ABHINANDAN SINGH - 08070121202 MAYANK KISHORE PATHIKRIT GUHA - 08070121224 - 08070121232

Under the Guidance of

In partial fulfilment of
B.Tech ( E& TC )




This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Abhinandan Singh _ , Roll No. _ 08070121202 _, is record of

bonafide work carried out by her/him , under my guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University.

Date :

Place :

Prof. Mrudang Shukla
Guide , Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.

Prof. Dr. Narayan Pisharoty
Head, Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.




This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Mayank Kishore _ , Roll No. _ 08070121224 _, is record of

bonafide work carried out by her/him , under my guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University.

Date :

Place :

Prof. Mrudang Shukla
Guide , Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.

Prof. Dr. Narayan Pisharoty
Head, Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115.


Date : Place : Prof. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering ( Electronics & Telecommunication ) of Symbiosis International University. Roll No. Mrudang Shukla Guide . Prof. under my guidance. Narayan Pisharoty Head. _ 08070121232 _. Dr. 4 . Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115. Department of E & TC Engineering Symbiosis Institute of Technology Pune – 412 115. is record of bonafide work carried out by her/him .4 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE submitted by _ Pathikrit Guha _ .

_______________________________________ Date : Place: 5 .08070121232 Is approved for the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING – Electronics & Telecommunication Symbiosis International University.08070121224 Pathikrit Guha .5 The Project entitled “LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SOFTWARE” By Abhinandan Singh .08070121202 Mayank Kishore . ______________________________________ 2. Examiners: 1. Pune.

6 . Pune who has been a constant source pf inspiration for us throughout this work. With deep sense of gratitude we express our sincere thanks to our esteemed and worthy supervisor Mr. Head of the Department of Electronics & telecommunication. Pune for his valuable guidance in carrying out this work under his effective supervision. Assistant Professor. Narayan Pisharoty.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The real spirit of achieving a goal is through the way of excellence and austere discipline. enlightenment and cooperation. We would have never succeeded in completing our task without the cooperation. Department of Electronics & Telecommunication. Symbiosis Institute of technology. Symbiosis Institute of Technology. We shall be failing in our duties if we do not express our deep sense of gratitude towards Dr. encouragement. Above all we render our gratitude to the ALMIGHTY who bestowed selfconfidence. Mrudang Shukla. ability and strength in us to complete this work. inspiration ad help provided to us by various personalities. We are also thankful to all the staff members of the Department for their full cooperation and help.

1 Algorithm for ANPR system 8.5 Number identification 8.4 Segmentation 8.3 Convert image into binary. 8.3 Comparison Between MATLAB and Artificial Intelligence Chapter 5.6 Commercial Products Chapter 4 Platform / Technology 4. Introduction 3. Algorithm 8.2 Features of project Chapter 3.1Image Cropping 9.1 Introduction to matlab 4. Components Chapter 6. Imaging Hardware Chapter 7.6 Save to file in given format Chapter 9.2 Conversion of RGB Images to Binary Images 7 Page no. Image Acquisition 9.2 Input Image from file.7 Table of Contents Contents List of Figures Abstract Chapter 1.4 Constraints 3. 8. Development History Chapter 8.2 How the Vehicle License Plate System works 3.2 Image Processing 4.3 Objectives 3. 10 11 12 14 14 14 15 15 15 17 18 20 22 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 37 37 38 .1 Problem Statement 2. Problem Definition 2.1 Project Background 3.5 Various Types of Vehicle License Plate 3. Literature Survey Chapter 2.

3 Filtering of Digits 12.2 Template Matching Chapter 15 Analysis of Result 15.1 Imcomplement 10.2 Medfilt2 Chapter 11 Thresholding 11.2 Database Chapter 14 Character Recognition 14.1 Filtering 12.3 Algorithm to read characters Chapter 18 Result Analysis 18.2 Vehicle Quantization and Equalization 15.2 Algorithm to normalisation of characters 17.1 Threshold Selection 11.1 Experimental results 18.1 Feature Extraction from Digital Image 13.1 Normalization 14.3 Adaptive thresholding Chapter 12 Image Noise 12. Image Enhancement 10.2 Discussion Chapter 19 Difficulties and Recommendations 8 40 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 48 48 49 50 50 50 52 52 53 53 55 57 57 58 58 61 61 63 65 .4 Identify and remove away the small connected objects Chapter 13 Image Segmentation 13.3 Colour Image Processing Chapter 10.1 Algorithm to extract digits 17.8 9.2 Binary Area Open(Bwareaopen) 12.3 Checking and verification of the Static Chapter 16 List of Functions Used Chapter 17 Code 17.1 Extracting of Individual Digits 15.2 Global Thresholding 11.

9 Chapter 20 Critical Review and Reflection Chapter 21 Conclusion and Future scope Annexure A: Project Planner and Progress Report References 67 68 71 72 9 .

.............................4 System Block Diagram...................55 10 ....................................................................53 15...........................24 4......................50 15...............................39 9......................2 Cropped image of the vehicle........................36 9.............................2 Binary image after filtering...........................48 13....1 Captured image of vehicle1..............................................................................................4 Morphologically open binary image.18 3...............................1 Comparison of MATLAb with other softwares...................5 Histogram of object and background which is close..54 15......................................................................39 9.............1 Overview of the vehicle license plate system.........................................................37 9......................10 List Of Figures 3.............................40 9.............3Morphologically open binary image..............................41 12.......................................................3 Characteristic function of binary image.........2 Block diagram of Image processing system...............................................................................37 9........................................................1 Automatic Number Plate Recognition System...........6 RGB schematic block diagram..........................19 3.........................................................................20 4....................1 Original image of the vehicle..........17 3......................2 A car approaching a License Plate Recognition System.......47 12.8 Binary image of the vehicle................................5 Commercial and Private vehicle license plate.3 Indian car license plate......................41 9....38 9..........................................1 Segmented image.....16 3...................4 Histogram of light object with dark background....53 15..................................................7 Captured image of the vehicle.........................1 Binary image with noise......................25 8....................................................................................................................................2 Captured image of vehicle2.......

License Plate Recognition is an effective form of AVI systems. This system also helps to conduct the graphic images of the vehicles which can be further stored in the database in text format reducing size of data to be stored. This system helps in the functions like detection of the number plates of the vehicles. a smart and simple algorithm is presented for vehicle‘s license plate recognition system. Based on the experimental results. processing them and using processed data for further processes like storing. filtering and some algorithms are used. numbers and characters Keywords     Character recognizer license plate recognition Segmentation Cropping 11     template matching Median Filter Connected Components Masking. The general algorithm involves the following steps:  Image Processing : The image captured is pre-processed and reduction in the contrast. allowing vehicle to pass or to reject vehicle.11 ABSTRACT Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) has many applications in traffic systems (highway electronic toll collection. border and customs checkpoints. And finally statistical based template matching is used for recognition of plate characters.). we noted that our algorithm shows superior performance in car license plate recognition. edge detection algorithms and smearing algorithms are used. This system is based on the image processing system. We used neural network for recognition of vehicle license late character. etc.  Character Segmentation/Recognition: Resample and threshold in order to isolate the license plate and vehicle license plate character. red light violation enforcement. In this study. The proposed algorithm consists of three major parts: Extraction of plate region.  Plate localization and extraction: To obtain the vehicle plate sub image. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on real images. segmentation of characters and recognition of plate characters. For extracting the plate region.  Evaluating the performance of the algorithm and compare the performance with other reported work. In segmentation part.  Implementing a file management system or database for storing the images of vehicle license plate. . The neural network will be trained off-line with the characters and numbers.

The third approach was based on statistical properties of text. such as electronic toll collection and red-light violation 12 .The project is based on image processing technology using popular software MATLAB. In the developed western countries many big factories. couples of 2-parallel lines were considered as a plate-designate. Due to these features. The input image being first processed to enrich and enhance boundary line-information by using such algorithms as the gradient filter. work only in certain conditions or environment like indoor images etc. The image thus processed was converted to its binary counterpart and then processed by certain algorithms. License plate identification/recognition (LPI/R) is one form of ITS technology that not only recognizes and counts vehicles. This approach focuses on some salient properties of vehicle plate images such as their brightness. The problem of automatic VNP recognition is being studied since the 90‘s. such as Hough transform. text regions were discovered using statistical properties of text like the variance of gray level. etc. nuclear plants. communication centers all of them are under the control of the computer because that‘s not the place where human hand can reach up. and resulting in an image formed of edges. but distinguishes each as unique. Eventually. Vehicle License Plate Recognition is an image processing system whereby it is used to recognize the vehicles by identifying the license plate. This approach was commonly used in finding text in images. All of the systems discussed above have some kind of limitations for example they are plate size dependent. reliability and versatile nature of the computer. contrast. To add the further mile for this step we have presented a License plate recognition software .12 1 LITERATURE SURVEY It is almost known that the world is nowadays being more dependent in the computer than the human manpower. Today in the developed countries more than 90% of the job is done by automated system and this is due to the accuracy. etc. For some applications. Another approach was based on the morphology of objects in an image. and could well be used for discovering and designating candidate number plate areas as they include alphabets and numerals. In this approach. It is basically use for traffic and security purposes. this method could be used to detect the similar properties in a certain image and locate the position of number plate regions. number of edges. angles. color dependent. symmetry. to detect lines. edge densities in the region. The early approaches were based on characteristics of boundary lines.

such as entering restricted area without permission . For implementing LPR system we have used digital image processing technique. License plate recognition (LPR) is a new tool for automatic vehicle and traffic monitoring by using digital image processing. breaking speed limits . In others.13 enforcement. LPI/R records a license plates alphanumeric so the vehicle owner can be assessed the appropriate toll or fine. like commercial vehicle operations or secure-access control. The LPR system can be used to traffic control management for recognize vehicles that commit traffic violation. crossing red light. 13 . a vehicle's license plate is checked against a database of acceptable ones to determine whether a truck can bypass a weigh station or a car can enter a gated community or parking lot. etc. occupying lanes reserved for public transport.

high error rates. Previously.14 2 Problem Definition 2. 14 .2 Features Automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance method that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates.1 Problem statement: Automatic car license plate recognition (CLPR) system is implemented to help the human to automatically detect plate number without human supervision.[ANPR technology tends to be region-specific. They are used by various police forces and as a method of electronic toll collection on pay-per-use roads and cataloging the movements of traffic or individuals. owing to plate variation from place to place. with some configurable to store a photograph of the driver. misidentification. They can use existing closed-circuit television or road-rule enforcement cameras. 2. and increased government spending. the system can automatically display the status of the car which it will compare between the car plate numbers recognized with the database. Concerns about these systems have centered on privacy fears of government tracking citizens' movements. Besides that. ANPR can be used to store the images captured by the cameras as well as the text from the license plate. or ones specifically designed for the task. human is needed to observe and list the user car plate number manually. So this project is developing to replace human to monitor the car and automatically capture the image. Systems commonly use infrared lighting to allow the camera to take the picture at any time of the day.

or by special intelligent equipment which is be able to recognize vehicles by their number plates in a real environment and reflect it into conceptual resources. various recognition techniques have been developed and number plate recognition systems are today used in various traffic and security applications.2 How the Vehicle License Plate System works Firstly. In entrance gate. Automatic number plate recognition systems can be used in access control. the vehicle will stop at the car gantry. In traffic control. Each vehicle can be registered in a central database and compared to a black list of stolen vehicles. For example. vehicles can be directed to different lanes for a better congestion control in busy urban communications during the rush hours. The cycle will start when the vehicle steps over the detector. It will activate a signal to the Vehicle License Plate System of the presence of the vehicle. Automatic Line Tracking Robot (ALR) is used in this project as a vehicle which contains circuitry for moving in a guided track. number plates are used to identify the vehicles. or tracking of stolen cars. In some countries. When a vehicle later exits the place through the gate.1 Project Background Massive integration of information technologies into all aspects of modern life caused demand for processing vehicles as conceptual resources in information systems because a standalone information system without any data has no sense. It will have mechanism to detect the opened and closed door.15 3 INTRODUCTION 3. It also will have capacity to park in the given parking area. access and border control. Vehicle License Plate Recognition is an image processing system whereby it is used to recognize the vehicles by identifying the license plate. Because of this. 15 . . number plate is recognized again and paired with the first-one stored in the database and it is taken a count. such as parking. This can be achieved by a human agent. ANPR systems installed on country borders automatically detect and monitor border crossings. When a vehicle enters an input gate. this technology is used in many companies to grant access only to vehicles of authorized personnel. 3. there was also a need to transform information about vehicles between the reality and information systems. number plate is automatically recognized and stored in database and black-listed number is not given permission.

the characters will be recognized by using Neural Network. The system will read the information pixels of the vehicle and run the recognition process. the Vehicle License Plate Recognition also provide an advantage by keeping the image of the vehicle in which it will be useful for crime fighting. Lastly. There are difficulties for Vehicle License Plate Recognition in which it will affect the efficiency and accuracy of the system. Next. the system will apply certain algorithm to analyses the vehicle image. the gantry will open and allowed the vehicle to pass through. Besides analyzing. locating the vehicle plate position and extract the characters from the vehicle plate. Next. Diagram is illustrate in Fig 1. If ―Access Granted‖.16 Secondly. the system will try to match the recognized vehicle plate number with the car plate database. the images will be enhance. It is essential and important to determine the facts which will able to influence the operations and recognition proficiency. illumination (infra-red) will be activated and images of the front picture of the vehicle will be taken. we also need to look into other facts of variables that are not constant. Camera can also focus on the face of the driver and save it for security reason. Fig 3.1 Besides. Thirdly. Below are the non-constant variables which will affect the accuracy of recognition:  Speed of the vehicle 16 .

3 Objectives The overall objective of the project is to develop a system to recognize vehicle license plate from a car at a gate entrance of a parking lot. the system can also serve as a security purpose whereby it can spot on any wanted or stolen vehicles. Fig 3. I 17 . Bent type) Vehicle license plate orientation Type of vehicle fonts character. Once the vehicle license plate is captured. the characters will be recognized and displayed on the Graphical User Interface. there has been similar project implemented but had poor accuracy. The software could lead to a cheaper and faster way of enhancing and determined the performance of the recognition system. we would need to improve or rewrite the algorithm to improve the accuracy. The system will be based on a Personal Computer such that it will generate report on the vehicle license plate it has captured. Besides.17       Weather condition Type of Vehicle Distance between vehicle license plate and the camera Type of plate ( Rectangular.2 A car approaching a License Plate Recognition System 3. In the past. Thus.

The constraint is listed as below:           Image taken only when vehicle is stationary. Deal with only Indian Car License Plate with Times new roman font. Captured images on location where light is proportional. we have to set a list of constraints to make the project more systematic and manageable. Captured image of vehicle at fixed angle.4 Constraints Due to limited time that we possess and dealing with image vision software. in discussion with my tutor. Thus. Fig 3. Captured image of vehicle at fixed distance. The image should be taken with the height of 50cm to 70 cm above the ground level. due to the limited time frame given. However. Try on zoom in image of the car and image consists of headlamp. it is not advisable to include all of the possible cases. The vehicle license plate position should be captured centred. we managed to come up with the progress guideline as to what need to be included in this project. it is not advisable for me to cover all aspects in this project.3 18 . There will be no motion capture image. Take only the front view image of the car.18 will address a set of constraints and focus on the design of the algorithm to extract the vehicle license plate in order to improve the accuracy. There is definitely a lot more room for further improvement on this project. Thus. 3.

4 19 .19 System block Diagram Fig 3.

Commercial vehicles such as taxis and trucks have a yellow background and black text (e.5 20 . The third part is a 4 digit number unique to each plate.  Format Vehicle owner who register the car as private vehicle have a white background and black text. 22 UN 14). Due to heavy volume of vehicle registration.20 3. The President of India and state governors travel in official cars without licence plates.g. A letter(s) is prefixed when the 4 digit number runs out and then two letters and so on. Vehicles belonging to foreign consulates have white lettering on a light blue background (e.5 Various Types of Vehicle License Plate  What is Car license Plate Car license Plate is a rectangular metal plate which consists of a combination sequence of alphabet characters and numbers issued by the government for identification purpose of registered vehicle.g. This scheme of numbering has some advantages:   the State or District of registration of a particular vehicle In the case of a police investigation of an accident or vehicle-related crime. witnesses usually remember the initial area code letters — it is then quite simple to narrow down suspect vehicles to a much smaller number by checking the database without having to know the full number.  Current Format The current format of the registration index consists of 3 parts    The first two letters indicate the state to which the vehicle is registered. Fig 3. The next two digit numbers are the sequential number of a district.. DL 2C 0001). Instead they have the Emblem of India in gold embossed on a red plate. the numbers were given to the RTO offices of registration as well.

trucks. Diplomatic plates Vehicle belonging to foreign missions bear the plates UN. For public utility vehicles like buses. The next two digits (or the two preceding the arrow) signify the year in which the Military procured the vehicle. taxis and auto-rickshaws. A diplomatic plate numbered 13 CC xxxx would refer to country 13. The next is the base code.21 Military vehicles Military vehicles have a unique numbering system unlike any other licence numbers. there are a number of additional documents like a roadworthiness certificate and a transportation permit. The permanent registration certificate is one of the four important documents a vehicle plying on the road should always have. Temporary numbers As soon as a vehicle is purchased. This is valid for one month. CD or CC. The letter ending after the serial number indicates the class of the vehicle. it has to be presented to the RTO's office. To register a vehicle. 21 . a vehicle bearing the number 77 CD xxxx in India refers to a vehicle owned by either the United States mission in India or by a person working with the mission. Other numbering Other numbering includes the special numbers allotted to public transportation such as buses. this prevents the number being read wrongly in case the plate (and/or the vehicle bearing it) is upside down. The first (or the third) character is always an arrow pointing upwards. the dealer of the vehicle issues a temporary licence sticker known colloquially as a TR (To Register) number. probably a country close to the letter A or B. followed by the serial number. which stand for United Nations. the others being a valid insurance certificate. where a Motor Vehicle Inspector will verify the applicant's address and other details. confirm that the engine and chassis numbers are identical to what is written in the application and issues a permanent registration certificate which is usually valid for 20 years. Diplomatic Corps or Consular Corps respectively. This mechanism is used for unique identification. The numbers are registered by the organization which run the services and are usually printed on the side of the vehicle. The numbers are registered by the Ministry of Defence in New Delhi. during which the owner must register the vehicle in the controlling RTO of the area in which the owner is residing to get a standard licence plate. a pollution under control (PUC) certificate and the driver's licence. taxis and pick-up vans. For example.

3. however. With milliseconds the LPR system locates.6 Commercial Products The various products in the market today are described briefly below. Using advanced image processing and artificial intelligent techniques such as AI best first breadth-wise search algorithm. • Works 24 hours a day.6. uses video imaging for better recognition. 22 . the LPR can be programmed to read any language or symbol in any alphanumeric combination or context on both retro and non-retro reflective plates.2 Perceptics Perceptics [27] is the world leader in license plate reader technology. • Reads accurately in most weather conditions. Current LPR system read Latin (A-Z) and Korean (Hangul) letter and Arabic number (09). 7 days a week. identification and improved security.6.3 Vehicle Identification System for Parking Areas (VISPA) PPI's Vehicle Identification System for Parking Areas (VISPA) [28]. combined template and neural network recognizers. • Automatic and within milliseconds.22 3. easy installation and has accessories and features for most parking security surveillance needs. fuzzy logic and an arsenal of image processing tools.1 IMPS (Integrated Multi-Pass System) An IMP [26] is a Singaporean commercially developed license plate recognition system. • Reads accurately at highway speeds. VISPA provides for state-of-the-art video technology. it automatically locates vehicle license plates and reads the numbers accurately each time every time. 3. captures and identifies a vehicle's license plate data and makes a read decision.6. The system's reliability and flexibility allow it to accommodate some of the most stringent needs in some of the worst conditions. Features of this LPR technology includes. 3. It is a high performing robust system that gives consistent results under all weather conditions.

as a stand-alone turn-key version. 3. • Can be customized according to specific user needs. • Compatible with standard hardware and software.License Plate Identification. Available as a complete system which is based on a background Windows application. The VISPA controller with an integrated frame grabber card for 4. SeeCar License Plate Recognition:.crane mounted Container recognition system. This is the main advantage of vision based recognition.Detects and reads Vehicle license plates for parking. The basic system version connects to 4 cameras and can be upgraded to 8 cameras.6.23 Features are • Open architecture to most common video-systems. There technology is based on computer vision. Available as complete systems. Windows DLL or Linux library. The image will be linked to the ticket. 23 . The license plate can then be encoded on the ticket. traffic surveillance. VISPA is available in two forms Basic Version: . access control.Tracks and reads Shipping container identification marking. or 16 cameras automatically identifies the license plate from the video image and stores it in a database. and transmits the ID string to the port or gate computer.4 Hi-Tech Solution Hi-Tech Solutions [29] is a system and software company that develops cutting edge optical character recognition (OCR) solutions by implementing the company's unique image processing software and hardware in a wide range of security and transportation applications.An image of the car and/or the driver (depending on the location of your camera) will be taken as soon as the car approaches the triggering device. The recognition result is then logged together with the images. 8.a recognition system for the Tracks and Containers. or SeeCrane . such as SeeGate . the system read the camera images and extract the identification data from the images. SeeContainer Identification System:. or to a client process. law enforcement and security applications. Enhanced Version:. or in form of different special-task systems. There product includes. the records include both the image plus the extracted result.

MATLAB is also very efficient as it have built-in-function tools for neural network and image processing. 24 . The task is to construct the algorithm and recognizes can be done using MATLAB. predefined function and deviceindependent plotting. The advantages of MATLAB can be classified as follows: Platform independence. Comparison of MATLAB with other program is shown in the below diagram. Besides. Graphical User interface and MATLAB compiler.24 4 Platform/Technology 4.1 MATLAB read images using the function ―imread‖. Fig 4.1 INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB MATLAB is chosen as the main development for the license plate recognition application. The table below show images/graphs format that is supported by ―imread‖ with MATLAB.

Graphic Interchange Format Windows bitmap Portable network Graphics X Window Dump Extension .tiff . size of diagnosed tumour.png .gif . Traffic Control etc. This useful information may be the dimensions of an engineering component.xwd 4.2 Image Prcessing Image Processing generally involves extraction of useful information from an image. Face Detection.2 25 . The main areas of application of Image Processing are Bio-Medical.Jpeg . Quality Control.bmp . . Block Diagram of Image Processing Steps Fig 4. .Jpg .25 Format Name TIFF JPEG GIF BMP PNG XWD Description Tagged image file format Joint photographs Expert Group.tif. or even a 3D view of an unborn baby. Engineering.

Good for solving complex problems where humans or programmer have expert knowledge in it. The system will perform faster when using “Matrix Approach”. 2. 3. We can changed and add individual rules. Non-programmers can easily understand the rules of artificial intelligence. Slow response. Expensive. 3. Data can be represented in terms of matrices or vectors. Algorithm used in MATLAB can be converted to use in hardware. MATLAB coding is shorter and simpler. 3. 2. 4.3 Comparison Between MATLAB and Artificial Intelligence  Advantage of Artificial Intelligence: 1. 2. 4. . MATLAB possess power graphic visualization tools. Not good in common sense reasoning. There are difficulty in getting expert knowledge and putting it in used in the system. 5. Unpredictable.  Disadvantage of Artificial Intelligence: 1.26 4. 26 .  Advantage of MATLAB 1. 5.

there is a requirement to forward images to the remote server. This information. When done at the lane site. now small data packets. ANPR systems are generally deployed in one of two basic approaches: one allows for the entire process to be performed at the lane location in real-time. and any other information that is required is completed in somewhere around 250 milliseconds. the information captured of the plate alphanumeric. date-time. It first uses a series of image manipulation techniques to detect. and then optical character recognition (OCR) to extract the alphanumeric of the license plate. or stored at the lane for later retrieval.27 5 COMPONENTS The software aspect of the system runs on standard home computer hardware and can be linked to other applications or databases. lane identification. and this can require larger bandwidth transmission media. 27 . In the other arrangement. Often in such systems. such as those found in the London congestion charge project. normalize and enhance the image of the number plate. there are typically large numbers of PCs used in a server farm to handle high workloads. can easily be transmitted to some remote computer for further processing if necessary. and the other transmits all the images from many lanes to a remote computer location and performs the OCR process there at some later point in time.

28 . This is only possible on dedicated ANPR cameras. especially if the camera is much higher up than the vehicle. giving a high level of contrast with the reflective background in any lighting conditions. Shutter speeds of 1/500 of a second can cope with traffic moving up to 40 mph (64 km/h) and 1/250 of a second up to 5 mph (8 km/h). To maximize the chances of effective license plate capture. slower shutter speeds could result in an image which is too blurred to read using the OCR software. To avoid blurring it is ideal to have the shutter speed of a dedicated camera set to 1/1000 of a second. Since the car is moving. Further. License plate capture cameras can now produce usable images from vehicles travelling at 120 mph (190 km/h). Factors which pose difficulty for license plate imaging cameras include speed of the vehicles being recorded. In slow-moving traffic.28 6 IMAGING HARDWARE At the front end of any ANPR system is the imaging hardware which captures the image of the license plates. License plate capture is typically performed by specialized cameras designed specifically for the task. the characters on the plate are not reflective. the shutter speed does not need to be so fast. In some countries. however. Exceeding threshold angles of incidence between camera lens and license plate will greatly reduce the probability of obtaining usable images due to distortion. headlight glare and harsh environmental conditions. or when the camera is at a lower level and the vehicle is at an angle approaching the camera. varying ambient lighting conditions. and so cameras used for other purposes must rely more heavily on the software capabilities. Most dedicated license plate capture cameras will incorporate infrared illumination in order to solve the problems of lighting and plate reflectivity. installers should carefully consider the positioning of the camera relative to the target capture area. This returns the light back to the source and thus improves the contrast of the image. Many countries now use license plates that are retro reflective. when a full-colour image is required as well as use of the ANPR-retrieved details it is necessary to have one infrared-enabled camera and one normal (colour) camera working together. A camera that makes use of active infrared imaging (with a normal colour filter over the lens and an infrared illuminator next to it) benefits greatly from this as the infrared waves are reflected back from the plate. Manufacturers have developed tools to help eliminate errors from the physical installation of license plate capture cameras.

The central ANPR system. and injured 44 others. 2006). the heart of London‘s financial district (1993 Bishops gate bombing. stationary (roadside) and mobile (mounted on police cars). 10 times the national average (PA Consulting Group. In 2002 to 2003. the United Kingdom evaluated the use of ANPR with nine police forces. 2008). killed one person. partially destroying the façade of the Exchange‘s offices and extensively damaging the rest of the building (Baltic exchange. the Irish Republican Army bombed the Baltic Exchange. NADC stores plate data and lists of suspect vehicles (Pughe. 29 .e. The bombing was massive in size and destroyed several buildings with many others suffering shattered windows. When a plate is photographed by an ANPR camera. officers were able to spend more of their time investigating hits. the databases. or if it was uninsured (Pughe. As a part of its intelligence network. The United Kingdom is at the forefront in the use of plate recognition technology. The results of this initial study indicated that officer productivity increased primarily due to the officers not having to spend as much time waiting for hits after they typed in a plate. Almost a year later on April 24. a JPEG image of the plate is produced. scanning up to 5 million plates a day (Pughe. and the GPS location of the camera is created. the patrol officer is provided with information regarding the vehicle. In addition. if it had been involved in another crime. On April 10. 2006). as well as a video image of the plate and a video of the vehicle occupants (Pughe. 1993. 2003). i.29 7 Development History The United Kingdom: In 1992. the Irish Republican Army detonated a truck bomb at Bishops gate. a British company operating a premier global marketplace for shipbrokers and charterers. is stored at the National ANPR1 This term is synonymous with ALPR and will be used interchangeably 3 Data Center (NADC) in London. 2006). there are 3. 1992. all 43 police forces in England and Wales were provided with vans equipped with automated number plate technology (ANPR1): ANPR cameras were mounted in vans. 2006). 2008). 2006). The blast caused approximately £1 billion in damage. Instead. and police forces were provided with computers that were able to store ANPR information in real time (Pughe. such as whether the car was stolen. This resulted in an increase in arrests to 100 per year. As of 2001.000 cameras across the United Kingdom. ALPR technology was developed at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom in response to terrorism. Approximately four seconds after a plate is read by the camera. the time and date of the scan. a text file containing information on the car registration number.

approximately one out of every 200 cars photographed by the ANPR cameras was stopped by an ANPR intercept team. serious crime. or prohibited drivers.000 pounds). the number of vehicles used in the commission of other criminal offences. the intercept team took some action (e. an average. and fatal and serious injury road traffic accidents (Hampshire Constabulary. these units made.3% for theft of or from a vehicle. 30 .2% for drug offences. and 8. There are deployment teams who are used to assist in targeting hot spots for vehicle and other crime. over 1. ANPR technology continues to be used across the United Kingdom.000 pounds total). however.8% of arrests were made for theft or burglary offences. In nearly two-thirds (61 per cent) of these stops. on average. The results of this evaluation also demonstrated that the ANPR technology contributed to a substantial increase in arrests (Pughe. equivalent to approximately one stop per hour. no date).543 vehicles were stopped by intercept teams resulting in 13. again suggesting a need for policy outlining a response priority scheme. the Hampshire Constabulary uses ANPR to prevent and detect terrorism. Currently.499 arrests. and five instances of recovery of other stolen property (PA Consulting Group. The results also indicated that the police could expect a substantial increase in the amount and value of goods they recovered. 10. One-quarter of the arrests were for disqualified. workload concerns continued to exist. This initial study also provided the Home Office with descriptions of the quantity of vehicles on the road violating insurance or other traffic regulations. the data also highlighted the limited ability of the intercept teams to respond to the volume of hits they received. In total.30 In total. The results of this study were similar to the first study. The Metropolitan Police Service operates four ANPR units who work across London. 200 arrests per month (Metropolitan Police Service. 2003). ANPR was beneficial to police forces by providing better efficiency in the deployment of officers. In effect. arrests were made in nearly 4-8% of the vehicle stops. In effect.000 stolen vehicles were recovered over this period (PA Consulting. seven instances of drug seizures (equivalent to approximately 3. three instances involving the recovery of other stolen goods (equivalent to approximately 23. volume crime. a constable using ANPR technology could expect to encounter: the recovery of 11 stolen vehicles (equivalent to approximately 68. enforced an arrest). Over this one year period. In 2005 and 2006. However. and the number of vehicles owned or operated by persons of interest (PA Consulting Group. police were only able to respond to 13% of hits (PA Consulting Group. 2004). 2003).g. A second evaluation was conducted between June 2003 and June 2004 with 24 police forces (PA Consulting Group. 2007). For instance. A further 16.300 pounds total). uninsured. 2004). 2006). 180. two seizures of weapons and/or firearms. 2003). On an annual basis.

Monday to Friday. on vehicles going both in and out – this gives up to four chances to capture the number plates of a vehicle entering and exiting the zone. These offenders have a photograph taken of their plate by the ALPR cameras and receive a ticket in the mail. to catch drivers who violate speed limits (Jenkins. A reduced fee of £9 is paid by vehicle owners who sign up for the automatic deduction scheme. in several jurisdictions.31 Charge zones – the London congestion charge The London congestion charge scheme uses 230 cameras and ANPR to help monitor vehicles in the charging zone.500 cameras. and 6:00 p. The US has also used plate recognition technology at border crossings with Mexico and Canada to track auto theft (Canadian Press NewsWire. The video streams are transmitted to a data centre located in central London where the ANPR software deduces the registration plate of the vehicle. ALPR has been used to track potential terrorists. 2007).m. Transport for London (TfL) uses ANPR systems and charges motorists a daily fee of £10 paid before 10pm if they enter. the United States has also introduced plate recognition technology. In 2007. 2007). Both front and back number plates are being captured. There are also a number of mobile camera units which may be deployed anywhere in the zone. primarily in the form of ―red light cameras‖ (Jenkins. Fines for traveling within the zone without paying the charge are £60 per infraction if paid before the deadline.m. A second data centre provides a backup location for image data. doubling to £120 per infraction thereafter. The London congestion charge is an example of a system that charges motorists entering a payment area. A recent study of ALPR technology in the state of Ohio emphasized 31 . It is estimated that around 98% of vehicles moving within the zone are caught on camera. leave or move around within the congestion charge zone between 7 a. The United States Over the past several years. This technology will also be used. There are currently 1. 150 American cities utilized this technology to catch those who drove through red lights. This list is then compared with a list of cars whose owners/operators have paid to enter the zone – those that have not paid are fined. 2006).. which use Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) technology. The registered owner of such a vehicle is looked up in a database provided by the DVLA. More recently.

2004). As previously discussed. installing. and maintaining ALPR technology. recovery of stolen goods. and other agencies that is linked with the ALPR technology in police cruisers. in addition to the cost of buying. are prohibited from driving. By driving through traffic corridors in cities across Canada. Over the four month period. or prohibited drivers. 2004). and/or conducting further searches of licence plates. 2007). police can use ALPR technology linked to criminal justice and insurance databases to identify those drivers who. Additional staffing costs may also be incurred. The state of Ohio studied the effectiveness of ALPR technology over a four month period in 2004.000 in federal funding. wherever possible. Nearly one-third (30 per cent) of the tolls are tracked through licence plate recognition technology allowing for faster movement of traffic as the need to stop and physically pay the toll is eliminated (Commission for Integrated Transport. the technology also offers police a potentially useful tool for identifying and recovering stolen vehicles. criminal justice. The United Kingdom established a central data warehouse in London containing information from insurance. ALPR was introduced in British Columbia as part of a pilot study in 2006. did not provide information on unlicenced. uninsured.32 the recovery of two stolen trailers demonstrating the technology‘s potential utility for homeland security (McClellan. It is important to note that the ALPR technology used in this study was only linked to databases on stolen vehicles and wanted persons and. whether in the form of additional police on the roads utilizing this technology or the hiring of additional staff to assist in confirming hits. One way to offset these resource increases may be to. Schuurman (2007) recently produced an analysis of the use of this technology in parking lots in Surrey. using $61. ALPR technology has been used in Toronto for toll-collection purposes. and increases in positive public perceptions of the police (Schuurman. updating the databases. Canada ALPR technology in Canada has only recently been implemented for use with traffic and other criminal violations. British Columbia. The Highway 407 Express Toll Route was introduced in 1997. no date). there are several issues that must be considered prior to the widespread use of ALPR technology in Canada. therefore. must be weighed against the costs recovered through the use of this system. Using information obtained through 32 . These results were 50% higher than results during the same time period one year previous. for instance. use civilian volunteers. the state highway patrol apprehended 23 criminal suspects and recovered 24 stolen vehicles valued at US $220. ALPR has the potential to allow Canadian police forces to engage in proactive policing. Still. beginning in August 2004. It allows drivers to use the express route for a toll fee that is recorded electronically. or are driving uninsured vehicles. have outstanding warrants. including reductions in criminal activity. The cost of warehousing this data.000 (McClellan.

876 licence plates were scanned.4 per cent). for example. and stolen vehicles.8 per cent). Schuurman (2007) concluded that the deployment of ALPR technology exclusively to parking lots would not be the most efficient use of the system. uninsured drivers. prohibited drivers (4. Of these. 21.9 per cent). Over the course of this study.33 the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) and the Motor Vehicle Branch (MVB). Nearly three-quarters (72 per cent) of the hits occurred between 3pm and 7pm. To collect the data for this initial study. Schuurman‘s (2007) results indicated that 1. especially to locate and recover stolen vehicles. Given that there is limited information available to date on the use of ALPR technology. there were. nearly all (97. Scanned plate images were compared to the CPIC and MVB databases.6% of scanned plates resulted in a ‗hit‘. in determining whether it is more beneficial to have police equipped with ALPR technology drive their usual patrol routes or travel exclusively within known ―hot spots‖ (Schuurman. It was concluded that using the technology in a stationary format along major intersections or installing it in mobile units that patrolled the jurisdiction‘s main roads would likely be more effective for identifying stolen vehicles. The current study intends to provide some initial data regarding the use of ALPR technology in British Columbia. and over two-thirds (69. 33 . 2007). four hits every hour (Schuurman. 2007). lists of vehicles of interest2 were populated on a daily basis and uploaded to the patrol car‘s onboard computer. on average. research must be conducted to determine the extent to which such technology is useful to Canadian police forces. The Hot Lists were for unlicenced vehicles.7 per cent) of the scans accurately captured the car‘s licence plate.e. Such research can be used to inform deployment strategies. The remaining hits were for unlicenced (i.8 per cent) of hits were for unlicenced drivers. In fact. uninsured) vehicles (23. and stolen cars (1. one unmarked patrol vehicle drove through 31 Surrey parking lots scanning the licence plates of parked cars over the period of one week. prohibited drivers. Canada.


8 Algorithm
8.1 Algorithm for ANPR system 1. Input image from webcam. 2. Convert image into binary. 3. Detect number plate area. 4. Segmentation. 5. Number identification. 6. Save to file in given format. 8.2 Input Image from file. 1. Capture image from webcam. 2. Store the captured image into a image file for further processing. 8.3 Convert image into binary. 1. Identify the intensity of the image. If image intensity = high Reduce intensity Else if intensity = low Increase intensity Else No change. 2. Convert image into grayscale. 3. Calculate appropriate threshold value for the image. 4. Convert the image into binary image using the calculated threshold. 8.4 Segmentation 1. Crop the image. 2. Filter the noise level present in the image. 3. Clip the plate area in such a way that only numbers of plate area extracted. 4. Separate each character from the plate. 8.5 Number identification 1. Create the template file from the stored template images. 2. Resize image obtained from segmentation to the size of template.


3. Compare each character with the templates. 4. Store the best matched character. 8.6 Save to file in given format 1. Open a text file in write mode. 2. Store the character obtained from the number identification process to text file in given format. 3. Close the file.



Overview of the Vehicle license plate System

Fig 8.1

1: Original Image Fig 9.2 : Cropped Figure 37 . As the license plate surrounding is of no importance. this cropping process will highly increase the speed of image processing. The figure below shows the copping of image: Fig 9.37 9 Image Acquisition The initial phase of image processing for Vehicle License Plate Recognition is to obtain images of vehicles. 9.1 Image Cropping Image cropping is a recognition process whereby it will extract the smallest rectangle which will contains the edge of the license plate and license plate itself. Electronic devices such as optical (digital/video) camera. For this project. vehicle images will be taken with a Panasonic FX 30 digital camera. Next. webcam etc can be used to capture the acquired images. we might proceed in using the Matlab function to convert the vehicle JPEG image into gray scale format. The images will be stored as colour JPEG format on the camera.

white) and the rest will be set to 0 (black). The pixel of grey level above the threshold will be set to 1 (equal to 255. The application is as:  Text interpreting  Identify the object orientations Next. The image is made up of a matrix squares which is called Pixel.2.3 38 . It is useful as the information we need can be obtained from the silhouette of the object.2 Conversion of RGB Images to Binary Images In order facilitate the next process smoothly and reducing the processing time. Each pixel in the image has a brightness value which is known as grey level. We will obtain white object with black background or vice versa. The characteristic function for the image object is classify below: Fig 9.38 9. 9. Binary Images are obtained by converting the input image into grayscale format. Binary images is the simplest process and has apply to many other application. the image obtain is being converted to Binary Image. The conversion is done by using the toolbox in MATLAB (im2bw).1 What is Binary Images It is an image which quantatised into two values representing 0 and 1 or in pixel values of 0 and 255 representing the colour black and white. then by converting the grayscale image to binary image by thresholding.

5 : Histogram of object and background which is close 39 .39 Below will illustrate different type of histogram images Fig 9.4: Histogram of light object with dark background. Frequency Fig 9.

9.3 Colour Image Processing RGB Colour Space The RGB image is made of colour pixels of an M x N x 3 array. there is difficulty in choosing the threshold as the histogram is no more bimodal This root cause is due to the variations of light or colours in the images.6 40 . Fig 9. The colour space is normally graphically shown as RGB colour cube.The schematic of the RGB cube that illustrate both the primary and secondary colour at each vertex is shown below. The cube vertex consists of the primary colour (Red.40 In this circumstance. Magenta and Yellow). Green and Blue) and the secondary colour (Cyan.

41 Fig 9.8 : Binary mage 41 .7 : Original Image Fig 9.

10. For the complement binary image. zeros will become ones or ones will become zeros. contrast manipulation. black will becomes white and white will be come black . binary or true color image. the value of each pixel will be subtracted by the maximum pixel value which is supported by the class. 42 .42 10 IMAGE ENHANCEMENT The aim of this process is to increase and improve the visibility of the image. Therefore. For the complement of the true color image. color image processing and image segmentation as well. the light areas will become darker and the darker area will become lighter. 10.2 MEDFILT2 Median filtering is a nonlinear operation often used in image processing to reduce "salt and pepper" noise. The pixel value obtained by the differences will be used in the output image.1 IMCOMPLEMENT Imcomplement will compute the complement image(IM). A median filter is more effective than convolution when the goal is to simultaneously reduce noise and preserve edges. Image Enhancement techniques consists process of sharpening the edges image. reducing noise. IM can intensity.

or a thresholding algorithm can compute a value automatically. Fast and cheap. however. does not require much specific knowledge of the image. An initial threshold (T) is chosen. users can manually choose a threshold value.1 Threshold Selection The key parameter in the thresholding process is the choice of the threshold value (or values. is the following iterative method: 1. The regions of the images are classified by the reflectivity and absorption of light on its surface. 43 . In such cases a unimodal threshold selection algorithm may be more appropriate. the mean or median will work well as the threshold. they should also be brighter than the average. It also transform the input image(K) into an output binary image (F) which is being segmented. F (x. the rationale being that if the object pixels are brighter than the background. It is still greatly used in applying on the applications in the market due to certain reason. this may be computationally expensive. this will generally not be the case. The value of threshold (T) is being selected and compare with the pixel of the image. However.y)>=T. Several different methods for choosing a threshold exist. A simple method would be to choose the mean or median value. = 0 if K (x. In a noiseless image with uniform background and object values. One method that is relatively simple.y) =1 for image object.43 11 Thresholding Image thresholding enjoys the central position of any application in the process of image segmentation. A more sophisticated approach might be to create a histogram of the image pixel intensities and use the valley point as the threshold. this can be done randomly or according to any other method desired. often making the selection of an accurate threshold difficult. 11. as mentioned earlier). Thresholding is one of the oldest segmentation method.y) < T.y) = 1 if K (x. which is known as automatic thresholding . One of the simplest process will be the Gray-level thresholding. and image histograms may not have clearly defined valley points. but that the actual pixel values have some variation around these average values. F (x. Representing F (x. and is robust against image noise.y) = 0 for background of the object and T = threshold. The histogram approach assumes that there is some average values for both the background and object pixels.

Image is form up of square matrixes called pixels and each pixels in the image have a brightness level known as gray level. 11. nth row) 3. in which the modes are overlapping. Go back to step two. 1. f(m. For other cases. The threshold value which is selected is use to reduce the intraclass variance between the white and black pixels. We can use the graythresh toolbox function to calculate the threshold value by using Otsu‘s method.3 Adaptive Thresholding The vehicle number plate can be partially illustrated.2 Global Thresholding This is a method whereby the histogram of the image is being partitioned using a single threshold value. 44 . The image is segmented into object and background pixels as described above. until convergence has been reached). 11. m1= average value of G1 2.n) is the value of the pixel located in the mth column. creating two sets: 1. the threshold will try to reduce the error of taking the background pixels as object pixel and vice versa.. T‘ = (m1+m2)/2 5. m2= average value of G2 4. G1= {f(m.e. now using the new threshold computed in step four. the value of the threshold will be taken in the middle of the bimodal. A new threshold is created that is the average of m1and m2 1. If the histogram is bimodal. This iterative algorithm is a special one-dimensional case of the k-means clustering algorithm. its can solve the disadvantages of the global thresholding as it computes the value of the threshold for every pixel separately using the neighborhood. which has been proven to converge at a local minimum— meaning that a different initial threshold may give a different final result. The average of each set is computed.n) T} (background pixels) (note.n):f(m. By using the adaptive thresholding. The value of the gray level varies from the darkest (0) to the brightest (255).44 2.n):f(m. keep repeating until the new threshold matches the one before it (i. G2= {f(m.n)>T} (object pixels) 2. The threshold defines the value of the gray level in which the baseline boundary is in between the foreground pixels and the background. This is a common reason why global thresholding fail.

1 Filtering In this pre-processing stage. 45 . Next. blurring with liner/non liner filter is able to achieve noise reduction. bridging of gaps in curves and lines. In order to reduce the background noise. Thus. We can apply convention techniques such as softening and sharpening. we have managed to obtain the black and white image of the Vehicle License Plate. We will be enlarging the signal from the received light photons when we are using the digital camera with a higher ISO setting. Blurring is used in the preprocessing step which involved in removing and cleaning up of small patches and details from the image prior to object extraction. 12. the electrical noise from the background will be higher than the signal. we need longer time for the image sensor for collection of weak signal. The reason of noise contamination on the image is categorised as below:  There will be not enough light source for proper exposure to activate in a low light area/ Therefore. it will reproduce another binary image.3 FILTERING OF DIGITS Now. 12. From the amplification of the signal. It has been cropped to a rectangular shape in which it enhances the algorithm to be more uniformed in the further stages. Noise in the images is appears as the colour speckles whereby there should not be any.45 12 IMAGE NOISE Digital camera with long exposure time setting and high ISOs will produced images with lots of noise. In this circumstance. 12.2 Binary area open (Bwareaopen) The MATLAB toolbox function provide a bwareaopen function in which it removes the connected component which have fewer than P pixel. the electrical noise in the background is also being amplified.P). The syntax is as bellowed: BW2 = bwareaopen(BW. filtering process is used for blurring and for noise reduction and thus resulting a more sharpen image. softening is often applied to the low pass filter and it will affect the image to become blurring.

effects on JPEG compression. The pixel of 0 represents the background and pixel of 1 will make up the first object. The 2 stages for the algorithm is as follows: 1) Remove out the small objects or connected components. frame lines.1 : Binary image with Noise For the above image. By Filtering. the pixel of 2 will label the second object. 46 . the image is only left with characters and digits in which we are interested. After the component has been labelled.4 Identify and remove away the small connected objects For this stage. we use 8-connected (8 specify 8-connected objects). 12. so on and so for. sand. object or substance which is not digits/characters such as screws. we are able to remove or filter out the unwanted substances or noise that is not a character or digits. Below illustrate an example of filtering process. The component can have a value of either 4-connected or 8-connected. Fig 12. The elements of labels (stated in the algorithm) contains integer values that will be greater than or equal to 0. In this algorithm. 2) Identify the frame line that is connected to the digits and separate it. they will obtain a unique number. we need to identify the connected components. water droplet. Lastly. 141 connected components are found in the BW image.46 The non-digits substance which appears in the image is caused by the noise (quantization that will transform to ‗Black‘).

Therefore. we have apply the median filter and bwareaopen (Image Processing Toolbox) whereby it will remove all the connected components from the binary image that have value less than P pixels. Next. 47 . in which it will produce another binary image. components with less than 6000 is classify as non digits components and need to be taken away.47 Fig 12.2 : Binary Image after Filtering.

[L Ne]=bwlabel(imagen). disp(Ne). The process of the feature extraction is to transform the bitmap data into a form of descriptor in which more suitable for computer. img_r=same_dim(~n1). letter=read_letter(img_r). imshow(~n1). The normalized character description is based on the external characteristics as we only work for properties on the shape of the character. If we classify the similar character into classes. n1=imagen(min(r):max(r). we will be trying out first category segmentation method. Segmentation process can be categorized into several parts.c] = find(L==n). The feature of the image is represented by a histogram.min(c):max(c)).48 13 Image Segmentation Image segmentation plays an important and critical step that lead to the analysis of the processed image data. The algorithm below will represent how the extraction is being carried out and extracted figure is illustrated as below. This will lead to a success in pattern recognition process. In order to extract and analyzed the object characteristic. word=[word letter]. 13. Secondly is the boundary-based segmentation. For this project. which is by using threshold. vertical or diagonal edges etc. The color or texture of the image is basically the internal representation whereas the external representation is based on the characteristic of the shapes. Firstly is the global Knowledge of an image. the process need to partition the image into different parts that will have a strong correlation with the objects. for n=1:Ne [r. the descriptor of the character from the same class is close to each other in the vector space. end 48 . Lastly will be the edge-based segmentation.1 FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM DIGITAL IMAGE The digital image description is depends on the external and internal representation. The descriptor vector includes the characteristics as the number of lines. The process uses the edge detection to obtain the region contours and the objects will construct from the obtain contours.

it will be compare with data set in the database and provide an output if the image is recognized correctly.1 13. The class recognition will check if the computed ratio is correct.49 Plotted Bounding Box Fig 13. thus it can be accessed easily and updated. The database would be enlarged in order to improve the accuracy and better chances of obtaining the correct result. Database can be in the form of text. Database is needed to make sure that the image space can contained enough characters which have been extracted and the vehicle license plated number stored in the excel sheet for the purpose of comparison. contents and images.2 Database It is a collection of information or data which it is being orderly organize. If the class has match correctly. It will ignore the class if the image thresholding is too low. 49 .

For this reason normalized cross-correlation has been computed in the spatial domain. see Lewis . The new algorithm in some cases provides an order of magnitude speedup over spatial domain computation of normalized cross correlation. For the project.1 Cross Correlation The use of cross-correlation for template matching is motivated by the distance measure (squared Euclidean distance) . In the expansion of d2 50 . Textbook presentations of correlation describe the convolution theorem and the attendant possibility of efficiently computing correlation in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform. (where f is the image and the sum is over x. 14. Unfortunately the normalized form of correlation (correlation coefficient) preferred in template matching does not have a correspondingly simple and efficient frequency domain expression.1 Normalization In this phase.y under the window containing the feature t positioned at u. the extracted characters are resized to fit the characters into a window.v). An algorithm for obtaining normalized cross correlation from transform domain convolution has been developed.2. 14. each character is normalized to the size of (42x24) binary image and then follow by reshape to standard dimension before sending the data set to the next for comparison with the templates.50 14 Character Recognition 14.2 Template Matching The correlation between two signals (cross correlation) is a standard approach to feature detection as well as a component of more sophisticated techniques. Due to the computational cost of spatial domain convolution. several inexact but fast spatial domain matching methods have also been developed.

If the term constant then the remaining cross-correlation term is approximately is a measure of the similarity between the image and the feature.51 the term is constant. 51 .

Fig 15. the figure illustrate below lead to wrong recognition of the character.2 : Recognition: MH01AX7946 52 .52 15 ANALYSIS OF RESULT Tests are conducted according to the modular form 15. For instance.1 Recognition : D6LH4CNEB800 Fig 15.1 Extracting of Individual Digits Determine the angle of the Vehicle License Plate. It is generally important when capturing the vehicle image.

53 To improve in the cropping of image. we can make the difference between the digits and background inside the license plate. Below illustrate a example of the scenario: Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects) imagen = bwareaopen(imagen. 15. Next. we can also include an algorithm where we can change the image of the four coordinates to a standard rectangle size or manually crop the image. 15. After much study the MATLAB toolbox syntax. I have experience loosing out character when performing the extracting process. To improve on the performance of the character recognition.2 Vehicle Quantization and Equalization For some rare cases. high contrast image. we have managed to make adjustment on the value and apply the skill of binary area open (BWAREAOPEN) in which help to remove the small object too. the binarized image do not allow to make the difference between the background and the digits. we can improve on the accuracy of capturing of vehicle image. low contrast image.6000). figure. Fig 15. such as very dark image.imshow(imagen). Equalization and quantization allow to obtain a gray scale image with improve contrast between digit and the background.3 Checking and Verification of the Statistic In the midst of trying out other car plate. This will result fail recognition of the vehicle license plate.3 53 .

Fig 15.54 Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects) imagen = bwareaopen(imagen.7000). figure.imshow(imagen).4 54 .

based on threshold. called the target image. When you are finished sizing and positioning the crop rectangle. create the cropped image by double-clicking the left mouse button or by choosing Crop Image from the context menu.Bwlabel . Imcomplement .measures a set of properties for each labelled region.Open file. Imcrop .creates an interactive Crop Image tool associated with the image displayed in the current figure. 5. When the Crop Image tool is active. In the complement of a binary image. 3. 12. 6.Regionprops . 9. resizable rectangle that you can position interactively using the mouse. Using the mouse.Convert image to binary image. or obtain information about open files. black and white are reversed. 55 . you specify the crop rectangle by clicking and dragging the mouse. Im2bw .Global image threshold using Otsu's method. Graythresh . 8. Rgb2gray .returns the sizes of each dimension of an image in matrix a and b. 10. Medfilt2 . The Crop Image tool is a moveable. 11. 2. You can move or resize the crop rectangle using the mouse.computes the complement of the image.55 16 List of functions used 1.returns in num the number of connected objects found in BW. zeros become ones and ones become zeros.Bwareaopen . Size .Performs median filtering of the matrix A using the default 3by-3 neighborhood. The output image BW replaces all pixels in the input image with luminance greater than level with the value 1 (white) and replaces all other pixels with the value 0 (black). the pointer changes to cross hairs when you move it over the target image. Fopen .Morphologically open binary image (remove small objects). 4.Convert RGB image or colormap to grayscale. Imread : Read image from graphics file. imcrop returns the cropped image 7.

1] and Curvature [0. without printing the array name.Largest elements in array. 19.Corr2 . 23.Write text to device. 22.Disp . 21.Determine whether array is empty.0. 56 .1.Imshow .Min .Max. 14.Close one or more open files. 16. no curvature).Smallest elements in array.Isempty .Resize image.Rectangle . 20.Fprintf .displays an array.0] (i.Find ..Display image.Fclose .Find indices and values of nonzero elements.56 13.draws a rectangle with Position [0.e.Resize . 15. 18.2-D correlation coefficient. 17.

propied(n).%pause(10). % Show image binary image figure.1 Algorithm to extract characters ( extractdigit. title('INPUT IMAGE WITHOUT NOISE') word=[].57 17 CODE 17.threshold). 'at').imshow(image).%Storage matrix word from image fid = fopen('log. image = medfilt2(image). [L num]=bwlabel(image). image=imread('exp4. pause(1) image = imcrop(image). end % Convert to binary image threshold = graythresh(image). hold on for n=1:size(propied.jpg').'EdgeColor'.imshow(image). image =~im2bw(image.1) rectangle('Position'. disp(num).6000).m).'BoundingBox'). title('INPUT IMAGE WITH NOISE') % Convert to gray scale if size(image.imshow(~image). % Show image figure. % Remove all object containing fewer than 6000 pixels image = bwareaopen(image.%Opens a text for append in order to store the number plates for log.title('binary image').'LineWidth'.2) end hold off pause (1) 57 . figure.3)==3 % RGB image imagen=rgb2gray(image).BoundingBox. propied=regionprops(L.txt'.'g'.

'------------------------------------\n').m) function letter=read_letter(imagn) comp=[]. pause(0. elseif vd==2 letter='B'. 17. word=[word letter].'.word).'Extraction Success'). fprintf(fid.\nExtracted Number plate:.n}. elseif vd==3 58 . if vd==1 letter='A'.word.min(c):max(c)).txt file to see the stored number.\nSee the log.imagn). msgbox(sprintf('Number Plate Extraction successful.imshow(~n1). figure.'Number Plate:-%s\nDate:-%s\n'.5) end fprintf(fid. n1=image(min(r):max(r).[42 24]).%s . load templates for n=1:36 sem=corr2(templates{1. word=[]. end vd=find(comp==max(comp)).3 Algorithm to read letters (read_letter.m) function img_r=same_dim(imagen_g) img_r=imresize(imagen_g. letter=read_letter(img_r).c] = find(L==n).2 Algorithm of Normalisation of characters (same_dim. 17.58 figure for n=1:num [r. fclose(fid). img_r=same_dim(~n1). comp=[comp sem].date).

elseif vd==4 letter='D'. elseif vd==15 letter='O'. elseif vd==8 letter='H'. elseif vd==14 letter='N'. elseif vd==5 letter='E'.59 letter='C'. elseif vd==19 letter='S'. elseif vd==22 letter='V'. elseif vd==12 letter='L'. elseif vd==9 letter='I'. 59 . elseif vd==10 letter='J'. elseif vd==18 letter='R'. elseif vd==13 letter='M'. elseif vd==11 letter='K'. elseif vd==6 letter='F'. elseif vd==17 letter='Q'. elseif vd==24 letter='X'. elseif vd==16 letter='P'. elseif vd==21 letter='U'. elseif vd==23 letter='W'. elseif vd==20 letter='T'. elseif vd==7 letter='G'.

elseif vd==30 letter='4'. elseif vd==31 letter='5'. elseif vd==29 letter='3'. elseif vd==32 letter='6'. elseif vd==33 letter='7'. elseif vd==35 letter='9'. else letter='0'.60 elseif vd==25 letter='Y'. elseif vd==26 letter='Z'. elseif vd==28 letter='2'. end 60 . %*-*-*-*-* elseif vd==27 letter='1'. elseif vd==34 letter='8'.

1 Experimental results Extracted Number plate: MH12EM2587 Extracted Number plate: MH12FF7461 Extracted Number plate: MH12DM3909 61 .61 18 Result Analysis and Discussion 18.

62 Extracted Number plate:LMH12CD9736 Extracted Number plate:LK00A53N6523 Extracted Number plate: MH12HN0389 62 .

Perhaps the most important conclusion reached from this study is that the utility of ALPR depends on volume.2 Discussion Although ALPR technology has been promoted as being capable of reading in excess of 3. the current results suggest that this capability is significantly overstated in actual road tests.63 Extracted Number plate: MH14CS7710 Extracted Number plate:MH12DE94 Extracted Number plate: MH01AX7946 18.000 plates per hour. but traffic volume and the design of Surrey streets may impede this read rate. The technology may have the capacity to read more plates. The initial analysis of parking lot data produced by Schuurman (2007) suggested that parking lot 63 .

as currently operated in Surrey. Despite the promise that ALPR technology holds for catching stolen vehicles. The likelihood of this scenario occurring is extremely low. Unfortunately. There are two main reasons why ALPR. the frequency of hits exceeded what a typical patrol unit could respond to during a shift. the nature of hits was basically uniform for all of the assigned traffic corridors and the proportions held when considered by time of day or day of month. Rather. this result should not have been unexpected. As a consequence.64 deployment was dependent upon the number of vehicles in parking lots and. First. remove the variable of a roving ALPR which likely reduces success. the stolen car had to be on the road in Surrey. at least. in order to maximize efficiency. Importantly. However. 64 . for a stolen vehicle to be detected by an ALPR-enabled vehicle. considering the results of this phase of the project. and at the exact location where a moving ALPR-enabled vehicle could photograph its licence plate. the same conclusions applied to this road test of the technology. to train volunteers who can assist the police in filtering through database hits. substantiating which calls are valid and which must receive priority attention to lessen the burden on patrol officers. In effect. it may be more beneficial to use stationary cameras along a large number of intersections. the current study results also indicated that stolen vehicles represented a very small proportion (approximately one per cent) of all licence plate hits. the greater the number of raw hits. In other words. for the most part. along one of the four traffic corridors assigned for that day. ALPR requires a meeting in time and space between the police cruiser and the stolen vehicle. and. it was all about the number of hits. as suggested above. Given this. was not effective in locating stolen vehicles. detachments must design response schemes to prioritize which hits officers respond to. police forces operating ALPR technology may want to focus on high volume traffic corridors during the day shift. the more cars scanned. for the most part. In both cases. An important consideration raised by this research has to do with prioritizing responses and the allocation of scarce resources. at least 24 hours after the car had been stolen. If patrol officers are faced with a significant increase in the number of hits as a result ALPR deployment. the hit list that the ALPR-enabled vehicle searched against was 24 hours old. until such time as ALPR-enabled vehicles have access to real-time data and there are many more ALPR-enabled police cruisers on the road at the same time. However. these statistics were not improved in the current analysis. the fact that officers could expect several hits per hour requires the design of a response priority scheme and increase patrol units to manage the increased workload. Second. it may be possible. if the objective is to identify stolen vehicles as this will. A large advertising campaign can inform the public about the nature and use of this technology which may result in the public being less willing to violate traffic regulations.

such as Victoria. Circumvention techniques. This is because the likelihood of an unauthorized car having such a similar license plate is seen as quite small. Some small-scale systems allow for some errors in the license plate. For the future works and suggestion on improvements. However.65 19 Difficulties and Recommendations There are a number of possible difficulties that the software must be able to cope with. 65 . Australia. particularly motion blur. While some of these problems can be corrected within the software. Increasing the height of the camera may avoid problems with objects (such as other vehicles) obscuring the plate but introduces and increases other problems. An object obscuring (part of) the plate. such as the adjusting for the increased skew of the plate. A different font. quite often a tow bar. or dirt on the plate. Poor lighting and low contrast due to overexposure. reflection or shadows. though in some countries and jurisdictions. Bikes on bike racks can also obscure the number plate. tow bars may obscure one or two characters of the license plate. Blurry images. When running the main. Lack of coordination between countries or states. the decision may be made to have an acceptable error rate of one character. "bike plates" are supposed to be fitted. These include:        Poor image resolution. popular for vanity plates (some countries do not allow such plates. When used for giving specific vehicles access to a barricaded area. these are the steps which are recommended:  Modification is needed to be done on the offset of detecting the rectangular plate or by applying other technique to the system. it is primarily left to the hardware side of the system to work out solutions to these difficulties. usually because the plate is too far away but sometimes resulting from the use of a low-quality camera. this level of inaccuracy would not be acceptable in most applications of an ANPR system. eliminating the problem).m file. Two cars from different countries or states can have the same number but different design of the plate. it is able to detect and recognize some of the zoom in car vehicle license plate but fail on the image of cars with headlights. On some cars.

 There should be improvement on the decision of the algorithm and ways to detect error.66  We only use the black and white image of the Vehicle license plate. When the probability of recognition guess is correct but falls below the threshold. the recognition system should refuse to make the decision. 66 . For future implementation. we can use RGB to HSV or RGB to CMY method to deal with other type of colour license plate.

segmentation. The problem encountered during the progress of the project include the selection of suitable method such as : sourcing of car images. research and with the help and understanding from the tutor. method of segmentation and recognition of vehicle license plate character and writing of simulation program.67 20 Critical Review and Reflection The development of the project is considered quite successful although we still faced some problems during the progress of the project we managed to solve the problem by doing more reading. we also encountered problems in detection. After doing much research and absorbing more knowledge into MATLAB toolbox. the problem encountered is the selection of software program. During the initial project and development stage. methods on detection. problems were resolved by using the suitable syntax and methods. Next. 67 . we chose MATLAB software as it is easier to implement. After doing much reading and research. recognition of vehicle license plate characters.

increased police efficiency. however. prohibited drivers. officers may miss plates that are. The ALPR technology offers several benefits to police forces.68 21 Conclusion & Future Scope In this report. The ability of ALPR to scan a large number of plates allows for more plates to be scanned faster and more efficiently. However. Given that officers cannot check all the licence plates they encounter while on shift. ALPR also offers an objectivity that may benefit police. The use of ALPR technology might also result in safer police driving as officers would no longer have the added distraction of turning away from the road periodically to manually type in licence plates of interest . police are better able to identify more persons of interest. Most importantly. ALPR has the ability to quickly and efficiently scan a large number of licence plates without any officer intervention. officers could become overwhelmed by the increase in the number of problematic cars to respond to. such as having an officer physically type in a licence plate to scan. identified through experience. This system can be redesigned for multinational car license plates in future studies. Research in the United Kingdom suggested that in responding to the sheer number of hits identified through ALPR. and unlicensed drivers much more quickly than previous police strategies. untoward. giving the overall system performance 92. police must develop strategies that enable officers to prioritize their responses.57% recognition rates. This system is designed for the identification INDIAN license plates and the system is tested over a large number of images. or successful matching between a scanned plate image and a database of interest. While officers currently employ a set of indicators. impeding their ability to efficiently respond not only to ALPR hits. This increases the potential for the recovery of stolen goods as well as convictions. then we separated the plate characters individually by segmentation and finally applied template matching with the use of correlation for recognition of plate characters. Finally it is proved to be %96 for the segmentation of the characters and %80 for the recognition unit accurate. With the potential for an increased number of hits. they are compelled to make a series of decisions concerning which plates to search. detachment-specific schemes may need to be developed. In other 68 . some limitations inherent in the use of such advanced technology. we presented application software designed for the recognition of car license plate. The technology also allows the police to identify uninsured vehicles. as the profile of crime is different in jurisdictions. but to other calls for service. namely. it is highly plausible that through this process. With an increased number of ―hits‖. Research with ALPR has shown several benefits. There are. As a consequence. an officer‘s workload substantially increased. in fact. Firstly we extracted the plate location. with which to select those plates that appear more suspicious.

However. such as insurance companies. and the specific needs of the community. or drivers who are uninsured. as the police develop new technologies. Without the provision of data by which to compare scanned plates. drivers that have been prohibited or have lost their licence. given current fiscal realities in many detachments in Canada. in the event that a plate is not read correctly and the officer deems the plate suspicious. Lastly. research suggested that the ALPR technology reads plates correctly 95% of the time. Much of the work involved in implementing ALPR technology involves building these initial relationships between agencies. priority schemes may need to be individualized. Concerned citizens may accuse police or the government of using the technology to track law-abiding citizens. such as licence plate recognition. 2007). While advances in technology allow for the successful use of systems. those using ALPR technology must have access to data that details information about stolen plates or cars. Again. the number of officers on patrol.69 words. to better respond to priority hits. Either way. e. ALPR technology simply will not succeed. Citizens may equate the use of ALPR technology to ―fishing expeditions‖. In the past. may not be feasible. Deisman (2003) identified that there are limits to the extent that police in Canada can engage in continuous and non-selective monitoring of citizens. vehicles that have been involved in other criminal activity. police forces may find it necessary to increase the number of officers on the road which. Concerns in Canada already exist regarding the use of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in public (Schuurman. it also provides new methods with which to avoid being screened by such technology. Information can either be provided in real time. The efficiency of ALPR technology is entirely dependent upon the successful coordination of agencies. other criminal justice agencies. there will be those who develop the means to defeat these techniques. recognition software has produced extremely low successful recognition rates (Gordon and Wolf. Gordon and Wolf (2007) reported that since the advent of ALPR. depending on the geographic location of hotspots.g. 2007). it is important that officers to retain the ability to investigate the plate more fully and to follow their instincts when observing a suspicious vehicle. Yet. invading their right to privacy. In effect. lists are updated as cars or plates are reported stolen or it can be updated every 24 hours. privacy concerns are also a limitation to the use of ALPR technology. more recently. They noted that one company sells a clear spray (US $30 per can) that the manufacturers claim can make licence plates invisible when read by a camera. some companies have begun to sell products to thwart the technology. as opposed to specifically searching out particular plates based on prior intelligence. For instance. Schuurman 69 . where police simply scan all plates until they get a hit. Moreover. and the motor vehicle branch. ALPR cannot possibly identify plates of interest. without the successful coordination between police forces and agencies.

Still. It is. policies may be put in place that regulate the deleting of collected data on a daily. or yearly basis. 70 . there may be concerns regarding who has access to this data . Essentially. further optimization is required. Citizens may fear the potential for breaches in security. the issues like stains. Therefore to achieve this. However. Future Scope Though we have achieved an accuracy of 80% by optimizing various parameters. blurred regions & different font style and sizes are need to be taken care of. This work can be further extended to minimize the errors due to them. monthly. In conclusion. more research needs to be conducted in order to determine how ALPR technology can be balanced with respect to citizens right for privacy and civil rights. The overriding benefit of ALPR is that it brings a far larger number of offenders to the attention of the police. How to adequately respond to this situation will require careful thinking and planning on the part of the police. ALPR does have a specific utility as its strategic deployment will assist police departments to more effectively response to a variety of auto and driving-related offences. smudges. the results of this study suggest that ALPR technology offers several substantial benefits to the police. Citizens may also have concerns with respect to the maintenance of data in warehouses. and thus make any firm conclusions on its general utility. although further research is needed to determine the extent to which ALPR increases the rate of arrest and has a deterrent effect. Also. . extremely important that considerable thought is given to the safe storage of data and strict regulations regarding who has access to the databases. In addition.70 (2007) also noted that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that privacy rights of citizens are breached by indiscriminate video surveillance without cause. rather than the few offenders the police are able to find during their routine activities. therefore. it is difficult to assess the impact of ALPR on police resources and workloads. it is required that for the task as sensitive as tracking stolen vehicles and monitoring vehicles for homeland security an accuracy of 100% cannot be compromised with. weekly. In responding to concerns of privacy.

 Fine tuning of the integrated block algorithm Task 5 Reporting Writing (28 April 2008 to 1 May 2012)  Allocate at least 1 week for writing the final report. it is important to choose the type of model and syntax that are suitable for Matlab is taken into consideration. we have drafted out the project schedule to follow up closely. Task 4 Testing and Fine Tuning (30 March 2012 to 24th April 2012)  Fine tune on the filtering and calculation of connected components. Thus. Task 3 Construct Matlab software for simulation (24 Feb 2012 to 20 Mar 2012)  Writing and create algorithm for extraction of vehicle license plate character  Writing and simulate the block by integrating all the written algorithm together  Version R2008a for editing. Task1 Research (24 Jan 2012 to 10 Feb 2012)        Research on various methods used for Vehicle License Plate Recognition Conversion of Images Image Thresholding Noise filtering Vehicle License Plate Detection Vehicle License Plate Extraction/Segmentation Vehicle License Plate Recognition Task 2 Development (11 Feb 2012 to 23 Feb 2012)  Determine the value of pixel need for filtering  Determine algorithm for plate detection  Determine algorithm for extraction/segmentation  Determine algorithm for plate recognition. There is interconnected link between the research work and the designing and Implementation process.71 Annexure A: Project Plan & Progress Report For developing the project. 71 .

―Digital ImageProcessing using MATLAB‖  Rafael C. Dr. ― International Edition Digital Image Processing Second Edition‖  John C.‖An Engineer‘s Guide To Matlab‖  ALGORITHMIC AND MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES OF AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS.com/access/helpdesk/help/toolbox/nnet/nnet_product_page. Russ. LINDA MEROLA. It is a very user friendly device as it will guide and explain to us on the specific toolbox in which we will be using.com/access/helpdest/help/techdoc/mathlab_product_page2.Hopgood. Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy.ht ml#printable_pdf. Irwin M. Gonzalez and Richard E. ―Introduction To Matlab 7 For Engineers  Magrab. and Amanda V. Palm III.  CYNTHIA LUM. McCormick SCHOOL of CRIMINOLOGY and CRIMINAL JUSTICE University College of the Fraser Valley. AND BREANNE CAVE .ht ml  Matlab software version R2008a. Richard E. Woods and Steven L.  Dr. ―The Image Processing Handbook‖  Adrian A.Edward B.72 References  Rafael C. Eddins. Woods.‖Intelligent Systems for Engineers and Scientists‖  William J.  Mathworks. Darryl Plecas. Cohen. Gonzalez. George Mason University . JULIE WILLIS. LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY (LPR) IMPACT EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT . A Report on the Utility of the Automated Licence Plate Recognition System in British Columbia 72 . Author ONDREJ MRTINSKY  Lecture notes  Mathworks.

2002. Fahmy. Irecki. Pluim. Ter Brugge.  A.platerecognition. R. 3 1 Aug-2 Sept.A. Helmholt.G.73  D. ―Automatic NumberPlate Recognition. Yang ―Test bed for number plate recognition applications‖.M.K. ―Automatic Number-plate Recognition : Neural Network Approach.G. Bailey. Spaanenburg. B. Nijhuis. 1990. Lim and L.H. and Ergun Ercelebi.A.S. M. 1994  J.A. Test and Applications ( DELTA‘02 ).Serkan Ozbay. Johnson.‖ IEE Colloquium on Electronic Image and Image Processing in Security and Forensic.wikipedia. and AS. Venema.M. 1990.W. V01. M. 1995. 1994.  M. A. Bird.info/ 73 . L. IEEE Computer Society.  R.‖ Proceedings of the IEE Colloquium on Image analysis for Transport Applications. Morgan. D.org/wiki/Vehicle_registration_plates_of_India  http://en.‖ Proceedings of VNIS‘94 Vehicle Navigation and Information System Conference. pp.wikipedia. Proceedings of First IEEE International Workshop on Electronic design.D.6/1-6/6. Lotufo. 1990. Westenberg. ―Number-plateMatching for Automatic Vehicle Identification. B.S.035. K.M. Johnson. 1990. February 16.A.  http://en.P.anpr.org/wiki/Automatic_number_plate_recognition  http://www. J. ―Car License Plate Automatic Vehicle Identification by Plate Recognition Author . Aprl.net/  http://www.

74 74 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful