level. We can use the graythresh toolbox function to calculate the threshold value by using Otsu‘s method. The threshold defines the value of the gray level in which the baseline boundary is in between the foreground pixels and the background. The threshold value which is selected is use to reduce the intraclass variance between the white and black pixels.n) T} (background pixels) (note. For other cases. which has been proven to converge at a local minimum— meaning that a different initial threshold may give a different final result. The average of each set is computed.3 Adaptive Thresholding The vehicle number plate can be partially illustrated. keep repeating until the new threshold matches the one before it (i. the value of the threshold will be taken in the middle of the bimodal. f(m.n)>T} (object pixels) 2. G1= {f(m.

12. It has been cropped to a rectangular shape in which it enhances the algorithm to be more uniformed in the further stages. We can apply convention techniques such as softening and sharpening. filtering process is used for blurring and for noise reduction and thus resulting a more sharpen image. 12. the electrical noise in the background is also being amplified. we have managed to obtain the black and white image of the Vehicle License Plate. Noise in the images is appears as the colour speckles whereby there should not be any.2 Binary area open (Bwareaopen) The MATLAB toolbox function provide a bwareaopen function in which it removes the connected component which have fewer than P pixel. the electrical noise from the background will be higher than the signal. The syntax is as bellowed: BW2 = bwareaopen(BW. The reason of noise contamination on the image is categorised as below:  There will be not enough light source for proper exposure to activate in a low light area/ Therefore. 12. Thus. In order to reduce the background noise. we need longer time for the image sensor for collection of weak signal. Next. blurring with liner/non liner filter is able to achieve noise reduction. bridging of gaps in curves and lines. softening is often applied to the low pass filter and it will affect the image to become blurring. 45 .1 Filtering In this pre-processing stage.3 FILTERING OF DIGITS Now. We will be enlarging the signal from the received light photons when we are using the digital camera with a higher ISO setting. Blurring is used in the preprocessing step which involved in removing and cleaning up of small patches and details from the image prior to object extraction. it will reproduce another binary image.P). In this circumstance.45 12 IMAGE NOISE Digital camera with long exposure time setting and high ISOs will produced images with lots of noise. From the amplification of the signal.

46 . we need to identify the connected components. After the component has been labelled. The elements of labels (stated in the algorithm) contains integer values that will be greater than or equal to 0. Lastly. 141 connected components are found in the BW image. The pixel of 0 represents the background and pixel of 1 will make up the first object. they will obtain a unique number. 12. By Filtering. Fig 12. so on and so for. object or substance which is not digits/characters such as screws. the image is only left with characters and digits in which we are interested.4 Identify and remove away the small connected objects For this stage. frame lines. effects on JPEG compression. we use 8-connected (8 specify 8-connected objects). In this algorithm. sand. Below illustrate an example of filtering process. the pixel of 2 will label the second object.46 The non-digits substance which appears in the image is caused by the noise (quantization that will transform to ‗Black‘).1 : Binary image with Noise For the above image. The component can have a value of either 4-connected or 8-connected. we are able to remove or filter out the unwanted substances or noise that is not a character or digits. The 2 stages for the algorithm is as follows: 1) Remove out the small objects or connected components. water droplet. 2) Identify the frame line that is connected to the digits and separate it.

47 . in which it will produce another binary image. components with less than 6000 is classify as non digits components and need to be taken away. we have apply the median filter and bwareaopen (Image Processing Toolbox) whereby it will remove all the connected components from the binary image that have value less than P pixels.2 : Binary Image after Filtering.47 Fig 12. Therefore. Next.

1 FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM DIGITAL IMAGE The digital image description is depends on the external and internal representation. word=[word letter]. In order to extract and analyzed the object characteristic.c] = find(L==n). [L Ne]=bwlabel(imagen). The process uses the edge detection to obtain the region contours and the objects will construct from the obtain contours. for n=1:Ne [r. This will lead to a success in pattern recognition process.48 13 Image Segmentation Image segmentation plays an important and critical step that lead to the analysis of the processed image data. we will be trying out first category segmentation method. end 48 . n1=imagen(min(r):max(r). vertical or diagonal edges etc. The algorithm below will represent how the extraction is being carried out and extracted figure is illustrated as below. Segmentation process can be categorized into several parts. For this project. the descriptor of the character from the same class is close to each other in the vector space. The color or texture of the image is basically the internal representation whereas the external representation is based on the characteristic of the shapes. Secondly is the boundary-based segmentation. imshow(~n1).min(c):max(c)). 13. letter=read_letter(img_r). The descriptor vector includes the characteristics as the number of lines. Lastly will be the edge-based segmentation. Firstly is the global Knowledge of an image. disp(Ne). The normalized character description is based on the external characteristics as we only work for properties on the shape of the character. The feature of the image is represented by a histogram. img_r=same_dim(~n1). the process need to partition the image into different parts that will have a strong correlation with the objects. which is by using threshold. If we classify the similar character into classes. The process of the feature extraction is to transform the bitmap data into a form of descriptor in which more suitable for computer.

Database can be in the form of text. The database would be enlarged in order to improve the accuracy and better chances of obtaining the correct result. The class recognition will check if the computed ratio is correct. 49 . it will be compare with data set in the database and provide an output if the image is recognized correctly. Database is needed to make sure that the image space can contained enough characters which have been extracted and the vehicle license plated number stored in the excel sheet for the purpose of comparison. It will ignore the class if the image thresholding is too low. thus it can be accessed easily and updated. If the class has match correctly.1 13.2 Database It is a collection of information or data which it is being orderly organize. contents and images.49 Plotted Bounding Box Fig 13.

14. An algorithm for obtaining normalized cross correlation from transform domain convolution has been developed.50 14 Character Recognition 14. Unfortunately the normalized form of correlation (correlation coefficient) preferred in template matching does not have a correspondingly simple and efficient frequency domain expression. 14. The new algorithm in some cases provides an order of magnitude speedup over spatial domain computation of normalized cross correlation. For this reason normalized cross-correlation has been computed in the spatial domain.1 Cross Correlation The use of cross-correlation for template matching is motivated by the distance measure (squared Euclidean distance) . For the project. Due to the computational cost of spatial domain convolution. see Lewis . Textbook presentations of correlation describe the convolution theorem and the attendant possibility of efficiently computing correlation in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform.1 Normalization In this phase. each character is normalized to the size of (42x24) binary image and then follow by reshape to standard dimension before sending the data set to the next for comparison with the templates. several inexact but fast spatial domain matching methods have also been developed.2 Template Matching The correlation between two signals (cross correlation) is a standard approach to feature detection as well as a component of more sophisticated techniques.2. the extracted characters are resized to fit the characters into a window. (where f is the image and the sum is over x. In the expansion of d2 50 .y under the window containing the feature t positioned at u.v).

51 the term is constant. If the term constant then the remaining cross-correlation term is approximately is a measure of the similarity between the image and the feature. 51 .

1 Recognition : D6LH4CNEB800 Fig 15.1 Extracting of Individual Digits Determine the angle of the Vehicle License Plate. For instance. It is generally important when capturing the vehicle image.2 : Recognition: MH01AX7946 52 . the figure illustrate below lead to wrong recognition of the character. Fig 15.52 15 ANALYSIS OF RESULT Tests are conducted according to the modular form 15.

such as very dark image. Fig 15. Next.3 Checking and Verification of the Statistic In the midst of trying out other car plate. After much study the MATLAB toolbox syntax.6000). 15. low contrast image.53 To improve in the cropping of image. 15. This will result fail recognition of the vehicle license plate.2 Vehicle Quantization and Equalization For some rare cases. Below illustrate a example of the scenario: Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects) imagen = bwareaopen(imagen.3 53 . we can also include an algorithm where we can change the image of the four coordinates to a standard rectangle size or manually crop the image. figure. To improve on the performance of the character recognition. the binarized image do not allow to make the difference between the background and the digits. I have experience loosing out character when performing the extracting process. Equalization and quantization allow to obtain a gray scale image with improve contrast between digit and the background. we can improve on the accuracy of capturing of vehicle image. high contrast image.imshow(imagen). we have managed to make adjustment on the value and apply the skill of binary area open (BWAREAOPEN) in which help to remove the small object too. we can make the difference between the digits and background inside the license plate.

Fig 15.54 Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects) imagen = bwareaopen(imagen.imshow(imagen).7000).4 54 . figure.

Bwlabel .returns in num the number of connected objects found in BW.Performs median filtering of the matrix A using the default 3by-3 neighborhood.Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects).returns the sizes of each dimension of an image in matrix a and b. The output image BW replaces all pixels in the input image with luminance greater than level with the value 1 (white) and replaces all other pixels with the value 0 (black). 2.measures a set of properties for each labelled region.Open file. Rgb2gray . 5.55 16 List of functions used 1.Bwareaopen . Im2bw . When the Crop Image tool is active. When you are finished sizing and positioning the crop rectangle. Graythresh . The Crop Image tool is a moveable.computes the complement of the image. 8. 10. Using the mouse. You can move or resize the crop rectangle using the mouse.Convert RGB image or colormap to grayscale. Fopen . imcrop returns the cropped image 7. or obtain information about open files. 11. based on threshold. you specify the crop rectangle by clicking and dragging the mouse. 55 . Imread : Read image from graphics file. 12. Size . Imcrop . In the complement of a binary image. black and white are reversed. 3.Convert image to binary image. 9. create the cropped image by double-clicking the left mouse button or by choosing Crop Image from the context menu. 6. Medfilt2 . zeros become ones and ones become zeros. 4.Regionprops . resizable rectangle that you can position interactively using the mouse. called the target image. Imcomplement . the pointer changes to cross hairs when you move it over the target image.Global image threshold using Otsu's method.creates an interactive Crop Image tool associated with the image displayed in the current figure.

Rectangle .Fclose .Find indices and values of nonzero elements.Close one or more open files.. 56 . 20. 14.Determine whether array is empty.Largest elements in array. 19.56 13.Min .Find . 17.draws a rectangle with Position [0.Write text to device. 21. without printing the array name.Resize image.Smallest elements in array.Resize .Display image.Disp .displays an array.e. 22.1.Isempty . 23.0.Fprintf .2-D correlation coefficient.Max. 18. 16.Corr2 .0] (i.1] and Curvature [0. 15.Imshow . no curvature).

'EdgeColor'. hold on for n=1:size(propied. end % Convert to binary image threshold = graythresh(image).imshow(image). % Show image binary image figure.threshold). propied=regionprops(L.3)==3 % RGB image imagen=rgb2gray(image).'g'.m).propied(n).'BoundingBox'). figure.%Storage matrix word from image fid = fopen('log.6000).imshow(~image).txt'.1 Algorithm to extract characters ( extractdigit.BoundingBox. % Show image figure.%pause(10). image = medfilt2(image).jpg').'LineWidth'.57 17 CODE 17.1) rectangle('Position'. disp(num). % Remove all object containing fewer than 6000 pixels image = bwareaopen(image.%Opens a text for append in order to store the number plates for log. 'at'). title('INPUT IMAGE WITHOUT NOISE') word=[]. title('INPUT IMAGE WITH NOISE') % Convert to gray scale if size(image. image =~im2bw(image.title('binary image'). [L num]=bwlabel(image). pause(1) image = imcrop(image). image=imread('exp4.imshow(image).2) end hold off pause (1) 57 .

imshow(~n1). fprintf(fid.txt file to see the stored number. elseif vd==2 letter='B'.date). 17.imagn). 17. pause(0.[42 24]).'------------------------------------\n'). fclose(fid).min(c):max(c)).'.'Number Plate:-%s\nDate:-%s\n'.5) end fprintf(fid.58 figure for n=1:num [r. msgbox(sprintf('Number Plate Extraction successful. load templates for n=1:36 sem=corr2(templates{1. img_r=same_dim(~n1).\nSee the log. comp=[comp sem]. n1=image(min(r):max(r).word.3 Algorithm to read letters (read_letter.word). if vd==1 letter='A'. word=[].'Extraction Success').m) function img_r=same_dim(imagen_g) img_r=imresize(imagen_g.n}. end vd=find(comp==max(comp)).c] = find(L==n). elseif vd==3 58 .\nExtracted Number plate:.m) function letter=read_letter(imagn) comp=[]. figure. letter=read_letter(img_r).%s .2 Algorithm of Normalisation of characters (same_dim. word=[word letter].

elseif vd==24 letter='X'. elseif vd==21 letter='U'. elseif vd==8 letter='H'. elseif vd==11 letter='K'. elseif vd==20 letter='T'. elseif vd==14 letter='N'. elseif vd==6 letter='F'. elseif vd==16 letter='P'. elseif vd==17 letter='Q'. elseif vd==9 letter='I'.59 letter='C'. 59 . elseif vd==13 letter='M'. elseif vd==23 letter='W'. elseif vd==19 letter='S'. elseif vd==7 letter='G'. elseif vd==15 letter='O'. elseif vd==5 letter='E'. elseif vd==18 letter='R'. elseif vd==10 letter='J'. elseif vd==12 letter='L'. elseif vd==4 letter='D'. elseif vd==22 letter='V'.

elseif vd==33 letter='7'. elseif vd==31 letter='5'. end 60 . elseif vd==28 letter='2'. else letter='0'. elseif vd==32 letter='6'. elseif vd==26 letter='Z'.60 elseif vd==25 letter='Y'. elseif vd==35 letter='9'. elseif vd==30 letter='4'. elseif vd==29 letter='3'. %*-*-*-*-* elseif vd==27 letter='1'. elseif vd==34 letter='8'.

1 Experimental results Extracted Number plate: MH12EM2587 Extracted Number plate: MH12FF7461 Extracted Number plate: MH12DM3909 61 .61 18 Result Analysis and Discussion 18.

62 Extracted Number plate:LMH12CD9736 Extracted Number plate:LK00A53N6523 Extracted Number plate: MH12HN0389 62 .

63 Extracted Number plate: MH14CS7710 Extracted Number plate:MH12DE94 Extracted Number plate: MH01AX7946 18. but traffic volume and the design of Surrey streets may impede this read rate.000 plates per hour. The technology may have the capacity to read more plates. Perhaps the most important conclusion reached from this study is that the utility of ALPR depends on volume.2 Discussion Although ALPR technology has been promoted as being capable of reading in excess of 3. the current results suggest that this capability is significantly overstated in actual road tests. The initial analysis of parking lot data produced by Schuurman (2007) suggested that parking lot 63 .

the more cars scanned. the frequency of hits exceeded what a typical patrol unit could respond to during a shift. the current study results also indicated that stolen vehicles represented a very small proportion (approximately one per cent) of all licence plate hits. As a consequence. A large advertising campaign can inform the public about the nature and use of this technology which may result in the public being less willing to violate traffic regulations. Rather. at least 24 hours after the car had been stolen. these statistics were not improved in the current analysis. to train volunteers who can assist the police in filtering through database hits. Given this. it may be possible. However. detachments must design response schemes to prioritize which hits officers respond to. police forces operating ALPR technology may want to focus on high volume traffic corridors during the day shift. In both cases. the same conclusions applied to this road test of the technology. it was all about the number of hits. Unfortunately. considering the results of this phase of the project. Second. for the most part. and. the stolen car had to be on the road in Surrey. Importantly. as suggested above. There are two main reasons why ALPR. The likelihood of this scenario occurring is extremely low. An important consideration raised by this research has to do with prioritizing responses and the allocation of scarce resources. First. remove the variable of a roving ALPR which likely reduces success. In effect. if the objective is to identify stolen vehicles as this will.64 deployment was dependent upon the number of vehicles in parking lots and. the hit list that the ALPR-enabled vehicle searched against was 24 hours old. as currently operated in Surrey. was not effective in locating stolen vehicles. the greater the number of raw hits. the fact that officers could expect several hits per hour requires the design of a response priority scheme and increase patrol units to manage the increased workload. In other words. substantiating which calls are valid and which must receive priority attention to lessen the burden on patrol officers. However. If patrol officers are faced with a significant increase in the number of hits as a result ALPR deployment. in order to maximize efficiency. for a stolen vehicle to be detected by an ALPR-enabled vehicle. Despite the promise that ALPR technology holds for catching stolen vehicles. until such time as ALPR-enabled vehicles have access to real-time data and there are many more ALPR-enabled police cruisers on the road at the same time. at least. it may be more beneficial to use stationary cameras along a large number of intersections. ALPR requires a meeting in time and space between the police cruiser and the stolen vehicle. the nature of hits was basically uniform for all of the assigned traffic corridors and the proportions held when considered by time of day or day of month. 64 . for the most part. this result should not have been unexpected. along one of the four traffic corridors assigned for that day. and at the exact location where a moving ALPR-enabled vehicle could photograph its licence plate.

such as Victoria. it is primarily left to the hardware side of the system to work out solutions to these difficulties. Bikes on bike racks can also obscure the number plate. "bike plates" are supposed to be fitted. Blurry images. 65 . eliminating the problem). While some of these problems can be corrected within the software.65 19 Difficulties and Recommendations There are a number of possible difficulties that the software must be able to cope with. On some cars. the decision may be made to have an acceptable error rate of one character. though in some countries and jurisdictions. this level of inaccuracy would not be acceptable in most applications of an ANPR system. Increasing the height of the camera may avoid problems with objects (such as other vehicles) obscuring the plate but introduces and increases other problems. usually because the plate is too far away but sometimes resulting from the use of a low-quality camera. An object obscuring (part of) the plate. reflection or shadows. particularly motion blur. Two cars from different countries or states can have the same number but different design of the plate. these are the steps which are recommended:  Modification is needed to be done on the offset of detecting the rectangular plate or by applying other technique to the system. However. For the future works and suggestion on improvements. popular for vanity plates (some countries do not allow such plates.m file. Australia. quite often a tow bar. or dirt on the plate. Some small-scale systems allow for some errors in the license plate. A different font. When used for giving specific vehicles access to a barricaded area. These include:        Poor image resolution. This is because the likelihood of an unauthorized car having such a similar license plate is seen as quite small. Lack of coordination between countries or states. When running the main. Poor lighting and low contrast due to overexposure. Circumvention techniques. such as the adjusting for the increased skew of the plate. it is able to detect and recognize some of the zoom in car vehicle license plate but fail on the image of cars with headlights. tow bars may obscure one or two characters of the license plate.

 There should be improvement on the decision of the algorithm and ways to detect error. When the probability of recognition guess is correct but falls below the threshold. we can use RGB to HSV or RGB to CMY method to deal with other type of colour license plate. 66 .66  We only use the black and white image of the Vehicle license plate. the recognition system should refuse to make the decision. For future implementation.

The problem encountered during the progress of the project include the selection of suitable method such as : sourcing of car images. After doing much reading and research. After doing much research and absorbing more knowledge into MATLAB toolbox. problems were resolved by using the suitable syntax and methods. 67 . During the initial project and development stage. we also encountered problems in detection. segmentation. method of segmentation and recognition of vehicle license plate character and writing of simulation program. research and with the help and understanding from the tutor. recognition of vehicle license plate characters. Next. the problem encountered is the selection of software program.67 20 Critical Review and Reflection The development of the project is considered quite successful although we still faced some problems during the progress of the project we managed to solve the problem by doing more reading. methods on detection. we chose MATLAB software as it is easier to implement.

it is highly plausible that through this process. ALPR also offers an objectivity that may benefit police. Research in the United Kingdom suggested that in responding to the sheer number of hits identified through ALPR. Given that officers cannot check all the licence plates they encounter while on shift. Finally it is proved to be %96 for the segmentation of the characters and %80 for the recognition unit accurate. in fact. with which to select those plates that appear more suspicious. Research with ALPR has shown several benefits. There are. an officer‘s workload substantially increased. officers may miss plates that are. With an increased number of ―hits‖. as the profile of crime is different in jurisdictions. some limitations inherent in the use of such advanced technology. The ability of ALPR to scan a large number of plates allows for more plates to be scanned faster and more efficiently. This system is designed for the identification INDIAN license plates and the system is tested over a large number of images. police must develop strategies that enable officers to prioritize their responses. prohibited drivers. Most importantly.68 21 Conclusion & Future Scope In this report. officers could become overwhelmed by the increase in the number of problematic cars to respond to. ALPR has the ability to quickly and efficiently scan a large number of licence plates without any officer intervention. detachment-specific schemes may need to be developed. In other 68 . The use of ALPR technology might also result in safer police driving as officers would no longer have the added distraction of turning away from the road periodically to manually type in licence plates of interest . however. While officers currently employ a set of indicators. impeding their ability to efficiently respond not only to ALPR hits. namely. increased police efficiency. However. and unlicensed drivers much more quickly than previous police strategies. This system can be redesigned for multinational car license plates in future studies. then we separated the plate characters individually by segmentation and finally applied template matching with the use of correlation for recognition of plate characters. they are compelled to make a series of decisions concerning which plates to search.57% recognition rates. As a consequence. giving the overall system performance 92. The technology also allows the police to identify uninsured vehicles. The ALPR technology offers several benefits to police forces. we presented application software designed for the recognition of car license plate. identified through experience. With the potential for an increased number of hits. Firstly we extracted the plate location. untoward. but to other calls for service. such as having an officer physically type in a licence plate to scan. police are better able to identify more persons of interest. or successful matching between a scanned plate image and a database of interest. This increases the potential for the recovery of stolen goods as well as convictions.

other criminal justice agencies. Information can either be provided in real time. invading their right to privacy. as the police develop new technologies. to better respond to priority hits. police forces may find it necessary to increase the number of officers on the road which. given current fiscal realities in many detachments in Canada. Lastly. drivers that have been prohibited or have lost their licence. Schuurman 69 . lists are updated as cars or plates are reported stolen or it can be updated every 24 hours. In effect. Either way. such as insurance companies. For instance. recognition software has produced extremely low successful recognition rates (Gordon and Wolf.g. some companies have begun to sell products to thwart the technology. without the successful coordination between police forces and agencies. it also provides new methods with which to avoid being screened by such technology. While advances in technology allow for the successful use of systems. vehicles that have been involved in other criminal activity. depending on the geographic location of hotspots. Much of the work involved in implementing ALPR technology involves building these initial relationships between agencies. the number of officers on patrol. Gordon and Wolf (2007) reported that since the advent of ALPR. Citizens may equate the use of ALPR technology to ―fishing expeditions‖. The efficiency of ALPR technology is entirely dependent upon the successful coordination of agencies. priority schemes may need to be individualized. In the past. research suggested that the ALPR technology reads plates correctly 95% of the time. Yet. such as licence plate recognition. as opposed to specifically searching out particular plates based on prior intelligence. ALPR technology simply will not succeed. and the specific needs of the community.69 words. may not be feasible. 2007). or drivers who are uninsured. it is important that officers to retain the ability to investigate the plate more fully and to follow their instincts when observing a suspicious vehicle. those using ALPR technology must have access to data that details information about stolen plates or cars. where police simply scan all plates until they get a hit. more recently. e. there will be those who develop the means to defeat these techniques. Concerned citizens may accuse police or the government of using the technology to track law-abiding citizens. Without the provision of data by which to compare scanned plates. ALPR cannot possibly identify plates of interest. Concerns in Canada already exist regarding the use of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in public (Schuurman. They noted that one company sells a clear spray (US $30 per can) that the manufacturers claim can make licence plates invisible when read by a camera. privacy concerns are also a limitation to the use of ALPR technology. Deisman (2003) identified that there are limits to the extent that police in Canada can engage in continuous and non-selective monitoring of citizens. and the motor vehicle branch. However. in the event that a plate is not read correctly and the officer deems the plate suspicious. Again. Moreover. 2007).

therefore. there may be concerns regarding who has access to this data . further optimization is required. This work can be further extended to minimize the errors due to them. smudges. the results of this study suggest that ALPR technology offers several substantial benefits to the police. monthly.70 (2007) also noted that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that privacy rights of citizens are breached by indiscriminate video surveillance without cause. How to adequately respond to this situation will require careful thinking and planning on the part of the police. In responding to concerns of privacy. Citizens may also have concerns with respect to the maintenance of data in warehouses. blurred regions & different font style and sizes are need to be taken care of. Also. the issues like stains. ALPR does have a specific utility as its strategic deployment will assist police departments to more effectively response to a variety of auto and driving-related offences. The overriding benefit of ALPR is that it brings a far larger number of offenders to the attention of the police. and thus make any firm conclusions on its general utility. extremely important that considerable thought is given to the safe storage of data and strict regulations regarding who has access to the databases. It is. weekly. In addition. Therefore to achieve this. In conclusion. Citizens may fear the potential for breaches in security. Future Scope Though we have achieved an accuracy of 80% by optimizing various parameters. policies may be put in place that regulate the deleting of collected data on a daily. it is difficult to assess the impact of ALPR on police resources and workloads. or yearly basis. Still. However. Essentially. 70 . . rather than the few offenders the police are able to find during their routine activities. it is required that for the task as sensitive as tracking stolen vehicles and monitoring vehicles for homeland security an accuracy of 100% cannot be compromised with. more research needs to be conducted in order to determine how ALPR technology can be balanced with respect to citizens right for privacy and civil rights. although further research is needed to determine the extent to which ALPR increases the rate of arrest and has a deterrent effect.

Task 4 Testing and Fine Tuning (30 March 2012 to 24th April 2012)  Fine tune on the filtering and calculation of connected components. it is important to choose the type of model and syntax that are suitable for Matlab is taken into consideration. we have drafted out the project schedule to follow up closely. Task 3 Construct Matlab software for simulation (24 Feb 2012 to 20 Mar 2012)  Writing and create algorithm for extraction of vehicle license plate character  Writing and simulate the block by integrating all the written algorithm together  Version R2008a for editing. Task1 Research (24 Jan 2012 to 10 Feb 2012)        Research on various methods used for Vehicle License Plate Recognition Conversion of Images Image Thresholding Noise filtering Vehicle License Plate Detection Vehicle License Plate Extraction/Segmentation Vehicle License Plate Recognition Task 2 Development (11 Feb 2012 to 23 Feb 2012)  Determine the value of pixel need for filtering  Determine algorithm for plate detection  Determine algorithm for extraction/segmentation  Determine algorithm for plate recognition.  Fine tuning of the integrated block algorithm Task 5 Reporting Writing (28 April 2008 to 1 May 2012)  Allocate at least 1 week for writing the final report.71 Annexure A: Project Plan & Progress Report For developing the project. Thus. 71 . There is interconnected link between the research work and the designing and Implementation process.

Darryl Plecas. Woods and Steven L. A Report on the Utility of the Automated Licence Plate Recognition System in British Columbia 72 .72 References  Rafael C. Gonzalez. JULIE WILLIS.  Mathworks.ht ml#printable_pdf.com/access/helpdest/help/techdoc/mathlab_product_page2. It is a very user friendly device as it will guide and explain to us on the specific toolbox in which we will be using. George Mason University . Gonzalez and Richard E.com/access/helpdesk/help/toolbox/nnet/nnet_product_page.Edward B.Hopgood. Irwin M. Russ. ― International Edition Digital Image Processing Second Edition‖  John C. Author ONDREJ MRTINSKY  Lecture notes  Mathworks. McCormick SCHOOL of CRIMINOLOGY and CRIMINAL JUSTICE University College of the Fraser Valley. LINDA MEROLA. Eddins.ht ml  Matlab software version R2008a. Woods. AND BREANNE CAVE . ―The Image Processing Handbook‖  Adrian A. Richard E.  Dr. and Amanda V. Palm III. ―Introduction To Matlab 7 For Engineers  Magrab.‖Intelligent Systems for Engineers and Scientists‖  William J. Dr. ―Digital ImageProcessing using MATLAB‖  Rafael C.‖An Engineer‘s Guide To Matlab‖  ALGORITHMIC AND MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES OF AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS. Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy. Cohen. LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY (LPR) IMPACT EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT .  CYNTHIA LUM.

6/1-6/6. Lotufo. 1990. M.K. Johnson. Spaanenburg.S. and AS.  M.73  D.  A. Morgan.M.wikipedia. Bird.info/ 73 . Proceedings of First IEEE International Workshop on Electronic design.org/wiki/Vehicle_registration_plates_of_India  http://en. Fahmy. Pluim. V01.Serkan Ozbay. D. February 16.‖ Proceedings of the IEE Colloquium on Image analysis for Transport Applications. 1990.anpr. L.A.H. Aprl.035. 1990. B. Westenberg. Nijhuis.D. ―Automatic Number-plate Recognition : Neural Network Approach.A.A.org/wiki/Automatic_number_plate_recognition  http://www.G.wikipedia.platerecognition. ―Number-plateMatching for Automatic Vehicle Identification.A. 3 1 Aug-2 Sept. Bailey.W.P.  R. and Ergun Ercelebi. ―Automatic NumberPlate Recognition. R. 1994  J. Ter Brugge.S. 1994.M. Venema.  http://en. B. Yang ―Test bed for number plate recognition applications‖. Lim and L.G. pp. 2002. Irecki.M. J. 1995. Johnson. ―Car License Plate Automatic Vehicle Identification by Plate Recognition Author . 1990.net/  http://www.‖ IEE Colloquium on Electronic Image and Image Processing in Security and Forensic. A. M. K. IEEE Computer Society. Helmholt.‖ Proceedings of VNIS‘94 Vehicle Navigation and Information System Conference. Test and Applications ( DELTA‘02 ).

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