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A. Background of the Study As a global language, english has become an international official language in many parts of this world which has applied in various media in many fields such as politics,economics, arts, educations, sciences and technologies and many more in the global socialization, it takes a great deal in the process of spreading the information. Nowadays, the source of information that used in the media mostly use english and it can be found at textbook, journal, web page, and the other media. Therefore, it will be difficult for the person who is not capable enough in understanding english to find out the information that are contained in those sources. There are four skill in teaching and learning English, they are speaking, writing, listening and reading are the four skills in English, and of the four skills in English. The students must master the four of language skill so they can use english actively and also passively. Writing as a part of the language skills besides listening,

speaking and reading, must be taught maximally by the teacher to the students. Writing is a mixture of our idea, vocabulary and also grammar. According to Heaton, Writing skill are more complex and difficult to teaching, requiring, and mastering not only of grammatical and rhetorical devices but also conceptual and judgment, because of the difficulties of writing, some efforts have been done to solve the problem. The main objective is to make the writing become easier to learn for the students.1 Writing is an English skill defined as how to express ideas on a paper to form words, words to sentences, sentences to paragraph. The ideas of writing may be from the writers feeling, opinion, or may come from prior knowledge such as: result of reading book, discussion or hear and watching TV. By the variety of the language used in this world, we need a way to transfer the information of the english text, which is called translation. Translation is a communication between language with the subtitution of gramatical from in order to express the idea of the source language to the target language. The translation helps the people who are familiar with the source language to access the information in thier language. Eugene A. Nida and charles say that the theory and practical translation give the defenition is translating consists in reproducing the receptor language the

J. B. Heaton, Writing English Language Tests (London: Longman, 1975), p.138

closeste natural

equivalance at the source language message. First in terms of

meaning and secondly in the term of style. This states the translation is the work of reinforming message of the source language to the target language as natural as possible either the meaning or the style. Another theory comes from Pinhucktranslation is a process of finding a target language (TL)equivalent for an source language (SL) utterence. Translation tries to look for the meaning of source language and brings it into the target languages from based on the context of social and cultural of the target language annd then the translation will be acceptable toward to target lnguage. Nevertheless, the translation process is not an easy job to do a good translator must have knowledge of the lexical, grammatical structure,situation, and context of both target language and source language in order to produce the ideal translation that is accuarate in meaning and natural as the target language from used. The reseacher will research at MAN 1 watampone because most of students cannot translate English into indonesia well. They translate from the source language to the target language but their translating is not acceptable or suitable. The researcher is interested using idiomatic translation to improve writing achievement to the student. Based on the the problem above, the researcher carry out under the title;

Using Idiomatic Translation in improving the students writing achievement to the students MAN 1 Watampone. B. Problem Statements Based on the background above, the writer puts forward the following study questions : 1. Is idiomatic translation method interesting in improving the student writing achievement to the students MAN 1 Watampone? 2. To what extent idiomatic translation method in improving the student writing achievement to the students MAN 1 Watampone? C. Scope of The Study In this term, the writer merely would like to focus on the improving the students writing achievement to the students MAN 1 Watampone. D. Operational Defenition Improve is become and make better.2 Students grammar mastery is students ability in making correct sentences. Then, translation method is method that puts into a different language.

Martin H. Manser, oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary, (5th impression, Oxford University Press, 1995), p.209

This study is about making the students ability in making correct sentences better through method that puts language into a different language, from a source language into a target language. E. Review of Related Literature 1. The Concept of Writing Writing as a process or an activity to mark letter or number on paper so, the people can read it. Different from Behrens, Kroma and Byrne in Nuraida defined writing is expression of the writers idea by producing graphic symbols to form words, words to sentences, sentences to paragraph on the paper so the reader can follow what the writer means. Byrne in same line adds that the most important one in writing is how to make the communication successful that is should be readable and understandable to the reader.3 Based on definition above, the researcher can assumpts that writing is expression of writers idea in a written symbol form on paper in order the reader can read it and get the meaning of writer opinion. 2. The Importance of Writing Al-Washilah in Rasdinayah stated that the students can get many advantages from writing. Writing can improve the mastery of vocabulary, master of mechanics of

Nuraida, The Writing Skill of the Sixth Semester Students of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty of IAIN Alauddin Mks in Free Composition Thesis ( Makassar: IAIN Alauddin, 2003), p.18

writing; enlarge knowledge of topic being discussed and improving mastery of English grammar.4 Furthermore, Scott and Treberg argue that there are some difficulties in writing but it is still useful, essential and enjoyable part of the language lesson. Writing lets the writers express their personalities, allow for conscious development of language and there is a special feeling about seeing our work in print and enormous satisfaction in having written something which we want to say. Beside that, it adds another physical dimension to the learning process; hands are added to eyes and ears.5 Araceli C Hidalgo ET in Nuraida explained that there are some objectives of writing as follows: a. To help the student with their bulk of reading materials, such as medical journals, articles, case histories. b. To help the student listen to the lectures and take dawn notes effectively. c. To help the student listen analyze and interprets appropriately and correctly information presented. d. To help the students evaluate and from augments, regarding information presented. e. To help student to understand the role of el in academic world and in the world of science, technology and communication. 6

Rasdinayah, Increasing the writing skill of the Third years students of MADANI Islamic junior High school of Alauddin Pao-Pao gowa through Collaborative writingThesis (Makassar:UIN Alauddin Makassar, 2008), p. 18 Scott, Wendy. A,.& treberg, Lisbeth H.Y, Teaching English to children (New York:USA: Longman, 1990), p. 214
6 5

Thesis, op. cit., p. 11

Referring some opinions above, we can concluded that writing as an aspect of English skill can improve our ability such as grammar and mastery of vocabulary. It can satisfy the writer because we can express our idea freely without pressure and some people tend to write than express orally what they want to say. The most important is writing not only activated our brain but also physical dimension such as eyes and ears are involved in learning process. On the other side, the students are encouraged to read material as many as possible such as books, magazine, and journals to make the writing composition well in order to sharing information with the readers. 3. The Components of Writing The good writing skill can be analyzed to group and varied skills. Heaton divided components writing into five main areas. They are grammar, mechanics, vocabulary, content and organization. a. Grammar Grammar concerns about the ability to write correct and appropriate sentences. The writer has to give attention for preposition, tenses such as using of verbs, nouns, adjective, also conjunction and articles. It is very important to the writer to clarify the correct usage of point grammar because reader will be difficult to understand it. It has a great influence so, we have to reread and review what we have written

b. Mechanics It is related with the ability to use correctly words to the written language such as using of capitalization, punctuation, spelling. It is very important to lead the readers to understand or recognize what the written means to express. The use of favorable mechanics in writing will make the readers easy to the group to conveying ideas or message of writing. The explanation as follows: a) capitalization, the use of capitalization can clarify the ideas. If the sentences are not capitalized correctly, ambiguous and misunderstanding will appear. It also helps to differentiate from sentences to others. The words which are capitalized at beginning of: the name of people, organization, first and last word of title. b) Punctuation. Punctuation can help the readers to identify should be taken as a unit of meaning and suggest how the units of it relate to each other. c) Spelling. Using of spelling has three rules; they are suffixes addition, plural formation and the change of certain words. c. Content The content of writing is about the ability to think creatively and develop thoughts, excluding all irrelevant information. It should be blear to the readers. So, they can understand what the messages convey and gain information from it. Also, the content of writing should be well unity and complete because the characteristic of good writing has unity and completeness. d. Vocabulary

Vocabulary is an essential part of compose writing. The writes need vocabulary mastery well to express or write their ideas. The effective using of words or vocabulary in writing must be relevant with the topic to let the readers perceive and feel it. Someone who lack of vocabulary will be difficult to compose what they are going to express but appropriate words will help writers to compose writing. e. Organization Organization is the ability to develop ideas and topic which relevant in a united form. On the other hand, it concern in ways of writer to arrange and organize the ideas or messages in writing. There are many ways in process of organization writing involves coherence, order of importance, general to specific, specific to general, chronological order and spatial pattern. 7

4. The Forms of Writing

Wishon and Burks divide forms of writing into four divisions namely narration, description, exposition and argumentation. a. Narration Narration is the form of writing used to relate the story of acts or events. It places occurrences in time and tells what happened according to natural time sequences. Types of narration include short stories, novels, and new stories, as well

J.B Heaton, Writing English Language Tests (New York: longman, 1988), p.135

as large part of our everyday social interchange in the form of letters and conversation. b. Description Description reproduces the way things look, smell, taste, feel, or sound. It may also evoke moods, such as happiness, loneliness, or fear. It is used to create a visual image of people, places, even of units of time-days, times of day, or seasons. It may be used also to describe more than the outward appearance of people. It may tell about their traits of character or personality. c. Exposition Exposition is used in giving information, making explanations, and interpreting meanings. It includes editorials; essay, and informative and instructional material. Used in combination with narrative, exposition supports and illustrates. Used apart from narrative, it stands alone as an essay. Used alone or with narrative, exposition may be developed in a number of ways as follows: 1) Process. Exposition may be used to explain a process that is to tell how something is made or done. 2) Definition. An explanation of what a word or a term means is another kind of exposition. The simplest form is a statement and this applies to dictionary definitions. 3) Analysis. It divides a subject into parts and examines those parts.

4) Criticism. It involves evaluation, which is analyzing and weighing strengths and weaknesses. d. Argumentation Argumentation is used in persuading and convincing. It is closely related to exposition and it is often found combined with it. The aim is to make a case or to prove or disprove a statement or proposition. It may present arguments to persuade the reader to accept an idea or a point of view.8 e. The concept of Idiomatic Translation Method a. Defenition of Idiomatic Translation

The translation methodwas the method of language learning in vogue which died out with the introduction of the direct method for teaching languages. Arrogant language experts sub the translation method as an artifact from the last paradigm shift. But the reality is a modified translation method is very useful to teach students who think they know everything.

Students will always take the easy way, and if they find a way to understand or express something in a simple way. Theywill not use idioms or more native ways of expression in their target language.

Wishon,G.E & Burks,Julia M, Lets write English (Revised Edition.Washington: Educational Publishing Inc,1980) p. 378-383

So, translation is classfied into two main types, namely form-based and meaning-based translation. From- based translation attemls to follow the form of the source language and is known as literal translation, while meaning-based translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the SL text in natural forms of the receptor language. Such translation is called idiomatic translation.

An interliner translation is a completely literal translation. For some purpose, it is desirable to reproduce the linguistic feature of the source text, as in a linguistic study of that language. Although these literal translation may be very useful for purposes related to study of the SL, they are of little help to speakers of the receptor language who are interested in the meaning of the SL text. A literal translation sounds like translation can be understood if the general grammatical form of the two languages are similiar.

Except for interliner translation, a truly literal translation is uncommon, most translation who tend to translated actually make a partially modified literal translation. They modify the order and grammar to use an accepteble sentence structure in the receptor language. However, the lexical item are translated literally and still the results do not sound natural.

Larson says that ideomatic translation use the natural forms of the receptor language both in the grammatical constructions and in the choices of lexical items. A truly idiomatic translation does not sound like translation. It sounds like it was written

originally in receptor language. Therefore, a good translator will tyr to tanslate idiomatically this is his or her goal.9

in practice, however, it is hard to consistenly translate idiomatically or literally. These translation are often a mixture of literal and idiomatic forms of language. Translation then falls on a continuum from very literal to literal, to modified literal, to near idiomatic, to idiomatic, and may fall even more on the undely free as displayed below.

Very Literal


Modified Literal

Inconsistent mixture

Near Idiomatic Idiomatic

Unduly free

Translators goal

Further the translation method is good for beginners who do not yet have the critical level of vocabulary in their target language for expression. However, they might translate simple text from their target to their native language. The effect is not only increased vocabulary, but most important increase confidence. They feel they could actually be translators at a basic level. This method is used to assist students in reading and understanding a foreign language literature. But it is also expected that it

Choliludin,S.Pd. The Technique of Making Idiomatic Traslation, ( Jakarta; Kesaint Blanc,2005), p. 23

is in studying or understanding the grammar of the desired target language, students will become more familiar with the language rules in accordance with the source language and a deeper understanding of this will further help them in reading and writing according to the source language to be better.

b. Principal of Idiomatic Translation It is indispensable to value some guidelines on how to evaluate the works on translation. Some general principles in the following are relevant to all translation. The principles below are proposed : 1) The translation should reflect accurately the meaning of the original text. Nothing should be arbitrarily added or moved, though sometime part of the meaning can be transposed. 2) The ordering of the words and ideas should match the original as closely as possible. This is particularly important in translating legal documents, guarantees,contacts, ect. However, differences in the language structrure often require changes in the form and order of words. 3) Languages often differ greatly in their levels of formulity in given context, for example in the business letter. To revolve these differences, the translator must distinguish between formal and fixed expression and personal expression in which the writer or speaker sets the tones.


One of most criticism of translation is that it does not sound natural. This is because the translators thoughts and choice of words are to strongly mold by the original text. A good way to avoid this influnce of the source language is to set the text aside and translate a few sentences aloud from memory.


Do not change the original of the source text. It will be better the translator does not change the style of original. Bu t if it is needed, for example because of the text is full of repetitions or mistakes in writing , the translator may change it.


Idiomatic expressions are often untraslatable . to solve this problem, we can do some way below: a) Keeping the original word in inverted commas b) Keep the original expression, with a literal explanation in the bracket c) Use a non- idiomatic translation The principle mentioned above can be a very useful guideline for

translators to help them make some choices. The guidelines can be formulated in such a way that basically the requrements of translation works have to be making sense,conveying the message of the original text without omission or addition, having a natural and easy form of the expression and producing a similsr response to the readers. c. Techique of Making Idiomatic Translation

It is possible to make an idiomatic translation or meaning based translation without have a good knowledge of the techiqued of making idiomatic translation. So, to make other people who read our translation, we have to have a good techniqued. A good techniqued proposed 1) Identification of the source text This is the most important to do firstly for us who want to make such a translation. By identifying kinds of source text, we can focus and determine the meaning of the word. If we wan to translate an economic text we directly omitting the meaning which is not refer to economical context. For example, the word interest in daily speaking we used to translate to be perhatianor minat,but if economical context it word means bunga bank. Hance, by identifiying kind of source text firstly, we can be easier to precede the translation. 2) Analysis of sentece After identifying kind of source text, the next step should we do is analysis the sentences. Most of the main factor of mistakes in making translation is caused the sentences do not analyzed the subject,verb, object, and complement. We should determine which one are the subject, the verb, and the object of sentence. To classifying those things, we as the translator should familiar to kinds of subject, verb, and object. Subject of a sentence can be pronoun, compound pronoun,noun, compound noun, noun phrase, compound noun phrase, gerund, and

compound gerund phrase. The object of sentence can be same with the subject of sentence, such as pronoun, compound pronoun, noun phrase,etc. For example: a) subject is compound noun The king and his troops / are invanding / another kingdom S b) object is gerund phrase: Their son / loves / eating to much junk food S V O V O

3) Make sure that the idea of text already know After analyzing the sentence the next step is seeking the idea of the text. Knowing the main idea of the text lead we to be easier arrange the sentences in target language. 4) Rearrange the sentences Word of the text which was already known the meaning, then rerrange to be sentences in the target language 5) Read aloud the translation To make sure that translation we make is naturally sound, read the

translation in target language loudly. This way suggest natural pattern of thought in the source language which may not come to mind when the eye is fixed in the source langunge text. F. Conceptual Framework In relation to the theoretical framework elaborated before. The writer would like to present the conceptual framework as follows :

Teachingidiomatic Translation method

Classroom activities

Students writing Mastery (students achievement)

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework On the conceptual framework above, it can be understood that the researcher gives the students a treatment, using idiomatic translation methods. This way is expected to be able to improve the students writing achievement and the success of

this way could be seen by comparing the students improvement or thestudents achievement in translating test in the end of the study.

G. Hypothesis There are two hypotheses that will be applied in this research. They are Null Hypothesis (H0), means that the application of odiomaticTranslation Methodcannot improve the students writing achievement. And Alternative Hypothesis (H1) means that the idiomaticTranslation Methodcanimprove the students writing achievement. H. Research Objectives The objective of this research is to find out whether or not the ideomatic translation method in improving the students writing achievement is success. Besides, this research also gives information for using method of teaching writing in order to provide little contribution in the English writing teaching. The other

objective of this research to the students are expected to master writing easily. I. Significance of The Research This reserch will help of MAN 1 Watampone. The writer chooses of MAN 1 Watampone as a research place because the research has found the problem in translation. They are confused and when they make translation always wrong because they do not understand.

J. Research Methods 1. Method design The method applies in writing this research is quantitative method by using correlation formula, which aims to analyzeand describe the collected data on the students work. 2. Population and Sample a. Population The population of this study is students of MAN 1 Watampone in academic year 2011/2012. It consists of three groups.the first group consists of 16 students, the secod group consists of 21 students, while the third group consists of 16 students. So, the total of population is 53 students. b. Sample The writer will use cluster sampling. She takes the secondgrade exact in MAN 1 Watampone that consists of 32 students. c. Instrument of the Research The research instrument used consists of pre-test and post-test. a. Pre-test will be given to the students to check their writing before applying idiomatic translation method.

b. Post-test will be given to the students to know writing achievement after applying idiomatic translation method. 3. Procedure of Collecting Data The procedure of collecting data will be performed through these steps: a. The First, the students will be given pre-test to check their grammar mastery. b. Next, applying Idiomatic translation method for some meetings. c. The Last, after giving treatment, the students will be given post-test to know their grammar mastery. Scoring the result of students test can be evaluated based on five aspect of writing below10: 1) Grammar (language use) Score 6 5 Criteria Few(if any) noticeable error of grammar or word order Some error of grammar and word order which do not, however, interfere with comprehension. 4 Errors of grammar and word order fairly frequent; occasional rereading necessary for full comprehension.

Andi Niar Rezki, Using Juxtaposing Pictures in Improving Writing Skill of the fourth semester students of English Department of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training Faculty, Thesis (Makassar: UIN Alauddin Makassar, 2008), p.36-38


Errors of grammar and word order frequent, error of interpretations sometimes required on readers part.

Errors of grammar or word order very frequent, the readers often have to rely on own interpretations.

Errors of grammar or word orders as severe as to make comprehension virtually impossible.

2) Vocabulary Score 6 Criteria Use of vocabulary and idiom rarely (if at all) distinguishable from that of educated native writer. 5 Occasionally uses inappropriate terms of rely on circumlocutions, expression of ideas hardly impaired. 4 Uses wrong or inappropriate words fairly frequently expression of ideas may be limited because of inadequate vocabulary. 3 Limited vocabulary and frequent errors clearly hinder expression of ideas. 2 Vocabulary so limited and so frequently misused that reader must often rely on own interpretation. 1 Vocabulary limitation so extreme as to make comprehension virtually impossible.

3) Mechanics Score 6 5 Criteria Few (if any) noticeable lapses in punctuation or spelling. Occasional lapses in punctuation or spelling which do not, however interfere with comprehension. 4 Errors in punctuation or spelling fairly Frequent; occasional rereading necessary for full comprehension 3 Frequent errors in spelling or punctuation; lead some times to obscurity 2 Errors in spelling or punctuation so frequentations that reader must often rely on own interpretation. 1 Errors in spelling or punctuation so severe as to make comprehension virtually impossible.

4) Fluency (style and ease of communication) Score 6 Criteria Choice of structure and vocabulary consistently appropriate, like that of educated native writer. 5 Occasional lack of consistency in choice of structures and vocabulary which does not, however, impair overall ease of

communication. 4 Patchy, with some structures or vocabulary items noticeably inappropriate to general style. 3 Structures or vocabulary items sometimes not only inappropriate but also misused; little sense of ease of communication. 2 Communication often impaired by completely inappropriate or misused structures or vocabulary items. 1 A hotchpotch of half-learned misused structures and vocabulary items rendering communication almost impossible.

5) Form (Organization) Score 6 Criteria Highly organized; clear progression of ideas well linked; like educated native writer. 5 Material well organized; links could occasionally be clearer but communication not impaired. 4 Some lack of organization; re-reading required for clarification of ideas. 3 Little or no attempt at connectivity, though reader can deduce some organization. 2 Individual ideas may be clear, but very difficult to deduce

connection between them.

Lack of organization several that communication is seriously impaired. (Hughes in Andi Niar Rezki)

4. Data of analyze The data from questionnaires will be analyzed using Likert Scale as follows:11 Table 1.Likert Scale Positive statement score 5 4 3 2 1 Category Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Negative statement score 1 2 3 4 5

The data analysis of questionnaires will use Likert Scale, this percentage will show the students interest in learning english using debate method.

Syaodin Sukmadinata, Nana.MetodePenelitianPendidikan(Bandung: PT RemajaRosdakarya, 2005), p. 241


The rating scores from 40 to 200 intervals. The questionnaire employed 5 categories. The interval of the students interest on the questonnaire will be seen as follows:12 Table 2. Interval score of the students interest No. 1 2 3 4 5 Interval Score 168 - 200 136 - 167 104 - 135 72 - 103 40 - 71 Categories Very High High Moderate Low Very Low

A. Technique of Analyzing the Data The data collected through the test that will be analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The steps undertaken in the quantitative analysis as follows:13 Table 4. The Scoring Classification of the Students Writing Skills No Score Classification



Ibid. Gay, op.cit., p. 117

1 2 3 4 5

9.0 10.0 7.5 8.9 6.0 7.4 5.0 5.9 0 4.9


Very good Good fair Poor Very poor

1. Calculating the percentage of the students interesting score by using the following formula:14

F 100 % N

Notes: P F N = percentage = frequency = the total number of students

2. Calculating the mean score of the students answer in pre-test and post-test by using the formula:15


14 15

Sudjana,MetodeStatistika(Bandung: PT. Tarsito, 1982), p. 40 Gay, op,cit., p.361

= mean scores of the subject

X = the sum of all scores N = the total number of students

3. Calculating the Standard Deviation of the students score in pre-test and post-test by using the following formula:16 SD =


( X ) 2 N


= the sum of all the square

( X ) 2 = the square of the sum

N = the total number of students

4. Finding out the significance different between the pre-test and post-test by calculating the value of the t- Test as like below:17 t=
D ( D ) 2

N N ( N 1)

16 17

Ibid., p. 289 Ibid., p. 403

= mean score = the sum of all the scores

D 2
N t K. Outline

= the total number of students = test of significance

This thesis proposal consists of four chapters: Chapter one discusses aboutintroduction that consists ofbackground of the study, limitation and formulation of the problem,the objective of the study , title definition and organization of paper. Chapter two is Review of related literature that consists of some pertinent ideas of ideomatic translation method and writng achievement, conceptual of grammar mastery, conceptual framework and hypothesis. Chapter three discusses about research methodology that consists of research objective, significance of the research, research design, population and sample, Instrument of the research, procedure of collecting data, and techniques of data analysis. Chapter fourdiscusses about conclusions and suggestions.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Clark, Herbert and Clark, Eve.Psychology and Language. Washington D.C : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,1997 Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching.New York : Longman Publishing,1991 Heaton J.B. Writing EnglishLanguage Test. Longman Handbook, for language teacher, 1998 EoXtrAeUnpjLDQ&usg=AFQjCNFCaiAI1Lr-csq9IDalJ7gqvPXuoA on Tuesday, April 2011 Jufri, The Level of Mastery with Regard to the Use of English Tenses. Unpuslished Thesis : Hasanuddin University Press, 1990 Lisbeth, Scott, Wendy and Treberg. Teaching English to children. Longman. New York:USA, 1990 Manser, Martin H. oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary, 5th impression, Oxford University Press, 1995 Niar Rezki Andi. Using Juxtaposing Pictures in Improving Writing Skill of the fourth semester students of English Department of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training Faculty.Thesis UIN Alauddin Makassar, 2008 Nuraida. The Writing Skill of the Sixth Semester Students of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty of IAIN Alauddin Mks in Free Composition. Thesis IAIN Alauddin Makassar, 2003 Penny, Ur. Cambridge :Grammar Practice Activity. Cambridge University Press,1988 Rasdinayah. Increasing the writing skill of the Third years students of MADANI Islamic junior High school of Alauddin Pao-Pao gowa through Collaborative writing. Thesis IAIN Alauddin Makassar, 2006 Renadya, Richard.Approaches and methods in Language Teaching.New York : Cambridge University Press,1981

Rubiyanti,P. English Mastery of Secondary School Students with Regard to Word Order, Unpublished Thesis : Hasanuddin University Press,1998 Sibali, Problem in Using Modal Auxiliaryu of SMA students. (Unpublished Thesis : State University of Makassar,1990 Sudjono, Anas. PengantarStatistikPendidikan.Jakarta Persada,2004 : PT. Raja Grafindo

Thornbury, Scott. How to Teach Grammar.9th Impression Malaysia : Longman Publishing, 2006 Wishon,G.E & Burks,Julia M. Lets write English. Revised Edition. Washington: Educational Publishing Inc.1980

OUTLINE CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study B. Problem Statements C. Scope of the Research D. Title Definition


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. The Concept of Writing B. The Concept of Idiomatic C. The Conceptual Framework D. Hypothesis


RESEARCH METHODOLOGHY AND FINDINGS A. Research Objectives B. Significance of the Research C. Research Design D. Population and Sample E. Procedure of Collecting Data F. The technique of Data Analysis


CLOSING A. Conclusions B. Suggestions



A Draft Script submitted to the Tarbiyah Faculty of STAIN Watampone in part fulfilment of the requirements for Sarjana degree by: