1

Assignment 7 — Solutions 3/7/04
Problem 5.2
(a)

For a single loop of current I on the x-y plane centered at the origin and observation point at f = 0:
÷” ÷”£
÷”
m0 I ÷ ”
R ÿ a
B1 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅ “ W , W = ® ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
4p
R3
S
`
÷

a£ = v£ v£ f£ z£
` £ , ÷R” = x” £ - x”
` + z z` , x” £ = v£ v
x” = v v
R2 = †x” £ §2 - †x” §2 - 2 x” £ ÿ x” = v£2 + v2 + z2 - 2 v£ v cos f£

JK
R
S
x

K
x

z
JK
da′

JK
x′

y

For z ∫ 0:
W = ‡

2p

0

f£ ‡

2p
∑W
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ‡
f£
∑z
0

= ‡

0

2p

f£

2p
∑W
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ‡
f£
∑v
0

-z v£
v£ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
0
Hv£2 + v2 + z2 - 2 v£ v cos f£ L3ê2
b
3 z v£

y
£ jij- ÅÅÅÅ
v
Å
ÅÅÅ
Å
Å
+
ÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ 2 zzz

3
5
R
2
R
k
{
0
£
£2
2
2
b
v - 2 z - 2 v£ v cos f£ L
£ -v Hv +ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
‡ v ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
0
Hv£2 + v2 + z2 - 2 v£ v cos f£ L5ê2
b
3
z v£ H2 v - 2 v£ cos f£ L
£ ÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
v

2 Hv£2 + v2 + z2 - 2 v£ v cos f£ L5ê2
0
b

∑W
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = 0
∑f
We can imagine the solenoid to be made up of an infinite stack of circular current loops each carrying current I .
Since the system is azimuthally symmetric, fix the observation point x” at f = 0, and since the solenoid is infinitely
long fix z = 0. The total magnetic field is the superposition of fields due to each loop, which we have from above
as a function of relative position of the observation point from a given loop. Thus


m0 I N
÷”
÷”
BHvL = ‡ z N B1 Hv, zL = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡
z
4p

ij ` ∑W
` ∑W y
jz ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ + v ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz
∑v {
k ∑z

∑W ê ∑v is odd in z in the range -¶ < z < +¶, so that integral vanishes. ∑W ê ∑ z is even in the same range, so for
some infinitesimal e > 0:

Printed by Mathematica for Students

2

m0 I N
÷”
BHvL = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
4p
m0 I N
= ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
4p

-e
e

i ∑W y
z N jjz` ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz ì ‡
z = ‡ z = - ‡ z
k ∑z {

-e
e


e
ÄÅ
ÉÑ
e
I
N
∑W
m
Å
Ñ
0
`
Å
Ñ`
‡ z z ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅ lim+ W - lim- WÑÑÑÑ z
zØ0
4
p

z
Ç
Ö
zØ0
-e

J‡

-e

z + ‡

e

z + ‡

The splitting of ranges was necessary because W is discontinuous at z = 0, so ∑W ê ∑ z is proportional to a d-function. For v > a (observation point outside solenoid) limzØ0≤ W = 0 since no angle is subtended by a surface in the
same plane but not inclusive of the observation point. For v < a, the area subtended approaches the entire
hemisphere:

JK
da′

JK
da′

JK
R

ε
lim W = 2 p

zØ0+

JK
R

−ε

lim W = -2 p

zØ0-

ï

lim W - lim- W = 4 p

zØ0+

÷”
B
m0 I N z` , v < a
I N z` , v < a
÷”
÷÷÷”
BHvL = :
ï H HvL ª ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = :
0
, v>a
0
, v>a
m0

zØ0

(b)
Let's assume that a "realistic solenoid" is an infinite helix of outer radius a and with N turns per unit
length, its axis being the z-axis. For a circular Amperian loop concentric with the solenoid and with radius v > a,
the plane of the loop is pierced exactly once by the wire (geometrical property of helical curves), so
2p
÷” ”
a f Bf Hv > a, f, zL = m0 I
‡ B ÿ l = ‡

÷”
For any B -field related quantity f Hv, f, zL, define the average of f over a segment of length L of the solenoid as
X f Hv, f, zL\ ª AŸzz+L z£ f Hv, f, z£ LE ë L. We can argue that X f \ is only a function of v in the limit L Ø ¶:
0

X f \ cannot depend on z because the solenoid is infinite so providing we average over enough turns X f \ should be
invariant under translations in z, which can only be if it is independent of z.

X f \ cannot depend on f because when averaging over sufficiently many turns, a helix is symmetrical under rotations about its axis so the averaged quantity X f \ must also be independent of f.
Thus

Printed by Mathematica for Students

3
z+L
z+L
2p
2p
1
1
Xm0 I\ = ÅÅÅÅÅ ‡
z£ m0 I = ÅÅÅÅÅ ‡
z£ ‡
v f Bf Ha, f, z£ L = [‡
a f Bf _
L z
L z
0
0
2p
z+L
2p
1
1
ÅÅÅÅÅÅ m0 I L = ‡
v f ÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡
z£ Bf Ha, f, z£ L = ‡
v f XBf \v>a
L
L z
0
0

m0 I = XBf \v>a ‡
0
m0 I
XBf \v>a = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
2pv

2p

v f = 2 p XBf \v>a

Similarly an Amperian loop of radius v < b, where b is the inner radius of the solenoid encloses no current, so
XBf \v<b = 0.

We can show by contradiction that XBv \ = 0 everywhere. Suppose that XBv \ ∫ 0. Since XBv \ is independent of f
and z, for a cylindrical Gaussian surface concentric with the solenoid
÷” `
3 ÷ ” ÷”
‡  x “ ÿ XB\ = ® XB\ ÿ n a
V
S
r
2p
= ‡

0

+‡

v ‡

0

z0 +L
z0

z

v f HXBz \z=z0 +L - XBz \z=z0 L

z ‡

2p

0

nˆ = zˆ z=z +L

r

0

z0 + L

r f XBv \v=r

nˆ = ϖˆ ϖ =r

S

z0

nˆ = − zˆ z =z

0

The integrand in the first term vanishes since XBz \ is independent of z. XBv \ is independent of f and z so
÷ ” ÷”
3 ÷ ” ÷”
‡  x “ ÿ XB\ = 2 p r L XBv \ ∫ 0 ï “ ÿ XB\ ∫ 0 somewhere
V

But this is a contradiction of the fact that

z+L
L
1
1
÷ ” ÷”
÷ ” ÷”
÷ ” ÷”
0 = Y“ ÿ B] = ÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡
z£ “ ÿ BHv, f, z£ L = ÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ z£ “ ÿ B Hv, f, z£ L
÷ ” ÷”
L 0
L z
“ ÿB = 0 ï
L
÷” i 1
÷ ” ÷”
÷”
y
= “ ÿ jj ÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ z£ BHv, f, z£ Lzz = “ ÿ XB\
kL 0
{

So it cannot be true that XBv \ ∫ 0.

For a rectangular Amperian loop G lying on a f-constant plane with the "left" edge within the solenoid and the
"right" edge off at infinity:

Printed by Mathematica for Students

4
z0 +L
÷” ”
z£ HBz §v - Bz §v+l L
‡ B ÿ l = ‡
G

z0

+‡

v+L

v

v£ HBv §z0 +L - Bv §z0 L

m0 Ienc = L XBz \ + ‡
Ienc = :

z

v+L

v

ϖˆ

v£ HBv §z0 +L - Bv §z0 L

NIL , v<b
0
, v>a

Xm0 Ienc \ = XL XBz \\ + ‡

v+L

v

−ϖˆ

z0 + L

− zˆ
z0

l

ϖ
v£ HXBv \ §z0 +L - XBv \ §z0 L ï m0 Ienc = L XBz \

Finally we get
l
m0 I N z` , v < b
o
o
÷”
o
m0 I `
XB\ = m
o
o
o ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ f , v > a
n 2pv

Problem 5.3
Let z be the distance from the observation point (chosen to be at the origin) to one of the loops in the solenoid
(carrying current I flowing clockwise as seen in the x-y plane), which then subtends an angle q:
W = ‡

2p

f£ ‡

q

= 2 p H1 - cos qL
∑W
÷”
“ W = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z`
∑z
0

0

q£ sin q£ = -2 p ‡

1

cos q

Hcos q£ L

z

a

θ1

L1

Integrate over all loops using the formula in problem 5.1 to get the magnetic field:

L1
L1
m0 I ÷ ”
m0 N I ∑W
m0 N I
÷”
z N ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ “ W = ‡
z ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z` = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ HW §z=-L2 - W §z=L1 L
B = ‡
4p
4p
∑z
4p
-L2
-L2
m0 N I
m0 N I
= ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ @2 p - cosHp - q2 L - 2 p + cos q1 D = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Hcos q1 + cos q2 L
2
2

Printed by Mathematica for Students

0

θ2

L2

5

Problem 5.6

÷”
For any cylinder of radius R with constant current density J = J z` , Ampere's law for a circular loop G of radius
`
÷”
v < R concentric with the sylinder and on a constant-z plane gives [with B = B HvL f from azimuthal symmetry]:
÷” ”
÷” ÷”
= m0 J p v2
BHvL 2 p v = ® B ÿ l = m0 ‡ J ÿ a
1
1
`
÷”
B = ÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J v f = ÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J H- y x` + x y` L
2
2
G

S

Displacing the cylinder by x0 along the x-axis is accomplished by substituting x Ø x - x0 . By superposition

y

y

JK
J = J zˆ
d

a

x

=

y

JJK
J ′ = −J zˆ
d

x

JJK
J ′′ = J zˆ

+

x

b
1
1
1
÷”
÷”£ ÷”≥
B = B + B = - ÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J @- y x` + Hx - dL y` D + ÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J H- y x` + x y` L = ÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J d y` , v < b
2
2
2

Problem 5.14

÷”
Neglecting end effects we have a 2D problem, i.e. the z = 0 slice taking the cylinder axis as along the z-axis. J = 0
÷”
÷”
everywhere means we can write B = -“ F where the magnetic scalar potential F satisfies Laplace's equation and
can be expanded in Legendre polynomials:
F = ‚ IAl vl + Bl v-Hl+1L M Pl Hcos fL

l
FI , v § a
o
o
o
o II
= m
F
, a§v§b
o
o
o III
o
, b§v
nF
`
÷”
lim F = B0 x = B0 v cos f
lim B = B0 x ï vض
l=0

JK
B0 = B0 xˆ

y

ΦΙΙΙ

vض

The asymptotic form of F implies only the l = 1 term is nonzero in FIII :

Printed by Mathematica for Students

ΦΙΙ

ΦΙ
a

µ0

µ

b

x

6

i
BIII y
FIII = jjjjB0 v + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz cos f
v {
k
Continuity at the II-III and I-II boundaries similarly restricts the expansions to the l = 1 terms. Also in region I
finiteness at v = 0 forces us to drop the 1 ê v term:
i
BII y
FII = jjjj AII v + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz cos f ï FI = AI v cos f
v {
k

The boundary conditions are that B¦ = -∑F ê ∑v and H˛ = -@1 ê m HvL vD ∑F ê ∑f be continuous:
-B¦

Region
I

v§a

II

a§v§b

III

b§v

AIII cos f

BII zy
jij AII - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅ zz cos f
jj
2z
v
k
{
III
ij
B y
jjB0 - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzz cos f
z
j
v2 {
k

-H˛
1
- ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ AIII sin f
m0

BII zy
jij AII + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅ zz sin f
jj
2z
v
k
{
III
i
1
B y
- ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ jjjjB0 + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz sin f
m0 k
v2 {
1
- ÅÅÅÅÅ
m

BII
v = a : AII - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = AIII
a2
m0
m0 i
BII y
BII
i m - m0 y
AII + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ AIII = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ jjjj AII - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz ï BII = a2 jj ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz AIII
2
2
m
m k
a {
a
k 2 m0 {
BIII
BII
v = b : B0 - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = AII - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
b2
b2
III
B
m0 i
BII y
B0 + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ jjjj AII + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz
b2
m k
b2 {

ï

m0 + m
m0 - m BII
B0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ AII + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
2m
2m
b2
m0 + m
i m0 - m y
BIII = b2 jj ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz AII + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ BII
2m
k 2m {

4 m0 m b2 B0
AI = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = 4 m0 m b B0
b2 Hm0 + mL2 - a2 Hm - m0 L2

2 m Hm + m0 L b2 B0
AII = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = 2 m Hm + m0 L b B0
b2 Hm0 + mL2 - a2 Hm - m0 L2

2 m Hm + m0 L b2 a2 B0
BII = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = 2 m Hm - m0 L a2 b B0
b2 Hm0 + mL2 - a2 Hm - m0 L2

-b2 Hm2 + m20 L Hb2 - a2 L B0
BIII = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = -Im2 + m20 M Ib2 - a2 M b B0
b2 Hm0 + mL2 - a2 Hm - m0 L2

Printed by Mathematica for Students

1
b ª ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
b2 Hm0 + mL2 - a2 Hm - m0 L2

7

FI = 4 m0 m b B0 cos f v
i
a2 y
FII = 2 m b B0 jjjjHm + m0 L v + Hm - m0 L ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz cos f
v{
k
by
i
FIII = B0 jjv - Im2 + m20 M Ib2 - a2 M ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz cos f
k
v{
Region
I

1 ∑F
Hv = - ÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
m ∑v
-4 m b B0 cos f

i
a2 y
-2 b B0 jjjjHm + m0 L - Hm - m0 L ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz cos f
v2 {
k
b y
B0 i
- ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ jj1 - Im2 + m20 M Ib2 - a2 M ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz cos f
m0 k
v2 {

II
III

1 ∑F
Hf = - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
m v ∑f
4 m b B0 sin f

i
a2 y
2 b B0 jjjjHm + m0 L + Hm - m0 L ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz sin f
v2 {
k
B0 i
b y
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ jj1 - Im2 + m20 M Ib2 - a2 M ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz sin f
m0 k
v2 {

÷÷÷”
÷”
÷”
Along the axis †H §v=0 = 4 m b B0 = †B§v=0 ë m so †B§v=0 = 4 m2 b B0 , i.e.
÷”
†B§v=0
4 m2 b2
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
B0
b2 Hm0 + mL2 - a2 Hm - m0 L2
4 m2r
= ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
Hmr + 1L2 - Ha ê bL2 Hmr - 1L2

÷”
†B§v=0
log10 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = log10 H4L + 2 log10 Hmr L
B0
-log10 AHmr + 1L2 - Ha ê bL2 Hmr - 1L2 E

÷”
†B§v=0
log10 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
B0
4
log10 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
1 - Ha ê bL2

Problem 5.17
(a) and (b)

mr ª m ê m0
÷”
J Hx, y, zL = Jx Hx, y, zL x` + J y Hx, y, zL y` + Jz Hx, y, zL z`
mr - 1
÷”*
J Hx, y, zL ª ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ @Jx Hx, y, -zL x` + J y Hx, y, -zL y` + Jz Hx, y, -zL z` D
mr + 1

We need to show that the field

Printed by Mathematica for Students

a2 êb2 =0.5
a2 êb2 =0.1

log10 Hmr

8

l
m0
x” - x” £
÷”>
÷” ” £ ÷”* ” £
o
3
£
o
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ , z ¥ 0
B ª ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x AJ Hx L + J Hx LEä ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
o
o
o
4p
o
÷”
†x” - x” £ §3
BHx, y, zL ª m
o
o
m0 2 mr
x” - x” £
÷”<
o
3 £ ÷” ” £
o
o
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
, z§0
o B ª ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x J Hx Lä ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
4 p mr + 1
†x” - x” £ §3
n

(1)

satisfies

÷”
l
÷ ” ÷”
o m0 J , z > 0
“ äB = m
o0
, z<0
n

(2)

÷ ” ÷”
“ ÿB = 0

(3)

÷”> ÷”<
<
IB - B M ÿ z` •z=0 = 0 ï B>
z §z=0 = Bz §z=0

(4)

<
mr B>
x §z=0 = Bx §z=0
÷÷÷”> ÷÷÷”< `
`z äIH
- H M ÿ z•z=0 = 0 ï
mr B>y •
= B<y •

(5)

÷”
(3) is automatic since we've written B in terms of currents. Since
z=0

z=0

x” - x” £
÷ ” m0
÷è”
÷è” ” £
“ ä ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ 3 x£ J Hx” £ Lä ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅ
Å
ÅÅÅÅ
=
m
J
0 Hx L
4p
†x” - x” £ §3

÷è”
for any J , we have

÷”
÷”*
÷”
l
m0 J + m0 J = m0 J , z > 0
o
o
o
÷ ” ÷”
o
“ äB = m
2 mr
÷”
o
o
, z<0
o
o ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J = 0
n mr + 1

÷”*
÷”
since J §z>0 = 0 and J §z<0 = 0. Thus (2) is satisfied.

ƒƒ x`
y`
z` ƒƒƒƒ
ƒƒ
ƒ
ƒ
÷”
ƒ
Jy
Jz Ĥ
J ä Hx” - x” £ L = †ƒ Jx
ƒƒ
ƒƒ
ƒƒƒ x - x£ y - y£ z - z£ ƒƒƒƒ
= x` @Hz - z£ L J y - Hy - y£ L Jz D + y` @Hx - x£ L Jz - Hz - z£ L Jx D + z` @Hy - y£ L Jx - Hx - x£ L J y D

For conciseness in the following integrals the arguments to a function f Hx£ , y£ , z£ L being integrated over will be
suppressed when there is no ambiguity. The image function f Hx£ , y£ , -z£ L will be written as f H-z£ L.
"################################
##################
Hx - x£ L2 + Hy - y£ L2 + z£2
m0
mr - 1
mr - 1
3 £
£ ij
£
£ yz
£ ij
£
£ yz
B>
z §z=0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x Hy - y L j Jx Hz L + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Jx H-z Lz - Hx - x L j J y Hz L + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ J y H-z Lz
mr + 1
mr + 1
4p
k
{
k
{
r0 ª

Printed by Mathematica for Students

1
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
r30

9

A change of variables -z£ Ø z£ takes Ÿ x£ f Hx£ , y£ , -z£ L gHr0 L = Ÿ x£ f Hx£ , y£ , z£ L gHr0 L for any function f and
function g of r0 only, since the range is over all space and r0 is invariant under -z£ Ø z£ . Performing this on the
integrals involving Ji H-z£ L:
m0
B>
z §z=0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
4p

mr - 1 zy
jij1 + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z ‡ 3 x£ @Hy - y£ L Jx - Hx - x£ L J y D
m
+ 1¨¨¨¨¨{Æ
k ¨¨¨¨¨¨¨≠r¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨
´¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨
2 mr êH1+mr L

1
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
r30

Evaluating (1) at z = 0 gives
m0 2 mr
3 £
£
£
B<
z §z=0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x @Hy - y L Jx - Hx - x L J y D
4 p 1 + mr

1
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
r30

which verifies (4).
B>
x §z=0 =

É
ÄÅ
m0
mr - 1
mr - 1
ÅÅ £ ij
yz
ij
yzÑÑÑÑ
3
£
£
£
£
£
£
Å
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x ÅÅ-z jJ y Hz L + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ J y H-z Lz - Hy - y L jJz Hz L - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Jz H-z LzÑÑ
ÅÅÇ
mr + 1
mr + 1
4p
{
k
{ÑÑÖ
k

1
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
r30

Again we change variables -z£ Ø z£ in the second and last integrals, under which the J y H-z£ L term picks up a
minus sign and the rest are unchanged:
m0
B>
x §z=0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
4p

mr - 1 yz
ij
j1 - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z ‡ 3 x£ @-z£ J y - Hy - y£ L Jz D
+ 1¨¨¨¨¨{Æ
k´¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨m¨≠r¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨
2êH1+mr L

1
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
r30

Comparing this to (1) at z = 0:
m0 2 mr
3 £
£
£
B<
x §z=0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x @-z J y - Hy - y L Jz D
4 p 1 + mr

1
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = mr B>
x §z=0
r30

which verifies the part of (5) involving Bx . An identical computation with x ¨ y (there is only an overall sign
switch) shows that the part involving B y is satisfied. Thus we've shown that this choice of image currents defines
÷”
the correct B field for the boundary conditions (and other conditions that must be satisfied by any magnetic field).
Incidentally (because we've "cheated" and used the answer) the z < 0 part of (1) is manifestly the field due to a
÷”
current H2 mr ê mr + 1L J in m0 (unit relative permeability) space, thus solving (b).

Printed by Mathematica for Students

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.