ABHINANDAN SINGH - 08070121202 MAYANK KISHORE PATHIKRIT GUHA - 08070121224 - 08070121232

Under the Guidance of

In partial fulfilment of
B.Tech ( E& TC )




This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Abhinandan Singh _ , Roll No. _ 08070121202 _, is record of

bonafide work carried out by her/him , under my guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University.

Date :

Place :

Prof. Mrudang Shukla
Guide , Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.

Prof. Dr. Narayan Pisharoty
Head, Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.




This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Mayank Kishore _ , Roll No. _ 08070121224 _, is record of

bonafide work carried out by her/him , under my guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University.

Date :

Place :

Prof. Mrudang Shukla
Guide , Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.

Prof. Dr. Narayan Pisharoty
Head, Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.


Dr. Narayan Pisharoty Head. Prof. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University. Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115. is record of bonafide work carried out by her/him . Mrudang Shukla Guide .4 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Pathikrit Guha _ . Date : Place : Prof. under my guidance. 4 . Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115. _ 08070121232 _. Roll No.

08070121202 Mayank Kishore .08070121232 Is approved for the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING – Electronics & Telecommunication Symbiosis International University. ______________________________________ 2.5 The Project entitled “LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE” By Abhinandan Singh .08070121224 Pathikrit Guha . Examiners: 1. _______________________________________ Date : Place: 5 . Pune.

We are also thankful to all the staff members of the Department for their full cooperation and help. We would have never succeeded in completing our task without the cooperation. Symbiosis Institute of Technology. Pune for his valuable guidance in carrying out this work under his effective supervision.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The real spirit of achieving a goal is through the way of excellence and austere discipline. Above all we render our gratitude to the ALMIGHTY who bestowed selfconfidence. Pune who has been a constant source pf inspiration for us throughout this work. Symbiosis Institute of technology. Department of Electronics & Telecommunication. Head of the Department of Electronics & telecommunication. 6 . ability and strength in us to complete this work. We shall be failing in our duties if we do not express our deep sense of gratitude towards Dr. inspiration ad help provided to us by various personalities. With deep sense of gratitude we express our sincere thanks to our esteemed and worthy supervisor Mr. encouragement. enlightenment and cooperation. Assistant Professor. Narayan Pisharoty. Mrudang Shukla.

1 Introduction to matlab 4.1 Problem Statement 2.2 How the Vehicle License Plate System works 3. 10 11 12 14 14 14 15 15 15 17 18 20 22 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 37 37 38 .2 Input Image from file.1 Algorithm for ANPR system 8.7 Table of Contents Contents List of Figures Abstract Chapter 1.3 Objectives 3.4 Segmentation 8.6 Commercial Products Chapter 4 Platform / Technology 4.1Image Cropping 9. 8. Development History Chapter 8.2 Image Processing 4. Literature Survey Chapter 2.2 Conversion of RGB Images to Binary Images 7 Page no.5 Various Types of Vehicle License Plate 3.1 Project Background 3. Imaging Hardware Chapter 7.5 Number identification 8. Image Acquisition 9. Components Chapter 6. 8. Introduction 3.6 Save to file in given format Chapter 9.2 Features of project Chapter 3. Algorithm 8.3 Convert image into binary. Problem Definition 2.3 Comparison Between MATLAB and Artificial Intelligence Chapter 5.4 Constraints 3.

1 Experimental results 18.1 Threshold Selection 11.1 Imcomplement 10.1 Filtering 12.2 Template Matching Chapter 15 Analysis of Result 15.3 Checking and verification of the Static Chapter 16 List of Functions Used Chapter 17 Code 17. Image Enhancement 10.2 Global Thresholding 11.3 Algorithm to read characters Chapter 18 Result Analysis 18.3 Filtering of Digits 12.3 Colour Image Processing Chapter 10.2 Medfilt2 Chapter 11 Thresholding 11.2 Binary Area Open(Bwareaopen) 12.1 Extracting of Individual Digits 15.1 Feature Extraction from Digital Image 13.2 Vehicle Quantization and Equalization 15.1 Normalization 14.2 Database Chapter 14 Character Recognition 14.8 9.3 Adaptive thresholding Chapter 12 Image Noise 12.1 Algorithm to extract digits 17.4 Identify and remove away the small connected objects Chapter 13 Image Segmentation 13.2 Discussion Chapter 19 Difficulties and Recommendations 8 40 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 48 48 49 50 50 50 52 52 53 53 55 57 57 58 58 61 61 63 65 .2 Algorithm to normalisation of characters 17.

9 Chapter 20 Critical Review and Reflection Chapter 21 Conclusion and Future scope Annexure A: Project Planner and Progress Report References 67 68 71 72 9 .

....1 Overview of the vehicle license plate system................................48 13..36 9..............5 Commercial and Private vehicle license plate.............................2 Block diagram of Image processing system...............................................................................................39 9.............54 15........................47 12.............................53 15......................................10 List Of Figures 3.3 Characteristic function of binary image............................................7 Captured image of the vehicle...37 9...1 Binary image with noise................5 Histogram of object and background which is close...................................................................19 3...........................................40 9...........................25 8......................50 15.............................................2 Cropped image of the vehicle.............2 A car approaching a License Plate Recognition System....................18 3........37 9.....................1 Original image of the vehicle..................................1 Captured image of vehicle1...........................3Morphologically open binary image........41 12..............................................................1 Automatic Number Plate Recognition System.....................................................41 9.....3 Indian car license plate......4 System Block Diagram........................................................55 10 .....................................4 Morphologically open binary image.........................24 4.....39 9................................................................1 Segmented image.........................................1 Comparison of MATLAb with other softwares................................................2 Binary image after filtering.....38 9...........................................6 RGB schematic block diagram...............................................................................................17 3.........4 Histogram of light object with dark background.............20 4................................2 Captured image of vehicle2.....................8 Binary image of the vehicle...................................................................16 3......53 15..........................................

 Plate localization and extraction: To obtain the vehicle plate sub image. allowing vehicle to pass or to reject vehicle. We used neural network for recognition of vehicle license late character.  Implementing a file management system or database for storing the images of vehicle license plate. In segmentation part. segmentation of characters and recognition of plate characters. Based on the experimental results. License Plate Recognition is an effective form of AVI systems.  Evaluating the performance of the algorithm and compare the performance with other reported work.). we noted that our algorithm shows superior performance in car license plate recognition. The general algorithm involves the following steps:  Image Processing : The image captured is pre-processed and reduction in the contrast. edge detection algorithms and smearing algorithms are used. This system also helps to conduct the graphic images of the vehicles which can be further stored in the database in text format reducing size of data to be stored. . The neural network will be trained off-line with the characters and numbers. filtering and some algorithms are used. a smart and simple algorithm is presented for vehicle‘s license plate recognition system. This system helps in the functions like detection of the number plates of the vehicles. processing them and using processed data for further processes like storing. numbers and characters Keywords     Character recognizer license plate recognition Segmentation Cropping 11     template matching Median Filter Connected Components Masking. And finally statistical based template matching is used for recognition of plate characters.11 ABSTRACT Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) has many applications in traffic systems (highway electronic toll collection. In this study. The proposed algorithm consists of three major parts: Extraction of plate region. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on real images.  Character Segmentation/Recognition: Resample and threshold in order to isolate the license plate and vehicle license plate character. border and customs checkpoints. red light violation enforcement. This system is based on the image processing system. etc. For extracting the plate region.

The input image being first processed to enrich and enhance boundary line-information by using such algorithms as the gradient filter. Another approach was based on the morphology of objects in an image. The third approach was based on statistical properties of text. symmetry. License plate identification/recognition (LPI/R) is one form of ITS technology that not only recognizes and counts vehicles. and could well be used for discovering and designating candidate number plate areas as they include alphabets and numerals. but distinguishes each as unique. work only in certain conditions or environment like indoor images etc. This approach was commonly used in finding text in images. such as Hough transform. text regions were discovered using statistical properties of text like the variance of gray level. color dependent. It is basically use for traffic and security purposes. etc. This approach focuses on some salient properties of vehicle plate images such as their brightness. etc. Today in the developed countries more than 90% of the job is done by automated system and this is due to the accuracy. All of the systems discussed above have some kind of limitations for example they are plate size dependent. Vehicle License Plate Recognition is an image processing system whereby it is used to recognize the vehicles by identifying the license plate.12 1 LITERATURE SURVEY It is almost known that the world is nowadays being more dependent in the computer than the human manpower. angles. communication centers all of them are under the control of the computer because that‘s not the place where human hand can reach up. Eventually. Due to these features. this method could be used to detect the similar properties in a certain image and locate the position of number plate regions. To add the further mile for this step we have presented a License plate recognition software . nuclear plants. In this approach. reliability and versatile nature of the computer. number of edges. edge densities in the region.The project is based on image processing technology using popular software MATLAB. For some applications. and resulting in an image formed of edges. The early approaches were based on characteristics of boundary lines. In the developed western countries many big factories. such as electronic toll collection and red-light violation 12 . The problem of automatic VNP recognition is being studied since the 90‘s. couples of 2-parallel lines were considered as a plate-designate. to detect lines. The image thus processed was converted to its binary counterpart and then processed by certain algorithms. contrast.

In others. For implementing LPR system we have used digital image processing technique. like commercial vehicle operations or secure-access control. LPI/R records a license plates alphanumeric so the vehicle owner can be assessed the appropriate toll or fine. crossing red light. 13 . a vehicle's license plate is checked against a database of acceptable ones to determine whether a truck can bypass a weigh station or a car can enter a gated community or parking lot. License plate recognition (LPR) is a new tool for automatic vehicle and traffic monitoring by using digital image processing. etc. breaking speed limits . such as entering restricted area without permission . The LPR system can be used to traffic control management for recognize vehicles that commit traffic violation. occupying lanes reserved for public transport.13 enforcement.

1 Problem statement: Automatic car license plate recognition (CLPR) system is implemented to help the human to automatically detect plate number without human supervision. Besides that.[ANPR technology tends to be region-specific. Systems commonly use infrared lighting to allow the camera to take the picture at any time of the day. So this project is developing to replace human to monitor the car and automatically capture the image. 2. the system can automatically display the status of the car which it will compare between the car plate numbers recognized with the database. owing to plate variation from place to place. and increased government spending. 14 . with some configurable to store a photograph of the driver. Previously. high error rates. Concerns about these systems have centered on privacy fears of government tracking citizens' movements. ANPR can be used to store the images captured by the cameras as well as the text from the license plate. misidentification. They can use existing closed-circuit television or road-rule enforcement cameras. They are used by various police forces and as a method of electronic toll collection on pay-per-use roads and cataloging the movements of traffic or individuals. or ones specifically designed for the task.2 Features Automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance method that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates. human is needed to observe and list the user car plate number manually.14 2 Problem Definition 2.

Automatic number plate recognition systems can be used in access control. In entrance gate.1 Project Background Massive integration of information technologies into all aspects of modern life caused demand for processing vehicles as conceptual resources in information systems because a standalone information system without any data has no sense. Because of this. For example. or tracking of stolen cars. number plates are used to identify the vehicles. various recognition techniques have been developed and number plate recognition systems are today used in various traffic and security applications. When a vehicle enters an input gate. access and border control. number plate is recognized again and paired with the first-one stored in the database and it is taken a count. When a vehicle later exits the place through the gate. Automatic Line Tracking Robot (ALR) is used in this project as a vehicle which contains circuitry for moving in a guided track. .2 How the Vehicle License Plate System works Firstly.15 3 INTRODUCTION 3. this technology is used in many companies to grant access only to vehicles of authorized personnel. there was also a need to transform information about vehicles between the reality and information systems. It will activate a signal to the Vehicle License Plate System of the presence of the vehicle. ANPR systems installed on country borders automatically detect and monitor border crossings. or by special intelligent equipment which is be able to recognize vehicles by their number plates in a real environment and reflect it into conceptual resources. The cycle will start when the vehicle steps over the detector. It also will have capacity to park in the given parking area. vehicles can be directed to different lanes for a better congestion control in busy urban communications during the rush hours. number plate is automatically recognized and stored in database and black-listed number is not given permission. Vehicle License Plate Recognition is an image processing system whereby it is used to recognize the vehicles by identifying the license plate. Each vehicle can be registered in a central database and compared to a black list of stolen vehicles. This can be achieved by a human agent. 3. 15 . In traffic control. In some countries. the vehicle will stop at the car gantry. such as parking. It will have mechanism to detect the opened and closed door.

Camera can also focus on the face of the driver and save it for security reason. Next. the gantry will open and allowed the vehicle to pass through. Diagram is illustrate in Fig 1. It is essential and important to determine the facts which will able to influence the operations and recognition proficiency. The system will read the information pixels of the vehicle and run the recognition process. Lastly. the characters will be recognized by using Neural Network. locating the vehicle plate position and extract the characters from the vehicle plate. There are difficulties for Vehicle License Plate Recognition in which it will affect the efficiency and accuracy of the system. illumination (infra-red) will be activated and images of the front picture of the vehicle will be taken.16 Secondly. Fig 3. Besides analyzing. Thirdly. the images will be enhance.1 Besides. the system will apply certain algorithm to analyses the vehicle image. the Vehicle License Plate Recognition also provide an advantage by keeping the image of the vehicle in which it will be useful for crime fighting. Below are the non-constant variables which will affect the accuracy of recognition:  Speed of the vehicle 16 . Next. If ―Access Granted‖. we also need to look into other facts of variables that are not constant. the system will try to match the recognized vehicle plate number with the car plate database.

Once the vehicle license plate is captured. there has been similar project implemented but had poor accuracy. the system can also serve as a security purpose whereby it can spot on any wanted or stolen vehicles. Thus. The software could lead to a cheaper and faster way of enhancing and determined the performance of the recognition system. Fig 3. I 17 . Besides. the characters will be recognized and displayed on the Graphical User Interface. Bent type) Vehicle license plate orientation Type of vehicle fonts character.3 Objectives The overall objective of the project is to develop a system to recognize vehicle license plate from a car at a gate entrance of a parking lot.2 A car approaching a License Plate Recognition System 3. we would need to improve or rewrite the algorithm to improve the accuracy.17       Weather condition Type of Vehicle Distance between vehicle license plate and the camera Type of plate ( Rectangular. In the past. The system will be based on a Personal Computer such that it will generate report on the vehicle license plate it has captured.

4 Constraints Due to limited time that we possess and dealing with image vision software.18 will address a set of constraints and focus on the design of the algorithm to extract the vehicle license plate in order to improve the accuracy. The vehicle license plate position should be captured centred. There is definitely a lot more room for further improvement on this project. Take only the front view image of the car. we have to set a list of constraints to make the project more systematic and manageable. Captured image of vehicle at fixed distance. Try on zoom in image of the car and image consists of headlamp. it is not advisable for me to cover all aspects in this project. we managed to come up with the progress guideline as to what need to be included in this project. Fig 3. The image should be taken with the height of 50cm to 70 cm above the ground level. it is not advisable to include all of the possible cases. Captured images on location where light is proportional. 3. Captured image of vehicle at fixed angle. The constraint is listed as below:           Image taken only when vehicle is stationary. However. Deal with only Indian Car License Plate with Times new roman font. Thus. There will be no motion capture image.3 18 . Thus. due to the limited time frame given. in discussion with my tutor.

19 System block Diagram Fig 3.4 19 .

 Format Vehicle owner who register the car as private vehicle have a white background and black text. The President of India and state governors travel in official cars without licence plates.20 3. Instead they have the Emblem of India in gold embossed on a red plate. 22 UN 14). witnesses usually remember the initial area code letters — it is then quite simple to narrow down suspect vehicles to a much smaller number by checking the database without having to know the full number.5 Various Types of Vehicle License Plate  What is Car license Plate Car license Plate is a rectangular metal plate which consists of a combination sequence of alphabet characters and numbers issued by the government for identification purpose of registered vehicle.. DL 2C 0001). Commercial vehicles such as taxis and trucks have a yellow background and black text (e. the numbers were given to the RTO offices of registration as well. The next two digit numbers are the sequential number of a district.  Current Format The current format of the registration index consists of 3 parts    The first two letters indicate the state to which the vehicle is registered.5 20 . Due to heavy volume of vehicle registration. Fig 3.g. A letter(s) is prefixed when the 4 digit number runs out and then two letters and so on. The third part is a 4 digit number unique to each plate. Vehicles belonging to foreign consulates have white lettering on a light blue background (e. This scheme of numbering has some advantages:   the State or District of registration of a particular vehicle In the case of a police investigation of an accident or vehicle-related crime.g.

The permanent registration certificate is one of the four important documents a vehicle plying on the road should always have. To register a vehicle. the dealer of the vehicle issues a temporary licence sticker known colloquially as a TR (To Register) number. For example. there are a number of additional documents like a roadworthiness certificate and a transportation permit. during which the owner must register the vehicle in the controlling RTO of the area in which the owner is residing to get a standard licence plate. the others being a valid insurance certificate. A diplomatic plate numbered 13 CC xxxx would refer to country 13. probably a country close to the letter A or B. Diplomatic Corps or Consular Corps respectively. which stand for United Nations. This is valid for one month. The next two digits (or the two preceding the arrow) signify the year in which the Military procured the vehicle. taxis and pick-up vans. The numbers are registered by the Ministry of Defence in New Delhi. Other numbering Other numbering includes the special numbers allotted to public transportation such as buses. For public utility vehicles like buses. This mechanism is used for unique identification. The numbers are registered by the organization which run the services and are usually printed on the side of the vehicle. The first (or the third) character is always an arrow pointing upwards.21 Military vehicles Military vehicles have a unique numbering system unlike any other licence numbers. taxis and auto-rickshaws. The next is the base code. Diplomatic plates Vehicle belonging to foreign missions bear the plates UN. CD or CC. confirm that the engine and chassis numbers are identical to what is written in the application and issues a permanent registration certificate which is usually valid for 20 years. trucks. it has to be presented to the RTO's office. The letter ending after the serial number indicates the class of the vehicle. a pollution under control (PUC) certificate and the driver's licence. followed by the serial number. Temporary numbers As soon as a vehicle is purchased. this prevents the number being read wrongly in case the plate (and/or the vehicle bearing it) is upside down. 21 . a vehicle bearing the number 77 CD xxxx in India refers to a vehicle owned by either the United States mission in India or by a person working with the mission. where a Motor Vehicle Inspector will verify the applicant's address and other details.

it automatically locates vehicle license plates and reads the numbers accurately each time every time.2 Perceptics Perceptics [27] is the world leader in license plate reader technology. the LPR can be programmed to read any language or symbol in any alphanumeric combination or context on both retro and non-retro reflective plates. • Automatic and within milliseconds.6.22 3. • Reads accurately in most weather conditions. Using advanced image processing and artificial intelligent techniques such as AI best first breadth-wise search algorithm. 3. captures and identifies a vehicle's license plate data and makes a read decision.6.6 Commercial Products The various products in the market today are described briefly below. • Reads accurately at highway speeds.3 Vehicle Identification System for Parking Areas (VISPA) PPI's Vehicle Identification System for Parking Areas (VISPA) [28]. 22 . It is a high performing robust system that gives consistent results under all weather conditions. With milliseconds the LPR system locates. combined template and neural network recognizers. however. • Works 24 hours a day. 7 days a week. uses video imaging for better recognition. identification and improved security. 3. 3. Current LPR system read Latin (A-Z) and Korean (Hangul) letter and Arabic number (09).6. fuzzy logic and an arsenal of image processing tools. The system's reliability and flexibility allow it to accommodate some of the most stringent needs in some of the worst conditions. Features of this LPR technology includes. VISPA provides for state-of-the-art video technology.1 IMPS (Integrated Multi-Pass System) An IMP [26] is a Singaporean commercially developed license plate recognition system. easy installation and has accessories and features for most parking security surveillance needs.

The VISPA controller with an integrated frame grabber card for 4.crane mounted Container recognition system. There technology is based on computer vision. the records include both the image plus the extracted result. access control. 23 . The basic system version connects to 4 cameras and can be upgraded to 8 cameras. The recognition result is then logged together with the images. Windows DLL or Linux library.License Plate Identification. SeeCar License Plate Recognition:.23 Features are • Open architecture to most common video-systems. Available as complete systems. 8. This is the main advantage of vision based recognition. The license plate can then be encoded on the ticket. traffic surveillance. and transmits the ID string to the port or gate computer. law enforcement and security applications. Available as a complete system which is based on a background Windows application. • Compatible with standard hardware and software.An image of the car and/or the driver (depending on the location of your camera) will be taken as soon as the car approaches the triggering device. Enhanced Version:.6.4 Hi-Tech Solution Hi-Tech Solutions [29] is a system and software company that develops cutting edge optical character recognition (OCR) solutions by implementing the company's unique image processing software and hardware in a wide range of security and transportation applications. or SeeCrane .a recognition system for the Tracks and Containers. There product includes. or 16 cameras automatically identifies the license plate from the video image and stores it in a database. 3. SeeContainer Identification System:. or in form of different special-task systems. or to a client process.Detects and reads Vehicle license plates for parking.Tracks and reads Shipping container identification marking. VISPA is available in two forms Basic Version: . such as SeeGate . the system read the camera images and extract the identification data from the images. as a stand-alone turn-key version. • Can be customized according to specific user needs. The image will be linked to the ticket.

predefined function and deviceindependent plotting. The advantages of MATLAB can be classified as follows: Platform independence. Comparison of MATLAB with other program is shown in the below diagram. Graphical User interface and MATLAB compiler.1 INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB MATLAB is chosen as the main development for the license plate recognition application. Fig 4. The table below show images/graphs format that is supported by ―imread‖ with MATLAB.1 MATLAB read images using the function ―imread‖. Besides. 24 .24 4 Platform/Technology 4. The task is to construct the algorithm and recognizes can be done using MATLAB. MATLAB is also very efficient as it have built-in-function tools for neural network and image processing.

tiff . Face Detection.2 25 . or even a 3D view of an unborn baby. Engineering.Jpg . This useful information may be the dimensions of an engineering component. . Quality Control.Jpeg .png .gif .tif.2 Image Prcessing Image Processing generally involves extraction of useful information from an image. Graphic Interchange Format Windows bitmap Portable network Graphics X Window Dump Extension . Traffic Control etc.bmp . size of diagnosed tumour.xwd 4. The main areas of application of Image Processing are Bio-Medical. Block Diagram of Image Processing Steps Fig 4.25 Format Name TIFF JPEG GIF BMP PNG XWD Description Tagged image file format Joint photographs Expert Group. .

5.3 Comparison Between MATLAB and Artificial Intelligence  Advantage of Artificial Intelligence: 1. Good for solving complex problems where humans or programmer have expert knowledge in it. Slow response. Expensive. 5. Non-programmers can easily understand the rules of artificial intelligence. Algorithm used in MATLAB can be converted to use in hardware. 2. Data can be represented in terms of matrices or vectors.26 4. 3.  Disadvantage of Artificial Intelligence: 1. 2. There are difficulty in getting expert knowledge and putting it in used in the system. The system will perform faster when using “Matrix Approach”. 3. 4. We can changed and add individual rules.  Advantage of MATLAB 1. Unpredictable. Not good in common sense reasoning. . MATLAB coding is shorter and simpler. 26 . 2. 4. 3. MATLAB possess power graphic visualization tools.

27 5 COMPONENTS The software aspect of the system runs on standard home computer hardware and can be linked to other applications or databases. the information captured of the plate alphanumeric. there are typically large numbers of PCs used in a server farm to handle high workloads. such as those found in the London congestion charge project. 27 . Often in such systems. or stored at the lane for later retrieval. and any other information that is required is completed in somewhere around 250 milliseconds. and then optical character recognition (OCR) to extract the alphanumeric of the license plate. and the other transmits all the images from many lanes to a remote computer location and performs the OCR process there at some later point in time. It first uses a series of image manipulation techniques to detect. ANPR systems are generally deployed in one of two basic approaches: one allows for the entire process to be performed at the lane location in real-time. date-time. lane identification. now small data packets. and this can require larger bandwidth transmission media. In the other arrangement. When done at the lane site. normalize and enhance the image of the number plate. there is a requirement to forward images to the remote server. can easily be transmitted to some remote computer for further processing if necessary. This information.

Many countries now use license plates that are retro reflective. Exceeding threshold angles of incidence between camera lens and license plate will greatly reduce the probability of obtaining usable images due to distortion. slower shutter speeds could result in an image which is too blurred to read using the OCR software. varying ambient lighting conditions.28 6 IMAGING HARDWARE At the front end of any ANPR system is the imaging hardware which captures the image of the license plates. This returns the light back to the source and thus improves the contrast of the image. however. Since the car is moving. especially if the camera is much higher up than the vehicle. In slow-moving traffic. Shutter speeds of 1/500 of a second can cope with traffic moving up to 40 mph (64 km/h) and 1/250 of a second up to 5 mph (8 km/h). the shutter speed does not need to be so fast. Manufacturers have developed tools to help eliminate errors from the physical installation of license plate capture cameras. 28 . This is only possible on dedicated ANPR cameras. when a full-colour image is required as well as use of the ANPR-retrieved details it is necessary to have one infrared-enabled camera and one normal (colour) camera working together. License plate capture cameras can now produce usable images from vehicles travelling at 120 mph (190 km/h). Further. Factors which pose difficulty for license plate imaging cameras include speed of the vehicles being recorded. installers should carefully consider the positioning of the camera relative to the target capture area. To maximize the chances of effective license plate capture. License plate capture is typically performed by specialized cameras designed specifically for the task. giving a high level of contrast with the reflective background in any lighting conditions. and so cameras used for other purposes must rely more heavily on the software capabilities. headlight glare and harsh environmental conditions. the characters on the plate are not reflective. To avoid blurring it is ideal to have the shutter speed of a dedicated camera set to 1/1000 of a second. or when the camera is at a lower level and the vehicle is at an angle approaching the camera. In some countries. A camera that makes use of active infrared imaging (with a normal colour filter over the lens and an infrared illuminator next to it) benefits greatly from this as the infrared waves are reflected back from the plate. Most dedicated license plate capture cameras will incorporate infrared illumination in order to solve the problems of lighting and plate reflectivity.

2008). and police forces were provided with computers that were able to store ANPR information in real time (Pughe. i. the United Kingdom evaluated the use of ANPR with nine police forces.000 cameras across the United Kingdom. 1992. 10 times the national average (PA Consulting Group. the Irish Republican Army bombed the Baltic Exchange. or if it was uninsured (Pughe. ALPR technology was developed at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom in response to terrorism. On April 10. a text file containing information on the car registration number. 2006). and the GPS location of the camera is created.29 7 Development History The United Kingdom: In 1992. 2006). This resulted in an increase in arrests to 100 per year. officers were able to spend more of their time investigating hits. In addition. there are 3. scanning up to 5 million plates a day (Pughe. NADC stores plate data and lists of suspect vehicles (Pughe. The bombing was massive in size and destroyed several buildings with many others suffering shattered windows. 2006). the Irish Republican Army detonated a truck bomb at Bishops gate. the databases. The central ANPR system. the heart of London‘s financial district (1993 Bishops gate bombing. When a plate is photographed by an ANPR camera. killed one person. stationary (roadside) and mobile (mounted on police cars). the time and date of the scan. a JPEG image of the plate is produced. The blast caused approximately £1 billion in damage. is stored at the National ANPR1 This term is synonymous with ALPR and will be used interchangeably 3 Data Center (NADC) in London. The results of this initial study indicated that officer productivity increased primarily due to the officers not having to spend as much time waiting for hits after they typed in a plate. as well as a video image of the plate and a video of the vehicle occupants (Pughe. 2003). As a part of its intelligence network. such as whether the car was stolen. Instead. all 43 police forces in England and Wales were provided with vans equipped with automated number plate technology (ANPR1): ANPR cameras were mounted in vans. 29 . The United Kingdom is at the forefront in the use of plate recognition technology.e. In 2002 to 2003. 1993. a British company operating a premier global marketplace for shipbrokers and charterers. the patrol officer is provided with information regarding the vehicle. Approximately four seconds after a plate is read by the camera. 2006). As of 2001. Almost a year later on April 24. 2006). 2008). partially destroying the façade of the Exchange‘s offices and extensively damaging the rest of the building (Baltic exchange. if it had been involved in another crime. and injured 44 others.

Over this one year period.g. workload concerns continued to exist. 2004). and fatal and serious injury road traffic accidents (Hampshire Constabulary. no date). enforced an arrest). seven instances of drug seizures (equivalent to approximately 3.3% for theft of or from a vehicle. The results of this evaluation also demonstrated that the ANPR technology contributed to a substantial increase in arrests (Pughe.8% of arrests were made for theft or burglary offences. 2003). In effect. For instance. In nearly two-thirds (61 per cent) of these stops. again suggesting a need for policy outlining a response priority scheme.000 pounds total).2% for drug offences. these units made. The Metropolitan Police Service operates four ANPR units who work across London. 2003).499 arrests.000 stolen vehicles were recovered over this period (PA Consulting. ANPR was beneficial to police forces by providing better efficiency in the deployment of officers. on average. 2004). 10.543 vehicles were stopped by intercept teams resulting in 13. On an annual basis. volume crime. The results also indicated that the police could expect a substantial increase in the amount and value of goods they recovered. two seizures of weapons and/or firearms. ANPR technology continues to be used across the United Kingdom. This initial study also provided the Home Office with descriptions of the quantity of vehicles on the road violating insurance or other traffic regulations. Currently. In total. however. There are deployment teams who are used to assist in targeting hot spots for vehicle and other crime. over 1. arrests were made in nearly 4-8% of the vehicle stops. 2003). a constable using ANPR technology could expect to encounter: the recovery of 11 stolen vehicles (equivalent to approximately 68. and five instances of recovery of other stolen property (PA Consulting Group. One-quarter of the arrests were for disqualified. or prohibited drivers. approximately one out of every 200 cars photographed by the ANPR cameras was stopped by an ANPR intercept team. the data also highlighted the limited ability of the intercept teams to respond to the volume of hits they received. In effect. and the number of vehicles owned or operated by persons of interest (PA Consulting Group. A second evaluation was conducted between June 2003 and June 2004 with 24 police forces (PA Consulting Group. uninsured.000 pounds). the Hampshire Constabulary uses ANPR to prevent and detect terrorism. The results of this study were similar to the first study. serious crime. the number of vehicles used in the commission of other criminal offences. 200 arrests per month (Metropolitan Police Service. and 8. 2007). 180. the intercept team took some action (e. However. A further 16. 30 .30 In total. police were only able to respond to 13% of hits (PA Consulting Group. three instances involving the recovery of other stolen goods (equivalent to approximately 23. In 2005 and 2006. 2006). an average. equivalent to approximately one stop per hour.300 pounds total).

More recently. Both front and back number plates are being captured. This list is then compared with a list of cars whose owners/operators have paid to enter the zone – those that have not paid are fined. It is estimated that around 98% of vehicles moving within the zone are caught on camera. There are also a number of mobile camera units which may be deployed anywhere in the zone.31 Charge zones – the London congestion charge The London congestion charge scheme uses 230 cameras and ANPR to help monitor vehicles in the charging zone. The registered owner of such a vehicle is looked up in a database provided by the DVLA. ALPR has been used to track potential terrorists. A second data centre provides a backup location for image data. and 6:00 p. Monday to Friday. In 2007. 2007). 2006). The United States Over the past several years. in several jurisdictions. to catch drivers who violate speed limits (Jenkins. leave or move around within the congestion charge zone between 7 a. There are currently 1. on vehicles going both in and out – this gives up to four chances to capture the number plates of a vehicle entering and exiting the zone. This technology will also be used. the United States has also introduced plate recognition technology. 2007). The London congestion charge is an example of a system that charges motorists entering a payment area. A reduced fee of £9 is paid by vehicle owners who sign up for the automatic deduction scheme. These offenders have a photograph taken of their plate by the ALPR cameras and receive a ticket in the mail. primarily in the form of ―red light cameras‖ (Jenkins.m.500 cameras. doubling to £120 per infraction thereafter. Transport for London (TfL) uses ANPR systems and charges motorists a daily fee of £10 paid before 10pm if they enter. The video streams are transmitted to a data centre located in central London where the ANPR software deduces the registration plate of the vehicle.m. which use Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) technology. Fines for traveling within the zone without paying the charge are £60 per infraction if paid before the deadline. A recent study of ALPR technology in the state of Ohio emphasized 31 . The US has also used plate recognition technology at border crossings with Mexico and Canada to track auto theft (Canadian Press NewsWire.. 150 American cities utilized this technology to catch those who drove through red lights.

ALPR has the potential to allow Canadian police forces to engage in proactive policing. criminal justice. using $61. beginning in August 2004. Additional staffing costs may also be incurred. wherever possible. whether in the form of additional police on the roads utilizing this technology or the hiring of additional staff to assist in confirming hits. including reductions in criminal activity.000 (McClellan. It is important to note that the ALPR technology used in this study was only linked to databases on stolen vehicles and wanted persons and. police can use ALPR technology linked to criminal justice and insurance databases to identify those drivers who. Using information obtained through 32 . ALPR technology has been used in Toronto for toll-collection purposes. or prohibited drivers. 2007). did not provide information on unlicenced. The United Kingdom established a central data warehouse in London containing information from insurance. use civilian volunteers. 2004). and increases in positive public perceptions of the police (Schuurman. These results were 50% higher than results during the same time period one year previous. no date). have outstanding warrants. Canada ALPR technology in Canada has only recently been implemented for use with traffic and other criminal violations. ALPR was introduced in British Columbia as part of a pilot study in 2006. Still. and other agencies that is linked with the ALPR technology in police cruisers. As previously discussed. British Columbia. are prohibited from driving. recovery of stolen goods. in addition to the cost of buying. The state of Ohio studied the effectiveness of ALPR technology over a four month period in 2004. The cost of warehousing this data. must be weighed against the costs recovered through the use of this system.000 in federal funding. updating the databases. and maintaining ALPR technology. Nearly one-third (30 per cent) of the tolls are tracked through licence plate recognition technology allowing for faster movement of traffic as the need to stop and physically pay the toll is eliminated (Commission for Integrated Transport. there are several issues that must be considered prior to the widespread use of ALPR technology in Canada.32 the recovery of two stolen trailers demonstrating the technology‘s potential utility for homeland security (McClellan. or are driving uninsured vehicles. therefore. for instance. The Highway 407 Express Toll Route was introduced in 1997. 2004). By driving through traffic corridors in cities across Canada. the technology also offers police a potentially useful tool for identifying and recovering stolen vehicles. the state highway patrol apprehended 23 criminal suspects and recovered 24 stolen vehicles valued at US $220. Over the four month period. One way to offset these resource increases may be to. It allows drivers to use the express route for a toll fee that is recorded electronically. uninsured. and/or conducting further searches of licence plates. installing. Schuurman (2007) recently produced an analysis of the use of this technology in parking lots in Surrey.

Of these. 2007). The remaining hits were for unlicenced (i.8 per cent) of hits were for unlicenced drivers. Such research can be used to inform deployment strategies. and over two-thirds (69. especially to locate and recover stolen vehicles. Given that there is limited information available to date on the use of ALPR technology.e. Canada. Schuurman (2007) concluded that the deployment of ALPR technology exclusively to parking lots would not be the most efficient use of the system. The current study intends to provide some initial data regarding the use of ALPR technology in British Columbia. one unmarked patrol vehicle drove through 31 Surrey parking lots scanning the licence plates of parked cars over the period of one week. and stolen vehicles.33 the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) and the Motor Vehicle Branch (MVB). for example. on average.6% of scanned plates resulted in a ‗hit‘. 33 . Scanned plate images were compared to the CPIC and MVB databases. It was concluded that using the technology in a stationary format along major intersections or installing it in mobile units that patrolled the jurisdiction‘s main roads would likely be more effective for identifying stolen vehicles. In fact. Nearly three-quarters (72 per cent) of the hits occurred between 3pm and 7pm. prohibited drivers.7 per cent) of the scans accurately captured the car‘s licence plate. To collect the data for this initial study. nearly all (97.4 per cent). 2007). The Hot Lists were for unlicenced vehicles.876 licence plates were scanned.9 per cent). 21. prohibited drivers (4. research must be conducted to determine the extent to which such technology is useful to Canadian police forces. and stolen cars (1. Schuurman‘s (2007) results indicated that 1. there were. uninsured) vehicles (23.8 per cent). uninsured drivers. four hits every hour (Schuurman. lists of vehicles of interest2 were populated on a daily basis and uploaded to the patrol car‘s onboard computer. in determining whether it is more beneficial to have police equipped with ALPR technology drive their usual patrol routes or travel exclusively within known ―hot spots‖ (Schuurman. Over the course of this study.


8 Algorithm
8.1 Algorithm for ANPR system 1. Input image from webcam. 2. Convert image into binary. 3. Detect number plate area. 4. Segmentation. 5. Number identification. 6. Save to file in given format. 8.2 Input Image from file. 1. Capture image from webcam. 2. Store the captured image into a image file for further processing. 8.3 Convert image into binary. 1. Identify the intensity of the image. If image intensity = high Reduce intensity Else if intensity = low Increase intensity Else No change. 2. Convert image into grayscale. 3. Calculate appropriate threshold value for the image. 4. Convert the image into binary image using the calculated threshold. 8.4 Segmentation 1. Crop the image. 2. Filter the noise level present in the image. 3. Clip the plate area in such a way that only numbers of plate area extracted. 4. Separate each character from the plate. 8.5 Number identification 1. Create the template file from the stored template images. 2. Resize image obtained from segmentation to the size of template.


3. Compare each character with the templates. 4. Store the best matched character. 8.6 Save to file in given format 1. Open a text file in write mode. 2. Store the character obtained from the number identification process to text file in given format. 3. Close the file.



Overview of the Vehicle license plate System

Fig 8.1

For this project. Next. vehicle images will be taken with a Panasonic FX 30 digital camera. webcam etc can be used to capture the acquired images. 9.1 Image Cropping Image cropping is a recognition process whereby it will extract the smallest rectangle which will contains the edge of the license plate and license plate itself. this cropping process will highly increase the speed of image processing.37 9 Image Acquisition The initial phase of image processing for Vehicle License Plate Recognition is to obtain images of vehicles. The figure below shows the copping of image: Fig 9. As the license plate surrounding is of no importance. Electronic devices such as optical (digital/video) camera. we might proceed in using the Matlab function to convert the vehicle JPEG image into gray scale format.2 : Cropped Figure 37 . The images will be stored as colour JPEG format on the camera.1: Original Image Fig 9.

3 38 . Binary Images are obtained by converting the input image into grayscale format. We will obtain white object with black background or vice versa. Binary images is the simplest process and has apply to many other application. The application is as:  Text interpreting  Identify the object orientations Next.2 Conversion of RGB Images to Binary Images In order facilitate the next process smoothly and reducing the processing time. the image obtain is being converted to Binary Image. white) and the rest will be set to 0 (black).38 9. The conversion is done by using the toolbox in MATLAB (im2bw). 9. Each pixel in the image has a brightness value which is known as grey level. The characteristic function for the image object is classify below: Fig 9. It is useful as the information we need can be obtained from the silhouette of the object. The pixel of grey level above the threshold will be set to 1 (equal to 255. then by converting the grayscale image to binary image by thresholding.2. The image is made up of a matrix squares which is called Pixel.1 What is Binary Images It is an image which quantatised into two values representing 0 and 1 or in pixel values of 0 and 255 representing the colour black and white.

5 : Histogram of object and background which is close 39 .4: Histogram of light object with dark background. Frequency Fig 9.39 Below will illustrate different type of histogram images Fig 9.

3 Colour Image Processing RGB Colour Space The RGB image is made of colour pixels of an M x N x 3 array. The colour space is normally graphically shown as RGB colour cube. Magenta and Yellow). 9. Green and Blue) and the secondary colour (Cyan. there is difficulty in choosing the threshold as the histogram is no more bimodal This root cause is due to the variations of light or colours in the images.The schematic of the RGB cube that illustrate both the primary and secondary colour at each vertex is shown below.6 40 . Fig 9.40 In this circumstance. The cube vertex consists of the primary colour (Red.

7 : Original Image Fig 9.8 : Binary mage 41 .41 Fig 9.

reducing noise. color image processing and image segmentation as well. the value of each pixel will be subtracted by the maximum pixel value which is supported by the class. Image Enhancement techniques consists process of sharpening the edges image. 10. A median filter is more effective than convolution when the goal is to simultaneously reduce noise and preserve edges. binary or true color image. black will becomes white and white will be come black .1 IMCOMPLEMENT Imcomplement will compute the complement image(IM). contrast manipulation. IM can intensity. the light areas will become darker and the darker area will become lighter. Therefore. For the complement binary image. 42 .2 MEDFILT2 Median filtering is a nonlinear operation often used in image processing to reduce "salt and pepper" noise.42 10 IMAGE ENHANCEMENT The aim of this process is to increase and improve the visibility of the image. The pixel value obtained by the differences will be used in the output image. 10. zeros will become ones or ones will become zeros. For the complement of the true color image.

F (x. this can be done randomly or according to any other method desired. which is known as automatic thresholding . often making the selection of an accurate threshold difficult.y) = 1 if K (x. However. Fast and cheap. Several different methods for choosing a threshold exist. they should also be brighter than the average. however. One method that is relatively simple. this will generally not be the case. is the following iterative method: 1. It is still greatly used in applying on the applications in the market due to certain reason. The histogram approach assumes that there is some average values for both the background and object pixels. Representing F (x.y) = 0 for background of the object and T = threshold. users can manually choose a threshold value. 11.y) =1 for image object. the mean or median will work well as the threshold. this may be computationally expensive. A simple method would be to choose the mean or median value. 43 . = 0 if K (x. A more sophisticated approach might be to create a histogram of the image pixel intensities and use the valley point as the threshold. but that the actual pixel values have some variation around these average values.y)>=T. the rationale being that if the object pixels are brighter than the background. In a noiseless image with uniform background and object values.43 11 Thresholding Image thresholding enjoys the central position of any application in the process of image segmentation. and is robust against image noise. The regions of the images are classified by the reflectivity and absorption of light on its surface. It also transform the input image(K) into an output binary image (F) which is being segmented. as mentioned earlier). and image histograms may not have clearly defined valley points. Thresholding is one of the oldest segmentation method. One of the simplest process will be the Gray-level thresholding.1 Threshold Selection The key parameter in the thresholding process is the choice of the threshold value (or values. or a thresholding algorithm can compute a value automatically.y) < T. does not require much specific knowledge of the image. The value of threshold (T) is being selected and compare with the pixel of the image. F (x. An initial threshold (T) is chosen. In such cases a unimodal threshold selection algorithm may be more appropriate.

.n)>T} (object pixels) 2. now using the new threshold computed in step four. The threshold defines the value of the gray level in which the baseline boundary is in between the foreground pixels and the background. G2= {f(m. Go back to step two. The average of each set is computed.n):f(m.2 Global Thresholding This is a method whereby the histogram of the image is being partitioned using a single threshold value.n) T} (background pixels) (note. This is a common reason why global thresholding fail. 1. The threshold value which is selected is use to reduce the intraclass variance between the white and black pixels. which has been proven to converge at a local minimum— meaning that a different initial threshold may give a different final result. the threshold will try to reduce the error of taking the background pixels as object pixel and vice versa. The value of the gray level varies from the darkest (0) to the brightest (255). For other cases. By using the adaptive thresholding. f(m. Image is form up of square matrixes called pixels and each pixels in the image have a brightness level known as gray level. The image is segmented into object and background pixels as described above. in which the modes are overlapping. T‘ = (m1+m2)/2 5. G1= {f(m. until convergence has been reached). 44 . keep repeating until the new threshold matches the one before it (i. 11. m1= average value of G1 2.44 2. m2= average value of G2 4.e.n) is the value of the pixel located in the mth column. We can use the graythresh toolbox function to calculate the threshold value by using Otsu‘s method. 11. This iterative algorithm is a special one-dimensional case of the k-means clustering algorithm. nth row) 3. If the histogram is bimodal.3 Adaptive Thresholding The vehicle number plate can be partially illustrated. the value of the threshold will be taken in the middle of the bimodal. its can solve the disadvantages of the global thresholding as it computes the value of the threshold for every pixel separately using the neighborhood.n):f(m. A new threshold is created that is the average of m1and m2 1. creating two sets: 1.

The syntax is as bellowed: BW2 = bwareaopen(BW. We will be enlarging the signal from the received light photons when we are using the digital camera with a higher ISO setting. We can apply convention techniques such as softening and sharpening. It has been cropped to a rectangular shape in which it enhances the algorithm to be more uniformed in the further stages. the electrical noise from the background will be higher than the signal. The reason of noise contamination on the image is categorised as below:  There will be not enough light source for proper exposure to activate in a low light area/ Therefore.45 12 IMAGE NOISE Digital camera with long exposure time setting and high ISOs will produced images with lots of noise. In this circumstance. we have managed to obtain the black and white image of the Vehicle License Plate. Thus.3 FILTERING OF DIGITS Now. 12. it will reproduce another binary image. 12. Blurring is used in the preprocessing step which involved in removing and cleaning up of small patches and details from the image prior to object extraction. 45 .P).1 Filtering In this pre-processing stage. From the amplification of the signal.2 Binary area open (Bwareaopen) The MATLAB toolbox function provide a bwareaopen function in which it removes the connected component which have fewer than P pixel. we need longer time for the image sensor for collection of weak signal. 12. blurring with liner/non liner filter is able to achieve noise reduction. In order to reduce the background noise. filtering process is used for blurring and for noise reduction and thus resulting a more sharpen image. Noise in the images is appears as the colour speckles whereby there should not be any. bridging of gaps in curves and lines. the electrical noise in the background is also being amplified. Next. softening is often applied to the low pass filter and it will affect the image to become blurring.

Lastly. The pixel of 0 represents the background and pixel of 1 will make up the first object. effects on JPEG compression. The elements of labels (stated in the algorithm) contains integer values that will be greater than or equal to 0. they will obtain a unique number.46 The non-digits substance which appears in the image is caused by the noise (quantization that will transform to ‗Black‘). By Filtering. the pixel of 2 will label the second object. so on and so for. 12. sand.1 : Binary image with Noise For the above image. The component can have a value of either 4-connected or 8-connected. the image is only left with characters and digits in which we are interested. In this algorithm. we are able to remove or filter out the unwanted substances or noise that is not a character or digits. Fig 12. 46 . we need to identify the connected components. 141 connected components are found in the BW image. object or substance which is not digits/characters such as screws. Below illustrate an example of filtering process. After the component has been labelled. we use 8-connected (8 specify 8-connected objects).4 Identify and remove away the small connected objects For this stage. frame lines. 2) Identify the frame line that is connected to the digits and separate it. The 2 stages for the algorithm is as follows: 1) Remove out the small objects or connected components. water droplet.

components with less than 6000 is classify as non digits components and need to be taken away. Next. in which it will produce another binary image.47 Fig 12. 47 .2 : Binary Image after Filtering. Therefore. we have apply the median filter and bwareaopen (Image Processing Toolbox) whereby it will remove all the connected components from the binary image that have value less than P pixels.

disp(Ne). vertical or diagonal edges etc. we will be trying out first category segmentation method. If we classify the similar character into classes. the descriptor of the character from the same class is close to each other in the vector space.1 FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM DIGITAL IMAGE The digital image description is depends on the external and internal representation. This will lead to a success in pattern recognition process. Lastly will be the edge-based segmentation. The process uses the edge detection to obtain the region contours and the objects will construct from the obtain contours.min(c):max(c)). end 48 .48 13 Image Segmentation Image segmentation plays an important and critical step that lead to the analysis of the processed image data. Segmentation process can be categorized into several parts. Firstly is the global Knowledge of an image. imshow(~n1). Secondly is the boundary-based segmentation. The feature of the image is represented by a histogram. The process of the feature extraction is to transform the bitmap data into a form of descriptor in which more suitable for computer. img_r=same_dim(~n1). For this project. for n=1:Ne [r. The descriptor vector includes the characteristics as the number of lines.c] = find(L==n). In order to extract and analyzed the object characteristic. The normalized character description is based on the external characteristics as we only work for properties on the shape of the character. word=[word letter]. The color or texture of the image is basically the internal representation whereas the external representation is based on the characteristic of the shapes. n1=imagen(min(r):max(r). letter=read_letter(img_r). [L Ne]=bwlabel(imagen). which is by using threshold. The algorithm below will represent how the extraction is being carried out and extracted figure is illustrated as below. the process need to partition the image into different parts that will have a strong correlation with the objects. 13.

contents and images. The class recognition will check if the computed ratio is correct. It will ignore the class if the image thresholding is too low.1 13. Database is needed to make sure that the image space can contained enough characters which have been extracted and the vehicle license plated number stored in the excel sheet for the purpose of comparison.2 Database It is a collection of information or data which it is being orderly organize. If the class has match correctly.49 Plotted Bounding Box Fig 13. it will be compare with data set in the database and provide an output if the image is recognized correctly. Database can be in the form of text. 49 . The database would be enlarged in order to improve the accuracy and better chances of obtaining the correct result. thus it can be accessed easily and updated.

1 Cross Correlation The use of cross-correlation for template matching is motivated by the distance measure (squared Euclidean distance) . 14. 14. Textbook presentations of correlation describe the convolution theorem and the attendant possibility of efficiently computing correlation in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform.v).y under the window containing the feature t positioned at u.1 Normalization In this phase. The new algorithm in some cases provides an order of magnitude speedup over spatial domain computation of normalized cross correlation.2 Template Matching The correlation between two signals (cross correlation) is a standard approach to feature detection as well as a component of more sophisticated techniques. each character is normalized to the size of (42x24) binary image and then follow by reshape to standard dimension before sending the data set to the next for comparison with the templates. Due to the computational cost of spatial domain convolution.50 14 Character Recognition 14. For the project. the extracted characters are resized to fit the characters into a window. In the expansion of d2 50 . (where f is the image and the sum is over x.2. For this reason normalized cross-correlation has been computed in the spatial domain. see Lewis . Unfortunately the normalized form of correlation (correlation coefficient) preferred in template matching does not have a correspondingly simple and efficient frequency domain expression. several inexact but fast spatial domain matching methods have also been developed. An algorithm for obtaining normalized cross correlation from transform domain convolution has been developed.

If the term constant then the remaining cross-correlation term is approximately is a measure of the similarity between the image and the feature. 51 .51 the term is constant.

the figure illustrate below lead to wrong recognition of the character. Fig 15.52 15 ANALYSIS OF RESULT Tests are conducted according to the modular form 15.2 : Recognition: MH01AX7946 52 . It is generally important when capturing the vehicle image.1 Extracting of Individual Digits Determine the angle of the Vehicle License Plate.1 Recognition : D6LH4CNEB800 Fig 15. For instance.

the binarized image do not allow to make the difference between the background and the digits. figure. This will result fail recognition of the vehicle license plate. 15. Equalization and quantization allow to obtain a gray scale image with improve contrast between digit and the background. we have managed to make adjustment on the value and apply the skill of binary area open (BWAREAOPEN) in which help to remove the small object too. Next. To improve on the performance of the character recognition.6000). such as very dark image. we can improve on the accuracy of capturing of vehicle image. After much study the MATLAB toolbox syntax. Below illustrate a example of the scenario: Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects) imagen = bwareaopen(imagen. we can make the difference between the digits and background inside the license plate. Fig 15. low contrast image.2 Vehicle Quantization and Equalization For some rare cases.3 Checking and Verification of the Statistic In the midst of trying out other car plate. high contrast image. we can also include an algorithm where we can change the image of the four coordinates to a standard rectangle size or manually crop the image.3 53 . 15.imshow(imagen). I have experience loosing out character when performing the extracting process.53 To improve in the cropping of image.

Fig 15.4 54 .7000).imshow(imagen). figure.54 Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects) imagen = bwareaopen(imagen.

In the complement of a binary image. or obtain information about open files. Using the mouse. Size . 55 . Medfilt2 . Fopen . 11.55 16 List of functions used 1.measures a set of properties for each labelled region. resizable rectangle that you can position interactively using the mouse. black and white are reversed.Open file.Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects). 5. 12.returns the sizes of each dimension of an image in matrix a and b. 4. Imcrop .Global image threshold using Otsu's method. imcrop returns the cropped image 7. you specify the crop rectangle by clicking and dragging the mouse. create the cropped image by double-clicking the left mouse button or by choosing Crop Image from the context menu. Rgb2gray . Imread : Read image from graphics file. 8. When you are finished sizing and positioning the crop rectangle. zeros become ones and ones become zeros.Performs median filtering of the matrix A using the default 3by-3 neighborhood. 10. based on threshold.Convert RGB image or colormap to grayscale. The output image BW replaces all pixels in the input image with luminance greater than level with the value 1 (white) and replaces all other pixels with the value 0 (black). Imcomplement .Regionprops .Bwlabel . 3. 9. called the target image.Bwareaopen . 2. The Crop Image tool is a moveable. 6.computes the complement of the image. When the Crop Image tool is active.creates an interactive Crop Image tool associated with the image displayed in the current figure.Convert image to binary image. Graythresh .returns in num the number of connected objects found in BW. You can move or resize the crop rectangle using the mouse. Im2bw . the pointer changes to cross hairs when you move it over the target image.

Rectangle . 23.Find indices and values of nonzero elements.Determine whether array is empty.2-D correlation coefficient.Close one or more open files.Min . 18.Corr2 .Fprintf . 20.1] and Curvature [0.Largest elements in array.56 13. 15.Imshow .Fclose .0.displays an array. 22.Resize image.Isempty . 16.Find .0] (i.e.Resize . 21. 19. 56 .Write text to device. no curvature).1. without printing the array name.Disp . 17.Max. 14.Smallest elements in array..Display image.draws a rectangle with Position [0.

end % Convert to binary image threshold = graythresh(image). % Remove all object containing fewer than 6000 pixels image = bwareaopen(image.%Opens a text for append in order to store the number plates for log. title('INPUT IMAGE WITH NOISE') % Convert to gray scale if size(image.2) end hold off pause (1) 57 .1 Algorithm to extract characters ( extractdigit. propied=regionprops(L. 'at'). title('INPUT IMAGE WITHOUT NOISE') word=[]. image = medfilt2(image). % Show image figure.jpg'). hold on for n=1:size(propied.imshow(image).'EdgeColor'. [L num]=bwlabel(image).BoundingBox.3)==3 % RGB image imagen=rgb2gray(image). image=imread('exp4.imshow(image).txt'.%Storage matrix word from image fid = fopen('log.'BoundingBox'). figure.propied(n).title('binary image').57 17 CODE 17. image =~im2bw(image.'LineWidth'. pause(1) image = imcrop(image).1) rectangle('Position'.'g'. disp(num).threshold). % Show image binary image figure.imshow(~image).%pause(10).6000).m).

if vd==1 letter='A'. pause(0.'Number Plate:-%s\nDate:-%s\n'.'.date).word). msgbox(sprintf('Number Plate Extraction successful.5) end fprintf(fid.m) function letter=read_letter(imagn) comp=[].c] = find(L==n). figure. word=[].2 Algorithm of Normalisation of characters (same_dim.\nExtracted Number plate:. end vd=find(comp==max(comp)). letter=read_letter(img_r). fprintf(fid.58 figure for n=1:num [r. 17.m) function img_r=same_dim(imagen_g) img_r=imresize(imagen_g. comp=[comp sem].'Extraction Success').\nSee the log.%s . img_r=same_dim(~n1).imshow(~n1). elseif vd==2 letter='B'.n}. 17.min(c):max(c)).3 Algorithm to read letters (read_letter. fclose(fid).imagn).txt file to see the stored number. load templates for n=1:36 sem=corr2(templates{1.word. elseif vd==3 58 . word=[word letter].'------------------------------------\n'). n1=image(min(r):max(r).[42 24]).

elseif vd==4 letter='D'.59 letter='C'. elseif vd==22 letter='V'. elseif vd==21 letter='U'. elseif vd==9 letter='I'. elseif vd==18 letter='R'. elseif vd==16 letter='P'. elseif vd==17 letter='Q'. elseif vd==11 letter='K'. elseif vd==6 letter='F'. elseif vd==23 letter='W'. elseif vd==10 letter='J'. elseif vd==8 letter='H'. elseif vd==20 letter='T'. elseif vd==19 letter='S'. elseif vd==12 letter='L'. elseif vd==13 letter='M'. elseif vd==5 letter='E'. elseif vd==24 letter='X'. elseif vd==14 letter='N'. 59 . elseif vd==7 letter='G'. elseif vd==15 letter='O'.

elseif vd==33 letter='7'. elseif vd==30 letter='4'. elseif vd==32 letter='6'. else letter='0'. end 60 . elseif vd==28 letter='2'. elseif vd==31 letter='5'. elseif vd==26 letter='Z'. elseif vd==35 letter='9'.60 elseif vd==25 letter='Y'. elseif vd==29 letter='3'. elseif vd==34 letter='8'. %*-*-*-*-* elseif vd==27 letter='1'.

1 Experimental results Extracted Number plate: MH12EM2587 Extracted Number plate: MH12FF7461 Extracted Number plate: MH12DM3909 61 .61 18 Result Analysis and Discussion 18.

62 Extracted Number plate:LMH12CD9736 Extracted Number plate:LK00A53N6523 Extracted Number plate: MH12HN0389 62 .

000 plates per hour.2 Discussion Although ALPR technology has been promoted as being capable of reading in excess of 3. The technology may have the capacity to read more plates.63 Extracted Number plate: MH14CS7710 Extracted Number plate:MH12DE94 Extracted Number plate: MH01AX7946 18. The initial analysis of parking lot data produced by Schuurman (2007) suggested that parking lot 63 . the current results suggest that this capability is significantly overstated in actual road tests. Perhaps the most important conclusion reached from this study is that the utility of ALPR depends on volume. but traffic volume and the design of Surrey streets may impede this read rate.

the fact that officers could expect several hits per hour requires the design of a response priority scheme and increase patrol units to manage the increased workload. An important consideration raised by this research has to do with prioritizing responses and the allocation of scarce resources. First. police forces operating ALPR technology may want to focus on high volume traffic corridors during the day shift. in order to maximize efficiency. along one of the four traffic corridors assigned for that day. 64 . the frequency of hits exceeded what a typical patrol unit could respond to during a shift. for the most part. and at the exact location where a moving ALPR-enabled vehicle could photograph its licence plate. it may be more beneficial to use stationary cameras along a large number of intersections. at least 24 hours after the car had been stolen. Second. for the most part. and. the stolen car had to be on the road in Surrey. considering the results of this phase of the project. Unfortunately. the nature of hits was basically uniform for all of the assigned traffic corridors and the proportions held when considered by time of day or day of month.64 deployment was dependent upon the number of vehicles in parking lots and. Given this. A large advertising campaign can inform the public about the nature and use of this technology which may result in the public being less willing to violate traffic regulations. if the objective is to identify stolen vehicles as this will. at least. it may be possible. remove the variable of a roving ALPR which likely reduces success. until such time as ALPR-enabled vehicles have access to real-time data and there are many more ALPR-enabled police cruisers on the road at the same time. as currently operated in Surrey. If patrol officers are faced with a significant increase in the number of hits as a result ALPR deployment. the greater the number of raw hits. to train volunteers who can assist the police in filtering through database hits. detachments must design response schemes to prioritize which hits officers respond to. In effect. The likelihood of this scenario occurring is extremely low. the same conclusions applied to this road test of the technology. was not effective in locating stolen vehicles. as suggested above. In both cases. As a consequence. the current study results also indicated that stolen vehicles represented a very small proportion (approximately one per cent) of all licence plate hits. these statistics were not improved in the current analysis. However. the more cars scanned. it was all about the number of hits. In other words. Importantly. Despite the promise that ALPR technology holds for catching stolen vehicles. the hit list that the ALPR-enabled vehicle searched against was 24 hours old. There are two main reasons why ALPR. for a stolen vehicle to be detected by an ALPR-enabled vehicle. ALPR requires a meeting in time and space between the police cruiser and the stolen vehicle. Rather. However. substantiating which calls are valid and which must receive priority attention to lessen the burden on patrol officers. this result should not have been unexpected.

eliminating the problem). However. Poor lighting and low contrast due to overexposure. Australia. This is because the likelihood of an unauthorized car having such a similar license plate is seen as quite small. though in some countries and jurisdictions. Increasing the height of the camera may avoid problems with objects (such as other vehicles) obscuring the plate but introduces and increases other problems. An object obscuring (part of) the plate. "bike plates" are supposed to be fitted. Bikes on bike racks can also obscure the number plate. such as Victoria. popular for vanity plates (some countries do not allow such plates. quite often a tow bar. When running the main. Two cars from different countries or states can have the same number but different design of the plate. When used for giving specific vehicles access to a barricaded area. such as the adjusting for the increased skew of the plate. usually because the plate is too far away but sometimes resulting from the use of a low-quality camera. 65 . particularly motion blur. These include:        Poor image resolution. reflection or shadows. While some of these problems can be corrected within the software. tow bars may obscure one or two characters of the license plate. A different font. the decision may be made to have an acceptable error rate of one character. or dirt on the plate. these are the steps which are recommended:  Modification is needed to be done on the offset of detecting the rectangular plate or by applying other technique to the system. On some cars. For the future works and suggestion on improvements. it is primarily left to the hardware side of the system to work out solutions to these difficulties. this level of inaccuracy would not be acceptable in most applications of an ANPR system.m file. Blurry images. Lack of coordination between countries or states. Some small-scale systems allow for some errors in the license plate.65 19 Difficulties and Recommendations There are a number of possible difficulties that the software must be able to cope with. it is able to detect and recognize some of the zoom in car vehicle license plate but fail on the image of cars with headlights. Circumvention techniques.

the recognition system should refuse to make the decision. 66 .  There should be improvement on the decision of the algorithm and ways to detect error.66  We only use the black and white image of the Vehicle license plate. When the probability of recognition guess is correct but falls below the threshold. For future implementation. we can use RGB to HSV or RGB to CMY method to deal with other type of colour license plate.

methods on detection. 67 . we chose MATLAB software as it is easier to implement. The problem encountered during the progress of the project include the selection of suitable method such as : sourcing of car images. During the initial project and development stage. After doing much reading and research. method of segmentation and recognition of vehicle license plate character and writing of simulation program.67 20 Critical Review and Reflection The development of the project is considered quite successful although we still faced some problems during the progress of the project we managed to solve the problem by doing more reading. problems were resolved by using the suitable syntax and methods. recognition of vehicle license plate characters. Next. segmentation. research and with the help and understanding from the tutor. we also encountered problems in detection. the problem encountered is the selection of software program. After doing much research and absorbing more knowledge into MATLAB toolbox.

they are compelled to make a series of decisions concerning which plates to search. giving the overall system performance 92. The use of ALPR technology might also result in safer police driving as officers would no longer have the added distraction of turning away from the road periodically to manually type in licence plates of interest . The ability of ALPR to scan a large number of plates allows for more plates to be scanned faster and more efficiently. officers may miss plates that are. police are better able to identify more persons of interest. Finally it is proved to be %96 for the segmentation of the characters and %80 for the recognition unit accurate. ALPR also offers an objectivity that may benefit police. it is highly plausible that through this process. officers could become overwhelmed by the increase in the number of problematic cars to respond to. prohibited drivers. The technology also allows the police to identify uninsured vehicles. and unlicensed drivers much more quickly than previous police strategies. with which to select those plates that appear more suspicious.57% recognition rates. or successful matching between a scanned plate image and a database of interest. Most importantly. increased police efficiency. we presented application software designed for the recognition of car license plate. While officers currently employ a set of indicators. however. such as having an officer physically type in a licence plate to scan. police must develop strategies that enable officers to prioritize their responses. This system can be redesigned for multinational car license plates in future studies. Given that officers cannot check all the licence plates they encounter while on shift. but to other calls for service. This system is designed for the identification INDIAN license plates and the system is tested over a large number of images. namely. Research with ALPR has shown several benefits. in fact. As a consequence. In other 68 . identified through experience. With an increased number of ―hits‖. The ALPR technology offers several benefits to police forces. Firstly we extracted the plate location. Research in the United Kingdom suggested that in responding to the sheer number of hits identified through ALPR. ALPR has the ability to quickly and efficiently scan a large number of licence plates without any officer intervention. This increases the potential for the recovery of stolen goods as well as convictions. some limitations inherent in the use of such advanced technology. as the profile of crime is different in jurisdictions. then we separated the plate characters individually by segmentation and finally applied template matching with the use of correlation for recognition of plate characters.68 21 Conclusion & Future Scope In this report. However. detachment-specific schemes may need to be developed. With the potential for an increased number of hits. untoward. impeding their ability to efficiently respond not only to ALPR hits. an officer‘s workload substantially increased. There are.

it also provides new methods with which to avoid being screened by such technology. Much of the work involved in implementing ALPR technology involves building these initial relationships between agencies. Yet. However. drivers that have been prohibited or have lost their licence. lists are updated as cars or plates are reported stolen or it can be updated every 24 hours. 2007). such as insurance companies. The efficiency of ALPR technology is entirely dependent upon the successful coordination of agencies. Concerns in Canada already exist regarding the use of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in public (Schuurman. invading their right to privacy. privacy concerns are also a limitation to the use of ALPR technology. depending on the geographic location of hotspots. While advances in technology allow for the successful use of systems. as opposed to specifically searching out particular plates based on prior intelligence. Gordon and Wolf (2007) reported that since the advent of ALPR. Moreover. For instance. given current fiscal realities in many detachments in Canada. e. Concerned citizens may accuse police or the government of using the technology to track law-abiding citizens. Lastly. there will be those who develop the means to defeat these techniques. police forces may find it necessary to increase the number of officers on the road which. 2007). some companies have begun to sell products to thwart the technology. priority schemes may need to be individualized. more recently. to better respond to priority hits. may not be feasible. Schuurman 69 . where police simply scan all plates until they get a hit. Information can either be provided in real time. those using ALPR technology must have access to data that details information about stolen plates or cars. recognition software has produced extremely low successful recognition rates (Gordon and Wolf. In effect. the number of officers on patrol. such as licence plate recognition. research suggested that the ALPR technology reads plates correctly 95% of the time. in the event that a plate is not read correctly and the officer deems the plate suspicious.g. ALPR cannot possibly identify plates of interest. Again. other criminal justice agencies. without the successful coordination between police forces and agencies. Without the provision of data by which to compare scanned plates. as the police develop new technologies. Deisman (2003) identified that there are limits to the extent that police in Canada can engage in continuous and non-selective monitoring of citizens. Either way. vehicles that have been involved in other criminal activity. it is important that officers to retain the ability to investigate the plate more fully and to follow their instincts when observing a suspicious vehicle. They noted that one company sells a clear spray (US $30 per can) that the manufacturers claim can make licence plates invisible when read by a camera. or drivers who are uninsured. Citizens may equate the use of ALPR technology to ―fishing expeditions‖. In the past. and the motor vehicle branch.69 words. ALPR technology simply will not succeed. and the specific needs of the community.

it is required that for the task as sensitive as tracking stolen vehicles and monitoring vehicles for homeland security an accuracy of 100% cannot be compromised with. blurred regions & different font style and sizes are need to be taken care of. therefore. . further optimization is required. although further research is needed to determine the extent to which ALPR increases the rate of arrest and has a deterrent effect. Therefore to achieve this. Future Scope Though we have achieved an accuracy of 80% by optimizing various parameters. In addition. This work can be further extended to minimize the errors due to them. In responding to concerns of privacy. monthly. How to adequately respond to this situation will require careful thinking and planning on the part of the police. Citizens may also have concerns with respect to the maintenance of data in warehouses. However. In conclusion. it is difficult to assess the impact of ALPR on police resources and workloads. smudges. Still. Also. Essentially.70 (2007) also noted that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that privacy rights of citizens are breached by indiscriminate video surveillance without cause. policies may be put in place that regulate the deleting of collected data on a daily. Citizens may fear the potential for breaches in security. 70 . there may be concerns regarding who has access to this data . weekly. more research needs to be conducted in order to determine how ALPR technology can be balanced with respect to citizens right for privacy and civil rights. and thus make any firm conclusions on its general utility. ALPR does have a specific utility as its strategic deployment will assist police departments to more effectively response to a variety of auto and driving-related offences. the issues like stains. The overriding benefit of ALPR is that it brings a far larger number of offenders to the attention of the police. It is. or yearly basis. extremely important that considerable thought is given to the safe storage of data and strict regulations regarding who has access to the databases. rather than the few offenders the police are able to find during their routine activities. the results of this study suggest that ALPR technology offers several substantial benefits to the police.

71 Annexure A: Project Plan & Progress Report For developing the project. we have drafted out the project schedule to follow up closely. it is important to choose the type of model and syntax that are suitable for Matlab is taken into consideration. Task1 Research (24 Jan 2012 to 10 Feb 2012)        Research on various methods used for Vehicle License Plate Recognition Conversion of Images Image Thresholding Noise filtering Vehicle License Plate Detection Vehicle License Plate Extraction/Segmentation Vehicle License Plate Recognition Task 2 Development (11 Feb 2012 to 23 Feb 2012)  Determine the value of pixel need for filtering  Determine algorithm for plate detection  Determine algorithm for extraction/segmentation  Determine algorithm for plate recognition. Thus. Task 4 Testing and Fine Tuning (30 March 2012 to 24th April 2012)  Fine tune on the filtering and calculation of connected components. 71 . There is interconnected link between the research work and the designing and Implementation process. Task 3 Construct Matlab software for simulation (24 Feb 2012 to 20 Mar 2012)  Writing and create algorithm for extraction of vehicle license plate character  Writing and simulate the block by integrating all the written algorithm together  Version R2008a for editing.  Fine tuning of the integrated block algorithm Task 5 Reporting Writing (28 April 2008 to 1 May 2012)  Allocate at least 1 week for writing the final report.

 Dr. Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy. Woods and Steven L. Richard E. McCormick SCHOOL of CRIMINOLOGY and CRIMINAL JUSTICE University College of the Fraser Valley.‖An Engineer‘s Guide To Matlab‖  ALGORITHMIC AND MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES OF AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS. Darryl Plecas. LINDA MEROLA. Irwin M.ht ml  Matlab software version R2008a. Eddins. Russ.  CYNTHIA LUM. It is a very user friendly device as it will guide and explain to us on the specific toolbox in which we will be using.72 References  Rafael C.Hopgood. Woods.com/access/helpdesk/help/toolbox/nnet/nnet_product_page. Author ONDREJ MRTINSKY  Lecture notes  Mathworks. Dr. ―The Image Processing Handbook‖  Adrian A. Gonzalez.Edward B. Cohen.‖Intelligent Systems for Engineers and Scientists‖  William J. and Amanda V. Gonzalez and Richard E. ― International Edition Digital Image Processing Second Edition‖  John C.ht ml#printable_pdf. George Mason University . ―Introduction To Matlab 7 For Engineers  Magrab. LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY (LPR) IMPACT EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT .com/access/helpdest/help/techdoc/mathlab_product_page2. AND BREANNE CAVE .  Mathworks. ―Digital ImageProcessing using MATLAB‖  Rafael C. Palm III. JULIE WILLIS. A Report on the Utility of the Automated Licence Plate Recognition System in British Columbia 72 .

M.A.6/1-6/6.M.D.  R. Spaanenburg. ―Automatic Number-plate Recognition : Neural Network Approach. Proceedings of First IEEE International Workshop on Electronic design. Irecki. Test and Applications ( DELTA‘02 ).G.A.  http://en. Venema. Yang ―Test bed for number plate recognition applications‖. pp. 3 1 Aug-2 Sept. ―Automatic NumberPlate Recognition. IEEE Computer Society. Nijhuis. M. Aprl. V01.73  D.platerecognition.M. Johnson. J.035. Westenberg.W.H. ―Car License Plate Automatic Vehicle Identification by Plate Recognition Author .A. K. Bird.org/wiki/Vehicle_registration_plates_of_India  http://en. 1990. Helmholt. 1994  J.M. Fahmy. B.‖ Proceedings of the IEE Colloquium on Image analysis for Transport Applications.org/wiki/Automatic_number_plate_recognition  http://www.Serkan Ozbay. Morgan.K. 1990.anpr.info/ 73 . B.A. 1990. 1990.‖ Proceedings of VNIS‘94 Vehicle Navigation and Information System Conference. and AS.S. Bailey. 1994. A.net/  http://www. Pluim. Johnson.‖ IEE Colloquium on Electronic Image and Image Processing in Security and Forensic.wikipedia. 1995. R. L. and Ergun Ercelebi.  M. February 16. D. Lotufo.G.P. Lim and L. ―Number-plateMatching for Automatic Vehicle Identification. Ter Brugge.wikipedia. 2002.S.  A.

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